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University of Cambridge The University of Cambridge (informally known as Cambridge University or Cambridge) is a public research universitylocated in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after theUniversity of Oxford), and the seventh-oldest in the world. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated asCantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge). HP G42-415DX Keyboard The university grew out of an association of Cambridge scholars that was formed in 1209, early records suggest, by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk.[4] The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, they have a long history of rivalry with each other. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Keyboard Cambridge has performed consistently in various league tables over the years, achieving the top spot in the world according to the QS World University Rankings in both 2010 and 2011;[5] in 2012, ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Keyboard the same editors ranked Cambridge second.[6] Other results include a sixth place in the world in the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and a fifth position in the world (and first in Europe) in the 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities. Furthermore, Cambridge regularly contends with Oxford for first place in UK league tables.[7][8] HP 550 Keyboard In the two most recently published rankings of UK universities by The Guardian newspaper, Cambridge was ranked first.[9][10] In 2011, Cambridge ranked third, after Harvard and MIT, in the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings.[11] Graduates of the university have won a total of 65Nobel Prizes, the most of any university in the world. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard Cambridge is a member of the Coimbra Group, the G5, the International Alliance of Research Universities, the League of European Research Universities and the Russell Group of research-led British universities. It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[12]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard The official founding of Cambridge University is traced to the enhancement, by a charter in 1231 from King Henry III of England, which awarded the ius non trahi extra (a right to discipline its own members) plus some exemption from taxes, and a bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX that gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom".[13]HP Envy 15 Keyboard After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290,[14] and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318,[15]it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.[14]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Keyboard The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane.[16]HP G62-361TX Keyboard Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse in 1284, Cambridge's first college. Many colleges were founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout the centuries to modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and Downing in 1800. DELL Inspiron 500m Keyboard The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college (it was previously an "Approved Society" affiliated with the university). HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard DELL Inspiron 1750 Keyboard In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, and were often associated with chapels or abbeys HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard . A change in the colleges’ focus occurred in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law[17] and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy". In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Keyboard As Cambridge moved away from Canon Law, it also moved away from Catholicism. As early as the 1520s, Lutheranism and what was to become more broadly known as theProtestant Reformation were making their presence felt in the intellectual discourse of the university. Among those involved was Thomas Cranmer, later to becomeArchbishop of Canterbury. ACER Aspire 7520 Keyboard As it became convenient to Henry VIII in the 1530s, the King looked to Cranmer and others (within and without Cambridge) to craft a new path that was different from Catholicism yet also different from what Martin Luther had in mind. ACER TravelMate 242LC Keyboard Nearly a century later, the university was at the centre of a Protestant schism. Many nobles, intellectuals and even common folk saw the ways of the Church of England as being too similar to the Catholic Church and that it was used by the crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritan movement and at Cambridge, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Keyboard it was particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine's Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ's College.[18] They produced many "non-conformist" graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or pulpit, the approximately 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth (1649–1660), attended Sidney Sussex. ACER Aspire 7336 Keyboard Mathematics and Mathematical Physics From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained a strong emphasis on applied mathematics, particularly mathematical physics. Study of this subject was compulsory for graduation, and students were required to take an exam for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and science subjects. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Keyboard This exam is known as a Tripos.[19]Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos were named wranglers. The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos was competitive and helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Lord Rayleigh.[20] FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Keyboard However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Keyboard Pure mathematics at Cambridge in the 19th century had great achievements but also missed out on substantial developments in French and German mathematics. Pure mathematical research at Cambridge finally reached the highest international standard in the early 20th century, thanks above all to G. H. Hardy and his collaborator, J. E. Littlewood. In geometry, W. V. D. Hodge brought Cambridge into the international mainstream in the 1930s. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Keyboard Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medalsand one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals.[21] The University also runs a Master oSONY 147859712 Keyboard Initially, only male students were enrolled into the university. The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded byEmily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women), HP 383495-001 Keyboard New Hall (later renamed Murray Edwards College) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1948.[22] Women were allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from 1881; ACER Aspire 2003WLMi Keyboard HP G61 Keyboard for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the "steamboat ladies" to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin.[23] From 1921 women were awarded diplomas which "conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts". As they were not "admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts" they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Keyboard and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. Starting with Churchill College, all of the men's colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988. One women's college, Girton, also began to admit male students from 1979, but the other women's colleges did not follow suit. ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard As a result of St Hilda's College, Oxford, ending its ban on male students in 2008, Cambridge is now the only remaining United Kingdom University with colleges which refuse to admit males, with three such institutions (Newnham, Murray Edwards and Lucy Cavendish).[24][25] In the academic year 2004–5, the university's student gender ratio, HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Keyboard including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48%.[26] As an institution with such a long history, the University has developed a large number of myths and legends. The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Keyboard A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the ‘prize’ awarded to the student with the lowest passing grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John's College. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Keyboard It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John's. Since 1909, results were published alphabetically within class rather than score order. This made it harder to ascertain who the winner of the spoon was (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned. HP Mini 110-1032NR Keyboard Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols by the Choir of King's College, Cambridge. The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 (though the festival has existed since 1918). The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Service and is also syndicated to hundreds of radio stations in the USA. The first television broadcast of the festival was in 1954.[27][28]HP Pavilion dv3-2360ee Keyboard Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found. HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Keyboard The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the University (the Cambridge University Library), SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Keyboard by the Faculties (Faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates). ASUS F80C Keyboard


The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university. All students and most academics are attached to a college. Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide. All faculties, departments, research centres, HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Keyboard and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions—small-group teaching sessions, often with just one student—within the colleges. Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows, who are also members of a university department. The colleges also decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accordance with university regulations. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish, admit women only. The other colleges are mixed, though most were originally all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King's were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, HP Envy 15 Keyboard in 1972. In 1988 Magdalene became the last all-male college to accept women.[29] Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's and Wolfson admit only mature (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) students, encompassing both undergraduate and graduate students. All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions. HP 640436-001 Keyboard Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering,[30] while others such as St Catharine's aim for a balanced intake.[31] SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college.[32][33] Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King's College to hold left-wing political views,[34]or Robinson College and Churchill College's attempts to minimise its environmental impact.[35]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Keyboard There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation.[36]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard colleges. Science subjects also involve laboratory sessions, organised by the departments. The relative importance of these methods of teaching varies according to the needs of the subject. Supervisions are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students (usually between one and three) meet with a member of the teaching staff or with a doctoral student. Students are normally required to complete an assignment in advance of the supervision, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week's lectures. The assignment is often an essay on a subject set by the supervisor, or a problem sheet set by the lecturer. Depending on the subject and college, students might receive between one and four supervisions per week.[37] This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to Cambridge and Oxford (where "supervisions" are known as "tutorials").[38]ACER Aspire 7535 Keyboard A tutor named William Farish developed the concept of grading students' work quantitatively at the University of Cambridge in 1792.[39]

Academic year

The academic year is divided into three academic terms, determined by the Statutes of the University.[41] Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Lent Term from January to March; and Easter Term from April to June. HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Keyboard Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. According to the University statutes, it is a requirement that during this period all students should live within 10 miles of the Church of St Mary the Great; this is defined as Keeping term. Pupils can graduate only if they fulfill this condition for nine terms (three years) when obtaining a Bachelor of Arts or twelve terms (four years) when studying for a Master of Science, Engineering or Mathematics.[42]SAMSUNG Q320 Keyboard These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities.[43] Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations). SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Keyboard The office of Chancellor of the University, for which there are no term limits, is mainly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury ofTurville, following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June, 2011. Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him,[44] lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Keyboard and Abdul Arain, owner of a local grocery store, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were also nominated.[45][46][47] The election took place on 14 and 15 October 2011.[47] David Sainsbury won the election taking 2,893 of the 5,888 votes cast, winning on the first count. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5127 Keyboard The current Vice-Chancellor is Leszek Borysiewicz. While the Chancellor's office is ceremonial, the Vice-Chancellor is the de facto principal administrative officer of the University. The university's internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members,[48] with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House (though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University's Council, who are the only external members of the Regent House).[49]GATEWAY M250 Keyboard The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. Prior to 1926, it was the University's governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent Housefulfils today.[50] HP Mini 110-3100sg Keyboard The Regent House is the University's governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary.[51] The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors, elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges. DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard Council and the General Board Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the University, therefore, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the University, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the University. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Keyboard It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official journal of the University. Since January 2005, the membership of the Council has included two external members,[52] and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008,[53][54] and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008.[55]TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1CN Keyboard The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the University,[56] and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs. HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Keyboard Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the University are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard Cambridge is by far the wealthiest university in the UK and in the whole of Europe, with an endowment of £4.3 billion in 2011.[57]This is made up of around £1.6 billion tied directly to the university and £2.7 billion to the colleges.[57] As of 2011, Oxford had an endowment valued at around £3.3 billion.[57] The university's operating budget is well over £1 billion per year.[58] HP G62-100SL Keyboard Each college is an independent charitable institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment. If ranked on a US university endowment table on most recent figures, Cambridge would rank fourth compared with the eight Ivy League institutions (subject to market fluctuations).[57]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Keyboard Comparisons between Cambridge's endowment and those of other top US universities are, however, inaccurate because being a state-funded public university (although the status of Cambridge as a public university can not be compared with US or European public universities as, for example, the state does not "own" the university), HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Keyboard Cambridge receives a major portion of its income through education and research grants from the British Government. In 2006-7, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge's income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around £130 million. The University also receives a significant income in annual transfers from the Cambridge University Press.[59]SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Keyboard In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge.[60]TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Keyboard In 2005 the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Campaign was launched, aimed at raising £1 billion by 2012—the first US-style university fund-raising campaign in Europe. This aim was reached in the financial year 2009-2010, with raising £1.037 billion.[61]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard The relationship between the University and the city has not always been positive. The phrase Town and Gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the University, who often wear their academical dresses. HP Mini 110-1115SA Keyboard There are many stories of ferocious rivalry between the two categories: in 1381, strong clashes brought about attacks and looting of university properties while locals contested the privileges granted by the government to the academic staff. Following these events, the Chancellor was given special powers allowing him to persecute the criminals and re-establish order in the city. TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Keyboard Attempt to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the XVI century agreements were signed in order to improve the quality of streets and student accommodation around the city. However, this was followed by new confrontations when the plague hit Cambridge in 1630 and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites.[68]SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Keyboard ASUS X82 Keyboard Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat subsided and the University has become an opportunity for employment among the population, providing an increased level of wealth in the area.[69] The enormous growth in the number of high-tech, biotech, providers of services and related firms situated near the town has been termed the Cambridge Phenomenon: TOSHIBA Satellite A505 Keyboard the addition of 1,500 new, registered companies and as many as 40,000 jobs between 1960 and 2010 has been directly related to the presence and importance of the educational institution.[70]HP Pavilion dv4-1104tu Keyboard The university has 114 libraries.[71] The Cambridge University Library is the central research library, which holds over 8 million volumes and, in contrast with the Bodleian or the British Library, many of its books are available on open shelves, and most books are borrowable. It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland. It receives around 80,000 books every year, not counting the books donated to the library. HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Keyboard In addition to the University Library and its dependent libraries, every faculty has a specialised library, which, on average, holds from 30,000 to 150,000 books; for example the History Faculty's Seeley Historical Library posess more than 100,000 books. Also, every college has a library as well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teaching, ASUS A6M Keyboard and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. For example Trinity College's Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College's Parker Library possesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts. The total number of books owned by the university is about 12 million. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard Cambridge University has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines, and spends around £650 million in a year for research. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several University sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites.[72]HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Keyboard Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of research-led British universities; the Coimbra Group, an association of leading European universities; the League of European Research Universities; and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also considered part of the "Golden Triangle", a geographical concentration of UK university research. ACER TravelMate 6290 Keyboard Cambridge has a research partnership with MIT in the United States: the Cambridge–MIT Institute. The application system to Cambridge and Oxford involves additional requirements, with candidates typically called to face-to-face interviews. How applicants perform in the interview process is an important factor in determining which students are accepted.[73] Most applicants are expected to be predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or equivalent overseas qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard The A* A-level grade (introduced in 2010) now plays a part in the acceptance of applications, with the university's standard offer for all courses being set at A*AA.[74][75] Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is crucial for distinguishing between the most able candidates.[73]ASUS F6 Keyboard In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected.[76] The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity.[73] For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer is sometimes offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above. HP Pavilion tx2500z Keyboard Strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool, where they can be offered places by other colleges. This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Keyboard Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject. This effectively guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice.[77]HP pavilion DV7-1005eo KeyboardAccess Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. In 2007–08, 57% of all successful applicants were from state schools[78] TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S9722 Keyboard (roughly 93 percent of all students in the UK attend state schools). Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge's reputation for many years, and the University has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance.[79] DELL V100830AS1 Keyboard Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering.[80][81] The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a (very large) minority (43%)[78][82] of the intake. In 2005, HP 640436-001 Keyboard 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools.[83] In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools.[84] Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham, is among those universities that have adopted formulae that gives a rating to the GCSE performance of every school in the country to "weight" the scores of university applicants.[85]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard Both the University's central Student Union, and individual college student unions (JCRs) run student led Access schemes aimed at encouraging applications to the University from students at schools with little or no history of Oxbridge applications, and from students from families with little or no history of participation in university education. HP 605344-001 Keyboard In the last two British Government Research Assessment Exercise in 2001 and 2008 respectively,[86] Cambridge was ranked first in the country. In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other British university (over 30% more than second placed Oxford).[87] In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any British university, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Keyboard and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major British research fields analysed.[88] Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total British research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields).[89]TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Keyboard The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the "Cambridge Phenomenon". In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capitalmarket in the world, after Silicon Valley. Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companiesdirectly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion.[90]SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Keyboard In 2011, University of Cambridge topped the world university rankings: first in both the QS World University Rankings and the annual World's Best Universities by U.S. News & World Report for a second consecutive year.[127][128] It came in first in the international academic reputation peer review, first in the natural sciences, second in biomedicine, DELL 454RX Keyboard second in chemical engineering, third in the arts & humanities, fourth in the social sciences, and fourth in technology. In 2011, Cambridge was ranked sixth in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[129] In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[130] it is the 2nd university in UK and 11th university in the world. In the 2009 Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings[131]TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings), Cambridge was ranked 2nd amongst world universities, behind Harvard. The Independent Complete University Guide ranked Cambridge 2nd to Oxford in the United Kingdom.[132] ACER AEZR1R00110 Keyboard n the 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Cambridge was placed 5th amongst world universities and was ranked 1st in Europe.[133] A 2006 Newsweek ranking which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an institution's global "openness and diversity" suggested that Cambridge was ranked 6th in the world overall.[134]HP Pavilion tx2532la Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard In the 2008 Sunday Times University Guide, Cambridge was ranked first for the 11th straight year since the guide's first publication in 1998. In the 2008 Times Good University Guide, Cambridge topped 37 of the guide's 61 subject tables, including Law, Medicine, Economics, Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry and has the best record on research, entry standards and graduate destinations amongst UK universities. Cambridge was also awarded the University of the Year award. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard In the 2009 The Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, Cambridge was ranked top (or joint top) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers.[135] The overall ranking placed Cambridge in 2nd behind Oxford. The 2009 Guardian University Guide Rankings also placed Cambridge 2nd in the UK behind Oxford. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Keyboard In the Guardian newspaper's 2012 rankings, Cambridge pulled ahead of Oxford to secure 1st place in the league table; Cambridge had overtaken Oxford in philosophy, law, politics, theology, maths, classics, anthropology and modern languages.[9]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Keyboard At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university's governing body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any other act. A formal meeting of the Regent House, known as a Congregation, is held for this purpose.