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university of Chicago The University of Chicago (U of CUCUChicago, or simply Chicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The University consists of the College of the University of Chicago, various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into four divisions, six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. The University enrolls approximately 5,000 students in the College and about 15,000 students overall. HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard In 2008, the University spent $423.7 million on scientific research.[6] University of Chicago scholars have played a role in the development of the Chicago school of economics, the Chicago school of sociology, the law and economics movement in legal analysis,[7] the Chicago school of literary criticism, the Chicago school of religion,[8Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard ] the school of political science known as behavioralism,[9] and in the physics leading to the world's first man-made, self-sustainingnuclear reaction.[10] The University is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.[11]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The University of Chicago is affiliated with 87 Nobel Laureates, 49 Rhodes Scholars[12] and 9 Fields Medalists [13]. It was founded by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller and incorporated in 1890. William Rainey Harper became the university's first president, in 1891, and the first classes were held in 1892. Harper worked with steel magnate Clayton Mark on educational reforms in Chicago.[14] It is now non-sectarian. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard The University of Chicago was created and incorporated as a coeducational,[15]secular institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society and a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller on land donated by Marshall Field.[16] It emerged from a Baptist university of the same name that had closed in 1886 due to financial difficulties. William Rainey Harper became the modern University's first president on July 1, 1891, and the first classes were held on October 1, 1892.[17] HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The business school was founded in 1898,[18] and the law school was founded in 1902.[19] Harper died in 1906,[20] and was replaced by a series of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929.[21] During this period, the Oriental Institutewas founded.[22]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard In 1929, the University's fifth president, Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office; the University underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. Hutchins eliminated varsity football from the University in an attempt to emphasize academics over athletics,[23] instituted the undergraduate college's liberal-arts curriculum known as the Common Core,[24] FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard and organized the University's graduate work into its current[when?] four divisions.[23] In 1933, Hutchins proposed an unsuccessful plan to merge the University of Chicago and Northwestern University into a single university.[25] During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals (now called the University of Chicago Medical Center) finished construction and enrolled its first medical students,[26] and the Committee on Social Thought was created. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard Money that had been raised during the 1920s and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through the Great Depression.[23] During World War II, the University made important contributions to the Manhattan Project.[27] The University was the site of the first isolation of plutoniumand of the creation of the first artificial, self-sustained nuclear reaction by Enrico Fermi in 1942.[27][28]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard In the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhood. In response, the University became a major sponsor of a controversial urban renewal project for Hyde Park, which profoundly affected both the neighborhood's architecture and street plan.[29]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The University experienced its share of student unrest during the 1960s, beginning in 1962, when students occupied President George Beadle's office in a protest over the University's off-campus rental policies. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard In 1969, more than 400 students, angry about the dismissal of a popular professor, Marlene Dixon, occupied the Administration Building for two weeks. After the sit-in ended, when Dixon turned down a one-year reappointment, 42 students were expelled and 81 were suspended,[30] the most severe response to student occupations of any American university during the student movement.[31] ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In 1978, Hanna Holborn Gray, then the provost and acting president of Yale University, became President of the University of Chicago, in which capacity she served for 15 years.[32] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard


In 1999, then-President Hugo Sonnenschein announced plans to relax the University's famed core curriculum, reducing the number of required courses from 21 to 15. When The New York TimesThe Economist, and other major news outlets picked up this story, the University became the focal point of a national debate on education. The changes were ultimately implemented, but the controversy played a role in Sonnenschein's decision to resign in 2000.[33]Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard In the past decade, the University began a number of multi-million dollar expansion projects. In 2008, the University of Chicago announced plans to establish the Milton Friedman Institute which attracted both support and controversy from faculty members and students.[34][35][36][37][38] The institute will cost around $200 million and occupy the buildings of the Chicago Theological Seminary. Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard During the same year, investor David G. Booth donated $300 million to the University's Booth School of Business, which is the largest gift in the University's history and the largest gift ever to any business school.[39] In 2009, planning or construction on several new buildings, half of which cost $100 million or more, was underway.[40]  DELL 5HK36 Laptop Keyboard A recent[when?] two-billion dollar campaign has brought substantial expansion to the campus, including the unveiling of the Max Palevsky Residential Commons, the South Campus Residence Hall, the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center, a new hospital, and a new science building. Current[when?] construction projects include: the Jules and Gwen Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery, a ten-story medical research center, as well as further additions to the medical campus of the University of Chicago Medical Center.[41]TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard Woodlawn, seven miles (11 km) south of downtown Chicago. The northern and southern portions of campus are separated by the Midway Plaisance, a large, linear park created for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. TOSHIBA NB200-11L Laptop Keyboard The first buildings of the University of Chicago campus, which make up what is now known as the Main Quadrangles, were part of a "master plan" conceived by two University of Chicago trustees and plotted by Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb.[42] The Main Quadrangles consist of six quadrangles, each surrounded by buildings, bordering one larger quadrangle.[43] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5111 Laptop Keyboard The buildings of the Main Quadrangles were designed by Cobb, Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, Holabird & Roche, and other architectural firms in a mixture of the Victorian Gothic and Collegiate Gothic styles, patterned on the colleges of the University of Oxford.[42] (Mitchell Tower, for example, is modeled after Oxford's Magdalen Tower,[44] and the University Commons, Hutchinson Hall, replicates Christ Church Hall.[45])  Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard\ After the 1940s, the Gothic style on campus began to give way to self-consciously modern styles.[42] In 1955, Eero Saarinen was contracted to develop a second master plan, which led to the construction of buildings both north and south of the Midway, including the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle (a complex designed by Saarinen);[42] a series of arts buildings;[42] ACER TravelMate 2501LC Laptop Keyboard a building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the University's School of Social Service Administration;[42], a building which is to become the home of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies by Edward Durrell Stone, and the Regenstein Library, the largest building on campus, a brutalist structure designed by Walter Netsch of the Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.[46] ACER Aspire 5553 Laptop Keyboard Another master plan, designed in 1999 and updated in 2004,[47] produced the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center (2003),[47] the Max Palevsky Residential Commons (2001),[42]HP Pavilion dv6-3060sa Laptop Keyboard South Campus Residence Hall and dining commons (2009), a new children's hospital,[48] and other construction, expansions, and restorations.[49] In 2011, the University completed the glass dome-shaped Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, which provides a grand reading room for the University Library and eliminates the need for an off-campus book depository. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard The site of Chicago Pile-1 is a National Historic Landmark and is marked by the Henry Moore sculpture Nuclear Energy.[50] Robie House, a Frank Lloyd Wrightbuilding acquired by the University in 1963, is also a National Historic Landmark,[51] as is room 405 of the George Herbert Jones Laboratory, where Glenn T. Seaborg and his team were the first to isolate plutonium.[52] Hitchcock Hall, an undergraduate dormitory, is on the National Register of Historic Places.[53]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard Satellite campuses The University of Chicago also maintains facilities apart from its main campus. The University's Booth School of Business maintains campuses in Singapore, London, and the downtown Streeterville neighborhood of Chicago. The Center in Paris, a campus located on the left bank of the Seine in Paris, hosts various undergraduate and graduate study programs.[56] The University of Chicago also opened a new center in Beijing in fall 2010. DELL Inspiron 9400 Laptop Keyboard The University of Chicago is governed by a board of trustees. The Board of Trustees oversees the long-term development and plans of the University and manages fundraising efforts, and is composed of 50 members including the University President.[57] Directly beneath the President are the Provost, fourteen Vice Presidents (including the Chief Financial Officer, ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Chief Investment Officer, and Dean of Students of the University), the Directors of Argonne National Laboratory and Fermilab, the Secretary of the University, and the Student Ombudsperson.[58] As of August 2009, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees is Andrew Alper,[59] and the President of the University is Robert Zimmer. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard The University's endowment was the 12th largest among American educational institutions and state university systems in 2010[60] and as of July 2010 is valued at $5.578 billion.[2]DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard The academic bodies of the University of Chicago consist of the College, four divisions of graduate research, six professional schools, and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies (a continuing education school). The University also contains a library system, the University of Chicago Press, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, DELL Inspiron 1545 Laptop Keyboard and the University of Chicago Medical Center, and holds ties with a number of independent academic institutions, including Fermilab and Argonne National Laboratory. The University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission of theNorth Central Association of Colleges and Schools.[68]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard The University runs on a quarter system in which the academic year is divided into four terms: Summer (June–August), Autumn (September–December), Winter (January–March), and Spring (April–June).[69] Full-time undergraduate students take three to four courses every quarter[70] for approximately eleven weeks before their quarterly academic breaks. The school year typically begins in late September and ends in mid-June.[69]HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard

Undergraduate college

Main article: College of the University of Chicago The College of the University of Chicago grants Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 50 academic majors[71] and 28 minors.[72] The college's academics are divided into five divisions: the Biological Sciences Collegiate Division, the Physical Sciences Collegiate Division, the Social Sciences Collegiate Division, the Humanities Collegiate Division, and the New Collegiate Division.[73] The first four are sections within their corresponding graduate divisions, while the New Collegiate Division administers interdisciplinary majors and studies which do not fit in one of the other four divisions.[74]HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate students are required to take a distribution of courses to satisfy the University's core curriculum known as the Common Core. Most of the Core classes at Chicago contain no more than 25 students, and are generally led by a full-time professor (as opposed to a teaching assistant).[75] As of the 2009–2010 school year, 15 courses, tested proficiency in a foreign language, passage of a swim test, and up to three physical education courses (depending on results of an entrance examination) are required under the Core.[24]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The University graduate schools and committees are divided into four divisions: Biological Sciences, Humanities, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences. In the spring quarter of 2009, the University enrolled 3,633 graduate students: 485 in the Biological Sciences Division, 1,076 in the Humanities Division, 732 in the Physical Sciences Division, and 1,340 in the Social Sciences Division.[76]SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard The University contains six professional schools: the Pritzker School of Medicine (which is a part of the Biological Sciences Division), the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the Divinity School, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, and the School of Social Service Administration (SSA). The total enrollment for these six professional schools was 5,086 students in the 2009 spring quarter: 2,878 students in the business school, 344 in the Divinity School, 452 in the medical school, 269 in the Harris School, 494 in SSA, and 649 in the Law School.[76]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The Law School is accredited by the American Bar Association, the Divinity School is accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, Pritzker is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education.[68]DELL V-0604BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard The University runs a number of academic institutions and programs apart from its undergraduate and postgraduate schools. It operates the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (a private day school for K-12 students and day care),[77] the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School (a residential treatment program for those with behavioral and emotional problems),[78 IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard ] and four public charter schools on the South Side of Chicago administered by the university's Urban Education Institute.[79] In addition, the Hyde Park Day School, a school for students with learning disabilities, maintains a location on the University of Chicago campus.[80] Since 1983, the University of Chicago has maintained the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard a mathematics program used in urban primary and secondary schools.[81] The University runs a program called the Council on Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences and Humanities, which administers interdisciplinary workshops to provide a forum for graduate students, faculty, and visiting scholars to present scholarly work in progress.[82] The University also operates theUniversity of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.[11]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The University of Chicago Library system encompasses six libraries[83] that contain a total of 8.5 million volumes, the 12th most among library systems in the United States.[84] The largest of the University's libraries is the Regenstein Library, which will be the largest collection of print volumes in the United States once its expansion is completed in 2010.[85][86] HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard The John Crerar Library contains more than 1.3 million volumes in the biological, medical and physical sciences and collections in general science and the philosophy and history of science, medicine, and technology.[87] The University also operates a number of special libraries, including the D'Angelo Law Library, the Social Service Administration Library, and the Eckhart Library for mathematics and computer science. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard In fiscal year 2006, the University of Chicago spent US$305,301,000 on scientific research.[89] It is classified by theCarnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as an institution with "very high research activity"[90] and is a founding member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the Association of American Universities. HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard The University operates 12 research institutes and 113 research centers on campus.[91] Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the University—and a number ofNational Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with a number of research institutions apart from the university proper. SONY Vaio PCG-K35 Laptop Keyboard The University partially manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy's national laboratory system, and has a joint stake in Fermilab, a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico. Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the University,[92] and although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center is located on campus. TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard The University of Chicago has been the site of some important experiments and academic movements. In economics, the University has played an important role in shaping ideas about the free market[93] and is the namesake of the Chicago school of economics, the school of economic thought supported by Milton Friedman and other economists. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard The University's sociology department was the first independent sociology department in the United States and gave birth to the Chicago school of sociology.[94] In physics, the University was the site of the Chicago Pile-1(the first self-sustained man-made nuclear reaction, part of the Manhattan Project), of Robert Millikan's oil-drop experiment that calculated the charge of the electron,[95] and of the development of radiocarbon dating.[96]SONY VAIO VGN NR220E/S Laptop Keyboard In the 2012 Spring Quarter, the University of Chicago enrolled 5,122 students in the College, 3444 students in its four graduate divisions, 5020 students in its professional schools, and 14,013 students overall.[103] In the 2012 Spring Quarter, international students comprised almost 19% of the overall study body, over 26% of students were domestic ethnic minorities,[101]DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard and about 44% of enrolled students were female [104]. The middle 50% band of SAT scores for the undergraduate class of 2015, excluding the writing section, was 1420–1530,[105] the average MCAT score for entering students in the Pritzker School of Medicine in 2011 was 36,[106] and the median LSAT score for entering students in the Law School in 2011 was 171.[107]HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard


Notable alumni in the field of government and politics include community organizer Saul Alinsky, Obama campaign advisor David Axelrod, Attorney General and federal judge Robert Bork, Attorney General Ramsay Clark, Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine, Prohibition agent Eliot Ness, Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, and World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard In business, Goldman Sachs and MF Global CEO Jon Corzine, Bloomberg L.P. CEO Daniel Doctoroff, Credit Suisse CEO Brady Dougan, and Morningstar, Inc. founder and CEO Joe Mansueto are all alumni. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard In journalism, notable graduates include New York Times columnist David Brooks, Washington Post columnist David Broder, Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, investigative journalist Seymour Hirsch, and statistical analyst Nate Silver. ACER Aspire 1520 Series Laptop Keyboard In literature, novelists Philip Roth and Kurt Vonnegut are graduates. In academia, alumni include astronomer Carl Sagan, economist Milton Friedman, astronomer Edwin Hubble, and international relations scholar Samuel P. Huntington. Notable former students who did not graduate include novelist Saul Bellow, film critic Roger Ebert, Oracle Corporation founder and CEO Larry Ellison, and director Mike Nichols. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard The University of Chicago hosts 19 varsity sports teams: 10 men's teams and 9 women's teams,[109] all called the Maroons, with 585 students participating in the 2008–2009 school year.[109] The Maroons compete in the NCAA's Division III as members of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The University was a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and participated in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball and Football and was a regular participant in the Men's Basketball tournament. In 1935 the University of Chicago reached the Sweet Sixteen.[109] TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard However, the University chose to withdraw from the conference in 1946 after University President Robert Maynard Hutchins de-emphasized varsity athletics in 1939 and dropped football.[110] (In 1969, Chicago reinstated football as a Division III team, resuming playing its home games at the new Stagg Field.) ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Students at the University of Chicago run over 400 clubs and organizations known as Recognized Student Organizations (RSOs).[111][112] These include cultural and religious groups, academic clubs and teams, and common-interest organizations.[112]Among notable RSOs are the nation's longest continuously running student film society Doc Films, TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-S5135 Laptop Keyboard organizing committee for theUniversity of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, the twice-weekly student newspaper The Chicago Maroon, the alternative weekly student newspaper the Chicago Weekly, the nation's second oldest continuously running student improvisational theater troupe Off-Off Campus, and the University-owned radio station WHPK-FM. FUJITSU Lifebook S7210 Laptop Keyboard There are fourteen fraternities and six sororities at the University of Chicago,[113] as well as one co-ed community service fraternity, Alpha Phi Omega.[114] Three of the sororities are members of the National Panhellenic Conference,[115] and ten of the fraternities form the University of Chicago Interfraternity Council.[116] SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard In 2002, the Associate Director of Student Activities estimated that 8–10 percent of undergraduates were members of fraternities or sororities.[115] The student activities office has used similar figures, stating that one in ten undergraduates participate in Greek life.[113]SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard On-campus undergraduate students at the University of Chicago participate in a house system in which each student is assigned to one of the university's 10 residence hall buildings and to a smaller community within their residence hall called a "house". There are 35 houses, with an average of 70 students in each house[117] Freshmen are required to participate in the house system, and housing is guaranteed every year thereafter.[118] About 60% of undergraduate students live on campus.[118]HP 599572-031 Laptop Keyboard Every May since 1987, the University of Chicago has held the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, in which large teams of students compete to obtain notoriously esoteric items from a list.[120] Since 1963, the Festival of the Arts (FOTA) takes over campus for 7–10 days of exhibitions and interactive artistic endeavors.[121] DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard The University also annually holds a summer carnival and concert called Summer Breeze that hosts outside musicians, and is home to Doc Films, a student film society founded in 1932 that screens films nightly at the University. Since 1946, the University has organized the Latke-Hamantash Debate, which involves humorous discussions about the relative merits and meanings of Latke and Hamantash. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard As soon as Schwarzenegger was elected governor, Willie Brown said he would start a drive to recall the governor. Schwarzenegger was equally entrenched in what he considered to be his mandate in cleaning up gridlock. Building on a catchphrase from the sketch "Hans and Franz" from Saturday Night Live (which partly parodied his bodybuilding career), Schwarzenegger called the Democratic State politicians "girlie men".[68] Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger's early victories included repealing an unpopular increase in the vehicle registration fee as well as preventing driver's licenses being given out to illegal immigrants, but later he began to feel the backlash when powerful state unions began to oppose his various initiatives. Key among his reckoning with political realities was a special election he called in November 2005, TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard in which four ballot measures he sponsored were defeated. Schwarzenegger accepted personal responsibility for the defeats and vowed to continue to seek consensus for the people of California. He would later comment that "no one could win if the opposition raised 160 million dollars to defeat you".Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger then went against the advice of fellow Republican strategists and appointed a Democrat, Susan Kennedy, as his Chief of Staff. Schwarzenegger gradually moved towards a more politically moderate position, determined to build a winning legacy with only a short time to go until the next gubernatorial election. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger ran for re-election against Democrat Phil Angelides, the California State Treasurer, in the 2006 elections, held on November 7, 2006. Despite a poor year nationally for the Republican party, Schwarzenegger won re-election with 56.0% of the vote compared with 38.9% for Angelides, a margin of well over one million votes.[69] ASUS F3Sc Laptop Keyboard In recent years, many commentators have seen Schwarzenegger as moving away from the right and towards the center of the political spectrum. After hearing a speech by Schwarzenegger at the 2006 Martin Luther King, Jr. breakfast, San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom said that, "[H]e's becoming a Democrat [... H]e's running back, not even to the center. I would say center-left".HP G62-b25SA Laptop Keyboard It was rumored that Schwarzenegger might run for the United States Senate in 2010, as his governorship would be term-limited by that time. This turned out to be false.[70][71] Wendy Leigh, who wrote an unofficial biography on Schwarzenegger, claims he plotted his political rise from an early age using the movie business and bodybuilding as building blocks to escape a depressing home.[9IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51e 1843 Laptop Keyboard ] Leigh portrays Schwarzenegger as obsessed with power and quotes him as saying, "I wanted to be part of the small percentage of people who were leaders, not the large mass of followers. I think it is because I saw leaders use 100% of their potential –I was always fascinated by people in control of other people."[9]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1829 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger has said that it was never his intention to enter politics, but he says, "I married into a political family. You get together with them and you hear about policy, about reaching out to help people. I was exposed to the idea of being a public servant and Eunice and Sargent Shriver became my heroes."[23] Eunice Kennedy Shriver was sister of John F. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard Kennedy, and mother-in-law to Schwarzenegger; Sargent Shriver is husband to Eunice and father-in-law to Schwarzenegger. He cannot run for president as he is not a natural born citizen of the United States. In The Simpsons Movie (2007), he is portrayed as the President, and in the Sylvester Stallone movie, Demolition Man (1993, ten years before his first run for political office), it is revealed that a constitutional amendment passed which allowed Schwarzenegger to run for President.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger is a dual Austria/United States citizen.[72] He holds Austrian citizenship by birth and has held U.S. citizenship since becoming naturalized in 1983. Being Austrian and thus European, he was able to win the 2007 European Voice campaigner of the year award for taking action against climate change with the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme with other US states and possibly with the EU.[73]Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2539 Laptop Keyboard Because of his personal wealth from his acting career, Schwarzenegger did not accept his governor's salary of $175,000 per year.[74] Schwarzenegger's endorsement in the Republican primary of the 2008 U.S. Presidential election was highly sought; despite being good friends with candidates Rudy Giuliani and Senator John McCain, Schwarzenegger remained neutral throughout 2007 and early 2008. Giuliani dropped out of the Presidential race on January 30, 2008, largely because of a poor showing in Florida, SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard and endorsed McCain. Later that night, Schwarzenegger was in the audience at a Republican debate at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California. The following day, he endorsed McCain, joking, "It's Rudy's fault!" (in reference to his friendships with both candidates and that he could not make up his mind). Schwarzenegger's endorsement was thought to be a boost for Senator McCain's campaign; both spoke about their concerns for the environment and economy.[75]HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard In its April 2010 report, Progressive ethics watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington named Schwarzenegger one of 11 "worst governors" in the United States because of various ethics issues throughout Schwarzenegger's term as governor.[76][77]HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA P205-S6347 Laptop Keyboard Governor Schwarzenegger played a significant role in opposing Proposition 66, a proposed amendment of the Californian Three Strikes Law, in November 2004. This amendment would have required the third felony to be either violent or serious to mandate a 25-years-to-life sentence. In the last week before the ballot, Schwarzenegger launched an intensive campaign[78] against Proposition 66.[79] He stated that "it would release 26,000 dangerous criminals and rapists".DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

