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University of Bristol The University of Bristol is a public research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.[8] One of the Britishred brick universities, it received its Royal Charter in 1909,[9] although its predecessor institution, University College, Bristol, had been in existence since 1876.[10]TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Bristol has been named inside the global top 30 by the QS World University Rankings.[11] It has an average of 14 applicants for each undergraduate place. For the most popular courses, such as Economics and Law, the applicant to place ratio is 40:1.[12][not in citation given] The University had a total income of £408.8 million in 2010/11, of which £106.7 million was from research grants and contracts.[13] It is the largest independent employer in Bristol.[14] ACER K052002A1 Laptop Keyboard Current academics include 18 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences, 10 Fellows of the British Academy, 13 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 31 Fellows of the Royal Society.[15] Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities,[16] the European-wide Coimbra Group[17] and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the University's Vice-Chancellor Prof. Eric Thomas was Chairman from 2005 to 2007.[18]HP G56-130SA Laptop Keyboard The earliest antecedent of the university was the engineering department of the Merchant Venturers’ Technical College(founded as a school as early as 1595) which became the Engineering faculty of Bristol University.[19] The University was also preceded by Bristol Medical School (1833) and University College, Bristol, founded in 1876,[10] where its first lecture was attended by only 99 students.[20] The University was able to apply for a Royal Charter due to the financial support of the Wills and Fry families,  HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard who made their fortunes in tobacco plantations and chocolate, respectively. TheWills Family made a vast fortune from the tobacco industry and gave generously to the city and University. The Royal Charter was gained in May 1909, with 288 undergraduates and 400 other students entering the University in October 1909.Henry Overton Wills III became its first chancellor.[10] The University College was the first such institution in the country to admit women on the same basis as men.[10] However, women were forbidden to take examinations in medicine until 1906.[21] HP 452636-001 Laptop Keyboard Since the founding of the University itself in 1909, it has grown considerably and is now one of the largest employers in the local area, although it is smaller by student numbers than the nearby University of the West of England.[23] Bristol does not have a campus but is spread over a considerable geographic area. Most of its activities, however, are concentrated in the area of the city centre, referred to as the "University Precinct". It is a member of the Russell Group of research-led UK universities, the Coimbra Group of leading European universities and the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN). HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard After the founding of the University College in 1876, Government support began in 1889. After mergers with the Bristol Medical School in 1893 and the Merchant Venturers' Technical College in 1909,[24] this funding allowed the opening of a new Medical School and an Engineering School—two subjects that remain among the University's greatest strengths. In 1908, gifts from the Fry and Wills families, particularly £100,000 fromHenry Overton Wills III (£6m in today's money), were provided to endow a University for Bristol and the West of England, provided that a Royal Charter could be obtained within two years. In December, 1909,  ASUS U3S Laptop Keyboard the King granted such a Charter and erected the University of Bristol.[22] Henry Wills became its first Chancellor and Conwy Lloyd Morgan the first Vice-Chancellor.[25][dead link] Wills died in 1911 and in tribute his sons George and Harrybuilt the Wills Memorial Building, starting in 1913 and finally finishing in 1925.[26]Today, it houses parts of the academic provision for earth sciences and law, and graduation ceremonies are held in its Great Hall. The Wills Memorial Building is a Grade II* listed building.[27]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard In 1920, George Wills bought the Victoria Rooms and endowed them to the University as a Students' Union.[10] The building now houses the Department of Music and is a Grade II* listed building.[28]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard At the point of foundation, the University was required to provide for the local community. This mission was behind the creation of the Department of Extra-Mural Adult Education in 1924 to provide courses to the local community. This mission continues today; a new admissions policy specifically caters to the 'BS' postcode area of Bristol.[29] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Among the famous names associated with Bristol in this early period is Paul Dirac, who graduated in 1921 with a degree in engineering, before obtaining a second degree in mathematics in 1923 from Cambridge. For his subsequent pioneering work on quantum mechanics, he was awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics.[30] Later in the 1920s, the H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory was opened by Ernest Rutherford.[31] It has since housed several Nobel Prize winners: Cecil Frank Powell (1950);[32] Hans Albrecht Bethe (1967);[33] and Sir Nevill Francis Mott (1977).[34] The Laboratory stands on the same site today, close to theBristol Grammar School and the city museum. TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7812 Laptop Keyboard Sir Winston Churchill became the University's third Chancellor in 1929, serving the University in that capacity until 1965.[10] He succeeded Richard Haldane who had held the office from 1912 following the death of Henry Wills.[21][25]TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5997 Laptop Keyboard During World War II, the Wills Memorial was bombed, destroying the Great Hall and the organ it housed.[10] It has since been restored to its former glory, complete with oak panelled walls and a new organ. SONY VAIO VGN NR260E/W Laptop Keyboard In 1946, the University established the first drama department in the country.[10] In the same year, Bristol began offering special entrance exams and grants to aid the resettlement of servicemen returning home. Student numbers continued to increase, and the Faculty of Engineering eventually needed the new premises that were to become Queen's Building in 1955. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard This substantial building housed all of the University's engineers until 1996, when Electrical Engineering and Computer Science moved over the road into the new Merchant Venturers' Building to make space for these rapidly expanding fields. Today, Queen's Building caters for most of the teaching needs of the Faculty and provides academic space for the "heavy" engineering subjects (civil, mechanical, and aeronautical). HP 593298-001 Laptop Keyboard With unprecedented growth in the 1960s, particularly in undergraduate numbers, the Student's Union eventually acquired larger premises in a new building in the Clifton area of the city, in 1965. This building was more spacious than the Victoria Rooms, which were now given over to the Department of Music. The new Union provides many practice and performance rooms, some specialist rooms, as well as three bars: Bar 100; the Mandela (also known as AR2) and the Avon Gorge. Whilst spacious, the Union building is thought by many to be ugly[35] Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard and out of character compared to the architecture of the rest of the Clifton area, having been mentioned in a BBC poll to find the worst architectural eyesores in Britain.[36] The University has proposed relocating the Union to a more central location as part of its development 'masterplan'.[37] More recently, plans for redevelopment of the current building have been proposed.