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University of California, San Diego The University of California, San Diego (also referred to as UC San Diego or UCSD) is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, United States.[9] The university occupies 2,141 acres (866 ha) near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,200 acres (490 ha).[10]SONY VAIO PCG-6N1L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. UCSD is the seventh oldest of the ten University of California campuses, and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling about 22,700 undergraduate and about 6,300 graduate students from the United States and around the world. Undergraduate education is organized into six residential colleges, each with its own curricular focus. HP Pavilion dv6-3267cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the university was first envisioned byRoger Revelle, then director of Scripps, to be a graduate school of science and engineering comparable in quality toCaltech.[11][12] The university was admitted to the Association of American Universities in 1982.[13] UC San Diego is a designated sea and space grant institution and has a very high level of research activity with $879.3 million in research and development expenditures in 2009.[14][15] FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university operates four research institutes, including theCalifornia Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, San Diego Supercomputer Center, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and UC San Diego Medical Center and is also affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, HP 580718-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Burnham Institute for Medical Research, and the Scripps Research Institute. The university also houses two think tanks including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, and the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. UC San Diego faculty, researchers, and alumni have won twenty Nobel Prizes, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, and two Fields Medals. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering,[16] 95 to the National Academy of Sciences, and 106 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[17]ASUS G51J Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UC San Diego student-athletes compete in 23 intercollegiate sports as the Tritons in Division II of the NCAA. As a member of the California Collegiate Athletic Association, the Tritons have won 24 championships in sports including soccer, volleyball, golf, tennis, water polo, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are navy blue and California gold. Toshiba Portege R705 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan When the Regents of the University of California originally authorized the San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned as first imagined by Roger Revelle, Director of Scripps, to start as a graduate school of science and engineering comparable in quality to Caltech.[11] Citizens of San Diego supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres (24 ha) of mesa land on the coast near the Scripps Institute. The Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres (220 ha) of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres (200 ha) on the former site of Camp Matthews, HP G62-b09SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan but Revelle jeopardized the site selection by making public La Jolla's exclusive real estate practices antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups, angering local conservatives as well as UC Regent Edwin W. Pauley.[11] UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California,  SONY Vaio VGN-SZ4MN/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego.[11] The city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, and the UC approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor—Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead.[11] York worked out the planning of the main campus according to the "Oxbridge" model, relying on many of Revelle's ideas.[18] Toshiba Satellite A205-S4557 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UC San Diego was the first general campus of the UC to be designed "from the top down" in terms of research emphasis. Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute, like the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography, or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter.[18][19]  HP Pavilion dv7-3150el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1956, the UC Regents approved a "graduate program in science and technology" that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters' approval.[18] Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago, was an early recruit to the faculty in 1958.[19] (Revelle and Suesspublished the first paper on the Greenhouse effect the year before.[19]) Maria Goeppert-Mayer was appointed professor of physics in 1960; she later won the Nobel Prize in 1963.[19] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence; instruction was offered in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry and earth science. Classes initially met in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. [18]Toshiba Satellite A205-S5809 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By 1963, new facilities on the mesa been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, and new buildings were under construction for Social Sciences and Humanities. Ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, and the whole site was designated the First College of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor in 1963 and was replaced by John Semple Galbraith in 1964.[19] HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The campus accepted its first undergraduate class of 181 freshman in 1964, and was designated Revelle College the next year.[18][20] Second College was also organized in 1964, on the land deeded by the federal government. It was renamed John Muir College in April 1966.[21] The UC San Diego School of Medicine also accepted its first students in 1966.[19]SONY VAIO PCG-6N1L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Political theorist Herbert Marcuse joined the faculty in 1965. A champion of the New Left, he reportedly was the first protestor to occupy the administration building in a demonstration organized by his student, Angela Davis.[22] The American Legion offered to buy out the remainder of Marcuse's contract for $20,000; the Regents censured Chancellor McGill for defending Marcuse on the basis of academic freedom, but further action was averted after local leaders expressed support for Marcuse.[19]Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1967, student unrest against the United States involvement in the Vietnam War began to be felt at UC San Diego, when a student raised a Viet Minh flag over the campus.[18] Protests escalated as the war continued and were only exacerbated after the National Guard fired on student protesters at Kent State Universityin 1970. Over 200 students occupied Urey Hall while one student set himself on fire in protest of the war.[18][23]Toshiba Satellite P305-S8919 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Under Richard C. Atkinson, chancellor from 1980 to 1995, UCSD strengthened its ties with the city of San Diego by encouraging technology transfer with developing companies, transforming San Diego into a world leader in technology-based industries. Private giving rose from $15 million to nearly $50 million annually, faculty expanded by nearly 50%, and enrollment doubled to about 18,000 students during his chancellorship. In 1995, the quality of UC San Diego graduate programs was ranked tenth in the nation by the National Research Council.