[138]TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Keyboard Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academical dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. Graduates receiving a postgraduate degree (e.g. PhD or Master's) wear the academical dress that they were entitled to before graduating, HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Keyboard only if their first degree was also from the University of Cambridge; if their first degree is from another university, they wear the academical dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of age, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over.[139]ACER Aspire 5538 Keyboard Graduands are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of foundation or recognition by the university (except for the royal colleges), as follows.[140] Numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss. As of 2010, there were 751 registered societies.[143] In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams. DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known show-business personalities. DELL Studio 1749 Keyboard The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from popular symphonies to lesser known works. Membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university and it has also attracted a variety of conductors and soloists, including Wayne Marshall, Jane Glover, and Nicholas Cleobury.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-2010ep Keyboard Perhaps most of all, the university is renowned for a long and distinguished tradition in mathematics and the sciences. Among the most famous of Cambridge natural philosophers is Sir Isaac Newton, who spent the majority of his life at the university and conducted many of his now famous experiments within the grounds of Trinity College. Sir Francis Bacon, responsible for the development of the Scientific Method, entered the university when he was just twelve, and pioneering mathematicians John Dee and Brook Taylor soon followed. HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Keyboard Other ground-breaking mathematicians to have studied at the university include Hardy, Littlewood and De Morgan, three of the most renowned pure mathematiciansin modern history; Sir Michael Atiyah, one of the most important mathematicians of the last half-century; William Oughtred, the inventor of the logarithmic scale; John Wallis, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Keyboard the inventor of modern calculus; Srinivasa Ramanujan, the self-taught genius who made incomparable contributions to mathematical analysis,number theory, infinite series and continued fractions; and, perhaps most importantly of all, James Clerk Maxwell, who is considered to have brought about the second great unification of Physics (the first being accredited to Newton) with his classical electromagnetic theory. DELL Vostro 3700 Keyboard In biology, Charles Darwin, famous for developing the theory of natural selection, was a Cambridge man. Subsequent Cambridge biologists include Francis Crick and James Watson, who worked out a model for the three-dimensional structure of DNA whilst working at the university's Cavendish Laboratory along with leading X-ray crystallographer Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. More recently, TOSHIBA KFRSBA064A Keyboard Sir Ian Wilmut, the man who was responsible for the first cloning of a mammal with Dolly the Sheep in 1996, was a graduate student at Darwin College. Famous naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough graduated from the university, while the ethologist Jane Goodall, the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees did a Ph.D. in Ethology at Darwin College. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard The university can be considered the birthplace of the computer, with mathematician Charles Babbage having designed the world's first computing system as early as the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to devise what is essentially the basis for modern computing andMaurice Wilkes later created the first programmable computer. The webcam was also invented at Cambridge University, as a means for scientists to avoid interrupting their research and going all the way down to the laboratory dining room only to be disappointed by an empty coffee pot. HP Mini 110-1115SA Keyboard Ernest Rutherford, generally regarded as the father of nuclear physics, spent much of his life at the university, where he worked closely with the likes of Niels Bohr, a major contributor to the understanding of the structure and function of the atom, J. J. DELL XPS 15 L502X Keyboard Thompson, discoverer of the electron, Sir James Chadwick, discoverer of the neutron, and Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, the partnership responsible for first splitting the atom. J. Robert Oppenheimer, leader of the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb, also studied at Cambridge under Rutherford and Thompson. HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Keyboard Astronomers Sir John Herschel and Sir Arthur Eddington both spent much of their careers at Cambridge, as did Paul Dirac, the discoverer of antimatter and one of the pioneers of Quantum Mechanics; Stephen Hawking, the founding father of the study of singularities and the university's long-serving Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until 2009; and Lord Martin Rees, the current Astronomer Royal and Master of Trinity College. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Keyboard Other significant Cambridge scientists include Henry Cavendish, the discoverer of Hydrogen; Frank Whittle, co-inventor of the jet engine; Lord Kelvin, who formulated the original Laws of Thermodynamics; APPLE A1278 Keyboard William Fox Talbot, who invented the camera, Alfred North Whitehead, Einstein's major opponent; Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, the man dubbed "the father of radio science"; Lord Rayleigh, one of the most pre-eminent physicists of the 20th century; Georges Lemaître, who first proposed the Big Bang Theory; and Frederick Sanger, the last man to win two Nobel prizes. TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Keyboard

Humanities, music and art