[38]Packard Bell EasyNote W3080 Laptop Keyboard The 1960s were a time of considerable student activism in the United Kingdom, and Bristol was no exception. In 1968, many students marched in support of the Anderson Report, which called for higher student grants. This discontent culminated in an 11-day sit-in at the Senate House (the administrative headquarters of the University).[10] A series of Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors led the University through these decades, with Henry Somerset, 10th Duke of Beaufort taking over from Churchill as Chancellor in 1965 before being succeeded by Dorothy Hodgkin in 1970 who spent the next 18 years in the office.[25]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard As the age of mass higher education dawned, Bristol continued to build its student numbers. The various undergraduate residences were repeatedly expanded and, more recently, some postgraduate residences have been constructed. These more recent ventures have been funded (and are run) by external companies in agreement with the University. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Since 1988, there have been only two further Chancellors: Sir Jeremy Morse, then chairman of Lloyds Bank who handed over in 2003 to Brenda Hale, the first female Law Lord.[21][25]SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard One of the few Centres for Deaf Studies in the United Kingdom was established in Bristol in 1981, followed in 1988 by the Norah Fry Centre for research into learning difficulties. Also in 1988, and again in 2004,[39] the Students' Union AGM voted to disaffiliate from the National Union of Students (NUS). On both occasions, however, the subsequent referendum of all students reversed that decision and Bristol remains affiliated to the NUS. TOSHIBA Equium M70 Series Laptop Keyboard In 2002, the University was involved in argument over press intrusion after details of the son of then-Prime Minister Tony Blair's application to university were published in national newspapers. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard As the number of postgraduate students has grown (particularly the numbers pursuing taught Master's Degrees), there eventually became a need for separate representation on University bodies and the Postgraduate Union (PGU) was established in 2000.[40][dead link] Universities are increasingly expected to exploit the intellectual property generated by their research activities and, in 2000, Bristol established the Research and Enterprise Division (RED) to further this cause (particularly for technology-based businesses). FUJITSU Lifebook S7210 Laptop Keyboard In 2001, the university signed a 25-year research funding deal with IP2IPO, an intellectual property commercialisation company.[41] In 2007, research activities were expanded further with the opening of the Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS) and The Bristol Institute for Public Affairs (BIPA).  DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard In 2002, the University opened a new Centre for Sports, Exercise and Health in the heart of the University precinct.[42] At a cost, local residents are also able to use the facilities.[43][dead link] HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Expansion of teaching and research activities continues. In 2004, the Faculty of Engineering completed work on the Bristol Laboratory for Advanced Dynamics Engineering (BLADE). This £18.5m project[44][dead link] provides cutting-edge technology to further the study of dynamics and is the most advanced such facility in Europe. It was built as an extension to the Queen's Building and was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II in March 2005. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard In January, 2005, The School of Chemistry was awarded £4.5m by the Higher Education Funding Council for England to create Bristol ChemLabS: a Centre for Excellence in Teaching & Learning (CETL),[45] with an additional £350k announced for the capital part of the project in February, 2006. Bristol ChemLabS stands for Bristol Chemical Laboratory Sciences; it is the only Chemistry CETL in the UK. DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard September 2009 saw the opening of the University's Centre for Nanoscience and Quantum Information. This £11 million state of the art building is dubbed as the quietest building in the world and has other technologically sophisticated features such as self-cleaning glass. Advanced research into quantum computing, nanotechnology, materials and other disciplines are being undertaken in the building.[46]HP Pavilion dv6-3040sp Laptop Keyboard There is also a plan to significantly redevelop the centre of the University Precinct in the coming years.[47] The first step began in September 2011, with the start of construction of a state-of-the-art Life Sciences building. In a time of heavy financial pressures on all Universities, this £50 million project is a clear statement that Bristol is committed to world class research and teaching facilities.[48]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The University has been regarded as being elitist by some commentators,[49] taking 41% of its undergraduate students from non-state schools, according to the most recent 2009/2010 figures, despite the fact that such pupils make up just 7% of the population[50] and 18% of 16+ year old pupils across the UK.[51] The high ratio of undergraduates from non-state school has led to some tension at the university.[52] In late February and early March 2003, Bristol became embroiled in a row about admissions policies, TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard with some private schools threatening a boycott[53] based on their claims that, in an effort to improve equality of access, the University was discriminating against their students. These claims were hotly denied by the University.[54] In August, 2005, following a large-scale survey, theIndependent Schools Council publicly acknowledged that there was no evidence of bias against applicants from the schools it represented.[55] The University has a new admissions policy,[29] SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard which lays out in considerable detail the basis on which any greater or lesser weight may be given to particular parts of an applicant's backgrounds—in particular, what account may be taken of which school the applicant hails from. This new policy also encourages greater participation from locally resident applicants.  HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some of the University of Bristol's buildings date to its pre-charter days when it was University College Bristol. These buildings were designed by Charles Hansom, the younger brother of Joseph Hansom, Joseph being the inventor of the Hansom Cab. These buildings suffered being built in stages due to financial pressure. George Oatley added to them a tower in memory of Albert Fry which can still be seen on University Road. The first large scale building project the University of Bristol undertook on gaining a charter was the Wills Memorial Building which it was hoped would be a symbol of academic permanence for the University and a memorial to the chief benefactor of the University Henry Overton Wills.  APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA611LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It was requested to the architectGeorge Oatley that the building be built to last at least 400 years but the site purchased, at the top of Park Street suffered from an awkward slope and a desirability to link the building with the Museum and Art Gallery situated adjacent to the plot. The architecture critic Roger Gill has stated that the building is "remarkable in size" but noted that the "ambience of a medieval University was strangely lacking". He goes on to criticise the building as a "sham" and a "folly".[56] HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The armorials on the Founder's Window represent all of the interests present at the founding of the University of Bristol including the Wills and Fry families. The Tyndalls Park Estate and Royal Fort House were also purchased from the trustees of the Tyndall family allowing the University to expand. Many Departments in the Faculty of Arts are housed in large Victorian houses which have been converted for teaching.