[24]HP Pavilion dv6-3205tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UC San Diego is a large, primarily residential research university.[14] The university is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.[32][33] UC San Diego granted 6,137 bachelors degrees, 1,071 masters degrees, 491 doctorate degrees, and 129 medical degrees in 2010-2011.[34]SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard UC San Diego's comprehensive doctoral program has high undergraduate degree coexistence as well as professional programs in business, medicine, and pharmacy. Its graduate division and professional schools include the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, School of Medicine, Institute of Engineering in Medicine, Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, Jacobs School of Engineering, Rady School of Management, and Skaggs School of Pharmacy. SONY Vaio PCG-K215Z Laptop Keyboard The university offers 35 masters programs, 47 doctoral programs, 5 professional programs, and 9 joint doctoral programs with San Diego State University and other UC campuses.[35] UC San Diego has noted graduate programs in biological sciences and medicine,[36][37]economics, social and behavioral sciences, and physics.[38]TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard UC San Diego’s total research expenditures for 2009 were $879.3 million.[15] The National Science Foundation has ranked UCSD first in the UC system and sixth in the nation in terms of federal research expenditures.[39] Some 200 San Diego companies have been founded by UCSD faculty and alumni, and over 40% of the people employed in the San Diego biotechnology industry work in UCSD spin-offs.[40][41] Science Watch ranked UCSD 1st in social psychology,[42] 2nd in oceanography,[43] 3rd in international relations,[44]  Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard 5th in molecular biology and genetics,[45][46] 17th inengineering,[47] and 18th in Neuroscience and Behavior[48] using non-survey, quantitative based metrics to determine research impact. UCSD also counts among its research centers the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, and the Center for US-Mexican Studies.[49]ACER Aspire 3634WLMi Laptop Keyboard Students affiliate with a college based upon its particular philosophy and environment as majors are not exclusive to specific colleges.[52] John Muir and Earl Warren enroll the largest number of undergraduate students followed by Thurgood Marshall, Revelle, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Sixth.[53] Each undergraduate college sets the requirements for awarding provost's honors and honors at graduation in addition to departmental honors and Phi Beta Kappa honors. Packard Bell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard UCSD is considered to be a Public Ivy.[65][66] In addition, the University of California, San Diego is currently ranked 14th in the world and 12th nationally by the Academic Ranking of World Universities.The 2013 edition of U.S. News & World Report ranked UC San Diego as the 38th best university in the nation, tied for 3rd best of the UC schools and the 8th best public university in the United States.[67]Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, 2011, and 2012 Washington Monthly ranked UC San Diego 1st in the U.S. based on its contribution to the public good in three broad categories: Social Mobility (recruiting and graduating low-income students), Research (producing cutting-edge scholarship and PhDs), and Service (encouraging students to give something back to their country).[68][69][70]The Graham-Diamond report ranked UCSD 8th overall in the country.[38] UCSD was selected as the "Hottest" science school by Newsweek in 2006.[71] Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard Human Resources & Labor Review ranked the university 16th worldwide in 2010.[72] In its 2012 report on best values in public colleges, Kiplinger ranked UCSD 10th in the nation for in-state value and 13th in the nation for out-of-state value.[73] In 2012, QS World University Rankings[74] ranked UCSD 70th overall in the world, and 14th in Life Sciences and Biomedicine. Thomson Reuters Science Watch ranks UCSD 7th of federally funded U.S. universities, based on the citation impact of their published research in major fields of science and the social sciences and 12th globally by volume of citations.[75][76][77] Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard UC San Diego Extension is the continuing education and public program branch of the university.[54] Approximately 50,000 enrolles per year are educated in the university's extension program.[54] The Extension provides over 90 certificate programs and over 12 specialized study programs.[54] Most courses are held evenings and weekends for the convenience to working adults on the main campus or at one of three off campus locations:the Extension Sorrento Mesa Center, the Extension Rancho Bernardo Center, and the Extension Mission Valley Center.[54] The Extension program also includes online only classes.[54] The UCSD Extension program is not affiliated with the UC Cooperative Extension program.[55]Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard When the campus opened in 1964, it consisted only of Revelle College and Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Today, UC San Diego includes 761 buildings that span 2,141 acres (866 ha) in the north part of San Diego. The main campus occupies only 1,200 acres (490 ha), while natural reserves cover the remaining 941 acres (381 ha). The San Diego Freeway passes through the campus and separates the UC San Diego Medical Center and Mesa apartment housing from the greater part of the campus.  DELL Inspiron MINI 1010 Laptop Keyboard The campus includes eucalyptus groves,[78] a sea port,[79] several major research centers, and a wide range of architectural styles. It is located in the residential area of La Jolla and bordered by the communities of La Jolla Shores, Torrey Pines and University City. The layout of the main campus centers aroundGeisel Library, which is roughly surrounded by the six residential colleges of Thurgood Marshall, John Muir, Roger Revelle, Sixth, Earl Warren, Eleanor Roosevelt, and the School of Medicine. SONY VGN-FE11M Laptop Keyboard The six colleges maintain separate housing facilities for their students and each college's buildings are differentiated by distinct architectural styles. As residential colleges were added as the university expanded, buildings in newer colleges were designed with starkly different architectural styles than those of the original campus. Toshiba Satellite P305D-S8900 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The iconic Geisel Library, named after Dr. Seuss, stands at the center of the campus. Library Walk, a heavily traveled pathway leading from Geisel Library to Gilman Drive, lies adjacent or close to Price Center, Center Hall, International Center, and various student services buildings, including the Student Services Center and the Career Services building. Toshiba Satellite X205-SLi4 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2009, the Conrad Prebys Music Center opened as part of an expanding arts district. The building houses UCSD's music department, which is renowned for its programs in experimental music. More than a dozen public art projects, part of the Stuart Collection, such as the Fallen Star in Warren, decorate the campus. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Sun God, a large winged creature located near the Faculty Club. Other Stuart Collection art includes a collection of Stonehenge-like stone blocks, a large coiling snake path, a table by Jenny Holzer, DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard a building that flashes the names of vices and virtues in bright neon lights, and three metallic Eucalyptustrees, the Music Tree, the Literary Tree and the Third Tree commonly referred to as the Silent Tree. One of the newest additions to the collection is Tim Hawkinson's giant teddy bear made of six boulders located in between the newly constructed Calit2 buildings.[49]  HP 496878-001 Laptop Keyboard Another notable campus sight are the graffiti tunnels of Mandeville Hall, a series of corridors that have been tagged with graffiti by generations of students over decades of use. Students in the university's visual arts department also often create temporary public art installations as part of their coursework. The university is also sponsoring a $56,000 performance art project to develop a sense of community at the sprawling campus.[80] HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard Shepard Fairey (OBEY), most notable for the famous 2008 "Obama Hope" poster painted a mural at one of UCSD most famous buildings and collectives, The Che Cafe, on an outside wall facing Scholars Drive incorporating Martin Luther King and other notable political figures. Underground street artist, Swampy, created a large piece inside the Che Cafe, visible through the Che Cafe courtyard depicting his signature mammoth skeleton. In 1993 local San Diego artist Mario Torero, in collaboration with UCSD art students, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard painted a mural at the Che Cafe in commemoration of Angela Davis and Rigoberta Menchu, along with other notable political figures. The Che Cafe remains a hub for underground and politically progressive artist. In 2009, Mario Torero was invited to create a mural called "Chicano Legacy" based on content suggested by UCSD Chicano students.[81] The mural is a $10,000 digital image on a 15-by-50-foot (4.6 by 15 m) canvas mounted on the exterior of Peterson Hall, which includes representations of Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta as well as the kiosk structure at Chicano Park.[82]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard UCSD is one of the ten general campuses of the University of California system which is governed by a publicly appointed 26-member Board of Regents and administered by a president whose office is located in Oakland, California. Mark Yudof became the 19th president of the University system in June 2008.[83] The board of regents appoint chancellors to serve as the chief administrative officer of each individual general campus.  HP G42-228CA Laptop Keyboard On August 1, 2012, Pradeep Khosla began his term as the eighth chancellor of UCSD, following the resignation of the previous chancellor, Marye Anne Fox.[84] Chancellor Khosla's base salary of $411,000 annually has been the subject of controversy.[85] The chancellor has an immediate staff of eight vice chancellors for academic affairs, research, marine sciences, student affairs, planning, external relations, business affairs, and health sciences.[86]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard he campus's undergraduate population is represented by a formal student government, known as the Associated Students (ASUCSD) which was founded on 16 December 1964.[91][92] By a student referendum it was abolished in 1972 and later reestablished in 1977.[93] In 1986, the ASUCSD passed a non-binding resolution calling on the University of California to divest from its investments in South Africa due to the South African government’s institutionalized system of apartheid. The UC subsequently divested from such holdings later that year, a move Nelson Mandela later pointed to as a catalyst to ending white-minority rule in the country.[94]Each college has its own student council as well.[95]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard The campus's graduate population is represented by the Graduate Student Association (GSA).[96] The Association's membership comprises representatives from each of the graduate departments. The number of representatives is proportional to the number of graduate students within that particular department. Additionally, graduate students who serve as teaching or research assistants are represented by the UC-wide union of Academic Student Employees, UAW Local 2865. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard UCSD received 60,839 freshmen applications for Fall 2012, and admitted 22,940, or 37.7%.[99] Admitted students attained an average high school GPA of 4.07, an average ACT Composite score of 29, and an average combined SAT score of 1901 (average SAT scores of 639 for Critical Reading, 691 for Mathematics, and 661 for Writing).[99] 31% of admitted students receive federal Pell Grants.[100] According to the 2010 U.S. News & World Report, students applying to UCSD are also most likely to apply to UC Berkeley,Stanford University, and Harvard University for matriculation.[101]HP G62-372US Laptop Keyboard The four year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments at the university.[14] The university offers 125 bachelors degree programs organized into six disciplinary divisions: Arts, Humanities, Engineering, Science/Math, Biological Sciences, and Social Sciences.[102]38% of undergraduates major in the social sciences, followed by 25% in biological sciences, 18% in engineering, 8% in sciences and math, 4% in humanities, and 3% in the arts.[103] Each undergraduate college sets its own general education requirements (GEs) for graduation in addition to the specific requirements of majors set by individual departments and programs.[104][105]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard The main student hub is the Price Center located in the center of campus, just south ofGeisel Library. The Price Center offers a variety of services, places, and spaces, including restaurants, the central bookstore, movie theater, and various student organizations. In Spring 2003, a Student Referendum was passed to expand the Price Center to nearly double the original size. The Price Center East expansion was officially opened to the public on May 19, 2008.[110]DELL Latitude E6410 Laptop Keyboard There are also three campus centers that cultivate a sense of community among faculty, staff, and students: the Cross-Cultural Center, the Women's Center, and the Masluki-Cavalieri LGBT Resource Center. UCSD was the last UC campus to have such centers. All three centers, especially the Cross-Cultural Center that was created first, were founded in the mid-1990s and were the result of student movements that demanded change despite opposition by the campus administration.[111]HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Laptop Keyboard There is a music venue on the campus grounds of some fame called the Ché Café, a collective organization serving multiple functions as an underground music venue, vegan food collective, center for grassroots organizations such as Food Not Bombs, and similar groups and activities.