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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally known as Cambridge University or simply as Cambridge) is a publicresearch university located in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after the University of Oxford), and the fourth-oldest surviving university in the world. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived fromCantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The university grew out of an association of scholars that was formed in 1209, early records suggest, by scholars leavingOxford after a dispute with townsfolk.[4] The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, they have a long history of rivalry with each other. Today, Cambridge is a collegiate university with a student population in excess of 18,000. Its faculties and departments occupy several sites in town and the student life thrives with numerous opportunities in the arts, sport clubs and societies. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Cambridge has performed consistently in various league tables over the years, achieving the top spot in the world according to the QS World University Rankings in both 2010 and 2011;[5] in 2012, the same editors ranked Cambridge second.[6] Other results include a sixth place in the world in the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard and a fifth position in the world (and first in Europe) in the 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities. Furthermore, Cambridge regularly contends with Oxford for first place in UK league tables.[7][8] In 2011, Cambridge ranked third, after Harvard and MIT, in the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings.[9] Graduates of the university have won a total of 65 Nobel Prizes, the most of any university in the world.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard Cambridge is a member of the Coimbra Group, the G5, the International Alliance of Research Universities, the League of European Research Universities and the Russell Group of research-led British universities. It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[10]HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard The official founding of Cambridge University is traced to the enhancement, by a charter in 1231 from King Henry III of England, which awarded the ius non trahi extra (a right to discipline its own members) plus some exemption from taxes, and a bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX that gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom".[11]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290,[12] and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318,[13]it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.[12] The colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane.[14]SAMSUNG BA59-02487A Laptop Keyboard Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse in 1284, Cambridge's first college. Many colleges were founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout the centuries to modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and Downing in 1800. The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college (it was previously an "Approved Society" affiliated with the university). HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, and were often associated with chapels or abbeys. A change in the colleges’ focus occurred in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law[15] and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy". In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law, and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard As Cambridge moved away from Canon Law, it also moved away from Catholicism. As early as the 1520s, Lutheranism and what was to become more broadly known as theProtestant Reformation were making their presence felt in the intellectual discourse of the university. Among those involved was Thomas Cranmer, later to becomeArchbishop of Canterbury. As it became convenient to Henry VIII in the 1530s, the King looked to Cranmer and others (within and without Cambridge) to craft a new path that was different from Catholicism yet also different from what Martin Luther had in mind. HP HDX18 Laptop Keyboard Nearly a century later, the university was at the centre of a Protestant schism. Many nobles, intellectuals and even common folk saw the ways of the Church of England as being too similar to the Catholic Church and that it was used by the crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritan movement and at Cambridge, it was particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine's Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ's College.[16]DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard They produced many "non-conformist" graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or pulpit, the approximately 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth (1649–1660), attended Sidney Sussex. FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained a strong emphasis on applied mathematics, particularly mathematical physics. Study of this subject was compulsory for graduation, and students were required to take an exam for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and science subjects. This exam is known as a Tripos.[17]Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos were named wranglers. ACER PK1307R1A01 Laptop Keyboard The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos was competitive and helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Lord Rayleigh.[18] However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard Pure mathematics at Cambridge in the 19th century had great achievements but also missed out on substantial developments in French and German mathematics. Pure mathematical research at Cambridge finally reached the highest international standard in the early 20th century, thanks above all to G. H. Hardy and his collaborator, J. E. Littlewood. In geometry, W. V. D. Hodge brought Cambridge into the international mainstream in the 1930s. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medalsand one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals.[19] The University also runs a Master of Advanced Studycourse in mathematics. Toshiba Satellite A500-17X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After the Cambridge University Act formalized the organizational structure of the University, the study of many new subjects was introduced, such as theology, history and modern languages.