[57]FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Goldney gardens entered the property of the University of Bristol through George Wills who had hoped to build an all male hall of residence there. This was prevented due to the moral objection of the then warden of Clifton Hall House who objected to the idea of male and female residences being in such close proximity. University records show that Miss Starvey was prepared to resign over the issue and that she had the support of the then Chancellor Conwy Lloyd Morgan.[58] Eventually land was purchased in Stoke Bishop allowing Wills Hall to be bought, allowing the building of what has been described as a "quasi-Oxbridge" hall, to which was added the Dame Monica Wills Chapel added by George Wills' widow after his death. HP 535442-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan , was used as a halls of residence in the past and was a home ofSir George Oatley. The building is now used to house the Centre for Continuing Education.[59] Many of the more modern buildings, including Senate House and the newer parts of the HH Wills Physics Laboratory, were designed by Raplh Brentnall after funds from the University Grants Committee. He is also responsible for the extension to the Wills Memorial Building library which was completed to such standard that few now realise that is an extension to the original building.[60] APPLE MG45070v1-Q010-S99 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Brentnall oversaw the rebuilding of the Great Hall of the Wills Memorial Building after it was partly destroyed during the Bristol Blitz of World War II. The buildings of St Michael's Hill were rebuilt using hundreds of old photographs in order to recreate the original houses. The flats at Goldney Hall were designed by Michael Grice and received an award from the Civic Trust for their design.[61] Bristol University owns some of the best examples of Georgian architecture in the city, HP Pavilion dv6-3123er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the best examples being Royal Fort House, Clifton Hill House and Goldney Hall despite some additions.[62] The Victoria Rooms which house the Music Department were designed by Charles Dyer and is seen as a good example of a Greek revival movement in British architecture. The tympanum of the building depicts a scene from The Advent of Morning designed by Jabez Tyley.[63] Its major feature was a large organ which has since been destroyed by fire. Gateway NV55C03U Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bristol is known for academics, excellent facilities, and a desirable location. League tables usually place Bristol within the top ten universities in the United Kingdom and it attracts many academically gifted students. For example, the 21 July 2011 edition of Times Higher Education reported that Bristol was fifth in a UK league table for the highest proportion of students with A-level grades AAB or better. Internationally, the 2011 QS World University Rankings[64]placed Bristol at 30th overall in the world, HP 367795-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan moving up three places from its position in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). The rankings also placed Bristol at 15th in the world in terms of reputation with employers, placing higher than several American Ivy League universities, including Princeton University, Cornell and UPenn.[65]Another international ranking,  HP Mini 210-1010NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities, placed Bristol 70th globally in 2011 [66] The Times Higher Education World University Ranking placed Bristol at 66th in 2011.[67] According to data published in The Telegraph Bristol has the third-highest percentage of 'good honours' of any UK university, behind Oxford and Cambridge.[68] In the 2010 Centre for Higher Education's Development's Excellence Rankings, Bristol is one of only four UK Universities (Oxford, UCL and Manchester) to be rated Excellent in all seven departments.[69] HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan However Bristol gained some of the lowest scores for student satisfaction in the 2008 National Student Survey[70] and The Daily Telegraph have reported of student complaints about teaching quality.[71] This has led to the recent deterioration in the University's rankings in the UK league tables, although it still ranks highly in international league tables.  Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The following courses offered by University of Bristol, managed to reach top 5 in the Times ranking (2008): Computer Science(3rd); Electrical and Electronic Engineering(3rd); Civil Engineering(5th); Biological Sciences(3rd); Mathematics (3rd); and Psychology (4th). Furthermore, the QS World University Rankings place Bristol in the world's top 100 universities for all subject areas in 2011: SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Arts and Humanities (57th), Natural Sciences (40th), Engineering & IT (83rd), Social Sciences (65th) and Life Sciences (70th).[72] A further breakdown of the QS World University Natural Sciences Ranking shows the following: Earth Sciences (25th),[73] Mathematics (35th),[74] Environmental Sciences (39th),[75] Physics (41st),[76] and Chemistry (48th).[77]HP Envy 17-1190eo Laptop Keyboard In addition, Bristol is particularly strong in the field of social sciences, particularly in Economics, Finance and Management, and was recently rated 4th in the 2008 Guardian University Guide for Business and Management Studies.[78] In 2011, The Guardian also ranked Bristol as 3rd in the UK for Geography, just behind 2nd place Oxford[79] and ranked Bristol as 1st in the UK for Music.[80]DELL NSK-D8001 Laptop Keyboard In The Complete University Guide 2013, Bristol ranked 5th for German,[81] 4th for Russian,[82] 3rd for Mechanical and Civil Engineering[83] and 2nd for Drama.[84]Bristol is also known for its research strength, having 15 departments gaining the top grade of 5* in the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise. Overall, 36 out of 46 departments rated gained the top two ratings of 5 or 5*, and 76% of all the academic staff working in departments scored these top two levels.[85][86] HP G71-351CA Laptop Keyboard In terms of teaching strength, Bristol had an average Teaching Quality Assessment score of 22.05/24 before the TQA was abolished.[87] For admission in October 2010, Bristol reported an average of 10.2 applications per place with the average A-level score on admission being 478.5.[88] Bristol's drop-out rate is also lower than the benchmark set by HEFCE of no more than 3.1%.[89]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Bristol awards a range of academic degrees spanning bachelor's and master's degrees as well as junior doctorates and higher doctorates. The postnominals awarded are the degree abbreviations used commonly among British universities. The University is part of the Engineering Doctoratescheme,[137] and awards the Eng. D. in systems engineering, engineering management, aerospace engineering and non-destructive evaluation.[138]  DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Bristol notably does not award by title any Bachelor's degrees in music, which is available for study but awarded B.A. (although it does award M.Mus. andD.Mus.), nor any degree in divinity, since divinity is not available for study (students of theology are awarded a B.A.). Similarly, the University does not award B.Litt. (Bachelor of Letters), although it does award both M.Litt. and D.Litt. In regulations, the University does not name M.D. or D.D.S. as higher doctorates, although they are in many universities.[139] as these degrees are normally accredited professional doctorates.  HP 533549-001 Laptop Keyboard The degrees of D.Litt., D.Sc., D.Eng., LL.D. and D.Mus., whilst having regulations specifying the grounds for award,[140] are most often conferred as honorary degrees (in honoris causa).[141] Those used most commonly are the D.Litt., D.Sc. and LL.D., with the M.A. (and occasionally the M.Litt.) also sometimes conferred honorarily for distinction in the local area or within the University. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In common with most UK universities, Bristol is headed formally by the Chancellor, currently Baroness Hale of Richmond and led on a day-to-day basis by theVice-Chancellor, currently Prof Eric Thomas, who is the academic leader and chief executive. There are two Pro Vice-Chancellors and three ceremonial Pro-Chancellors.[142] The Chancellor may hold office for up to ten years and the Pro-Chancellors for up to three, unless the University Court determines otherwise,[143][144] but the Vice-Chancellor and Pro-Vice-Chancellors have no term limits.