In the humanities, Greek studies were inaugurated at Cambridge in the early sixteenth century by Desiderius Erasmus during the few years he held a professorship there; seminal contributions to the field were made by Richard Bentley and Richard Porson. John Chadwick was associated with MichaelVentris in the decipherment of Linear B. The eminent Latinist A. E. Housman taught at Cambridge but is more widely known as a poet. SimonOckley made a significant contribution to Arabic Studies. ACER Aspire 5810T Keyboard Distinguished Cambridge academics in other fields include economists such as John Maynard Keynes, Thomas Malthus, Alfred Marshall,Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, and Amartya Sen, another former Master of Trinity College. Philosophers Sir Francis Bacon, Bertrand Russell,Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, George Santayana, G. E. M. Anscombe, TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Keyboard Sir Karl Popper, Sir Bernard Williams, Allama Iqbal and G. E. Moore were all Cambridge scholars, as were historians such as Thomas Babington Macaulay, Frederic William Maitland, Lord Acton, JosephNeedham, E. H. Carr, Hugh Trevor-Roper, E. P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm, Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, and famous lawyers such as Glanville Williams, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, and Sir Edward Coke. SAMSUNG R522 Keyboard Religious figures at the university have included Rowan Williams, the current Archbishop of Canterbury and many of his predecessors; William Tyndale, the pioneer biblical translator; Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley, all Cambridge men, known as the "Oxford martyrs" from the place of their execution; HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard Benjamin Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists; William Paley, the Christian philosopher known primarily for formulating the teleological argumentfor the existence of God; William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, largely responsible for the abolition of the slave trade; leading Evangelical churchmanCharles Simeon; TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Keyboard John William Colenso, the bishop of Natal who developed views on the interpretation of Scripture and relations with native peoples that seemed dangerously radical at the time; John Bainbridge Webster and David F. Ford, theologians of significant repute; and six winners of the Templeton Prize, the highest accolade for the study of religion since its foundation in 1972. HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Keyboard Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, William Sterndale Bennett, Orlando Gibbons and, more recently, AlexanderGoehr, Thomas Adès andJohn Rutter were all at Cambridge. Although known primarily for its choral music, the university has also produced members of contemporary bands such asRadiohead, Hot Chip, Procol Harum, Henry Cow, and the singer-songwriter Nick Drake. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard Artists Quentin Blake, Roger Fry and Julian Trevelyan also attended as undergraduates, as did sculptors Antony Gormley, Marc Quinn and Sir Anthony Caro, and photographers Antony Armstrong-Jones, Sir Cecil Beaton and Mick Rock. HP 605344-001 Keyboard Literature Important writers to have studied at the university include the prominent Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe, his fellow University Wits Thomas Nashe andRobert Greene, arguably the first professional authors in England, and John Fletcher, who collaborated with Shakespeare on The Two Noble KinsmenSONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard Henry VIII and the lost Cardenio and succeeded him as house playwright of The King's Men. Samuel Pepys matriculated in 1650, ten years before he began his diary, the original manuscripts of which are now housed in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College. Lawrence Sterne, whose novel Tristram Shandy is judged to have inspired many modern narrative devices and styles, HP 640436-001 Keyboard was admitted in 1733. In the following century, the novelists W. M. Thackeray, best known for Vanity Fair, Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! and Water Babies, and Samuel Butler, remembered for The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon, were all at Cambridge. Ghost story writerM. R. James served as provost of King’s College from 1905 to 1918. Modernist writers to have attended the university include E. M. DELL V100830AS1 Keyboard Forster, Rosamond Lehmann,Vladmir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood and Malcolm Lowry. Although not a student, Virginia Woolf wrote her essay A Room of One’s Own while in residence at NewnhamCollege. Playwright J. B. Priestley, medievalist and fantasy writer C. S. Lewis, physicist and novelist C. P. Snow and children’s writer A. AACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard Milnewere also among those who passed through the university in the early 20th century. They were followed by the postmodernists Patrick White, Iris Murdoch, Eudora Welty, J. G. Ballard, Sir Kingsley Amis and the early postcolonial writer E. R. Braithwaite. More recently, the university has educated the comedy writersDouglas Adams, Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson, the popular novelists A. S. Byatt, Dell Inspiron 2500 Keyboard Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Robert Harris and Sebastian Faulks, the successful action writers Michael Crichton and Jin Yong, and contemporary playwrights and screenwriters such as Julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff,Michael Frayn, Alan Bennett and Sir Peter Shaffer. HP G61-445SI Keyboard Cambridge poets include Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Qu

eene, the Metaphysical poets John Donne, George Herbert and Andrew Marvell, John Milton, renowned for his late epic Paradise Lost, the leading Restoration poet and playwright John Dryden, the pre-romantic Thomas Gray, best known his Elegy Written in a Country ChurchyardDELL 3C048 Keyboard William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whose joint work Lyrical Ballads is often seen to mark the beginning of the Romantic movement, later Romantics such as Lord Byron and the postromantic Alfred, Lord Tennyson, classical scholar and lyric poet A. E. Housman, war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke, modernist T. E. Hulme, SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Keyboard confessional poets Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath and John Berryman, and, more recently, Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine and Geoffrey Hill. In all, at least nine of the Poet Laureates graduated from Cambridge. The university has also made a notable contribution to Literary Criticism, having produced, among others, F. R. Leavis, I. A. Richards, HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Keyboard C. K. Ogden and William Empson, often collectively known as theCambridge Critics, the important Marxists Raymond Williams, sometimes regarded as the founding father of Cultural Studies, and Terry Eagleton, author ofLiterary Theory: An Introduction, the most successful academic book ever published, the New Historicists Harold Bloom and Stephen Greenblatt, and an extensive group of distinguished biographical writers such as Lytton Strachey, a central figure in the largely Cantabridgian Bloomsbury Group, Peter Ackroyd and Claire Tomalin. HP Pavilion G60-118EM Keyboard The University is also known for its prodigious sporting reputation and has produced many fine athletes, including more than 50 Olympic medalists;[145] the legendary Chinese six-time world table tennis champion Deng Yaping; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams; the inventors of the modern game of Football, Winton and Thring; and George Mallory, the famed mountaineer and possibly the first man ever to reach the summit of Mount Everest. ACER Aspire 5741Z Keyboard The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or Oxford) is a university located in Oxford, England. It is the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and the second-oldest surviving university in the world.