[112] Prominent local San Diego bands such as The Locust and Pinback, and national tours such as Mates of State and The Dillinger Escape Plan have given the Ché Café some fame and praise as a radical vegan collective despite its small size (it fits a few hundred people) and limited sound equipment. SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Concerts of classical and experimental contemporary music are performed at the Conrad Prebys Music Center, which was designed in consultation with famed architect Cyril M. Harris. In 2012, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), named UCSD the most vegan-friendly large college or university in the United States.[113]SONY Vaio VGN-AW11M/H Laptop Keyboard The Associated Students also coordinates a wide variety of concerts and events during the year, including All Campus Dance, Bear Gardens, Loft Events, and the Sun God Festival.[114] The Sun God Festival, named after the statue created by artist Niki de Saint Phalle, is the best-known of the festivals. The festival has grown in its 28 year history into a 20,000 person event. The day consists of student org booths and performers, as well as an eclectic mix of musical acts across 3 stages. GATEWAY M-1617 Laptop Keyboard Two other popular campus events include the Pumpkin Drop and the Watermelon Drop, which take place during Halloween and at the end of the third (Spring) academic quarter, respectively.[115] The Watermelon Drop is one of the campus's oldest traditions, famously originating in 1965 from a physics exam question centering on the velocity on impact of a dropped object. A group of intrigued students pursued that line of thought by dropping a watermelon from the top floor of Revelle's Urey Hall to measure the size of the resulting splat. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard A variety of events surround the Watermelon Drop, including a pageant where an occasionally male but generally female "Watermelon Queen" is elected. In 1979 the Queen rode to Urey Hall in a yellow VW Bug with a cut-off top owned by the winner that year, Bill Clabby. The Pumpkin Drop is a similar event celebrated by the dropping of a large, candy-filled pumpkin from 11-story Tioga Hall, the tallest residential building on the Muir college campus. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Approximately 93% of the Fall 2011 entering class of freshmen were housed on campus in residence halls or apartments; 39% of all undergraduates live on campus.[116] The six undergraduate residential colleges have separate housing facilities for their students. First-year students are usually housed in the residence halls while upperclassmen live in the college apartments. Transfer students are housed in separate facilities apart from the residential colleges, in an area adjacent to Eleanor Roosevelt College called The Village. Housing plans also offer students access to dining facilities, and each student is allotted a certain number of "Dining Dollars" to purchase meals at dining halls and groceries at on-campus markets. Dining halls are located at the six colleges, with markets located adjacent or near them, except at Eleanor Roosevelt College. UC San Diego currently offers four years guaranteed housing to its incoming freshmen, and two years to incoming transfer students. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51e-1834 Laptop Keyboard Graduate students are housed in one of seven apartment complexes. The Coast, Mesa, and One Miramar housing facilities are several minutes away from UC San Diego while the other four are located within the campus. International House is home to about 260 students from more than thirty countries.[117] The I-House community provides a social atmosphere where opportunities for significant cross-cultural exchange between American and international students are plentiful. International learning is fostered through formal programs including current affairs discussions, cultural nights, and a community newsletter. ACER Aspire 7340 Laptop Keyboard Upper-division undergraduates from all six colleges, graduate students, faculty, and researchers are eligible to live in International House, located in the Eleanor Roosevelt College townhouses. Demand is very high for this special program and there is a waitlist each quarter. Spaces in International House are not guaranteed and admission requires a separate application.[118]ACER 90.4CD07.S1D Laptop Keyboard UCSD offers student participation in a wide range of sports including swimming, water polo, soccer, volleyball, crew, track and field athletics, fencing, basketball, golf, cross country, softball, baseball, and tennis. UCSD participates at theNCAA's Division II (DII) level in the California Collegiate Athletic Association, although water polo, fencing, men's crew and men's volleyball compete at the Division I level. Before joining DII in 2000, the school participated at the Division IIIlevel and won numerous national championships.[121]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard UCSD does not have an NCAA football team. Until the 2007-2008 school year, UCSD was the only DII school that did not offer athletic scholarships. In 2005, the NCAA created a rule that made it mandatory for DII programs to award athletic grants; a measure was proposed to begin offering $500 "grants-in-aid" to all 600 intercollegiate athletes in order to meet this requirement. In February 2007, a studentreferendum was passed with the largest vote in UCSD history, authorizing a $329 annual student fee to fund a raise in coaches' salaries, hire more trainers and provide all athletes with a $500 scholarship.[122]ACER Aspire 7340 Laptop Keyboard In 2006-2007, UCSD's best season since moving to DII, 19 of 23 athletic programs qualified for post-season competition, including 17 to the NCAA Championships. Eight of those teams finished in the top-5 in the nation.[123]HP Pavilion dv6-3205tu Laptop Keyboard UCSD fields a number of club sports teams. The UCSD surfing team has won the national title six times and is consistently rated one of the best surfing programs in the nation.[124] The UCSD triathlon team is continually one of the top triathlon teams in the nation. In 2008, the women's triathlon team won the US collegiate national championship and UCSD athlete Amanda Felder was the Overall Nation Champion.[125] UCSD also has sport clubs in badminton, baseball, cycling, dancesport, danceteam, equestrian, ice hockey, lacrosse, roller hockey, rugby union, sailing, soccer, snow skiing, table tennis, ultimate,volleyball, water polo, and waterskiing.[126]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The National Collegiate Scouting Association (NCSA) 2008 Collegiate Power Rankings[127] rate colleges and universities comprehensively based on student-athlete graduation rates, academic strength and athletic prowess of the university. The institutions posted in the 2007 Power Rankings represent less than 6% of colleges and universities across the nation.[128] UCSD placed 4th on the overall ranking list, trailing behind Williams College, Amherst College, and Duke University, and first on the Division II list. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51e-1834 Laptop Keyboard The campus newspaper, operated independent of student funds, is the UCSD Guardian. The campus also hosts a small independent radio station, KSDT, which no longer broadcasts over the airwaves, but still operates online. One of the more controversial aspects of student life at UCSD is the student-run comedy paper, The Koala, a satirical paper often criticized for its provocative articles and drawings, which is also funded by the A.S.