[145][146] The Vice Chancellor is supported by a Deputy Vice-Chancellor.  IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Responsibility for running the University is held at an executive level by the Vice-Chancellor, but the Council is the only body that can recommend changes to the University's statutes and Charter,[147] with the exception of academic ordinances. These can only be made with the consent of the Senate, the chief academic body in the University which also holds responsibility for teaching and learning, examinations and research and enterprise.[147][148] The Chancellor and Pro Chancellors are nominated by Council and appointed formally by Court, HP Pavilion dv6-2155tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan whose additional powers are now limited to these appointments and a few others, including some lay members of Council.[149] Finally, Convocation, the body of all staff, ceremonial officers and graduates of the University, returns 100 members to Court and one member to Council,[142] but is otherwise principally a forum for discussion and to ensure graduates stay in touch with the University. SONY Vaio VGN-FE770G Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University has a Students' Union, the University of Bristol Union, which claims to have the largest Students' Union building in the country.[150] From this location, the student radio station BURST (Bristol University Radio Station) broadcasts and the student paper Epigram has its office. In terms of student life, the Union is responsible for the organisation of the annual freshers' fair, the coordination of Bristol Student Community Action, which organises volunteering projects in the local community, Toshiba Satellite U205-S5034 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the organisation of entertainment events and student societies. Bristol Improv are a society which regularly performs improvisational comedy for students and locals alike in a number of free shows every month[151]. Previous presidents have included Sue Lawley and former Liberal Democrat MP Lembit Öpik. There is a separate union for postgraduate students, as well as an athletic union, which is a member of the British Universities & Colleges Sport.[152]In distinction to the 'blues' awarded for sporting excellence at Oxford and Cambridge, Bristol's outstanding athletes are awarded 'reds'.[153]HP Pavilion ZD7020US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Accommodation for students is primarily in the central precinct of the University and two areas of Bristol: Clifton and Stoke Bishop.[154] In Stoke Bishop, Wills Hall on the edge of the Clifton Downs was the first to be opened, in 1929, by then-Chancellor Winston Churchill. Its original quadrangle layout has been expanded twice, in 1962 and 1990.[154] Churchill Hall, named for the Chancellor, followed in 1956, then Badock Hall in 1964.[154][155] At the time of Badock Hall's establishment, some of the buildings were called Hiatt Baker Hall,  HP Pavilion dv6-2155tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan but two years later, Hiatt Baker moved to its own site and is now the largest hall in the University.[154][156] The first self-catering hall in Stoke Bishop was University Hall, established in 1971 with expansion in 1992.[154] The University's newest undergraduate residence, Durdham Hall, was opened in Stoke Bishop in 1994.[154] All of the main halls elect groups of students to the Junior Common Room to organise the halls social calendar for the next year. SONY Vaio VGN-FE770G Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Clifton, Goldney Hall was built first in the early 18th century by a wealthy merchant family of the same surname and eventually became part of the University in 1956.[157] It is a popular location for filming, with The Chronicles of NarniaThe House of Eliott and Truly, Madly, Deeply, as well as episodes of Only Fools and Horses and Casualty, HP Pavilion dv6640et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan being filmed there.[158] The Grotto in the grounds is a Grade I listed building.[159] Clifton Hill House is another Grade I listed building now used as student accommodation in Clifton. The original building was constructed between 1745 and 1750 by Isaac Ware, and has been used by the University since its earliest days in 1909.[154][160] Manor Hall comprises five separate buildings, the principal of which was erected from 1927–1932 to the design of George Oatley following a donation from Henry Herbert Wills.  IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of its annexes, Manor House, has recently been refurbished and officially 'reopened' in 1999.[154][161] Goldney Hall has beautiful gardens and modern accommodation complexes. Clifton Hill House has more dated facilities, but as with all the Clifton residences also possesses attractive gardens. Manor Hall houses the largest and most dated rooms, some dating back to the early 20th century. The hall's gardens are breathtakingly attractive, and complement what is a historically beautiful hall. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard On the central precinct sits The Hawthorns, a student house accommodating 115 undergraduate students.[162] The house started life as a collection of villas built somewhere between 1888 and 1924[163] that were later converted, bit by bit, into a hotel by John Dingle.[164] The Hawthorns also houses conferencing facilities, the staff refectory and bar, the Accommodation Office and the Student Houses Office. Several of the residences in the central precinct are more recent and have been built and are managed by third-party IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51e-1834 Laptop Keyboard organisations under exclusivity arrangements with the University. These include Unite House and Chantry Court, opened in 2000 and 2003 respectively by the UNITE Group,[165][166][167] as well as Dean's Court (2001, postgraduates only) and Woodland Court (2005), both run by the Dominion Housing Group.[168][169]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In 2004, the University unveiled its new logo. The icons in the logo are the sun for the Wills family, the dolphin for Colston, the horse for Fry and the ship-and-castle from the mediaeval seal of the City of Bristol, as also used in the coat of arms. The shape of the whole logo represents the open book of learning.[7] This logo has replaced the University armsshown, but the arms continue to be used where there is a specific historical or ceremonial requirement. The arms comprise: ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Patricia Broadfoot, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Gloucestershire, and Nigel Thrift, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Warwick both were previously faculty at Bristol.[175][176][dead link] Anthony Epstein, co-discoverer of the Epstein-Barr virus, was Professor of Pathology at the University from 1968–1982.[177] Historical academics include Sir John Lennard-Jones, discoverer of the Lennard-Jones potential in physics[178][179] and Alfred Marshall, one of the University College's Principals and influential economist in the latter part of the 19th century.[180] Rohit Parikh lectured in the mathematics department from 1965 to 1967, as did Brian Rotman for twenty years.  SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard University of Bristol is associated with 2 Ig Nobel Prizes. Sir Michael Berry shared the award (with Andre Geim, a Nobel Laureate) for Notable alumni of the University of Bristol include writers Dick King-Smith, Angela Carter and David Nicholls, author of the novel Starter for Ten, turned into a screenplay set in the University of Bristol.