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University of Colorado at Boulder The University of Colorado Boulder (unofficially University of Colorado at Boulder, although also commonly referred to as CU-BoulderCUBoulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado,United States. It is the flagship university of the University of Colorado system and was founded five months before Colorado was admitted to the union in 1876. According to The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities (2001), it is considered one of the thirty "Public Ivy League" schools. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, the university consisted of nine colleges and schools and offered over 150 academic programs and enrolled 29,952 students.[2] Eleven Nobel Laureates, eight MacArthur Fellows, and 18 astronauts have been affiliated with CU-Boulder as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. The university received nearly US$454 million in sponsored research in 2010 to fund programs like the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, JILA, and National Institute of Standards and Technology's NIST-F1 atomic clock. HP Pavilion dv6-2110el Laptop Keyboard Colorado Buffaloes competes in nine intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Pacific-12 Conference. The Buffaloes have won 24 NCAA championships: 18 in skiing, five total in men's and women's cross country, and one in football. Approximately 1,500 students participate in 34 intercollegiate club sports annually as well. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard On March 14, 1876, the Colorado territorial legislature passed an amendment to the state constitution that provided money for the establishment of the University of Colorado in Boulder, the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, and Colorado Agricultural College in Fort Collins, now known as Colorado State University. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Two cities competed for the site University of Colorado: Boulder and Cañon City. The consolation prize for the losing city was to be home of the new Colorado State Prison. Cañon City was at a disadvantage as it was already the home of the Colorado Territorial Prison. (There are now six prisons in the Cañon City area.)  TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard The cornerstone of the building that became Old Main was laid on September 20, 1875. The doors of the university opened on September 5, 1877. At the time, there were few high schools in the state that could adequately prepare students for university work, so in addition to the University, a preparatory school was formed on campus. In the fall of 1877, the student body consisted of 15 students in the college proper and 50 students in the preparatory school. There were 38 men and 27 women, and their ages ranged from 12–23 years.[4]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard During World War II, Colorado was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[5] CU Boulder's distinctive architecture style, known as Tuscan Vernacular Revival, was designed by architect Charles Klauder.[6] The oldest buildings, such as Old Main (1876) and Macky Auditorium (1923), were in the Collegiate Gothic style of many East Coast schools, and Klauder's initial plans for the university's new buildings (approved in 1919) were in the same style. A month or so after approval, however, Klauder updated his design by sketching in a new wrap of rough, texturedsandstone walls with sloping, multi-leveled red-tiled roofs and Indiana limestone trim. This formed the basis of a unified style which was used in the design of fifteen other buildings between 1921 and 1939. HP Pavilion dv6-2077la Laptop Keyboard The sandstone used in the construction of nearly all the buildings on campus was selected from a quarry in Lyons, Colorado. The architecture had a rugged yet classical feel, fitting for a western University. Until 1903, the library collection was housed with the rest of the school in Old Main. The growing size of the library required a move, as the weight of the books was causing physical damage to the floor. The cornerstone for the first separate library building was laid in January 1903, and the building was opened in January 1904. When the new Norlin Library opened in 1940, the old library turned over to the Theatre department, and was converted into classrooms and a theatre. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Norlin Library was the last building to be designed by Klauder. There are two inscriptions on the western face of the building, overlooking the Norlin Quadrangle. Both were composed by President Norlin. The larger inscription reads “Who knows only his own generation remains always a child,” based on a Cicero quotation, while the smaller inscription on the marble just over the door reads “Enter here the timeless fellowship of the human spirit.” DELL F759C Laptop Keyboard Macky Auditorium is a large building on the north edge of the University of Colorado campus, near 17th Street and University Avenue, which plays host to various talks, plays, and musical performances. Andrew J. Macky was a prominent businessman involved with the town of Boulder in the late 19th century. Macky served as the President, as well as a stockholder of the First National Bank, an institution founded by another early CU supporter Lewis Cheney. Macky is credited with a number of landmarks throughout Boulder, where he was a carpenter and involved in politics.  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard The Auditorium opened its doors in 1923, thirteen years after construction started. Macky's adopted daughter, May, sued for a third of Macky's estate, a case that took thirteen years to settle. May was angered that her father left her no money in his will, while leaving $300,000 to CU for the hall’s construction. The university eventually won the case, and the majority of critical construction on the building resumed. SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard The building has a variety of architectural elements from various buildings around the globe that President Baker, CU’s president at the turn of the 20th century, admired. The design of the auditorium is primarily Neo-Gothic, with the primary materials being sandstone and red tile, like the rest of campus. The result is a unique building, with two large towers and sprawling ivy, that sets itself apart from the rest of the CU campus. Macky was refurbished in 1986, with improved seating, custom carpeting, modern plumbing and an elevator. Currently there is an electronic bell system in the towers of Macky which rings the hours during the day. ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard Macky is the home of two departments both in the College of Music, the Jazz Studies Department and the Choral Department, and it houses an art gallery which is open Wednesdays, and to patrons during performances. The hall houses almost all performances by the Boulder Philharmonic Orchestra, the Artist Series, and the CU Opera. Macky is also the home of many lectures including part of the Conference on World Affairs held at CU each spring. HP Mini 210-2145dx Laptop Keyboard In 1947, Colorado Governor Lee Knous issued a proclamation to create a memorial to Colorado's servicemen at the University of Colorado Boulder. A proposal to house this memorial in a student union building resulted in a remarkable fundraising effort. The University Memorial Center opened its doors in October 1953 with President Robert Stearns presiding over the ribbon-cutting ceremony. The UMC quickly became the central landmark of the Boulder campus. A 1964 addition created a new book store, conference facilities, additional dining facilities, and offices to house the rapidly growing student activities and organizations. The expansion was financed through bonds granted by student fees.  GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard The 1960s and '70s put the UMC at the center of student activism as students staged strikes, grape boycotts, love-ins, sit-ins, and walk-outs. The UMC Fountain Court (now the Dalton Trumbo Fountain Court) became a familiar sight to network television news watchers as the famous and notorious promoted their cause at CU-Boulder. Entertainers as diverse as Ramsey Lewis and the Grateful Dead have performed in the Glenn Miller Ballroom. The UMC Connection, HP Mini 110-3130tu Laptop Keyboard a student entertainment center in the basement, is a more informal gathering place, featuring pool tables and a small bowling alley. It also features Club 156, which hosts concerts from local and up-and-coming bands. In 1986, students passed another bond issue to remodel the food-services area. The Alferd Packer Grill was transformed to the current food-court concept, and students have since enjoyed the addition of other vendors including Subway, Domino's, and Celestial Seasonings Teas and Coffees. HP G61-430SL Laptop Keyboard The Center for Community, also known as the “C4C” by students, follows the distinct architecture guidelines of Charles Klauder and is a 323,000-square-foot (30,000 m2) state-of-the-art facility[9] that is promised to be 20 percent to 25 percent more energy- and water-efficient compared to similar-sized buildings.[10] The facility was completed in September 2010 at a cost of $84.4 million.[11] HP 535766-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The building is originally bond-financed through the CU treasurer and will be repaid through a combination of sources. A large portion of the debt, $47.4 million, will be repaid by Housing and Dining Services, through room and board fees. Fees from Permit and Parking Services will contribute as well. The Center also relies on $18 million in donations, a goal which has not been achieved, but has become a top fundraising priority for the University.[10]HP Pavilion dv6-2066dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The building houses offices of Student Services including Campus Card Services, Disability Services, and Career Services among others. These services have been relocated to the C4C from various locations around campus.[10] For example, Career Services was previously housed in the basement of the Willard Dormitory. There is a 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) underground parking structure that contains approximately 365 to 375 parking spaces.[12] Student study areas are located on the upper floors and conference centers are open to campus and non-campus affiliates throughout the building. The dining services offered within the C4C include a CU on the run “grab-n-go,”  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The Bakery, a late night dining hub called the Weather Tech Café, open until 2 A.M, and finally a central dining facility. This dining facility seats 900 and offers students up to nine specialty dining choices including: Persian, Asian, Latin, Sushi, Italian, Kosher, a grill, salad bars, and desserts.[13]Overall the Dining Center is projected to serve around one million meals per year.[14]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard The Mary Rippon Theatre is an outdoor theater and the site of many cultural events, notably the Colorado Shakespeare Festival. The Theatre was named after Professor Mary Rippon, the first female instructor at the University and one of the first female University instructors in the United States. She taught German and French. Professor Rippon was so popular with students that when attempts were made to replace her with a male instructor, the student body revolted en masse, and Rippon kept her job.[citation needed]Packard Bell Easynote TM80 Laptop Keyboard Norlin Library features two art galleries, several dedicated art spaces, and art works on display throughout the building. The CU Art Museum features cutting edge works of modern and contemporary art, as well as historical art works. The Museum's permanent collection includes over 5,000 works of art from numerous time periods and cultures. The UMC Art Gallery exhibits a variety of visual offerings ranging from student works created on campus to presentations of internationally recognized artists. Andrew J. Macky Gallery showcases the work of both local and national artists and is housed in the historic Macky Auditorium. HP Compaq G50-104NR Laptop Keyboard University of Colorado Museum of Natural History has one of the most extensive natural history collections in the Rocky Mountain and Plains regions, representing the disciplines of Anthropology, Botany, Entomology, Paleontology, and Zoology. It is located in the Henderson building, named after its first curator, Judge Junius Henderson. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard The CU Heritage Center [1] tells the stories of CU-Boulder's past and present and is housed in Old Main, the first building constructed on campus. Seven galleries exhibit art and memorabilia associated with CU faculty and alumni. Fiske Planetarium and Science Center features a 60 ft (18 m). planetarium dome and produces laser shows, live concerts, and an on-going series of public programs. Fiske also offers a hands-on science museum with interactive exhibits and space-themed art. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315E Laptop Keyboard The University of Colorado at Boulder College of Music presents over 400 performances and educational events bringing together faculty, students, and guest artists each year through the Pendulum New Music Series. They present musical genres including classical, jazz, world music, and new music. The University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Theatre & Dance is home to the Charlotte York Irey Dance Theatre, the University Theatre, and the Loft Theatre. Over twenty productions are presented each year featuring student and faculty actors, dancers, choreographers, directors, and designers, as well as the work of professional guest artists. Student work is also showcased in the annual CU Boulder Fringe Festival, produced by OnStage, a student performing arts group. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard new visual arts complex that houses the Department of Art and Art History and the CU Art Museum officially opened on September 24, 2010. Serving as a gateway to the University's main campus this new facility houses programming in Art History, Ceramics, Drawing, Foundations, Integrated Art, Painting, Printmaking (screen printing,intaglio,lithography), ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard Sculpture and Integrated Media Arts Practices (IMAP); including Digital, Photography, and Video Art. This building features approximately 120,000 usable square feet of studio classrooms, seminar rooms, twenty-eight student exhibition spaces a state-of-the-art wood-shop with a CNC Machine and metal-shop, a 200-seat auditorium and resources for art and art history majors, including darkrooms, graduate student and faculty studios and offices, as well as twenty-eight student exhibition spaces throughout the facility.  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Additional resources include the Visual Resources Center, an expanded and modernized woodshop and metal shop, the Exhibitions Program of the CU Art Museum, the Colorado Collection (an art collection of approximately 5,000 pieces), the Art & Architecture Library (with over 100,000 volumes and over 500 journal subscriptions). In addition, the Department houses multiple computing labs with Macintosh computers and various graphics programs which are updated regularly. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M Laptop Keyboard The Alliance for Technology, Learning and Society (ATLAS), established in 1997, is a University of Colorado campus-wide initiative in education, research, creative work and outreach in which information and communication technology is the enabling force. ATLAS programs bring together students, educators, artists, writers, scholars and leaders from the academy, industry, non-profits and government to create a multidisciplinary environment that contributes to the understanding of the interaction of information and communication technologies and human society, and to the realization of the full potential of that interaction. HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr Laptop Keyboard Current ATLAS programs include a Technology, Media and Society Ph.D.; master's degree in Information and Communication Technology for Development; a Technology, Arts and Media undergraduate minor; a graduate certificate program called Boulder Digital Works, which is a multi-disciplinary, project-based program designed to provide skills needed by employees and entrepreneurs in the digital communication fields; the Center for Media, Arts and Performance; outreach partnerships with K-12 schools; and the headquarters of the National Center for Women and Information Technology.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard The University of Colorado Boulder is divided into several colleges and schools. While the College of Arts and Sciencesis by far the largest, the university also consists of the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the schools ofArchitecture and Planning, Education, Journalism and Mass Communication, Music, Law, and the Leeds School of Business. Most, if not all, of these colleges and schools also incorporate masters and doctorate level degree programs. At the University, there are currently approximately 3,400 courses available in over 150 disciplines comprising 85 majors ranging from Accounting to Women's Studies. Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard University of Colorado School of Law is the smallest and most selective of the colleges. The Wolf Law Building, the new home of the Law School, was dedicated on September 8, 2006, by United States Supreme Court justice Stephen Breyer. ACER Aspire 4750G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Leeds School of Business has an enrollment of 3,300 students including undergraduates, master's candidates, and Ph.D. candidates. The undergraduate program ranks 39th in the country and the undergraduate entrepreneurship program ranks 14th in the nation. The MBA program ranks 26th among all public universities. The faculty are ranked 38th in the nation according to the Academy of Management Journal. ASUS M51SN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan CU-Boulder adopted an honor code in 2000 following growing concerns about academic dishonesty on campus in the late 1990s.[23] A copy of the code stating "On my honor, as a University of Colorado at Boulder student, I have neither given nor received unauthorized assistance on this work" is engraved on a metal plate and posted in every classroom on campus. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad G550 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Undergraduates who seek an academic challenge may participate in CU's Honors Program. Begun in 1931, the Honors Program currently consists of the top ten percent of incoming freshmen and participating undergraduates with a 3.3 GPA or greater (on a 4.0 scale). The program offers over 40 honors classes each semester taught by tenured or tenure-track professors and limited to class sizes of 15 students. Honors students also have the opportunity to graduate with honors, high honors, and highest honors, Compaq Presario CQ60-155ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan by writing and defending a thesis during their senior year. The program extends into the residence halls through the Kittredge Honors Program. The Presidents Leadership Class is a program for top scholars at the University of Colorado Boulder. Scholars participate in a four-year leadership development program. The program provides opportunities to the top fifty students at CU from every major and discipline.  HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One option for students (mostly freshman and sophomores) living on campus is to join a residential academic program (RAP). Each RAP focuses on a curricular theme, and offer courses in the residence hall itself. The programs also include educational activities. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aerospace engineering was ranked 16th, the entrepreneurship program in the Leeds School of Business was tied for 18th, and the environmental engineering program was ranked 18th among public undergraduate specialty programs in U.S. News & World Report’s 2010 America’s Best Colleges issue. Sixteen CU-Boulder graduate school specialty programs were ranked in the top 50 in the nation, including four in the top 10, in U.S. News & World Report’s 2010 America’s Best Graduate Schools issue.  