Allegations of sexual misconduct

During his initial campaign for governor, allegations of sexual and personal misconduct were raised against Schwarzenegger, dubbed "Gropegate".[80] Within the last five days before the election, news reports appeared in the Los Angeles Timesrecounting allegations of sexual misconduct from several individual women, six of whom eventually came forward with their personal stories.[81]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Three of the women claimed he had grabbed their breasts, a fourth said he placed his hand under her skirt on her buttock. A fifth woman claimed Schwarzenegger tried to take off her bathing suit in a hotel elevator, and the last said he pulled her onto his lap and asked her about a sex act.[80]DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger admitted that he has "behaved badly sometimes" and apologized, but also stated that "a lot of [what] you see in the stories is not true". This came after an interview in adult magazine Oui from 1977 surfaced, in which Schwarzenegger discussed attending sexual orgies and using substances such as marijuana.[82]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger is shown smoking a marijuana joint after winning Mr. Olympia in the 1975 documentary film Pumping Iron. In an interview with GQ magazine in October 2007, Schwarzenegger said, "[Marijuana] is not a drug. It's a leaf. My drug was pumping iron, trust me."[83] His spokesperson later said the comment was meant to be a joke.[83]Compaq Presario CQ71-200 Series Laptop Keyboard British television personality Anna Richardson settled a libel lawsuit in August 2006 against Schwarzenegger, his top aide, Sean Walsh, and his publicist, Sheryl Main.[84] Compaq Presario CQ71-250SB Laptop Keyboard A joint statement read: "The parties are content to put this matter behind them and are pleased that this legal dispute has now been settled."[84] Richardson claimed they tried to tarnish her reputation by dismissing her allegations that Schwarzenegger touched her breast during a press event for The 6th Day in London.[85] She claimed Walsh and Main libeled her in a Los Angeles Times article when they contended she encouraged his behavior.[84] HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard


In 2005, Peter Pilz, from the Austrian Green Party, demanded that parliament revoke Schwarzenegger's Austrian citizenship. This demand was based on Article 33 of the Austrian Citizenship Act that states: A citizen, who is in the public service of a foreign country, shall be deprived of his citizenship, if he heavily damages the reputation or the interests of the Austrian Republic.[72] SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Pilz claimed that Schwarzenegger's actions in support of the death penalty (prohibited in Austria under Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights) had indeed done damage to Austria's reputation. Schwarzenegger explained his actions by referring to the fact that his only duty as Governor of California was to prevent an error in the judicial system. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard

Marital separation

On May 9, 2011, Shriver and Schwarzenegger separated after 25 years of marriage, with Shriver moving out of the couple's Brentwood mansion.[111][112][113] On May 16, 2011, the Los Angeles Times revealed that Schwarzenegger had fathered a son more than fourteen years earlier with an employee in their household, Mildred Patricia 'Patty' Baena.[114][115][116] "HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Laptop Keyboard After leaving the governor's office I told my wife about this event, which occurred over a decade ago," Schwarzenegger said in a statement issued to The Times. In the statement, Schwarzenegger did not mention that he had confessed to his wife only after Shriver had confronted him with the information, which she had done after confirming with the housekeeper what she had suspected about the child.[117]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Fifty-year-old Baena, of Guatemalan origin, was employed by the family for 20 years and retired in January.[118] The pregnant Baena was working in the home while Shriver was pregnant with the youngest of the couple’s four children.[119] HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard Baena's son with Schwarzenegger, Joseph,[120] was born on October 2, 1997;[121]Shriver gave birth to Christopher on September 27, 1997.[122] Schwarzenegger found ways to spend time with this child: in one instance, in 1998, Shriver and Schwarzenegger's children unexpectedly accompanied Schwarzenegger to the lovechild's baptism;[123] DELL Latitude 131L Laptop Keyboard and he was photographed teaching the boy how to play golf and swinging him playfully above his head.[123] Despite Schwarzenegger's interactions with the child, the boy was never told that Schwarzenegger was his father, and he was unaware of the fact until it was revealed by the press.[124] Schwarzenegger has taken financial responsibility for the child "from the start and continued to provide support."[125] ASUS X53K Laptop Keyboard KNX 1070 radio reported that he bought a new, four-bedroom house, with a pool, in Bakersfield, about 112 miles (180 km) north of Los Angeles, in 2010 for Baena and their son.[126] Baena separated from her husband, Rogelio, in 1997, a few months after Joseph's birth, and divorced him in 2008.[127] Baena's ex-husband says that the child's birth certificate was falsified and that he plans to sue Schwarzenegger and his ex-wife for engaging in conspiracy to falsify a public document, a serious crime in California.[128]lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard Schwarzenegger has consulted an attorney, Bob Kaufman. Kaufman has earlier handled divorce cases for celebrities such as Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon.[129][130] Schwarzenegger will keep the Brentwood home as part of their divorce settlement and Shriver has purchased a new home nearby so that the children may travel easily between their parents' homes.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard They will share custody of the two minor children.[131] Schwarzenegger came under fire after the initial petition did not include spousal support and a reimbursement of attorney's fees.[59] However, he claims this was not intentional and that he signed the initial documents without having properly read them.[59] Schwarzenegger has filed amended divorce papers remedying this.[59][132]HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard In the aftermath of Schwarzenegger's infidelity scandal, actress Brigitte Nielsen came forward and stated that she too had an affair with Schwarzenegger while he was in a relationship with Shriver,[133] saying, "Maybe I wouldn't have got into it if he said 'I'm going to marry Maria' and this is dead serious, but he didn't, and our affair carried on."[133]DELL MU194 Laptop Keyboard Behavioralism (or behaviouralism) is an approach in political science, which emerged in the 1930s in the United States. It represents a sharp break from previous political science. This is because it emphasized an objective, quantified approach to explain and predict political behavior.[1][2] It is associated with the rise of the behavioral sciences, modeled after the natural sciences.[3] This means that behavioralism tries to explain behavior with an unbiased, neutral point of view. SONY VAIO VGN-AW17GU Laptop Keyboard Behavioralism seeks to examine the behavior, actions, and acts of individuals – rather than the characteristics of institutions such as legislatures, executives, and judiciaries[4] – and groups in different social settings and explain this behavior as it relates to the political system.[5]ACER ZU2 Laptop Keyboard Origins Following the Second World War through until the 1960s, behavioralism was a source of controversy. It was the site of discussion between traditionalist and new emerging approaches to political science.[6] The origins of behavioralism is often attributed to the work of University of Chicago professor Charles Merriam, who emphasized the importance of examining political behavior of individuals and groups rather than only considering how they abide by legal or formal rules.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard Prior to the "behavioralist revolution", political science being a science at all was disputed.[8] Critics saw the study of politics as being primarily qualitative and normative, and claimed that it lacked a scientific method necessary to be deemed a science.[9] SONY VAIO VPC-F12 Laptop Keyboard Behavioralists used strict methodology and empirical research to validate their study as a social science.[10] The behavioralist approach was innovative because it changed the attitude of the purpose of inquiry. It moved toward research that was supported by verifiable facts.[11] During its rise in popularity in the 1960s and 70s, behavioralism challenged the realist and liberal approaches, which the behavioralists called "traditionalism", and other studies of political behavior that was not based on fact.  SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard To understand political behavior, behavioralism uses the following methods: sampling, interviewing, scoring and scaling and statistical analysis.[12] Behavioralism studies how individuals behave in group positions realistically rather than how they should behave. For example, a study of the United States Congress might include a consideration of how members of Congress behave in their positions.[7] The subject of interest is the how Congress becomes an "arena of actions" and the surrounding formal and informal spheres of power.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard David Easton was the first to differentiate behavioralism from behaviorism in the 1950s.[13] In the early 1940s, behaviorism itself was referred to as a behavioral science and later referred to as behaviorism. However, Easton sought to differentiate between the two disciplines:[14]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Behavioralism was not a clearly defined movement for those who were thought to be behavioralists. It was more clearly definable by those who were opposed to it, because they were describing it in terms of the things within the newer trends that they found objectionable. So some would define behavioralism as an attempt to apply the methods of natural sciences to human behavior. Others would define it as an excessive emphasis upon quantification. Others as individualistic reductionism. From the inside, the practitioners were of different minds as what it was that constituted behavioralism. [...] And few of us were in agreement.[15]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard With this in mind, behavioralism resisted a single definition. Dwight Waldo emphasized that behavioralism itself is unclear, calling it "complicated" and "obscure."[16] Easton agreed, stating, "every man puts his own emphasis and thereby becomes his own behavioralist" and attempts to completely define behavioralism are fruitless.[17] From the beginning, behavioralism was a political, not a scientific concept.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard Moreover, since behavioralism is not a research tradition, but a political movement, definitions of behavioralism follow what behavioralists wanted.[14] Therefore, most introductions to the subject emphasize value-free research. This is evidenced by Easton's eight "intellectual foundation stones" of behavioralism:[18][19]Compaq Presario CQ71-411EZ Laptop Keyboard The approach has come under fire from both conservatives and radicals for the purported value-neutrality. Conservatives see the distinction between values and facts as a way of undermining the possibility of political philosophy.[22] Neal Riemer believes behavioralism dismisses "the task of ethical recommendation"[23]because behavioralists believe "truth or falsity of values (democracy, equality, and freedom, etc.) cannot be established scientifically and are beyond the scope of legitimate inquiry."[24]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Christian Bay believed behavioralism was a pseudopolitical science and that it did not represent "genuine" political research.[23] Bay objected to empirical consideration taking precedence over normative and moral examination of politics.[23]DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Behavioralism initially represented a movement away from "naive empiricism", but has been criticized as an approach has been criticized for "naive scientism".[25] Additionally, radical critics believe that the separation of fact from value makes the empirical study of politics impossible.[22]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Early years