[183] Other high-profile former students include BBC News' Chief Political Correspondent James Landale (who founded the Bristol University independent newspaper, Epigram), DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard editor-in-chief of the Telegraph Media Group William Lewis (journalist), illusionist Derren Brown, author of business books Mark Simmons (author), Global Economist Robert Barro, author, commentator and Executive Vice Chair of the Work Foundation Will Hutton, Serial award winning entrepreneur Mike Bennett (businessman) of digital agency E3 Media (digital agency), former IMF Director Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Prince of Monaco Albert II, TV newsreader Alastair Stewart, as well as musician James Blunt. Radio 4 presenter Sue Lawley was also a student there, whilst former Liberal Democrat MP Lembit Öpik was President of Bristol University Students' Union during his time there. SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard The University also has a comedy pedigree. Little Britain stars Matt Lucas and David Walliams,[184] attended the university, as did Simon Pegg (of Hot Fuzzfame), Chris Morris, creator of the controversial Brass Eye and Jon Richardson. Other comedy stars include Laura Crane-Brewer of The Office fame and Chris Langham, of The Thick of It fame, standup comic Marcus Brigstocke, and Radio 4 favourite Danny Robbins. More recently, Bristol students established a satirical newspaper, The Tart,[185] which received national press attention.[186]TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7309 Laptop Keyboard Notable alumni from the Film and Television Production department include film directors Mick Jackson, Michael Winterbottom, Marc Evans, Christopher Smith, Alex Cox and Peter Webber amongst many others. SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard Sexual abuse in the Catholic Church See also: Catholic sex abuse cases Prior to 2001, the primary responsibility for investigating allegations of sexual abuse and disciplining perpetrators rested with the individual dioceses. In 2001, Ratzinger convinced John Paul II to put the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in charge of all investigations and policies surrounding sexual abuse in order to combat such abuse more efficiently.[134][135] According to John L. Allen, Jr., Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Ratzinger in the following years "acquired a familiarity with the contours of the problem that virtually no other figure in the Catholic church can claim" and "driven by that encounter with what he would later refer to as 'filth' in the church, Ratzinger seems to have undergone something of a 'conversion experience' throughout 2003–04. From that point forward, he and his staff seemed driven by a convert's zeal to clean up the mess".[136] In his role as Head of the CFD, he "led important changes made in church law: the inclusion in canon law of internet offences against children, the extension of child abuse offences to include the sexual abuse of all under 18, Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard the case by case waiving of the statute of limitation and the establishment of a fast-track dismissal from the clerical state for offenders."[137] As the Head of the CDF, Ratzinger developed a reputation for handling these cases. According to Charles J. Scicluna, a former prosecutor handling sexual abuse cases, "Cardinal Ratzinger displayed great wisdom and firmness in handling those cases, also demonstrating great courage in facing some of the most difficult and thorny cases, sine acceptione personarum (without exceptions)".[136][138]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard One of the cases Ratzinger pursued involved Father Marcial Maciel Degollado, a Mexican priest and founder of the Legion of Christ, who had been accused repeatedly of sexual abuse. Biographer Andrea Tornielli suggested that Cardinal Ratzinger had wanted to take action against Marcial Maciel Degollado, but that John Paul II and other high-ranking officials, including several cardinals and notably the pope's influential secretary Stanisław Dziwisz, prevented him from doing so.[135][139] According to Jason Berry, Angelo Sodano "pressured" Cardinal Ratzinger, SONY VAIO VGN-N17G Laptop Keyboard ho was "operating on the assumption that the charges were not justified", to halt the proceedings against Maciel in 1999[140] When Maciel was honored by the Pope in 2004, new accusers came forward[140] and Cardinal Ratzinger "took it on himself to authorize an investigation of Maciel"[135] After Ratzinger became pope he began proceedings against Maciel and the Legion of Christ that forced Maciel out of active service in the church. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard " Pope Benedict also said he would appoint a special commission to examine the Legionaries’ constitution and open an investigation into its lay affiliate Regnum Christi.[141] Cardinal Christoph Schönborn explained that Ratzinger "made entirely clear efforts not to cover things up but to tackle and investigate them. This was not always met with approval in the Vatican".[134][142] According to Schönborn, Cardinal Ratzinger had pressed John Paul II to investigate Hans Hermann Groër, an Austrian cardinal and friend of John Paul accused of sexual abuse, resulting in Groër's resignation.[139]Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard In March 2010, the Pope sent a Pastoral Letter to the Catholic Church in Ireland addressing cases of sexual abuse by Catholic priests to minors, expressing sorrow, and promising changes in the way accusations of abuse are dealt with.[143] Victim groups claim the letter failed to clarify if secular law enforcement has priority over canon law confidentiality pertaining to internal investigation of abuse allegations.[144][145][146][147] The Pope then promised to introduce measures that would 'safeguard young people in the future' and 'bring to justice' priests who were responsible for abuse.[133]SONY VAIO VGN-FS640 Laptop Keyboard In April, the Vatican issued guidelines on how existing church law should be implemented. The guideline dictates that "Civil law concerning reporting of crimes... should always be followed."[148] The guideline was intended to follow the norms established by U.S. bishops, but it does not require the reporting of "allegations" or crimes where reporting is not required by law.[149]TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard Pope Benedict XVI has re-introduced several papal garments which had previously fallen into disuse. Pope Benedict XVI resumed the use of the traditional red papal shoes, which had not been used since early in the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. Contrary to the initial speculation of the press that the shoes had been made by the Italian fashion house Prada, the Vatican announced that the shoes were provided by the pope's personal shoemaker.[150]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard On 21 December 2005, the pope once only wore the camauro, the traditional red papal hat usually worn in the winter. It had not been seen since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963). On 6 September 2006 the pope began wearing the red cappello romano (also called a saturno), a wide-brimmed hat for outdoor use. Rarely used by John Paul II, it was more widely worn by his predecessors.  HP Mini 210-2038tu Laptop Keyboard Health Prior to his election as Pope in 2005, Ratzinger had hoped to retire—on account of age-related health problems, a long-held desire to have free time to write, and the retirement age for bishops (75)—and submitted his resignation as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith three times, but continued at his post in obedience to the wishes of Pope John Paul II. In September 1991, Ratzinger suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, which slightly impaired his eyesight temporarily but he recovered completely.[151]This was never affirmed – the official news was that Ratzinger fell and struck his head against a radiator – but an open secret known to the Conclave that elected him Pope.[152]HP Mini 110-3007tu Laptop Keyboard Since his election in April 2005 there have been several rumors about the Pope's health but none of them have ever been confirmed. Early in his pontificate Pope Benedict XVI predicted a short reign which led to concerns about his health.[153] In May 2005, the Vatican revealed that he had subsequently suffered another mild stroke. French Cardinal Philippe Barbarin further revealed that since the first stroke, Ratzinger had been suffering from a heart condition as a result of his age, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard for which he is currently on medication. In late November 2006, Vatican insiders told the international press that the Pope had a routine examination of the heart.