Toshiba Satellite M70-142 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The graduate specialty programs in the top 10 were atomic/molecular/optical physics (1), quantum physics (4), environmental law (6), and physical chemistry (10). The graduate specialty programs in the top 25 were business entrepreneurship (17), aerospace engineering (12), ceramics (14), geology (18), chemical engineering (19), environmental engineering (21), elementary education (22), and civil engineering (25). The graduate specialty programs in the top 50 were mechanical engineering (32), HP Pavilion dv7-3170el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan computer engineering (33), and electrical engineering (36). Fourteen CU-Boulder schools, colleges, and areas of study were ranked in the top 50 and three others were in the top 60 nationally in U.S. News & World Report’s 2010 Best Graduate Schools issue. They were physics (20), speech-language pathology (25), earth sciences (25), chemistry (28), psychology (29), biological sciences (33), education (38), computer science (39), political science (39), engineering (40), law (45), English (46),  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan math (48), economics (50), history (52), sociology (57), and the fine arts master’s degree (58). CU-Boulder ranks in the top five universities in the nation, excluding military academies, for astronaut alumni who have flown in space, with 17. CU-Boulder was ranked the “greenest” school in the nation by Sierra magazine in 2009, a move up from second place in 2008. CU-Boulder’s leadership in sustainability spans nearly six decades, with rigorous academic offerings in the Environmental Studies Program as well as the integration of environmental studies into other fields including architecture and planning, business, law,  FUJITSU Siemens Amilo Pro V2055 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan journalism and others. CU-Boulder offers 14 degree programs, nine majors, and four certificate programs in or related to environmental studies. Nine CU-Boulder doctoral programs were ranked in the top 10 in the nation in a faculty productivity index featured in the Chronicle of Higher Education in January 2007. The ranking, which was produced by Academic Analytics, rated the scholarly output of faculty members at more than 7,000 doctoral programs across the country. The CU-Boulder programs were geography (2),  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan physical oceanography (4), communication (6), cognitive science (7), atmospheric sciences (8), chemical engineering (8), biomedical engineering (9), civil and environmental engineering (9), and aerospace engineering science (4). The Deming Center for Entrepreneurship at CU Boulder’s Leeds School of Business was ranked in the top 20 business school programs by U.S. News & World Report. The Deming Center moved up three spots from last year to 17th place for its graduate school entrepreneurship program for the 2009–10 academic year. It has been ranked among the top 20 programs nationally for the last decade. HP G62-b50SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As of 2006, there were more than 3,800 tenured or tenure-eligible faculty members, as well as 4,400 non-tenured adjunct professors and instructors.[24] Current faculty include Nobel laureates David J. Wineland (physics 2012), John Hall (physics, 2005), Eric Cornell (physics, 2001), and Thomas Robert Cech (chemistry, 1989). Toshiba Satellite X205-SLi2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Carl Wieman was also awarded a Nobel prize for his work with Eric Cornell. He maintains a part-time appointment at the University of Colorado Boulder but his primary appointment is Professor and Director of the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia. Controversial writerWard Churchill was a professor of ethnic studies until July 2007.[25] Robert T. Craig an International Communication Association Fellow and author of "Communication Theory as a Field" is a professor in the Communication Department. HP Pavilion dv5-1033el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Campus Press was the University of Colorado Boulder's student newspaper before becoming the CU Independent in August 2008. It began as a weekly printed newspaper and became an online daily in 2006. The online edition features a weblog facility for students.  Gateway W340UI Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Campus Press staff amounted to approximately 60 editors, reporters and photographers, responsible for providing the online edition with new content at least once a day. Most contributors were members of the University's School of Journalism and Mass Communication, but most other schools are represented too. There were around 20 editors, including campus editors, responsible for editing stories' content; section editors, who constructed and assigned stories to their respective sections; and online editors, who update and maintain the website. A managing editor and an editor-in-chief oversee the production of daily online editions. Online editions include blogs, slide shows, commentary, news, sports. and features. HP Pavilion dv7-3128ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Campus Press was founded by Mal Deans. At the time of its conception, the paper published a printed edition every week. The paper was originally titled The Working Press. Dave Sikardi was the first student editor. The Campus Press was the first online newspaper in Colorado, beginning in April, 1994. HP Mini 210 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In August 2006, however, the Campus Press officially launched as an online-only newspaper, abolishing the print edition entirely. The move was not without controversy[citation needed], and the Campus Press's tagline on the website was edited from "CU's only independent student voice" to "CU's only student voice". The Campus Press stated that they became independent of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication and changed its name to the CU Independent. However, the School of Journalism and Mass Communication continued to host the publication's office space, supply them with computers and other resources, and retain the editors and adviser on payroll. The new website launched on January 12, 2009.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard CU Independent [26] is an affiliate of UWIRE,[27] which distributes and promotes its content to their network. The CU Independent is a daily online publication with a staff of about 100 writers and editors, that are representative of all schools on campus. HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard In spring of 2010, the CU Independent launched a revolutionary[citation needed] new program devoted to bringing awareness to issues of discrimination and celebrating instances of diversity on campus. The Speak Out! campaign restructures the traditional beat system to include stories tagged as discussing heterosexism, classism, sexism, ableism, body image, ethnocentrism, racism, and substance abuse; among other topics. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Starting in fall 2010, the opinion section of the publication has been hosting content written by guest contributors from organizations around campus. These pieces are editorials about upcoming events and their significance in promoting diversity at CU. The publication is a testing pad for many new instances of community news and multimedia. SAMSUNG BA59-02487A Laptop Keyboard The Center for Advanced Engineering and Technology Education (CAETE) is a partnership between the College of Engineering and Applied Science and the Division of Continuing Education and Professional Studies at the University of Colorado Boulder. As the distance learning and professional studies arm of the College of Engineering and Applied Science, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard CAETE provides courses from the College to working professionals via the Internet and CD-ROM. Students can take courses for professional development or toward earning a master's degree or graduate certificate (in some disciplines) in aerospace engineering, computer science,electrical, computer and energy engineering, engineering management, and telecommunications. Founded in 1983, CAETE currently receives over 1,000 enrollments a year from over 250 job sites in Colorado, across the nation, and abroad. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard The University of Colorado Student Government (CUSG) is the student government for the University of Colorado Boulder. The student government is currently affiliated with the higher education political group the United States Student's Association. The government contains three branches: executive, legislative, HP HDX18 Laptop Keyboard and judicial. Presiding officers for the student government are elected in a bi-annual vote administered to the 30,000 students at the University. The student government has an autonomy agreement with the University Administration and oversees an annual budget of $36.6 million dollars. CUSG is responsible for the management of the University Student Union, the Recreation Center, the GLBTQ Resource Center, the Women's Resource Center, and the Wardenburg Health Center, along with various other facilities on campus. The government also oversees the fiscal appropriations of over 120 student groups on a yearly basis. DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard Founded in May 1919, the Hiking Club is the longest running student organization at the University of Colorado Boulder.[33] It is a non-profit, student-run organization for university students and affiliates interested in hiking and outdoors activities, with hundreds of active members on campus. FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard The club organizes member-led trips every weekend, and travels throughout the Rocky Mountain Region during breaks to wilderness areas in New Mexico, Wyoming, and Utah.[33] Depending on the outing, a variety of activities are featured such as climbing, mountain biking, hot-springing, and backpacking. Examples of frequent trip destinations include the nearby Indian Peaks Wilderness, ascents of Colorado's fourteeners, and day-hikes among the picturesque Flatirons. ACER PK1307R1A01 Laptop Keyboard The club motto, "half mile more," dates back to the 1940s of the club's tradition-rich history.[33] A slide show[34] of the club's activities is shown on campus during semi-annual new member meetings and the alumni association meets annually. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Boulder Freeride is the ski and snowboard club at the University of Colorado Boulder. It was started in 1933, and has thrived on the CU campus as a student run, nonprofit organization.[36] It was designed to promote skiing, and later, snowboarding at the University of Colorado Boulder campus.[36] Boulder Freeride is the largest student group on campus, as well as the largest collegiate ski and snowboard club in the nation.[36]Toshiba Satellite L300-29X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boulder Freeride is active year-round.[36] Fall activities include a camping trip, BBQs, popular ski and snowboard movie premieres, and one of the year’s biggest events, Welcome Freeriders.[36]Boulder Freeride organizes a number of ski trips each year. Past trips have included a Thanksgiving trip to Steamboat Springs, CO, an annual trip to Aspen, COto see the X Games, spring break trips to Innsbruck, Austria, Whistler, BC and Chamonix, France, and summer surf trips to South America.[36]ASUS M51SN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Founded in 1986, the CU cycling team frequently ranks in the top five USA Cycling Collegiate teams in both road cycling and mountain biking disciplines. They have won the national championship on several occasions, including 2005 where they won in both disciplines.[37] From the club, many members have gone on into professional cycling, such as Tyler Hamilton. Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The team is open to any student who pays annual dues and meets a minimum amount of credits during the semester. The members include nearly every different type of cyclist, from BMX riders, trials, and bicycle commuters to elite amateur or part-time professional road and mountain riders. Specifically, to qualify for road or mountain nationals, a rider must have enough high race results to upgrade to "A" category in the USA Cycling rankings. Then, a number of "A" riders will be chosen by the coaches to represent CU at the National Championships. The number of riders the team allowed to send is based on how well the team did overall during the season.  HP Pavilion dv7-1011tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Established in 1953, Program Council is a student run group that coordinates concerts and movies played on campus throughout the year.[38] Program Council mainly focuses on organizing concerts around campus. Over the years, this group has brought such acts as The Rolling Stones, The Who, Dave Matthews Band, Pearl Jam,R.E.M., The Ramones, and many more to the University of Colorado. Concerts vary in size ranging from large scale concerts, to smaller local acts, some of which are free to attend. Besides concerts, Program Council also hosts a film series throughout the year which allows students to see soon-to-be-released movies as well as cult classics for free in one of the large lecture halls on campus. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5892 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Herd is one of the largest student alumni groups in the nation, with over 6,000 members.[39] The Herd's main goal is increasing school spirit. Therefore, the Herd encourages students to attend school activities such as sports games and club meetings. The Herd also sponsors discounted bus rides to the ski slopes, discounts around Boulder, and football pre-game parties. Sixteen student leaders run the group; the group is open to currently enrolled students.  HP Pavilion dv6-3085ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Volunteer Resource Center is a student funded organization aimed towards promoting volunteerism in the Boulder community. They provide a database with volunteer opportunities of 250 organizations around campus and in the Boulder area.[40] The CU-Boulder campus was recently one of 3 U.S. Universities to receive the Presidential Award for Exemplary Student Community Service in 2008.  Toshiba Satellite U400-11L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Volunteer Resource Center hosts or participates in special volunteer events and activities including Alternative Breaks, Better Boulder Better World, and The Buffalo Can Challenge. The Volunteer Resource Center also a yearly Volunteer Internship Program which engages six selected students through an interview process to create events aimed at involving more freshmen in volunteering, effectively managing all logistics of the event, and implementing the events on campus. HP Envy 14-1119tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sports teams at the school are called Buffaloes. The varsity athletic teams participate in the NCAA's Division I (FBS for football, see Bowl Championship Series) as a member of the Pacific-12 Conference. The school officially joined the Pac-12 on July 1, 2011, at which point its decades-long affiliation with what is now the Big 12 Conference (including years in its predecessor conference the Big Eight Conference, previously known as the Big Six, Big Seven, and the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association) ended.