[20] Resources necessary for new courses in the arts,architecture and archeology were generously donated by Richard Fitzwilliam of Trinity College.[21] Between 1896 and 1902,Downing College sold part of its land to build the Downing Site, comprising new scientific laboratories for anatomy, geneticsand Earth sciences.[22] During the same period, the New Museums Site was erected, including the Cavendish Laboratory, which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments for chemistry and medicine.[23]Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Teaching was heavily disrupted during the First World War in which more than 14,000 members of the University took part and 2,470 died. As a consequence, new State funding started to flow to the institution.[24] Following the Second World War, the University saw a rapid expansion of student numbers and available places; this was partly due to the success and popularity gained by many Cambridge scientists.[25] HP Pavilion dv7-1011tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Initially, only male students were enrolled into the university. The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women), Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5892 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan New Hall (later renamed Murray Edwards College) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1948.[26] Women were allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from 1881; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the "steamboat ladies" to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin.[27] HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From 1921 women were awarded diplomas which "conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts". As they were not "admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts" they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. Starting with Churchill, Clare and King's Colleges, all of the men's colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988.  Toshiba Satellite U400-11L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One women's college, Girton, also began to admit male students from 1979, but the other women's colleges did not follow suit. As a result of St Hilda's College, Oxford, ending its ban on male students in 2008, Cambridge is now the only remaining United Kingdom University with colleges which refuse to admit males, with three such institutions (Newnham, Murray Edwards and Lucy Cavendish).[28][29] In the academic year 2004–5, the university's student gender ratio, including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48%.[30]HP Envy 14-1119tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As an institution with such a long history, the University has developed a large number of myths and legends. The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the ‘prize’ awarded to the student with the lowest passing grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John's College. It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John's. Since 1909, results were published alphabetically within class rather than score order. This made it harder to ascertain who the winner of the spoon was (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols by the Choir of King's College, Cambridge. The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 (though the festival has existed since 1918). The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Service and is also syndicated to hundreds of radio stations in the USA. The first television broadcast of the festival was in 1954.[31][32]APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found. DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the University (the Cambridge University Library), by the Faculties (Faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates). SAMSUNG P28 Laptop Keyboard The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university. All students and most academics are attached to a college. Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide. All faculties, departments, research centres, SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions—small-group teaching sessions, often with just one student—within the colleges. Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows, who are also members of a university department. The colleges also decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accordance with university regulations. HP Mini 110-3141ss Laptop Keyboard Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish, admit women only. The other colleges are mixed, though most were originally all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King's were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, HP 432976-001 Laptop Keyboard in 1972. In 1988 Magdalene became the last all-male college to accept women.[33] Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's and Wolfson admit only mature (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) students, encompassing both undergraduate and graduate students. All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering,[34] while others such as St Catharine's aim for a balanced intake.[35] Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college.[36][37] Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King's College to hold left-wing political views,[38]or Robinson College and Churchill College's attempts to minimise its environmental impact.[39]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation.[40]HP Pavilion dv6-2140ef Laptop Keyboard Teaching involves a mixture of lectures, organised by the university departments, and supervisions, organised by the colleges. Science subjects also involve laboratory sessions, organised by the departments. The relative importance of these methods of teaching varies according to the needs of the subject. Supervisions are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students (usually between one and three) meet with a member of the teaching staff or with a doctoral student. DELL 01R28D Laptop Keyboard Students are normally required to complete an assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week's lectures. The assignment is often an essay on a subject set by the supervisor, or a problem sheet set by the lecturer. Depending on the subject and college, students might receive between one and four supervisions per week.