[152] A few days later an unconfirmed rumor emerged that Pope Benedict had undergone an operation in preparation for an eventual bypass operation but this rumor was only published by a small left-wing Italian newspaper and was never confirmed by any Vatican insider.[154]SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard On 17 July 2009, Benedict was hospitalized after falling and breaking his right wrist while on vacation in the Alps. His injuries were reported to be minor.[155] The official style of the Pope is His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI; in Latin, Benedictus XVIEpiscopus Romae. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard However, his rarely used full title is: His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God. HP 508112-001 Laptop Keyboard Before 1 March 2006, the list of titles also used to contain that of a "Patriarch of the West", which traditionally appeared in that list of titles before "Primate of Italy". The title of "Patriarch of the West" was first adopted in the year 642 by Pope Theodore I, but was rarely used since the East-West Schism of 1054. From the Orthodox perspective, HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard authority in the Church could be traced to the five patriarchates of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch andJerusalem. However, some Catholic theologians have argued that the term "Patriarch of the West" has no clear historical or theological basis and was introduced into the papal court in 1870 at the time of the First Vatican Council. Pope Benedict chose to remove the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox churches have centered on the issue of papal primacy. HP Pavilion dv9315ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2005, the Pope listed several ways to combat the spread of HIV, including chastity, fidelity in marriage and anti-poverty efforts; he also rejected the use of condoms.[157] The alleged Vatican investigation of whether there are any cases when married persons may use condoms to protect against the spread of infections surprised many Catholics in the wake of John Paul II's consistent refusal to consider condom use in response to AIDS.[158] HP Pavilion dv7-3170el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan However, the Vatican has since stated that no such change in the Church's teaching can occur.[159] TIME also reported in its 30 April 2006 edition that the Vatican's position remains what it always has been with Vatican officials "flatly dismiss[ing] reports that the Vatican is about to release a document that will condone any condom use."[159]ACER Aspire 5535 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In March 2009, the Pope stated: I would say that this problem of AIDS cannot be overcome merely with money, necessary though it is. If there is no human dimension, if Africans do not help, the problem cannot be overcome by the distribution of prophylactics: on the contrary, they increase it. The solution must have two elements: firstly, bringing out the human dimension of sexuality, that is to say a spiritual and human renewal that would bring with it a new way of behaving towards others, and secondly, true friendship offered above all to those who are suffering, a willingness to make sacrifices and to practise self-denial, to be alongside the suffering.[160] HP Pavilion dv6154eu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In November 2010, in a book-length interview, the Pope, using the example of male prostitutes, stated that the use of condoms, with the intention of reducing the risk of HIV infection, may be an indication that the prostitute is intending to reduce the evil connected with his or her immoral activity.[161] In the same interview, Toshiba KSB0705HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Pope also reiterated the traditional teaching of the Church that condoms are not seen as a "real or moral solution" to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Further, in December 2010, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith explained that the Pope's statement did not constitute a legitimization of either prostitution or contraception, both of which remain gravely immoral.[161]HP Pavilion dv7t-3300 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During his time as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), Benedict XVI made several efforts to tackle the issue of homosexuality within the Church and the wider world. In 1986 the CDF sent a letter to all bishops entitled: On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons. The letter condemned a liberal interpretation of the earlier CDF document Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics, which had led to a "benign" attitude "to the homosexual condition itself". HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons clarified that the Church's position on homosexuality was that "although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder."[162] However the document also condemned homophobic attacks and violence, stating that "It is deplorable that homosexual persons have been and are the object of violent malice in speech or in action. Such treatment deserves condemnation from the Church's pastors wherever it occurs."[162]HP G42-283LA Laptop Keyboard In 1992 he again approved CDF documents declaring that homosexual "inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder" and extended this principle to civil law. "Sexual orientation", the document said, was not equivalent to race or ethnicity, and it declared that it was "not unjust discrimination to take sexual orientation into account."[163]HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard On 22 December 2008, the Pope gave an end of year message to the Roman Curia in which he talked about gender and the important distinction between men and women. The pope said that the church viewed the distinction as central to human nature, and "asks that this order, set down by creation, be respected". He characterised gender roles which deviated from his view of what gender roles should be as "a violation of the natural order". The church, he said, "should protect man from the destruction of himself".  HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard He said a sort of ecology of man was needed, adding: "The tropical forests do deserve our protection; but man, as a creature, does not deserve any less." He attacked what he described as gender theories which "lead towards the self-emancipation of man from creation and the creator"."[164][165]FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard LGBT groups such as the Italian Arcigay and German LSVD have announced that they found the Pope's comments homophobic.[166] Aurelio Mancuso, head of Arcigay, saying "A divine programme for men and women is out of line with nature, where the roles are not so clear."[164]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard Father Federico Lombardi, a Vatican spokesman, claimed the Pope had not wished specifically to attack homosexuality, and had not mentioned gays or lesbians in his text. Father Lombardi insisted, however, that there had been an overreaction to the Pope's remarks. "He was speaking more generally about gender theories which overlook the fundamental difference in creation between men and women and focus instead on cultural conditioning." Nevertheless, the remarks were interpreted as a call to save mankind from homosexuals and transsexuals.[164]HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard During a 2012 Christmas speech on family values, the Pope affirmed his opposition to gay marriage saying it manipulates a God-given gender.[167] He also described gay marriage as a threat to world peace similar to abortion and euthanazia.[168] In March 2012, he states that straight marriage should be defended from "every possible misrepresentation of their true nature".[169]SONY VAIO VGN-CS110E/R Laptop Keyboard In a message releas