Mark, born in 1858 in Fredericksburg, Pennsylvania, was the son of Cyrus and Rebecca (Strohm) Mark. His earliest paternal ancestor in the United States was William Killian Mark, who moved with his brothers from Switzerland to Lebanon County Pennsylvania in 1735.[2]HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard Clayton moved to Chicago with his family in 1872. He was educated in the public schools of Pennsylvania and Illinois, and stopped his formal education after completing seventh grade at Brown School in Chicago.[3][4] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Mark’s family relocated to Carroll, Iowa in 1936 after Mark’s father’s dry goods business burned down. Cyrus Marks subsequently established another dry goods business in Carroll.[5] However, Clayton stayed in Chicago to begin his career as a file clerk for Chicago Malleable Iron Co. in 1876, where he advanced to secretary, and vice-president, and was on the Board of Directors until his death.[3][6]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Mark founded The Mark Manufacturing Company in 1888 as a co-partnership with his father Cyrus Mark.[5] The company initially manufactured well points, small castings used in the construction of wells. This business was later expanded to include the manufacture of steel pipe. In 1900, he built a pipe mill in Evanston, IL, bought another in Ohio in 1901, a zinc mining company in 1906, and in 1916 Mark built a steel mill in Indiana Harbor to supply his own requirements for steel.[7]SONY VAIO VGN-AW17GU Laptop Keyboard In 1917, Mark began construction of a planned worker community “Marktown” to house the workers of his steel mill in Indiana Harbor, East Chicago, although it was never completed. Marktown was designed to house 8,000 employees in 200 houses, and the plans included a recreation building, both elementary and high schools, a post office, Lenovo Thinkpad X220 Laptop Keyboard a movie theatre, and a recreational park with tennis courts. In contrast to the neighboring planned worker community developed by thePullman Company in which workers were not allowed to own their homes, the residents of Marktown were to have the opportunity to either rent or purchase their homes.[8][9]ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard Mark commissioned the renowned architect Howard Van Doren Shaw to design Marktown. Shaw had designed Mark’s own home in Lake Forest, Illinois in 1912.[10] The final design of Marktown has been described[who?] as an att

empt to recreate a gracious English country village. Construction was stopped when only a fraction of the original plans for Marktown were completed due to the aftereffects of World War I, HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard and the sale of his steel plant to Youngstown Sheet and Tube. All of the original structures stand, and are considered representative of the planned industrial community movement of the late nineteenth and early 20th century. Mark’s planned worker community in Northwest Indiana is regarded as an important cultural resource of architectural and historical significance, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.[11]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Civic activities Mark’s chief civic interest was in the field of public education, and he had a large impact on the shaping of the Chicago School Systems. Mark served on the Board of Education from 1896–1905, and served as its President from 1902-1905.[12] As President of the Board of Education, Mark facilitated the building of new schools to alleviate crowded conditions, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard including the Edgar Allan Poe School in Pullman.[13] Many of Mark’s efforts were aimed at increasing the efficiency of the school system and increasing attendance. For example, he advocated the appointment and promotion of teachers based on merit. He also advocated better sanitary conditions, the establishment of school playgrounds, the extension of technical schools, and the incorporation of kindergartens into public schools.[5]HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Mark served several terms as President of the Civic Federation of Chicago from 1907 to 1929, an active reform group that addressed the city’s social and political problems.[14] It is noteworthy that Mark worked with Jane Addams on a number of educational and social reforms. Clayton Mark has been described by historians as taking part in a phenomenal number of civic affairs with overwhelming energy and drive, and that "…he tried in every way to protect and foster the things in life that made it possible for him so it would be possible for others."[5][9][15]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Early life and career