[41]Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard The official school colors are silver and gold, as opposed to the common belief of black and gold. Silver and gold were chosen to represent the state's mineral wealth, but the colors did not look good together on the uniforms, so black was substituted.[42] There are three official fight songs: "Glory Colorado," "Go Colorado," and "Fight CU." APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard In 1934, the University teams were officially nicknamed the "Buffaloes." Previous nicknames used by the press included the “Silver Helmets” and “Frontiersmen.” The final game of 1934, against the University of Denver, saw the first running of a buffalo in a Colorado football game. A buffalo calf was rented from a local ranch and ran along the sidelines. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard CU's varsity teams have won national championships in skiing, men’s cross country, women’s cross country, and football. Conference championships have also been won in several sports. Several club sports, such as cycling, swimming & diving, and triathlon, have won national championships in addition to the varsity teams. DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard In football, CU enjoys an in-state rivalry with the Colorado State Rams in the "Rocky Mountain Showdown", a game that is sometimes played at the neutral siteSports Authority Field at Mile High. Additionally, Colorado and former Big Eight and Big 12 rival Nebraska Cornhuskers have played some notable games, often finishing their respective seasons in nationally televised confrontations on the Friday following Thanksgiving since the 1990s. This ended after the 2010 season as a result of CU joining the Pac-12 and Nebraska joining the Big Ten Conference. SAMSUNG P28 Laptop Keyboard Colorado once had rivalries with the Utah Utes and the Air Force Falcons, but these have not been played in recent years. However, the Utah rivalry was renewed in 2011, as the Utes also joined the Pac-10 (which became the Pac-12).The CU ski team has won 18 National Championships at the Division I level. The sport is not sponsored by the Pac-12 Conference, however (nor was it sponsored by the Big 12). SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard CU also includes a spirit program. The spirit program consists of three teams: two Cheerleading squads, and the CU Express Dance Team. The Cheerleading Program consists of a competitive co-ed squad as well as a competitive all-girl squad. Both the Cheerleading squad and the Express Dance Team compete at NCA/NDA College Nationals. In 2007, the Cheerleading squad finished sixth at NCA Nationals in Daytona Beach, Florida. All squads support the home games of football, Women’s Basketball, Men’s Basketball and Women's Volleyball teams, along with other athletic and social events. HP Mini 110-3141ss Laptop Keyboard The school's live mascot is an American Bison named Ralphie.[43] The costumed mascot CHIP is also a part of the CU Spirit Program. CHIP is a costumed buffalo that represents the University of Colorado at numerous athletic and social events. Along with the Cheer and Dance Program, CHIP competes on a national level once a year against mascots from around the country, including Bucky Badger, Sparty, Aubie, Goldy Gopher and many other Hall of Fame mascots. Most recently CHIP competed in the 2009 UCA national competition and was crowned #1, and the national champion after performing a skit titled "CHIP's Favorite Video Games".Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The MacArthur Fellows Program or MacArthur Fellowship (nicknamed the Genius Grant) is an award given by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation each year to typically 20 to 40 United States citizens or residents, of any age and working in any field, who "show exceptional merit and promise for continued and enhanced creative work".DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard According to the Foundation's website, "the fellowship is not a reward for past accomplishment, but rather an investment in a person's originality, insight, and potential." The current amount of the award is $500,000, paid as quarterly installments over five years. As of 2007, there have been 756 recipients who have received a total of more than $350 million. Recipients have been as young as 18 and as old as 82.[1] The award has been called "one of the most significant awards that is truly 'no strings attached'"[2]DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard The Fellowship has no application. People are nominated anonymously by a body of nominators who submit recommendations to a small selection committee of about a dozen people, also anonymous. The committee then reviews every nominee and passes along their recommendations to the President and the board of directors. Most new MacArthur Fellows first learn that they have been considered when they receive the congratulatory phone call. An editorial published in The New York Timesby MacArthur Fellow James Collins describes the experience.[3]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electronic transition frequency in the microwave, optical, orultraviolet region[2] of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services, to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard The principle of operation of an atomic clock is not based on nuclear physics, but rather on atomic physics and using themicrowave signal that electrons in atoms emit when they change energy levels. Early atomic clocks were based on masers at room temperature. Currently, the most accurate atomic clocks first cool the atoms to near absolute zero temperature by slowing them with lasers and probing them in atomic fountains in a microwave-filled cavity. An example of this is theNIST-F1 atomic clock, the U.S. national primary time and frequency standard. HP Pavilion dv6-2140ef Laptop Keyboard The accuracy of an atomic clock depends on the temperature of the sample atoms—colder atoms move much more slowly, allowing longer probe times, as well as having reduced collision rates—and on the frequency and intrinsic width of the electronic transition. Higher frequencies and narrow lines increase the precision. DELL 01R28D Laptop Keyboard National standards agencies in most industrialized and semi-industrialized countries maintain an accuracy of 10−9 seconds per day (approximately 1 part in 1014), and a precision set by the radio transmitter pumping the maser. These clocks collectively define a continuous and stable time scale, International Atomic Time (TAI). For civil time, another time scale is disseminated, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). UTC is derived from TAI, but approximately synchronized, by using leap seconds, to UT1, which is based on actual rotations of the earth with respect to the solar time. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard The idea of using atomic transitions to measure time was first suggested by Lord Kelvin in 1879.