ed 14 November 2006, during a Vatican press conference for the 2007 annual observance of World Day for Migrants and Refugees, the pope urged the ratification of international conventions and policies that defend all migrants, including refugees, exiles, evacuees, and internally displaced persons. "The church encourages the ratification of the international legal instruments that aim to defend the rights of migrants, refugees and their families," the pope said. "Much is already being done for the integration of the families of immigrants, although much still remains to be done."[170]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Pope Benedict has also promoted various UN events, such as World Refugee Day, on which he offered up special prayers for refugees and called for the international community to do more to secure refugees' human rights. He also called on Catholic communities and organizations to offer them concrete help.[171]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard China Main article: People's Republic of China – Holy See relations In 2007 Benedict sent a letter at Easter to Catholics in China that could have wide-ranging implications for the church's relationship with China's leadership. The letter provides long-requested guidance to Chinese bishops on how to respond to illicitly ordained bishops, as well as how to strengthen ties with the Patriotic Association and the Communist government.[172] HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard

Korea

On 13 November 2006, Benedict said the dispute over the North Korea nuclear weapons program should be resolved through negotiations, in his first public comment on the security issue, a news report said. "The Holy See encourages bilateral or multilateral negotiations, convinced that the solution must be sought through peaceful means and in respect for agreements taken by all sides to obtain the denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula." Benedict was talking to the new Japanese ambassador to the Vatican.[173]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Turkey

Main article: Holy See – Turkey relations In a 2004 Le Figaro interview, Ratzinger said that Turkey, which is demographically Muslim but governmentally secular by virtue of its state constitution, should seek its future in an association of Muslim nations rather than the European Union, which Ratzinger has stated has Christian roots. He said Turkey had always been "in permanent contrast to Europe and that linking it to Europe would be a mistake.[174]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Later visiting the country to "reiterate the solidarity between the cultures," it was reported that he made a counter-statement backing Turkey's bid to join the EU. Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, said that the pope told him in their meeting that while the Vatican seeks to stay out of politics it desires Turkey's membership in the EU.[175][176] TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard However, the Common Declaration of Pope Benedict XVI and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople implied that support for Turkey's membership in the European Union would be contingent on the establishment of religious freedom in Turkey:[177] "In every step towards unification, minorities must be protected, with their cultural traditions and the distinguishing features of their religion."[178] The Declaration also reiterates Pope Benedict XVI's call for Europe to preserve its Christian roots. ACER Aspire 5741 Laptop Keyboard In May 2009 he visited Israel.[179][180] This was the third Papal visit to the Holy Land, the previous ones being made by Pope Paul VI in 1964 and Pope John Paul II in 2000. Pope Benedict XVI and Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng met at the Vatican on 25 January 2007 in a "new and important step towards establishing diplomatic ties".[181] The Pope met with President Nguyễn Minh Triết on 11 December 2009. Vatican officials called the meeting "a significant stage in the progress of bilateral relations with Vietnam."[182]DELL Latitude D600 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2009 the Pope intervened in global economic and political affairs with his third encyclical, Charity in Truth (Latin Caritas in Veritate), which can be viewed on the Vatican's web site.[183] The document sets out the Pope's position on the case for worldwide redistribution of wealth in considerable detail and goes on to discuss the environment, migration, terrorism, sexual tourism, bioethics, energy and population issues. The Financial Times has reported that the Pope's advocacy for a fairer redistribution of wealth has helped set the agenda for the 2009 July G8 summit.[184][185]Toshiba Satellite L505D-GS6000 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pope Benedict XVI has called for nuclear disarmament. At the same time, he has supported the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a tool for development and the fight against poverty. In his message for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the International Atomic Energy Agency, he confirmed: "The Holy See, fully approving of the IAEA's goal, has been a member from the organisation's foundation and continues to support its activity."[186] Pope Benedict is known to be deeply interested in classical music,[8] SONY PCG-6S2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and is an accomplished pianist.[187] He has a grand piano in his papal quarters. The Pontiff's favorite composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, of whose music the Pope said: "His music is by no means just entertainment; it contains the whole tragedy of human existence."[188] Benedict also stated that Mozart's music affected him greatly as a young man and "deeply penetrated his soul."[188] Benedict's favorite works of music are Mozart's Clarinet Concerto and Clarinet Quintet.[189]IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pope Benedict has recorded an album of contemporary classical music in which Benedict sings and recites prayers to the Blessed Virgin Mary.[190] The album was set for release on 30 November 2009. SONY VAIO PCG-F23 Laptop Keyboard Pope Benedict is also known to be fond of cats.[8] As Cardinal Ratzinger he was known (according to former neighbours) to look after stray cats in his neighbourhood. A book called Joseph and Chico: A Cat Recounts the Life of Pope Benedict XVI was published in 2007 which told the story of the Pope's life from the feline Chico's perspective. This story was inspired by an orange tabby Pentling cat, which belonged to the family next door.[191] During his trip to Australia for World Youth Day in 2008 the media reported that festival organizers lent the Pope a grey cat called Bella[192] in order to keep him company during his stay.[193]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In December 2012, the Vatican announced Benedict had joined social networking website Twitter, under the handle @Pontifex.[194] His first tweet was made on 12 December and was "Dear friends, I am pleased to get in touch with you through Twitter. Thank you for your generous response. I bless all of you from my heart."[195]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard While visiting the United States on 17 April 2008, Benedict met with International Society for Krishna Consciousness representative Radhika Ramana Dasa;[108] a notable Hindu scholar[109] and disciple of Hanumatpreshaka Swami.[110] On behalf of the Hindu American community, Radhika Ramana Dasa presented a gift of an Omsymbol to Benedict.[111][112]SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E Laptop Keyboard As Pontiff, Benedict XVI carries out numerous Apostolic activities including journeys across the world and in the Vatican. Benedict travelled extensively during the first three years of his papacy. In addition to his travels within Italy, Pope Benedict XVI has made two visits to his homeland, Germany, one for World Youth Day and another to visit the towns of his childhood. He has also visited Poland and Spain, where he was enthusiastically received.[113] SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard His visit to Turkey, an overwhelmingly Muslim nation, was initially overshadowed by the controversy about a lecture he had given at Regensburg. His visit was met by nationalist and Islamic protesters[114] and was placed under unprecedented security measures.[115] However, the trip went ahead and Benedict made a joint declaration with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I in an attempt to begin to heal the rift between the Catholic and Orthodox churches. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Pope Benedict visited Brazil in order to address the Bishops' Conference there and canonize Friar Antônio Galvão, an 18th century Franciscan. In June 2007, Benedict made a personal pilgrimage and pastoral visit to Assisi, the birthplace ofSt. Francis. In September, Benedict undertook a three-day visit to Austria,[116] during which he joined Vienna's Chief Rabbi, Paul Chaim Eisenberg, in a memorial to the 65,000 Viennese Jews who perished in Nazi death camps.