[41] This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to Cambridge and Oxford (where "supervisions" are known as "tutorials").[42]ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard A tutor named William Farish developed the concept of grading students' work quantitatively at the University of Cambridge in 1792.[43] The academic year is divided into three academic terms, determined by the Statutes of the University.[45] Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Lent Term from January to March; and Easter Term from April to June. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. According to the University statutes, it is a requirement that during this period all students should live within 10 miles of the Church of St Mary the Great; this is defined as Keeping term. Pupils can graduate only if they fulfill this condition for nine terms (three years) when obtaining a Bachelor of Arts or twelve terms (four years) when studying for a Master of Science, Engineering or Mathematics.[46]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities.[47] Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations). The office of Chancellor of the University, for which there are no term limits, is mainly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June, 2011. Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him,[48] and Abdul Arain, owner of a local grocery store, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were also nominated.[49][50][51] The election took place on 14 and 15 October 2011.[51] David Sainsbury won the election taking 2,893 of the 5,888 votes cast, winning on the first count. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard The current Vice-Chancellor is Leszek Borysiewicz. While the Chancellor's office is ceremonial, the Vice-Chancellor is the de facto principal administrative officer of the University. The university's internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members,[52] with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House (though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University's Council, who are the only external members of the Regent House).[53]HP G72-b49WM Laptop Keyboard The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. Prior to 1926, it was the University's governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent Housefulfils today.[54] The Regent House is the University's governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary.[55] The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors, elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the University,[60] and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs. Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the University are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House.  HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop Keyboard Finances Cambridge is by far the wealthiest university in the UK and in the whole of Europe, with an endowment of £4.3 billion in 2011.[61]This is made up of around £1.6 billion tied directly to the university and £2.7 billion to the colleges.[61] As of 2011, Oxford had an endowment valued at around £3.3 billion.[61] The university's operating budget is well over £1 billion per year.[62] Each college is an independent charitable institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment. If ranked on a US university endowment table on most recent figures, Cambridge would rank fourth compared with the eight Ivy League institutions (subject to market fluctuations).[61]HP G42-384TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Comparisons between Cambridge's endowment and those of other top US universities are, however, inaccurate because being a state-funded public university (although the status of Cambridge as a public university can not be compared with US or European public universities as, for example, the state does not "own" the university), Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Cambridge receives a major portion of its income through education and research grants from the British Government. In 2006-7, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge's income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around £130 million. The University also receives a significant income in annual transfers from the Cambridge University Press.[63]ACER Aspire 5541 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Council and the General Board

Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the University, therefore, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the University, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the University. It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official journal of the University. Since January 2005, the membership of the Council has included two external members,[56] and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008,[57][58] and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008.[59]HP Pavilion dv9755ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University's School of Clinical Medicine is based in Addenbrooke's Hospital where students in medicine undergo their three-year clinical placement period after obtaining their BA degree,[69] while the West Cambridge site is undergoing a major expansion and will host a new sports development.[70] In addition, the Judge Business School, situated on Trumpington Street, provides management education courses since 1990 and is consistently ranked within the top 30 business schools globally by the Financial Times.[71]ACER eMachines E725 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Given that the sites are in relative close proximity to each other and the area around Cambridge is reasonably flat, one of the favourite modes of transport for students is the bicycle: a fifth of the journeys in the town is made by bike, a figure enhanced by the fact that pupils are not permitted to hold car park permits.