[3] Magnetic resonance, developed in the 1930s by Isidor Rabi, became the practical method for doing this.[4] In 1945, Rabi first publicly suggested that atomic beam magnetic resonance might be used as the basis of a clock.[5] The first atomic clock was an ammonia maserdevice built in 1949 at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS, now NIST). It was less accurate than existing quartz clocks, but served to demonstrate the concept.[6] HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, was built by Louis Essen in 1955 at theNational Physical Laboratory in the UK.[7] Calibration of the caesium standard atomic clock was carried out by the use of the astronomical time scale ephemeris time (ET).[8] This led to the internationally agreed definition of the latest SI second being based on atomic time. Equality of the ET second with the (atomic clock) SI second has been verified to within 1 part in 1010.[9] The SI second thus inherits the effect of decisions by the original designers of the ephemeris time scale, determining the length of the ET second. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Since 1967, the International System of Units (SI) has defined the second as the duration of 9192631770cycles of radiation corresponding to the transition between two energy levels of the caesium-133 atom.[14] This definition makes the caesium oscillator the primary standard for time and frequency measurements, called the caesium standard. Other physical quantities, e.g., the volt and the metre, rely on the definition of the second in their own definitions.[15]DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard The actual time-reference of an atomic clock consists of an electronic oscillator operating at microwave frequency. The oscillator is arranged so that its frequency-determining components include an element that can be controlled by a feedback signal. The feedback signal keeps the oscillator tuned in resonancewith the frequency of the electronic transition of caesium or rubidium. HP G72-b49WM Laptop Keyboard The core of the atomic clock is a tunable microwave cavity containing the gas. In a hydrogen maser clock the gas emits microwaves (the gas mases) on a hyperfine transition, the field in the cavity oscillates, and the cavity is tuned for maximum microwave amplitude. Alternatively, in a caesium or rubidium clock, the beam or gas absorbs microwaves and the cavity contains an electronic amplifier to make it oscillate. For both types the atoms in the gas are prepared in one electronic state prior to filling them into the cavity. For the second type the number of atoms which change electronic state is detected and the cavity is tuned for a maximum of detected state changes. DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard Most of the complexity of the clock lies in this adjustment process. The adjustment tries to correct for unwanted side-effects, such as frequencies from other electron transitions, temperature changes, and the spreading in frequencies caused by ensemble effects. One way of doing this is to sweep the microwave oscillator's frequency across a narrow range to generate a modulated signal at the detector.  HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop Keyboard The detector's signal can then be demodulated to apply feedback to control long-term drift in the radio frequency. In this way, the quantum-mechanical properties of the atomic transition frequency of the caesium can be used to tune the microwave oscillator to the same frequency, except for a small amount of experimental error. When a clock is first turned on, it takes a while for the oscillator to stabilize. In practice, the feedback and monitoring mechanism is much more complex than described above. HP G42-384TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A number of other atomic clock schemes are in use for other purposes. Rubidium standard clocks are prized for their low cost, small size (commercial standards are as small as 400 cm3) and short-term stability. They are used in many commercial, portable and aerospace applications. Hydrogen masers (often manufactured in Russia) have superior short-term stability compared to other standards, but lower long-term accuracy. ACER Aspire 5541 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Often, one standard is used to fix another. For example, some commercial applications use a rubidium standard periodically corrected by a global positioning system receiver. This achieves excellent short-term accuracy, with long-term accuracy equal to (and traceable to) the U.S. national time standards. Toshiba Satellite A500-17X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The lifetime of a standard is an important practical issue. Modern rubidium standard tubes last more than ten years, and can cost as little as US$50.[citation needed] Caesium reference tubes suitable for national standards currently last about seven years and cost about US$35,000. The long-term stability of hydrogen maser standards decreases because of changes in the cavity's properties over time. Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The atomic beam standard is a direct extension of the Stern-Gerlach atomic splitting experiment. The atoms of choice are heated in an oven to create gas, which is collimated into a beam. This beam passes through a state-selector magnet A, where atoms of the wrong state are separated out from the beam. The beam is exposed to an RF field at or near the transition. ACER eMachines E725 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The beam then passes through a space before it is again exposed to the RF field. The RF field and a static homogeneous magnetic field from the C-field coil will change the state of the atoms. After the second RF field exposure the atomic beam passes through a second state selector magnet B, where the atom state being selected out of the beam at the A magnet is being selected. This way, the detected amount of atoms will relate to the ability to match the atomic transition. After the second state-selector a mass-spectrometer using an ionizer will detect the rate of atoms being received. TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Modern variants of this beam mechanism use optical pumping to transition all atoms to the same state rather than dumping half the atoms. Optical detection using scintillation can also be used. The most common isotope for beam devices is caesium (133Cs), but rubidium (87Rb) and thallium (205Tl) are examples of others used in early research. The frequency errors can be made very small for a beam device, or predicted (such as the magnetic field pull of the C-coil) in such a way that a high degree of repeatability and stability can be achieved. This is why an atomic beam can be used as a primary standard. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad T410 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The atomic gas cell standard builds on a confined reference isotope (often an alkali metal such as Rubidium (87Rb)) inside an RF cavity. The atoms are excited to a common state using optical pumping; when the applied RF field is swept over the hyperfine spectrum, the gas will absorb the pumping light, and a photodetector provides the response. The absorption peak steers the fly-wheel oscillator.  HP Pavilion dv7-3085dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A typical rubidium gas-cell uses a rubidium (87Rb) lamp heated to 108-110 degrees Celsius, and an RF field to excite it to produce light, where the D1 and D2 lines are the significant wavelengths. An 85Rb cell filters out the D1 line so that only the D2 line pumps the 87Rb gas cell in the RF cavity. SONY VGN-FE770G Laptop Keyboard Among the s