[119] In 2005, the student government made national news over a controversy regarding pornographybroadcast over the A.S.-funded television station, SRTV, by members of The Koala. More controversy was generated by the program Live Hot Puppet Chat, a midnight sex-advice puppet show also broadcast on SRTV. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50E Laptop Keyboard In February 2010, members of The Koala, on their Student Run Television program "Koala TV" publicly supported the "Compton Cookout", a controversial off-campus party mocking Black History Month that included UCSD fraternity members among the organizers.[120]TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-S5126 Laptop Keyboard Over 150,000 alumni are associated with UCSD.[129] Notable alumni include Bill Atkinson and Bud Tribble, members of the Apple Macintosh development team; biotechnology pioneers David Goeddel and Craig Venter, and Nobel Prize winners Susumu Tonegawa (Physiology or Medicine), Venki Ramakrishnan (Chemistry) andBruce Beutler (Physiology or Medicine). Eleanor Mariano, the first Filipino-American to reach the rank of Rear Admiral in the United States Navy and first female director of the White House Medical Unit, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard received her BS in Biology cum laude in 1977. A number of science fiction authors including Gregory Benford,David Brin and Kim Stanley Robinson earned PhDs at UCSD; cartoon animation producer Mike Judge is also an alum.[130] Robert Buckley, who stars as Clay on The CW television show One Tree Hill graduated from UCSD with a degree in Economics. The Kite Runner's Khaled Hosseini is also a UCSD alum as well as Dileep Rao, one of the stars of the hit blockbuster movies Avatar and Inception. Rao spoke at the 2010 Convocation Dinner as he kicked off UCSD's 50th Anniversary Celebration. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard The three members of the popular Asian American filmmaking group Wong Fu Productions, Ted Fu, Phillip Wang, and Wesley Chan all graduated from UCSD as well.Anna Marie Caballero is a former member of the California State Assembly and had previously served as the Mayor and Council member of Salinas, California. Chad Butler, drummer and co-founding member of the Grammy Award winning San Diego area based rock band Switchfoot. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Sandag and the Metropolitan Transit System are currently in a major development to bring San Diego Trolley service to the local area. The project will extend the existing Blue Line north from Downtown San Diego to UCSD and the University City Area. The extension will give the UCSD campus two trolley stations, East and West. One major goal of the project is to ease traffic and parking on the campus and to make it quick and convenient for students. There is also a proposed station at the VA hospital just south of UCSD. Construction is set to begin in 2014, and is scheduled to be completed by 2017, and is expected to begin trolley service in 2018. This project was first proposed in 1994 but as of 2012 is finally underway. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (American Academy) is one of the oldest and most prestigious honorary societies and a leading center for independent policy research in the United States. Election to the Academy is considered one of the nation’s highest honors since its founding during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin and other scholar-patriots who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, and its Constitution.[1]COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard Today the Academy is with a dual function: to elect to membership finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, scholarship, business, public affairs, and the arts, from each generation, and to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research, humanities and cultural studies, scientific and technological advances, politics, population and the environment, and the welfare of children. Dædalus, the Academy’s quarterly journal, is widely regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals.[2]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard The Academy was established by Massachusetts legislature on 4 May 1780. Its purpose, as described in its Charter of Incorporation, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor, dignity, and happiness of a free, independent, and virtuous people."[3] The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political, FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard professional, and commercial sectors of the state. The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several foreign honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, and the Proceedingsfollowed in 1846. In the 1950s the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program.[4]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51e-1834 Laptop Keyboard The Academy has sponsored a number of awards throughout its history. Its first award, established in 1796 byBenjamin Thompson (Count Rumford), honored distinguished work on "heat and light" and provided support for research activities. Additional prizes recognized important contributions in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. In 2000, a scholar-patriot award was inaugurated to honor individuals who have made significant contributions to the work of the Academy and whose lives exemplify the founders' vision of service to society. HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr Laptop Keyboard Since the second half of the twentieth century, policy research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as a signature concern of the Academy. The Academy also served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science, technology, and global security; social policy and education; humanities and culture; and education. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. Now a group of 54 academic institutions from across the country have become university affiliates of the Academy to support this program.[5]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard Charter members of the Academy are Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clark, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Thomas Cushing,Nathan Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard John Lowell,Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, Jr., John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, Stephen Sewall, David Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth,Joseph Willard, Samuel Williams, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, and James Winthrop. HP Envy 15-1050es Laptop Keyboard Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIOScripps Oceanography, or Scripps) inLa Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth scienceresearch, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world. Hundreds of ocean and Earth scientists conduct research with the aid of oceanographic research vessels and shorebased laboratories. Its Old Scripps Building is a U.S. National Historic Landmark. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard Scripps is part of the University of California, San Diego. The public explorations center of the institution is the Birch Aquarium at Scripps. Since becoming part of the University of California in 1912, the institution has expanded its scope to include studies of the physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and climate of the Earth. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard A century of Scripps science has had an invaluable impact on oceanography, on understanding of the Earth, and on society. More than 300 research programs are under way today in a wide range of scientific areas in 65 countries.[1] Tony Haymet is the tenth director of Scripps (on sabbatical October 1, 2012 - June 20, 2013). He also serves as UC San Diego's Vice Chancellor for Marine Sciences and Dean of the Graduate School of Marine Sciences, and is a Professor of Oceanography at Scripps. He joined Scripps in 2006. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard Prof. Catherine Constable of Scripps' Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics is serving as the Acting Vice Chancellor for Marine Sciences, Director of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Dean of the Graduate School of Marine Sciences effective October 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013. Scripps publishes explorations now an award-winning e-magazine of ocean and earth science.  HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard From the beginning, the membership, nominated and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars but also writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy’s history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, and Duke Ellington. Foreign honorary members have included Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Jawaharlal Nehru, Werner Heisenberg, and Alec Guinness. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman to be elected to the Academy, in 1848. The current membership encompasses over 4,000 fellows and foreign honorary members on the roster, including more than 250 Nobel laureates and more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners.[6]APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Scripps Institution of Oceanography was founded in 1903 as the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, an independent biological research laboratory, by University of California Zoology professor William Emerson Ritter, with support from local philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps and later her brother E. W. Scripps. They fully funded Scripps for the first several years. Scripps began institutional life in the boathouse of the Hotel del Coronado located on San Diego Bay. It re-located in 1905 to La Jolla on the head above La Jolla Cove, and finally in 1907 to its present location. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard In 1912 Scripps became part of the University of California and was renamed the "Scripps Institution for Biological Research." The name was changed to Scripps Institution of Oceanography in October 1925.[2] During the 1960s, led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography director Roger Revelle, it formed the nucleus for the creation of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on a bluff overlooking Scripps Institution. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The institution's research programs encompass biological, physical, chemical, geological, and geophysical studies of the oceans and earth. Scripps also studies the interaction of the oceans with both the atmospheric climate and environmental concerns on terra firma. Related to this research, Scripps offers undergraduate and graduate degrees. (see http://scrippseducation.ucsd.edu for more information. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard Today, the Scripps staff of 1,300 includes approximately 100 faculty, 300 other scientists and some 250 graduate students, with an annual budget of more than $140 million. The institution operates a fleet of fouroceanographic research vessels and the research platform R/P FLIP (FLoating Instrument Platform) for oceanographic research. A fifth research vessel in the Scripps fleet is scheduled to be launched in 2015. HP Pavilion dv6-3180sf Laptop Keyboard Pauley became involved with the Democratic Party as a fundraiser in 1930s, eventually becoming Treasurer of the Democratic National Committee. In 1940, he served as a member of the Interstate Oil and Compact Commission. He was a friend and confidante of U.S. Senator Harry S. Truman, and through Truman's influence,President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Pauley as Petroleum Coordinator of Lend-Lease Supplies for the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom in 1941. He was director of the 1944 Democratic National Convention. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard As president, Truman appointed him United States representative to the Allied Reparations Committee from 1945–1947. With the rank of ambassador, as well as industrial and commercial advisor to the Potsdam Conference, his chief task was to renegotiate the reparations agreements formulated at the Yalta Conference(many of which affected eventual C.I.A. director Allen Dulles's former clients). When Truman tried to appoint him Under Secretary of the Navy in 1946, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes resigned in protest, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard claiming that while Pauley was Treasurer of the Democratic National Committee, he had suggested to Ickes that $300,000 ($3.96 million in 2012 dollars) in campaign funds could be raised if the Interior Department would drop its fight against the State of Californiafor ownership of oil-rich offshore lands.[3][4][5][6] Ickes's resignation scuttled the appointment, and Pauley worked behind the scenes thereafter. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard By successive appointments from several California governors, Pauley served as a University of California Regent from 1940 to 1972.[7] The Pauley Pavilion at theUniversity of California, Los Angeles is named in the honor of his philanthropy and service as a Regent.[8] A smaller dedication to Pauley exists at his alma mater, the University of California, Berkeley: the Pauley Ballroom, which can seat up to 1,000 people in the Martin Luther King, Jr. Student Union.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50E Laptop Keyboard In 1965, Pauley was serving as a Regent at the University of California, when anti-Vietnam war campus protests began to grow. At Pauley's request, CIA DirectorJohn McCone met with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover on January 28 and Hoover agreed to leak to Pauley information about UC System President Clark Kerr. (See memoregarding McCone's request to meet with Hoover. McCone graduated from UC Berkeley in 1922, the year before Pauley.) At that meeting, McCone told Hoover that Pauley was very upset about the "situation at Berkeley", HP Pavilion DV8135NR Laptop Keyboard and was "anxious to get a line on any persons who are communists or have communist associations, either on the faculty or in the student body." As soon as McCone left his office, Hoover phoned Los Angeles FBI chief Wesley Grapp, and ordered him to give Pauley anonymous memos on regents, faculty members, and students who were "causing trouble at Berkeley." Hoover admonished Grapp, "It must be impressed upon Mr. Pauley that this data is being furnished in strict confidence."