[72]TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The relationship between the University and the city has not always been positive. The phrase Town and Gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the University, who often wear their academical dresses. There are many stories of ferocious rivalry between the two categories: in 1381, strong clashes brought about attacks and looting of university properties while locals contested the privileges granted by the government to the academic staff. Following these events, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad T410 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Chancellor was given special powers allowing him to persecute the criminals and re-establish order in the city. Attempt to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the 16th century agreements were signed in order to improve the quality of streets and student accommodation around the city. However, this was followed by new confrontations when the plague hit Cambridge in 1630 and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites.[73] HP Pavilion dv7-3085dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat subsided and the University has become an opportunity for employment among the population, providing an increased level of wealth in the area.[74] The enormous growth in the number of high-tech, biotech, providers of services and related firms situated near the town has been termed the Cambridge Phenomenon: the addition of 1,500 new, registered companies and as many as 40,000 jobs between 1960 and 2010 has been directly related to the presence and importance of the educational institution.[75]SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard The university has 114 libraries.[76] The Cambridge University Library is the central research library, which holds over 8 million volumes. It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland.[77] In addition to the University Library and its dependents, every faculty has a specialised library; for example, the History Faculty's Seeley Historical Library possesses more than 100,000 books. Furthermore, Packard Bell Easynote TM05 Laptop Keyboard every college has a library as well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teaching, and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. For example Trinity College's Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College's Parker Library possesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard Cambridge University has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines, and spends around £650 million in a year for research. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several University sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites.[79]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of research-led British universities; the Coimbra Group, an association of leading European universities; the League of European Research Universities; and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also considered part of the "Golden Triangle", a geographical concentration of UK university research. HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard Cambridge has a research partnership with MIT in the United States: the Cambridge–MIT Institute. The application system to Cambridge and Oxford involves additional requirements, with candidates typically called to face-to-face interviews. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard How applicants perform in the interview process is an important factor in determining which students are accepted.[80] Most applicants are expected to be predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or equivalent overseas qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. The A* A-level grade (introduced in 2010) now plays a part in the acceptance of applications, with the university's standard offer for all courses being set at A*AA.[81][82] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is crucial for distinguishing between the most able candidates.[80] In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected.[83] The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity.[80] For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer is sometimes offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Laptop Keyboard Strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool, where they can be offered places by other colleges. This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others. Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject. This effectively guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice.[84]ACER Aspire 4810TZ-4011 Laptop Keyboard Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. In 2007–08, 57% of all successful applicants were from state schools[85] (roughly 93 percent of all students in the UK attend state schools). Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge's reputation for many years, HP Mini 210-1019EG Laptop Keyboard and the University has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance.[86] Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering.[87][88] The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a (very large) minority (43%)[85][89] Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard of the intake. In 2005, 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools.[90] In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools.[91] Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham, is among those universities that have adopted formulae that gives a rating to the GCSE performance of every school in the country to "weight" the scores of university applicants.[92]HP Pavilion DV6-1337tx Laptop Keyboard Both the University's central Student Union, and individual college student unions (JCRs) run student led Access schemes aimed at encouraging applications to the University from students at schools with little or no history of Oxbridge applications, and from students from families with little or no history of participation in university education.  IBM 41W5269 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the last two British Government Research Assessment Exercise in 2001 and 2008 respectively,[93] Cambridge was ranked first in the country. In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other British university (over 30% more than second placed Oxford).[94Toshiba Satellite A215-S7462 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan ] In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any British university, and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major British research fields analysed.[95] Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total British research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields).[96]SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the "Cambridge Phenomenon". In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capitalmarket in the world, after Silicon Valley. Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companiesdirectly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion.[97] ACER Aspire 5333 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2011, University of Cambridge topped the world university rankings: first in both the QS World University Rankings and the annual World's Best Universities by U.S. News & World Report for a second consecutive year.[134][135] It came in first in the international academic reputation peer review, first in the natural sciences, second in biomedicine, second inchemical engineering, third in the arts & humanities, fourth in the social sciences, and fourth in technology. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S1E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan University of Cambridge ranked 3rd worldwide among 300 Best World Universities in 2011 compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review(HRLR) on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance .[136] In 2011, Cambridge was ranked sixth in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[137] In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[138] it is the 2nd university in UK and 11th university in the world.  HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2009 Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings[139] (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings), Cambridge was ranked 2nd amongst world universities, behindHarvard. The Independent Complete University Guide ranked Cambridge 2nd to Oxford in the United Kingdom.[140] In the 2012Academic Ranking of World Universities compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University,  SONY Vaio VGN-NW130D/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Cambridge was placed 5th amongst world universities and was ranked 1st in Europe.[141] A 2006 Newsweek ranking which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an institution's global "openness and diversity" suggested that Cambridge was ranked 6th in the world overall.[142] HP Pavilion dv7-6152er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2008 Sunday Times University Guide, Cambridge was ranked first for the 11th straight year since the guide's first publication in 1998. In the 2008 Times Good University Guide, Cambridge topped 37 of the guide's 61 subject tables, including Law, Medicine, Economics, Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry and has the best record on research, entry standards and graduate destinations amongst UK universities. Cambridge was also awarded the University of the Year award. Toshiba Satellite P300-18M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2009 The Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, Cambridge was ranked top (or joint top) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers.[143] The overall ranking placed Cambridge in 2nd behind Oxford. The 2009 Guardian University Guide Rankings also placed Cambridge 2nd in the UK behind Oxford.  HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the Guardian newspaper's 2012 rankings, Cambridge pulled ahead of Oxford to secure 1st place in the league table; Cambridge had overtaken Oxford in philosophy, law, politics, theology, maths, classics, anthropology and modern languages.[103] At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university's governing body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any other act. A formal meeting of the Regent House, known as a Congregation, is held for this purpose.[146]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academical dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. Graduates receiving a postgraduate degree (e.g. PhD or Master's) wear the academical dress that they were entitled to before graduating, only if their first degree was also from the University of Cambridge; if their first degree is from another university, they wear the academical dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of age, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over.[147]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Graduands are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of foundation or recognition by the university (except for the royal colleges), as follows.[148] Cambridge maintains a long tradition of student participation in sport and recreation. Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard Athletes representing the university in certain sports entitle them to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described "unashamedly elite" Hawks’ Club, which is for men only, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues.[151]SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard Sporting facilities are mainly provided by the single colleges but a new University-wide sports complex is in the process of being constructed.[152] Numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss. As of 2010, there were 751 registered societies.[153] In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known show-business personalities. The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from popular symphonies to lesser known works; membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university. HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard In addition to university-wide representation, students can benefit from their own college student unions, which are known as JCR (Junior Combination Room) for undergraduates and MCR (Middle Combination Room) for postgraduates. These serve as a link between college staff and members and consists of officers elected annually between the fellow students; individual JCR and MCRs also report to CUSU, which offers training courses for some of the most delicate positions within the body.[154]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Over the course of its history, a sizeable number of Cambridge alumni have become notable in their fields, both academic, and in the wider world. Depending on criteria, affiliates of the University of Cambridge have won between 85 and 88 Nobel prizes, more than any other institution according to some counts. Former undergraduates of the university have won a grand total of 61 Nobel prizes, 13 more than the undergraduates of any other university. Cambridge academics have also won 8 Fields Medals and 2 Abel Prizes (since the award was first distributed in 2003). Perhaps most of all, the university is renowned for a long and distinguished tradition in mathematics and the sciences. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Among the most famous of Cambridge natural philosophers is Sir Isaac Newton, who spent the majority of his life at the university and conducted many of his now famous experiments within the grounds of Trinity College. Sir Francis Bacon, responsible for the development of the Scientific Method, entered the university when he was just twelve, and pioneering mathematicians John Dee and Brook Taylor soon followed. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Other ground-breaking mathematicians to have studied at the university include Hardy, Littlewood and De Morgan, three of the most renowned pure mathematiciansin modern history; Sir Michael Atiyah, one of the most important mathematicians of the last half-century; William Oughtred, the inventor of the logarithmic scale; HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard John Wallis, the inventor of modern calculus; Srinivasa Ramanujan, the self-taught genius who made incomparable contributions to mathematical analysis,number theory, infinite series and continued fractions; and, perhaps most importantly of all, James Clerk Maxwell, who is considered to have brought about the second great unification of Physics (the first being accredited to Newton) with his classical electromagnetic theory.  HP Mini 210-2013tu Laptop Keyboard In biology, Charles Darwin, famous for developing the theory of natural selection, was a Cambridge man. Subsequent Cambridge biologists include Francis Crick and James Watson, who worked out a model for the three-dimensional structure of DNA whilst working at the university's Cavendish Laboratory along with leading X-ray crystallographer Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. More recently, Sir Ian Wilmut, the man who was responsible for the first cloning of a mammal with Dolly the Sheep in 1996, was a graduate student at Darwin College. Famous naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough graduated from the university, while the ethologist Jane Goodall, the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees did a Ph.D. in Ethology at Darwin College. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The university can be considered the birthplace of the computer, with mathematician Charles Babbage having designed the world's first computing system as early as the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to devise what is essentially the basis for modern computing andMaurice Wilkes later created the first programmable computer. The webcam was also invented at Cambridge University, as a means for scientists to avoid interrupting their research and going all the way down to the laboratory dining room only to be disappointed by an empty coffee pot. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard One of the most distinguishing aspects of student life at Cambridge is the possibility to take part in formal dinners at college. These are called Formal Hall and occur regularly during term time. Students sit down for a meal in their gowns, while Fellows eat separately on High Table: the beginning and end of the function is usually celebrated with a prayer. Special formals are organized for events such as Christmas or the Commemoration of Benefactors.[155]ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard After the exam period, May Week is held and it is customary to celebrate by attending May Balls. These are all-night long parties held in the colleges where food and drinks are served and entertainment is provided. Suicide Sunday, the first day of May Week, is a popular date for organizing garden parties.[156]HP Pavilion G60-120EM Laptop Keyboard Ernest Rutherford, generally regarded as the father of nuclear physics, spent much of his life at the university, where he worked closely with the likes of Niels Bohr, a major contributor to the understanding of the structure and function of the atom, J. J. Thompson, discoverer of the electron, Sir James Chadwick, discoverer of the neutron, andSir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, the partnership responsible for first splitting the atom. J. Robert Oppenheimer, leader of theManhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb, also studied at Cambridge under/ref> || 1 || 1 || Rutherford and Thompson. HP Pavilion ze5 Laptop Keyboard Astronomers Sir John Herschel and Sir Arthur Eddington both spent much of their careers at Cambridge, as did Paul Dirac, the discoverer of antimatter and one of the pioneers of Quantum Mechanics; Stephen Hawking, the founding father of the study of singularities and the university's long-serving Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until 2009; and Lord Martin Rees, the current Astronomer Royal and Master of Trinity College. HP Envy 17-2099el Laptop Keyboard Other significant Cambridge scientists include Henry Cavendish, the discoverer of Hydrogen; Frank Whittle, co-inventor of the jet engine; Lord Kelvin, who formulated the original Laws of Thermodynamics; William Fox Talbot, who invented the camera, Alfred North Whitehead, Einstein's major opponent; Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, the man dubbed "the father of radio science"; Lord Rayleigh, one of the most pre-eminent physicists of the 20th century;Georges Lemaître, who first proposed the Big Bang Theory; and Frederick Sanger, the last man to win two Nobel prizes. HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 3000 N500 Laptop Keyboard Humanities, music and art In the humanities, Greek studies were inaugurated at Cambridge in the early sixteenth century by Desiderius Erasmus during the few years he held a professorship there; seminal contributions to the field were made by Richard Bentley and Richard Porson. John Chadwick was associated with Michael Ventris in the decipherment of Linear B. The eminent Latinist A. E. Housman taught at Cambridge but is more widely known as a poet. Simon Ockley made a significant contribution to Arabic Studies. DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard Distinguished Cambridge academics in other fields include economists