[1][5] Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096.[FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard The University grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.[1] In post-nominals the University of Oxford was historically abbreviated as Oxon., from the Latin Universitas Oxoniensis, although Oxf is now used in official university publications.[6]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Keyboard After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge, where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient English universities have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to their cultural and practical associations, as an historic part of British society, they have a long history of rivalry with each other. TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Keyboard Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at self-governing colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work organised by University faculties and departments. Oxford regularly contends withCambridge for first place in the league tables,[7][8][9] and consistently ranks among the top ten universities in the world, HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard HP CT1A Keyboard according to global rankings.[10][11] For more than a century, it has served as the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, which brings students from a number of countries to study at Oxford as postgraduates or for a second bachelor's degree.[12]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Keyboard Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also a core member of theEuropaeum and forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[13]HP G72-b01SA Keyboard The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form in 1096, but it is unclear at what point a university came into being.[1]DELL Vostro 3500 Keyboard The expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris in 1167 caused many English scholars to return from France and settle in Oxford. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188, and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the University was named a chancellor from at least 1201, HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Keyboard and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two “nations”, representing the North (including the Scots) and the South (including the Irish and the Welsh). In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Keyboard Members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence, and maintained houses for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges to serve as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, HP G61-450EE Keyboard and John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots: Balliol College bears his name. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford, as well as at the University of Cambridge. Thereafter, an increasing number of students forsook living in halls and religious houses in favour of living in colleges. ASUS Z9100L Keyboard The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the Reformation and the breaking of ties with the Roman Catholic Church, HP G42-359TU Keyboard Recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling especially at the University of Douai. The method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval Scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. In 1636, Chancellor William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, ASUS F82Q Keyboard HP 550 Keyboard codified the university's statutes; these to a large extent remained its governing regulations until the mid-19th century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press, and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library, the main library of the university. From the inception of the Church of England until 1866 membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from Oxford, and "dissenters" were only permitted to receive the MA in 1871. HP Mini 110-3118cl Keyboard The mid nineteenth century saw the impact of the Oxford Movement (1833–1845), led among others by the future Cardinal Newman. The influence of the reformed model of German university reached Oxford via key scholars such as Edward Bouverie Pusey, Benjamin Jowett andMax Müller. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Keyboard Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four women's colleges. Twentieth century Privy Council decisions (such as the abolition of compulsory daily worship, dissociation of the Regius professorship of Hebrew from clerical status, DELL TR334 Keyboard diversion of theological bequests to colleges to other purposes) loosened the link with traditional belief and practice. Although the University's emphasis traditionally had been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded in the course of the 19th century to encompass scientific and medical studies. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required for admission until 1920, and Latin until 1960. SONY 148084122 Keyboard The mid twentieth century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by Nazism and Communism, relocating to Oxford. The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to British politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature. More than forty Nobel laureates and more than fifty world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford.[14]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Keyboard The University passed a Statute in 1875 allowing its delegates to create examinations for women at roughly undergraduate level.[15] The first four women's colleges were established thanks to the activism of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women (AEW). Lady Margaret Hall (1878[16]) was followed by Somerville College in 1879;[17]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Keyboard the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop.[15] The first two colleges for women were followed by St Hugh's (1886[18]), St Hilda's (1893[19]) and St Anne's College (1952[20]). Oxford was long considered a bastion of male privilege,[21] and it was not until 7 October 1920 that women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees.[22]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Keyboard In 1927 the University's dons created a quota that limited the number of female students to a quarter that of men, a ruling not abolished until 1957.[15] However, until the 1970s all Oxford colleges were for men or women only, so that the number of women was effectively limited by the capacity of the women's colleges to admit students. It was not until 1959 that the women's colleges were given full collegiate status. HP 535689-001 Keyboard In 1974 Brasenose, Jesus, Wadham, Hertford and St Catherine's became the first previously all-male colleges to admit women.[23][24] In 2008 the last single sex college, St Hilda's, admitted its first men, meaning all colleges are now co-residential. By 1988, 40% of undergraduates at Oxford were female;[25] the ratio is now about 48:52 in men's favour. DELL Vostro PP37L Keyboard The detective novel Gaudy Night by Dorothy Sayers – herself one of the first women to get an academic degree at Oxford – takes place in a (fictional) women's college at Oxford, and the issue of women's education is central to its plot. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Keyboard The university's formal head is the Chancellor, currently Lord Patten of Barnes, though as at most British universities, the Chancellor is a titular figure, and is not involved with the day-to-day running of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of Convocation, a body comprising all graduates of the university, and holds office until death. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard The Vice-Chancellor, currently Andrew Hamilton, is the de facto head of the University. Five Pro-Vice-Chancellors have specific responsibilities for Education; Research; Planning and Resources; Development and External Affairs; and Personnel and Equal Opportunities. The University Council is the executive policy-forming body, HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Keyboard which consists of the Vice-Chancellor as well as heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation, in addition to observers from the Student Union.Congregation, the "parliament of the dons", comprises over 3,700 members of the University’s academic and administrative staff, and has ultimate responsibility for legislative matters: it discusses and pronounces on policies proposed by the University Council. Only Oxford and Cambridge (which is similarly structured) have this democratic form of governance. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Keyboard Two university proctors, who are elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges, are the internal ombudsmen who make sure that the university and its members adhere to its statutes. This role incorporates student welfare and discipline, as well as oversight of the university's proceedings. The University Professors are collectively referred to as the Statutory Professors of the University of Oxford. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Keyboard They are particularly influential in the running of the university's graduate programmes. Examples of Statutory Professors are the Chichele Professorships and the Drummond Professor of Political Economy. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes are organised into four divisions, each with its own Head and elected board. They are the Humanities Division; the Social Sciences Division; the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division; and the Medical Sciences Division. DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard SONY 148084122 Keyboard IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Keyboard FUJITSU CP275815-01 Keyboard The University of Oxford is a "public university": it receives a large amount of public money from the government, but it is a "private university" in the sense that it is entirely self-governing and could choose to become entirely private by rejecting public funds.[26]DELL Latitude D620 Keyboard There are thirty-eight colleges of the University of Oxford and six Permanent Private Halls, each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities.[27] All resident students, and most academic staff, must be members both of a college or hall, and of the University. The heads of Oxford colleges are known by various titles, according to the college, including warden, provost, principal, president, rector, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Keyboard master and dean. The colleges join together as the Conference of Colleges to discuss policy and to deal with the central University administration. Teaching members of the colleges (fellows and tutors) are collectively and familiarly known as dons, although the term is rarely used by the University itself. In addition to residential and dining facilities, HP 367778-001 Keyboard the colleges provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members. Colleges have responsibility for admitting undergraduates and organising their tuition; for graduates, this responsibility falls upon the departments. ACER Aspire 1640 Keyboard Undergraduate teaching is centred on the tutorial, where 1–4 students spend an hour with an academic discussing their week’s work, usually an essay (humanities, most social sciences, some mathematical, physical, and life sciences) or problem sheet (most mathematical, physical, and life sciences, and some social sciences). Students usually have one or two tutorials a week, DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard nd can be taught by academics at any other college—not just their own—as expertise and personnel require. These tutorials are complemented by lectures, classes and seminars, which are organised on a departmental basis. Graduate students undertaking taught degrees are usually instructed through classes and seminars, though there is more focus upon individual research. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Keyboard The university itself is responsible for conducting examinations and conferring degrees. The passing of two sets of examinations is a prerequisite for a first degree. The first set of examinations, called either Honour Moderations ("Mods" and "Honour Mods") or Preliminary Examinations ("Prelims"), are usually held at the end of the first year (after two terms for those studying Law, TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Keyboard Theology, Philosophy and Theology, Experimental Psychology or Psychology, Philosophy and Physiology or after five terms in the case of Classics). The second set of examinations, the Final Honour School ("Finals"), is held at the end of the undergraduate course (for humanities and most social sciences) or at the end of each successive year of the course after the first (most mathematical, SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Keyboard physical and life sciences, and some social sciences). Successful candidates receive first-, upper or lower second-, or third-class honours, or simply a "pass" without honours, based on their performance in Finals. An upper second is the most usual result, and a first is generally prerequisite for graduate study. A "double first" reflects first class results in both Honour Mods. and Finals. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Keyboard Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university. As a matter of tradition, bachelor's degree graduates are eligible, after seven years from matriculation (formal induction of students into the university) and without additional study, to purchase for a nominal fee an upgrade of their bachelor's degree to an "MA" or Master of Arts. TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1MC Keyboard All MAs were members of Convocation and until 1913 all resident members of Convocation were members of Congregation.[28] MAs, as members of Convocation, elected the Chancellor and Professor of Poetry, but recently Convocation has been widened to consist of all graduates.[29][30]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Keyboard LENOVO Ideapad U550 Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Keyboard HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Keyboard

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