[10]DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard Five days later (February 2) Grapp met with Pauley for two hours at his office in the Pauley Petroleum Building in Los Angeles. Grapp provided him information from FBI files on other Regents, faculty, and students who were considered "ultra-liberal." The CIA and FBI worked in conjunction with Ronald Reagan, who sought to mount a "psychological warfare campaign" against the budding Free Speech Movement and anti-war sit-ins, including using tax-evasion and "any other available" charges in which the FBI agreed to assist. "This has been done in the past, and has worked quite successfully," Hoover noted.[11][12][13] IBM ThinkPad T60p 6373 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan (This information was not made public until 2002, after a fifteen-year legal battle with the FBI that went all the way to the US Supreme Court, as a result of a FOIA request for an in-depth San Francisco Chronicle investigation. The FBI had claimed it needed to maintain secrecy to "protect law enforcement operations." The National Security Act of 1947 bars the CIA from engaging in domestic intelligence activities.) [1] HP Pavilion dv7-3174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pauley began the February 2, 1965 meeting with Grapp by saying he was upset about the Free Speech Movement and recalled that "obnoxious question... concerning the FBI being a secret police" (referring to a 1959 entry exam question.) He told Grapp he had "no use for [UC President] Kerr" and had accused Kerr of being a "communist or a communist follower." Pauley explained that the 24-member Board of Regents was divided and that his faction wanted "strong positive action taken immediately to clean up the mess."[citation needed] SONY UDQFRHH06CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The problem, he said, was that so far he'd been unable to muster the votes to fire Kerr. He blamed the impasse on three "ultra-liberal" regents who staunchly backed Kerr. Governor Pat Brown (D)) had named to the board: William Coblentz (Brown's former special counsel); William M. Roth (member of the ACLU executive committee); andElinor Raas Heller (member of the Democratic National Committee). HP Pavilion dv6-3257cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pauley told Grapp that in the 1950s the FBI secretly gave the university reports on professors it was considering hiring. He said he wanted to restore the procedure—which the FBI had code-named the Responsibilities Program—and offered to pay someone to check FBI files. After obtaining Pauley's promise not to reveal that the FBI was his source, Grapp handed him Hoover's memos. Pauley quickly read one. "This is perfect," he said. "This is just what I need."[citation needed] ACER LU.S130A.107 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It was a three-page report on UC Berkeley immunology professor Leon Wofsy that summarized news stories from 1945 to 1956, noting that Wofsy had been a self-avowed Communist Party official who tried to get young people involved with the party. (The report failed to note that since 1957 the FBI had found no evidence that Wofsy had been involved with the party.)  HP Pavilion dv5-1159se Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Two days later, Grapp reported to Hoover that Pauley would be "an excellent source of information" about internal university affairs. Pauley could also "use his influence to curtail, harass and at times eliminate communists and ultra-liberal members on the faculty"[citation needed] -- and on the Board of Regents. About a week later, Grapp secretly gave Paul

ey verbal reports containing confidential information about regents Coblentz, Roth and Heller—even though they had fully disclosed it to the bureau and held top-level security clearances. Pauley, Grapp reported to Hoover, was "most appreciative" of the information on his opponents. As Pauley saw it, according to Grapp's report, UC would remain in turmoil "as long as the current officials were in power at the university." HP Pavilion dv8000 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan That fall, thousands of students joined the escalating protests. To Pauley and the FBI, it was further proof that Kerr had lost control of the university. Pauley confided to Grapp that two alumni were taking things into their own hands. They had recruited athletes to "beat up the demonstrators" and hired a barber to "forcibly 'shear' the students who need it."[citation needed] SONY VGN-CS170F/Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Grapp continued to slip Pauley anonymous memos about students and faculty—at least two dozen more—that he could use in persuading the regents to fire Kerr. But in October, a frustrated Pauley told Grapp he was still "two votes short to fire Clark Kerr."[citation needed] Kerr would remain in charge of the university, it seemed, as long as Brown remained governor. SONY VAIO VGN-CS21S/R Laptop Keyboard When Ronald Reagan was elected California's governor in 1966, after campaigning against "campus malcontents and filthy speech advocates" at Berkeley, one of his first moves was to fire Kerr. Reagan's Legal Affairs Secretary, Herbert Ellingwood, met with FBI agent Cartha "Deke" DeLoach at FBI Headquarters, and noted that Reagan was "dedicated to the destruction of disruptive elements on college campuses."[2] Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard Philanthropy After his retirement from the UC system, Pauley concentrated on his many philanthropic interests and business concerns. He was particularly interested in promoting the use of his Coconut Island in Kāne'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii by the University of Hawaii at Manoa and its Hawaiʻi Institute of Marine Biology].[14] He kept about half of the island for the use of his family—his wife Bobbi, his son, Stephen M. Pauley and daughter, Susie Pauley and eventually their families. After Pauley's death in 1981, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard his widow Bobbi Pauley established the Edwin W. Pauley Foundation to continue their philanthropic work. In 1995, the Pauley family presented the University of Hawai`i with a gift of the private portion of the ca. 24-acre (97,000 m2) island to the University, and provided funds for the building of a new library and laboratory buildings for the Institute. Built on a living coral reef, the Institute is now one of the world's premier locations for the study of marine biology. HP Pavilion ze4305 Laptop Keyboard Academic freedom is the belief that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.[citation needed]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Academic freedom is a contested issue and, therefore, has limitations in practice. In the United States, for example, according to the widely recognized "1940 Statement on Academic Freedom and Tenure",[1] teachers should be careful to avoid controversial matter that is unrelated to the subject. When they speak or write in public, they are free to express their opinions without fear from institutional censorship or discipline, but they should show restraint and clearly indicate that they are not speaking for their institution.[citation needed] DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Academic tenure protects academic freedom by ensuring that teachers can be fired only for causes such as gross professional incompetence or behavior that evokes condemnation from the academic community itself.