such as John Maynard Keynes, Thomas Malthus, Alfred Marshall,Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, and Amartya Sen, another former Master of Trinity College. Philosophers Sir Francis Bacon, Bertrand Russell,Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, George Santayana, G. E. M. HP G61-410SA Laptop Keyboard Anscombe, Sir Karl Popper, Sir Bernard Williams, Allama Iqbal and G. E. Moore were all Cambridge scholars, as were historians such as Thomas Babington Macaulay, Frederic William Maitland, Lord Acton, Joseph Needham, E. H. Carr, Hugh Trevor-Roper, E. P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm, Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr, and famous lawyers such as Glanville Williams, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, and Sir Edward Coke. HP 540 Laptop Keyboard Religious figures at the university have included Rowan Williams, the current Archbishop of Canterbury and many of his predecessors; William Tyndale, the pioneer biblical translator; Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley, all Cambridge men, known as the "Oxford martyrs" from the place of their execution; Benjamin Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists; William Paley, the Christian philosopher known primarily for formulating the teleological argumentfor the existence of God; DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, largely responsible for the abolition of the slave trade; leading Evangelical churchmanCharles Simeon; John William Colenso, the bishop of Natal who developed views on the interpretation of Scripture and relations with native peoples that seemed dangerously radical at the time; John Bainbridge Webster and David F. Ford, theologians of significant repute; and six winners of the Templeton Prize, the highest accolade for the study of religion since its foundation in 1972. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, William Sterndale Bennett, Orlando Gibbons and, more recently, Alexander Goehr, Thomas Adès andJohn Rutter were all at Cambridge. Although known primarily for its choral music, the university has also produced members of contemporary bands such asRadiohead, Hot Chip, Procol Harum, Henry Cow, and the singer-songwriter Nick Drake.  Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard Artists Quentin Blake, Roger Fry and Julian Trevelyan also attended as undergraduates, as did sculptors Antony Gormley, Marc Quinn and Sir Anthony Caro, and photographers Antony Armstrong-Jones, Sir Cecil Beaton and Mick Rock.  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard Important writers to have studied at the university include the prominent Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe, his fellow University Wits Thomas Nashe andRobert Greene, arguably the first professional authors in England, and John Fletcher, w

ho collaborated with Shakespeare on The Two Noble KinsmenHenry VIII and the lost Cardenio and succeeded him as house playwright of The King's Men. Samuel Pepys matriculated in 1650, ten years before he began his diary, TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard the original manuscripts of which are now housed in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College. Lawrence Sterne, whose novel Tristram Shandy is judged to have inspired many modern narrative devices and styles, was admitted in 1733. In the following century, the novelists W. M. Thackeray, best known for Vanity Fair, Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! and Water Babies, and Samuel Butler, remembered for The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon, were all at Cambridge. Ghost story writerM. R. SONY VAIO VGN-NW125J/T laptop keyboard James served as provost of King’s College from 1905 to 1918. Modernist writers to have attended the university include E. M. Forster, Rosamond Lehmann,Vladmir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood and Malcolm Lowry. Although not a student, Virginia Woolf wrote her essay A Room of One’s Own while in residence at Newnham College. Playwright J. B. Priestley, medievalist and fantasy writer C. S. Lewis, physicist and novelist C. P. Snow and children’s writer A. A. Milnewere also among those who passed through the university in the early 20th century. They were followed by the postmodernists Patrick White, HP K031202I1 laptop keyboard Iris Murdoch, Eudora Welty, J. G. Ballard, Sir Kingsley Amis and the early postcolonial writer E. R. Braithwaite. More recently, the university has educated the comedy writersDouglas Adams, Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson, the popular novelists A. S. Byatt, Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Robert Harris and Sebastian Faulks, the successful action writers Michael Crichton and Jin Yong, and contemporary playwrights and screenwriters such as Julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff,Michael Frayn, Alan Bennett and Sir Peter Shaffer. SONY VAIO VGN-N37GH/B laptop keyboard Cambridge poets include Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queene, the Metaphysical poets John Donne, George Herbert and Andrew Marvell, John Milton, renowned for his late epic Paradise Lost, the leading Restoration poet and playwright John Dryden, the pre-romantic Thomas Gray, best known his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whose joint work Lyrical Ballads is often seen to mark the beginning of the Romantic movement, TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1AB laptop keyboard later Romantics such as Lord Byron and the postromantic Alfred, Lord Tennyson, classical scholar and lyric poet A. E. Housman, war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke, modernist T. E. Hulme, confessional poets Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath and John Berryman, and, more recently, Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine and Geoffrey Hill. In all, at least nine of the Poet Laureates graduated from Cambridge. The university has also made a notable contribution to Literary Criticism, having produced, among others, F. R. Leavis, I. A. Richards, C. K. Ogden and William Empson, often collectively known as theCambridge Critics, SONY VAIO VGN-SR290 laptop keyboard the important Marxists Raymond Williams, sometimes regarded as the founding father of Cultural Studies, and Terry Eagleton, author ofLiterary Theory: An Introduction, the most successful