[117] During his stay in Austria, he also celebrated Mass at the Marian shrine Mariazell and visited Heiligenkreuz Abbey.[118]SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard In April 2008, Pope Benedict XVI made his first visit to the United States since becoming pope.[119] He arrived in Washington, DC where he was formally received at the White House and met privately with U.S. President George W. Bush.[120] While in Washington, the pope addressed representatives of US Catholic universities, met with leaders of other world religions, and celebrated Mass at the Washington Nationals' baseball stadium with 47,000 people.[121] The Pope also met privately with victims of sexual abuse by priests. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The pope travelled to New York where he addressed the United Nations General Assembly.[122] Also while in New York, the pope celebrated Mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral, met with disabled children and their families, and attended an event for Catholic youth, where he addressed some 25,000 young people in attendance.[123] On the final day of the pope's visit, he visited the World Trade Center site and later celebrated Mass at Yankee Stadium.[124]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard  [125][126] On 13 September 2008, at an outdoor Paris Mass attended by 250,000 people, Pope Benedict XVI condemned the modern materialism – the world's love of power, possessions and money as a modern-day plague, comparing it to paganism.[127][128]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 2009, he visited Africa (Cameroon and Angola) for the first time as a Pope. During his visit, he suggested that altering sexual behavior was the answer to Africa's AIDS crisis, and urged Catholics to reach out and convert believers in sorcery. He visited the Middle East (Jordan, Israel and Palestine) in May 2009. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard Pope Benedict's main arena for pastoral activity is the Vatican itself, his Christmas and Easter homilies and Urbi et Orbi are delivered from St Peter's Basilica. The Vatican is also the only regular place where the Pope travels via motor without the protective bulletproof case common to most popemobiles. Despite the more secure setting Pope Benedict has been victim to security risks several times inside Vatican City. On Wednesday, 6 June 2007 during his General Audience a man leapt across a barrier, evaded guards and nearly mounted the Pope's vehicle, although he was stopped and Benedict seemed to be unaware of the event. HP Pavilion dv6-3023nr Laptop Keyboard On Thursday, 24 December 2009, while Pope Benedict was proceeding to the altar to celebrate Christmas Eve Mass at St Peter's Basilica, a woman later identified as 25-year-old Susanna Maiolo, who holds Italian and Swiss citizenships, jumped the barrier and grabbed the pope by his vestments and pulled him to the ground. The 82-year-old fell but was assisted to his feet and he continued to proceed towards the altar to celebrate Mass. Roger Etchegaray, 87, the vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, fell also and suffered a hip fracture. Italian police revealed that the woman had previously attempted to accost the Pope at the previous Christmas Eve Mass, but was prevented from doing so.[129][130] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his homily, Pope Benedict forgave Susanna Maiolo[131] and urged the world to "wake up" from selfishness and petty affairs, and find time for God and spiritual matters.[129]HP G62-b07SL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Between 17 and 18 April, Pope Benedict made an Apostolic Journey to the Republic of Malta. Following meetings with various dignitaries on his first day on the island, 50,000 people gathered in a drizzle for Papal Mass on the granaries in Floriana. The Pope also met with the Maltese youth at the Valletta Waterfront, where an estimated 10,000 young people turned up to greet him.[132] During his visit the Pope was moved to tears while expressing his shame at cases of abuse on the island during a 20-minute meeting with victims.[133]HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The passage originally appeared in the "Dialogue Held with a Certain Persian, the Worthy Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia[99][100] written in 1391 as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus, one of the last Christian rulers before the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire, on such issues as forced conversion, holy war, and the relationship between faith and reason. According to the German text, the Pope's original comment was that the emperor "Toshiba MCF-TS5008P05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan addresses his interlocutor in an astoundingly harsh—to us surprisingly harsh—way" (wendet er sich in erstaunlich schroffer, uns überraschend schroffer Form).[101] Pope Benedict apologised for any offence he had caused and made a point of visiting Turkey, a predominantly Muslim country, and praying in its Blue Mosque. Toshiba Satellite 1905-S303 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pope Benedict XVI planned on 5 March 2008, to meet with Muslim scholars and religious leaders autumn 2008 at a Catholic-Muslim seminar in Rome.[102] That meeting, the "First Meeting of the Catholic-Muslim Forum," was held from 4–6 November 2008.[103]  SONY VGN-CS170F/Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On 9 May 2009 H.H. Pope Benedict XVI visited the King Hussein Mosque, Amman, Jordan where he was addressed by H.R.H. Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad bin Talal.[83]HP Mini 110-3135sz Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tibetan Buddhism The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election,[104] and visited him in October 2006 in the Vatican City. In 2007 China was accused of using its political influence to stop a meeting between the Pope and the Dalai Lama.[105] Dell Vostro 3400 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Indigenous American beliefs While visiting Brazil in May 2007, "the pope sparked controversy by saying that native populations had been 'silently longing' for the Christian faith brought to South America by colonizers."[106] The Pope continued, stating that "the proclamation of Jesus and of his Gospel did not at any point involve an alienation of the pre-Columbus cultures, nor was it the imposition of a foreign culture."[106]  HP Pavilion dv9910us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan resident of Venezuela Hugo Chávez demanded an apology, and an indigenous organisation in Ecuador issued a response which stated that "representatives of the Catholic Church of those times, with honourable exceptions, were accomplices, deceivers and beneficiaries of one of the most horrific genocides of all humanity."[106] Later, the pope, speaking Italian, said at a weekly audience that it was:  HP Pavilion dv7-4171us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan "not possible to forget the suffering and the injustices inflicted by colonizers against the indigenous population, whose fundamental human rights were often trampled."[107]\SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pope Benedict's relations with Islam have been strained at times. On 12 September 2006 Pope Benedict XVI delivered a lecture which touched on Islam at theUniversity of Regensburg in Germany. The pope had previously served as professor of theology at the university, and his lecture was entitled "Faith, Reason and the University—Memories and Reflections".  HP Envy 17-2050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The lecture received much attention from political and religious authorities. Many Islamic politicians and religious leaders registered their protest against what they said was an insulting mischaracterisation of Islam, although his focus was aimed towards the rationality of religious violence, and its effect on the religion.[97][98] Muslims were particularly offended by the following quotation from the Pope's speech: HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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