[citation needed] Proponents of academic freedom believe the freedom of inquiry by students and faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy. They argue that academic communities are repeatedly targeted for repression due to their ability to shape and control the flow of information. When scholars attempt to teach or communicate ideas or facts that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities, they may find themselves targeted for public vilification, job loss, imprisonment, or even death. For example, in North Africa, a professor of public health discovered that his country's infant mortality rate was higher than government figures indicated. He lost his job and was imprisoned.[2][3]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The fate of biology in the Soviet Union is also cited[citation needed] as a reason why society has an interest in protecting academic freedom.[who?] A Soviet biologist named Trofim Lysenko rejected Western science—then focused primarily on making advances in theoretical genetics, based on research with the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) -- and proposed a more socially relevant approach to farming that was based on the collectivist principles of dialectical materialism. (Lysenko called this "Michurinism",HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard but it is more popularly known today as Lysenkoism.) Lysenko's ideas proved appealing to the Soviet leadership, in part because of their value as propaganda, and he was ultimately made director of the Soviet Academy of Agricultural Sciences; subsequently, Lysenko directed a purge of scientists who professed "harmful ideas," resulting in the expulsion, imprisonment, or death of hundreds of Soviet scientists. Lysenko's ideas were then implemented on collectivised farms in the Soviet Union and China. Famines that resulted partly from Lysenko's influence are believed to have killed 30 million people in China alone.[4]HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard A professor at a public French university, or a researcher in a public research laboratory, is expected, as are all civil servants, to behave in a neutral manner and to not favor any particular political or religious point of view during the course of his duties. However, the academic freedom of universityprofessors is a fundamental principle recognized by the laws of the Republic, as defined by the Constitutional Council; furthermore, statute law declares abouthigher education that "t HP AELX9U00210 Laptop Keyboard eachers-researchers (university professors and assistant professors), researchers and teachers are fully independent and enjoy fullfreedom of speech in the course of their research and teaching activities, provided they respect, following university traditions and the dispositions of this code, principles of tolerance and objectivity."[6] The nomination and promotion of professors is largely done through a process of peer review rather than through normal administrative procedures.  COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The 1987 Philippine Constitution states that, "Academic Freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning."[7] Philippine jurisprudence and courts of law, including the Philippine Supreme Court tend to reflexively defer to the institutional autonomy of higher institutions of learning in determining academic decisions with respect to the outcomes of individual cases filed in the courts regarding the abuse of Academic Freedom by professors, despite the individual merits or demerits of any cases[8] HP Pavilion dv6137TX Laptop Keyboard A closely watched case was the controversial case of University of the Philippines at Diliman Sociology Professor Sarah Raymundo who was not granted tenure due to an appeal by the minority dissenting vote within the faculty of the Sociology Department. This decision was sustained upon appeal by the dissenting faculty and Professor Raymundo to the University of the Philippines at Diliman Chancellor Sergio S. Cao; and though the case was elevated to University of the Philippines System President Emerlinda R. Roman, Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Roman denied the appeal which was elevated by Professor Raymundo to the University's Board of Regents for decision and the BOR granted her request for tenure. A major bone of contention among the supporters of Professor Raymundo was not to question the institutional Academic Freedom of the Department in not granting her tenure, but in asking for transparency in how the Academic Freedom of the department was exercised, in keeping with traditions within the University of the Philippines in providing a basis that may be subject to peer review, for Academic decisions made under the mantle of Academic Freedom. The dissenting faculty in Professor Raymundo's case are expected to appeal the BOR decision[9]Toshiba Satellite L305D-S59222 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The German Constitution (Grundgesetz) specifically grants academic freedom: "Art and science, research and teaching are free. Freedom of teaching does not absolve from loyalty to the constitution" (Art. 5, para. 3). In a tradition reaching back to the nineteenth century, jurisdiction has understood this right as one to teach (Lehrfreiheit), study (Lernfreiheit), and conduct research (Freiheit der Wissenschaft) freely, although the last concept has sometimes been taken as a cover term for the first two. Lehrfreiheit embraces the right of professors to determine the content of their lectures and to publish the results of their research without prior approval. DELL BNTA0815R5H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since professors through their Habilitation receive the right to teach (venia docendi) in a particular academic field, academic freedom is deemed to cover at least the entirety of this field. Lernfreiheit means a student's right to determine an individual course of study. Finally, Freiheit der Wissenschaft permits academic self-governance and grants the university control of its internal affairs. Through the introduction of disciplinary curricula, Lernfreiheit has become a rather empty concept.[citation needed]IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the United States, academic freedom is generally taken as the notion of academic freedom defined by the "1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure," jointly authored by the American Association of University Professors ("AAUP") and the Association of American Colleges (AAC) (now the Association of American Colleges and Universities).[13]  HP Pavilion dv6-2150so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan These principles state that "Teachers are entitled to freedom in the classroom in discussing their subject."[13] The statement also permits institutions to impose "limitations of academic freedom because of religious or other aims," so long as they are "clearly stated in writing at the time of the appointment."[13] The Principles have only the character of private pronouncements, not that of binding law. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4656 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The six regional accreditors work with American colleges and universities, including private and religious institutions, to implement this standard. Additionally, the AAUP, which is not an accrediting body, works with this same institutions. The AAUP does not always agree with the regional accrediting bodies on the standards of protection of academic freedom and tenure.[14] The AAUP lists those colleges and universities which it has found to violate these principles.[15] There is some case law in the United States that teachers are limited in their academic freedoms. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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