academic book ever published, the New Historicists Harold Bloom and Stephen Greenblatt, and an extensive group of distinguished biographical writers such as Lytton Strachey, a central figure in the largely Cantabridgian Bloomsbury Group, Peter Ackroyd and Claire Tomalin. TOSHIBA Satellite L675D-S7053 laptop keyboard Actors and directors such as Sir Ian McKellen, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Michael Redgrave, James Mason, Emma Thompson, Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Graham Chapman, Simon Russell Beale, Tilda Swinton, Thandie Newton, Rachel Weisz, Sacha Baron Cohen, Tom Hiddleston, Eddie Redmayne, Jamie Bamber and David Mitchell all studied at the university, as did recently acclaimed directors such asMike Newell, Sam Mendes, Stephen Frears, Paul Greengrass, Chris Weitz and John Madden. HP G72-b09EG laptop keyboard The University is also known for its prodigious sporting reputation and has produced many fine athletes, including more than 50 Olympic medalists;[157] the legendary Chinese six-time world table tennis champion Deng Yaping; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams; the inventors of the modern game of Football, Winton and Thring; and George Mallory, the famed mountaineer and possibly the first man ever to reach the summit of Mount Everest. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard Notable educationalists to have attended the university include the founders and early professors of Harvard University, including John Harvard himself; Emily Davies, founder of Girton College, the first residential higher education institution for women, and John Haden Badley, founder of the first mixed-sex school in England. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard This is a list of the oldest extant universities in the world. To be included in this table, an educational institution must satisfy a traditional definition[1] of university at the time of its founding. Chronologically it must have been founded before 1500 in Europe or be the oldest university derived from the medieval European model in a region. HP Mini 210-2013tu laptop keyboard The word university is derived from the Latin: universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars". The term was coined by the Italian University of Bologna, which, with a traditional founding date of 1088, is considered the first university.[2][3] The origin of manymedieval universities can be traced to the Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools which appear as early as the 6th century and were run for hundreds of years as such before their formal establishment as university in the high medieval period.[4]Packard Bell EasyNote TJ61 Laptop Keyboard Other institutions of higher learning, like those of ancient Greece, ancient Rome, Byzantium, ancient China, ancient India, the Arab World, are not included in this list due to their cultural, historical and structural dissimilarities from the medieval European university from which the modern university evolved.[5][6][7]Toshiba Satellite A215-S4767 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars". The term was coined by the Italian University of Bologna, which, with a traditional founding date of 1088, is considered the first university.[2][3] The origin of many medieval universities can be traced to the Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools which appear as early as the 6th century and were run for hundreds of years as such before their formal establishment as university in the high medieval period.[4]SONY Vaio VPC-EE31FX/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university as an institution was historically rooted in that medieval society which it in turn influenced and shaped: The university is a European institution; indeed, it is the European institution par excellence. There are various reasons for this assertion. As a community of teachers and taught, accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy and the determination and realization of curricula (courses of study) and of the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognized degrees, it is a creation of medieval Europe, which was the Europe of papal Christianity...  HP Pavilion dv7-1020eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan No other European institution has spread over the entire world in the way in which the traditional form of the European university has done. Thedegrees awarded by European universities – the bachelor's degree, the licentiate, the master's degree, and the doctorate – have been adopted in the most diverse societies throughout the world. The four medieval faculties of artes variously called philosophy, letters, arts, arts and sciences, and humanities – law, medicine, and theology have survived and have been supplemented by numerous disciplines, particularly the social sciences and technological studies, but they remain none the less at the heart of universities throughout the world... HP Pavilion G72-c55DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moreover, the university is a European institution because it has, in its social role, performed certain functions for all European societies. It has developed and transmitted scientific and scholarly knowledge and the methods of cultivating that knowledge which has arisen from and formed part of the common European intellectual tradition.[8]Toshiba Satellite L645-S4038 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It was founded in the mid-12th century, and officially recognized as a university probably between 1160 and 1170 (or, possibly, as early as 1150). After many changes, including a century of suspension (1793–1896), it ceased to exist as such in 1970 and 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII) were created from it. The university is often referred to as the Sorbonne or La Sorbonne after the collegiate institution (Collège de Sorbonne) founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon. In fact, the university as such was older and was never completely centered on the Sorbonne. Of the 13 current successor universities, the first 5 have a presence in the historical Sorbonne building, and three include "Sorbonne" in their names. FUJITSU MCF-S6055AM05B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SONY Vaio VPC-EE31FX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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