Harper was born on July 26, 1856, in New Concord, Ohio1, Harper's parents were of Irish-Scottish ancestry.[2] Very early in his life, Harper displayed skills years ahead of other children of his age, and he was labeled a child prodigy. By the age of eight, Harper began preparing for college-level courses. At the age of ten he enrolled in Muskingum College in his native New Concord, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Ohio. At the age of fourteen, he graduated from Muskingum College. In 1872, Harper enrolled in Yale University to begin his postgraduate studies, and he completed these in 1876. Harper quickly assumed a series of faculty positions, including ones at Denison University and Yale University. Throughout his academic life, Harper wrote numerous textbooks. A strong supporter of lifelong learning, Harper was also involved with the Chautauqua Institution in Chautauqua, New York, and its academic programs starting in 1883.[3]SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard In 1891, John D. Rockefeller selected thirty-five year-old Harper to assist in organizing the University of Chicago, and shortly thereafter, he was selected as its first president. In hiring the faculty the new university and selecting its students, Harper set the standards quite high. Harper elevated the salaries of the faculty members above those of ordinary schoolteachers, and by doing so,  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard he attracted the best scholars to the university. Harper had expert knowledge of every department of education as well as business acumen, and he was a very powerful public speaker .[2]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In addition to encouraging the establishment for the first department of Egyptology and Sociology in the United States, Harper ensured the establishment of the University of Chicago Press. Harper also instituted the first extension service in America designed to bring classes to those who could not attend regular classes—because of their work or other obligations. SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Laptop Keyboard One of Harper's ideas, that students should be able to study the first two years of college in their own communities to be better prepared for the rigors of college, helped lead to the creation of the system of community colleges in the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard

Relationship to other disciplines and approaches

As used by lawyers and legal scholars, the phrase "law and economics" refers to the application of the methods of economics to legal problems. Because of the overlap between legal systems and political systems, some of the issues in law and economics are also raised in political economy, constitutional economics and political science. Most formal academic work done in law and economics is broadly within the Neoclassical tradition.[citation needed]APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard Approaches to the same issues from Marxist and critical theory/Frankfurt School perspectives usually do not identify themselves as "law and economics". For example, research by members of the critical legal studies movement and thesociology of law considers many of the same fundamental issues as does work labeled "law and economics".TOSHIBA Portege M200 Laptop Keyboard The one wing that represents a non-neoclassical approach to "law and economics" is the Continental (mainly German) tradition that sees the concept starting out of the governance and public policy (Staatswissenschaften) approach and the German Historical school of economics;  DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard this view is represented in the Elgar Companion to Law and Economics (2nd ed. 2005) and—though not exclusively—in the European Journal of Law and Economics. Here, consciously non-neoclassical approaches to economics are used for the analysis of legal (and administrative/governance) problems. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard As early as in the 18th century, Adam Smith discussed the economic effect of mercantilist legislation. However, to apply economics to analyze the law regulating nonmarket activities is relatively new. In 1961, Ronald Coase and Guido Calabresi independently from each other published two groundbreaking articles: "The Problem of Social Cost"[2] and "Some Thoughts on Risk Distribution and the Law of Torts".[3] This can be seen as the starting point for the modern school of law and economics.[4]TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard In the early 1970s, Henry Manne (a former student of Coase) set out to build a Center for Law and Economics at a major law school. He began at Rochester, worked at Miami, but was soon made unwelcome, moved to Emory, and ended at George Mason. The latter soon became a center for the education of judges—many long out of law school and never exposed to numbers and economics. Manne also attracted the support of the John M. Olin Foundation, whose support accelerated the movement. Today, Olin centers (or programs) for Law and Economics exist at many universities. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Important figures include the Nobel Prize winning economists Ronald Coase and Gary Becker, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit judges Frank Easterbrook and Richard Posner, Andrei Shleifer and other distinguished scholars such as Robert Cooter, Henry Manne, William Landes, and A. Mitchell Polinsky.Guido Calabresi, judge for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, author of the 1970 book, HP Mini 210-2005sa Laptop Keyboard The Costs of Accidents: A Legal and Economic Analysis, wrote in depth on this subject, with Costs of Accidents being cited as influential in its extensive treatment of the proper incentives and compensation required in accident situations.[5] Calabresi took a different approach in his 1985 book, Ideals, Beliefs, Attitudes, and the Law, where he argued, "who is the cheapest avoider of a cost, depends on the valuations put on acts, activities and beliefs by the whole of our law and not on some objective or scientific notion (69)." DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard Influence In the United States, economic analysis of law has been extremely influential. Judicial opinions utilize economic analysis and the theories of law and economics with some regularity. The influence of law and economics has also been felt in legal education. Many law schools in North America, Europe, and Asia have faculty members with a graduate degree in economics.  DELL Latitude E5510 Laptop Keyboard In addition, many professional economists now study and write on the relationship between economics and legal doctrines. Anthony Kronman, former dean of Yale Law School, has written that "the intellectual movement that has had the greatest influence on American academic law in the past quarter-century [of the 20th Century]" is law and economics.[6]SAMSUNG Q330-JS01 Laptop Keyboard are modeled on "first-best" (Pareto optimal) general-equilibrium conditions. Under the theory of the second best, for example, if the fulfillment of a subset of optimal conditions cannot be met under any circumstances, it is incorrect to conclude that the fulfillment of any subset of optimal conditions will necessarily result in an increase in allocative efficiency.[7]ACER Aspire 5745P Laptop Keyboard Consequently, any expression of public policy whose purported purpose is an unambiguous increase in allocative efficiency (for example, consolidation ofresearch and development costs through increased mergers and acquisitions resulting from a systematic relaxation of anti-trust laws) is, according to critics, fundamentally incorrect, as there is no general reason to conclude that an increase in allocative efficiency is more likely than a decrease. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EV Laptop Keyboard Essentially, the "first-best" neoclassical analysis fails to properly account for various kinds of general-equilibrium feedback relationships that result from intrinsic Pareto imperfections.[7]  SONY VAIO VGN-FS530B Laptop Keyboard Another critique comes from the fact that there is no unique optimal result. Warren Samuels in his 2007 book, The Legal-Economic Nexus, argues, "efficiency in the Pareto sense cannot dispositively be applied to the definition and assignment of rights themselves, because efficiency requires an antecedent determination of the rights (23-4)." SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard

Universities with law and economics programs

Almost every major American law school, and most leading economics departments, offer courses in law and economics and has faculty working in the field. Two of the leading law schools focusing on Law and Economics are the University of Chicago Law School, whose faculty includes Judge Richard A. Posner, Ronald Coase and Gary Becker, and the George Mason University School of Law, whose faculty used to include Nobel laureate Vernon Smith (though Smith and his team have since moved to Chapman University),  TOSHIBA 99.n7482.001 Laptop Keyboard and perennial Nobel finalist Gordon Tullock. In the spring of 2006, Vanderbilt University Law School announced the creation of a new program to award a Ph.D. in Law & Economics. A ranking of law and economics Ph.D. programs was published in the Southern Economics Journal in 2008, and also includes among the top 10 programs (based on publications in the field) the economics departments at UC Berkeley, TOSHIBA Equium A60 Series Laptop Keyboard Harvard University, University of Connecticut, UC San Diego, Princeton University, MIT, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Florida State University, Central Michigan University, and the University of Michigan.[8]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In Europe, a consortium of universities from ten different countries is running the European Master Program in Law and Economics, also known as EMLE, which is a European program in the field since 1990. This programme offers the unique opportunity for interdisciplinary studies of law and economics at two or even three European and Non-European universities. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Each partner university awards a Master degree (LL.M. / M.A. / M.Sc.). The programme also provides students with an advanced understanding of the economic effects of divergent laws and prepares students for a professional career, for example, in public organisations, in multinational law firms or consultancy firms. Graduates are also well prepared for doctorate research in a PhD programme such as the European Doctorate in Law and Economics (EDLE), which is operated by three European centers in Law and Economics. http://www.edle-phd.eu]  HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto's Faculty of Law offers a combined J.D./M.A. Economics, as well as a J.D./Ph.D. Economics. In 2009 the University of Copenhagen and the Copenhagen Business School established an interdisciplinary elite master program in International Law, Economics and Management that is jointly offered by both institutions. The program is not only a Copenhagen Master of Excellence, but also one of only twelve elite programs in Denmark and attracting students from all over Europe.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Since 2009 there has been created a new PhD program in Law and Economics of Finance and Money from Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main/Germany. The program is entirely created for the purpose of research in fields such as regulation of Financial Institutions and Market Regulation. The program is thought to be finished within four years and is entirely taught in English. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The Collegio Carlo Alberto in Turin, Italy hosts an International Ph.D. Program in Institutions, Economics and Law within the Centre for the Comparative Analysis of Law and Economics, Economics of Law, Economics of Institutions. Members of the teaching staff come from various academic institutes in Europe and the United States.  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard A separate Doctoral Program in Law and Economics is currently run by the School of Economics at the University of Siena. Also in Italy, the International University College of Turin, with students and faculty from worldwide, runs a biennial Master of Sciences in Comparative Law, Economics and Finance, which challenges mainstream views on the subject. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Central European University in Budapest, Hungary offers both an MA and LLM in Law and Economics. The program is offered in both the university's Economics Department, as well as in its Legal Studies Department. This program is registered in the United States by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Switzerland's University of St. Gallen has a Law and Economics Program on both the undergraduate (Bachelor of Arts in Law and Economics) and graduate levels (Master of Arts in Law and Economics). The graduate program was initiated in October 2005 at the first international scientific conference on Law and Economics by the President of the University, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard Ernst Mohr and the St. Gallen Professor and leading business lawyer Peter Nobel. The Law and Economics Program is supported by an International Academic Council lead by leading experts in the field of law and economics, such as Richard A. Posner, Ronald J. Gilson, Victor Goldberg or Geoffrey P. Miller. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard Operating outside this particular framework, Utrecht University offers students the possibility to major in law and economics as part of their undergraduate studies, or to specialize in law and economics in a one-year post-graduate programme. SONY Vaio VGN-AW390 Laptop Keyboard University of Economics, Prague, specifically the Department of Institutional Economics at the Faculty of Economics and Public Administration, offers Law and Economics as a possible specialization for graduate students, while a complete graduate program is being prepared. DELL Latitude D610 Laptop Keyboard The University of Leicester runs a degree program called "Economics and Law", with various modules taught in the specific area.The University of Cambridge offers the option of a 'Law and Economics' paper within the Land Economy Tripos.[2] The University of Manchester Law School, Nottingham University Business School and City University Law School, London have undergraduate courses in Law and Economics. University College London offers undergraduate courses in Law and Economics in its Economics Faculty and post-graduate courses in its Law Faculty. HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard The Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, was the first to introduce a Post-graduate Optional course in Law and Economics in India. In the past few years Law and economics has also become one of the major research areas at the centre. SONY Vaio PCG-K23Q Laptop Keyboard The Delhi School of Economics also offers law and economics courses at the post graduate level. The National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS) offers two courses in Law and Economics to its undergraduate students, as does NALSAR University of Law. A Post-graduate Optional Course is now offered in University of Hyderabad by the Department of Economics, School of Social Sciences.  SONY 99.N1782.001 Laptop Keyboard Bilkent University Faculty of Law in Turkey has also launched a graduate degree program on September 2010, titled "Law and Economics". The program runs for one year, containing courses and seminars on conventional economic analyses of law, along with the application of these analyses on the energy and telecommunication sectors of Turkey. Seminars and courses are taught in both Turkish and English. HP Pavilion dv6-2190ev Laptop Keyboard In the National University of Singapore, a Double Honours Programme in Law and Economics was launched in 2005, whereby students complete two Bachelors' degrees in five years. Similarly, the Singapore Management University offers a Double Degree Programme in Law and Economics whereby students graduate with Bachelor's degrees in both subjects [9]. Economic Analysis of Law is also offered as a module for students in the School of Law at Singapore Management University. [10]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard The University of Bonn has recently founded a Center for the Advanced Studies of Law and Economics (CASTLE). The International Max Planck Research School for Competition and Innovation is a PhD program offered jointly by the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law and the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich (Germany). The program selects outstanding candidates from the fields of law and economics to produce doctoral research in the area of the law and economics of intellectual property and competition law.[11] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard China University of Political Science and Law provides a Master/PhD program of Law and Economics. Its Center for Law and Economics, which was established in 2005, hold lectures and exchange activities regularly. HP 431416-001 Laptop Keyboard The University of Reading has launched a new LLM/MSc in Law and Economics providing a critical approach to the interrelation between the two disciplines. The programme shall enable law students to understand the economic effects of legal rules and economics students to understand the institutional legal framework of market economies.、HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

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