ignificant frequency pulling mechanisms inherent to the gas cell are wall-shift, buffer-gas shift, cavity-shift and light-shift. The wall-shift occurs as the gas bumps into the wall of the glass container. Wall-shift can be reduced by wall coating and compensation by buffer gas. The buffer gas shift comes from the reference atoms which bounce into buffer gas atoms such as neon and argon; these shifts can be both positive and negative. The cavity shift comes from the RF cavity, which can deform the resonance amplitude response; this depends upon cavity center frequency and resonator Q-value. Light-shift is an effect where frequency is pulled differently depending on the light intensity, which often is modulated by the temperature shift of the rubidium lamp and filter cell. Packard Bell Easynote TM05 Laptop Keyboard There are thus many factors in which temperature and aging can shift frequency over time, and this is why a gas cell standard is unfit for a primary standard, but can become a very inexpensive, low-power and small-size solution for a secondary standard or where better stability compared to crystal oscillators is needed, but not the full performance of a caesium beam standard. The rubidium gas standards have seen use in telecommunications systems and portable instruments. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The active maser standard is a development from the atomic beam standard in which the observation time was incremented by using a bounce-box. By controlling the beam intensity spontaneous emission will provide sufficient energy to provide a continuous oscillation, which is being tapped and used as a reference for a fly-wheel oscillator. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard The active maser is sensitive to wall-shift and cavity pulling. The wall-shift is mitigated by using PTFE coating (or other suitable coating) to reduce the effect. The cavity pulling effect can be reduced by automatic cavity tuning. In addition the magnetic field pulls the frequency. HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard While not being long-term stable as caesium beams, it remains one of the most stable sources available. The inherent pulling effects makes repeatability troublesome and does prohibits its use as being primary standard, but it makes an excellent secondary standard. It is used as low-noise fly-wheel standard for caesium beam standards. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Most research focuses on the often conflicting goals of making the clocks smaller, cheaper, more accurate, and more reliable. New technologies, such as femtosecond frequency combs, optical lattices and quantum information, have enabled prototypes of next generation atomic clocks. These clocks are based on optical rather than microwave transitions. A major obstacle to developing an optical clock is the difficulty of directly measuring optical frequencies. This problem has been solved with the development of self-referenced mode-locked lasers, commonly referred to as femtosecond frequency combs.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Laptop Keyboard Before the demonstration of the frequency comb in 2000, terahertz techniques were needed to bridge the gap between radio and optical frequencies, and the systems for doing so were cumbersome and complicated. With the refinement of the frequency comb these measurements have become much more accessible and numerous optical clock systems are now being developed around the world. ACER Aspire 4810TZ-4011 Laptop Keyboard Like in the radio range, absorption spectroscopy is used to stabilize an oscillator—in this case a laser. When the optical frequency is divided down into a countable radio frequency using a femtosecond comb, the bandwidth of the phase noise is also divided by that factor. Although the bandwidth of laser phase noise is generally greater than stable microwave sources, after division it is less. HP Mini 210-1019EG Laptop Keyboard The two primary systems under consideration for use in optical frequency standards are single ions isolated in an ion trap and neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice.[17] These two techniques allow the atoms or ions to be highly isolated from external perturbations, thus producing an extremely stable frequency reference. HP 432976-001 Laptop Keyboard Optical clocks have already achieved better stability and lower systematic uncertainty than the best microwave clocks.[17] This puts them in a position to replace the current standard for time, the caesium fountain clock. Atomic systems under consideration include Al+, Hg+/2+,[17] Hg, Sr, Sr+/2+, In+/3+, Mg, Ca, Ca+, Yb+/2+/3+ and Yb. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The rare-earth element ytterbium (Yb) is valued not so much for its mechanical properties but for its complement of internal energy levels. "A particular transition in Yb atoms, at a wavelength of 578 nm, currently provides one of the world's most accurate optical atomic frequency standards," said Marianna Safrono.[18] The most recent estimated amount of uncertainty achieved corresponds to a Yb clock uncertainty of about one second over the lifetime of the universe so far, 15 billion years. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard In March 2008, physicists at NIST described a quantum logic clock based on individual ions of beryllium and aluminium. This clock was compared to NIST's mercuryion clock. These were the most accurate clocks that had been constructed, with neither clock gaining nor losing time at a rate that would exceed a second in over a billion years.[19] In February 2010, NIST physicists described a second, enhanced version of the quantum logic clock based on individual ions of magnesiumand aluminium. Considered the world's most precise clock, it offers more than twice the precision of the original.[20] [21]Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard NIST-F1 is a cesium fountain clock or atomic clock in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) inBoulder, Colorado, and serves as the United States' primary time and frequency standard. The clock took less than four years to test and build, and was developed by Steve Jefferts and Dawn Meekhof of the Time and Frequency Division of NIST's Physical Measurement Laboratory.[1]HP Pavilion DV6-1337tx Laptop Keyboard The clock replaces NIST-7, a cesium beam atomic clock used from 1993 to 1999. NIST-F1 is ten times more accurate than NIST-7. NIST-F1 will be replaced by the NIST-F2.[1] The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, otherwise known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. The institute's official mission is to:[1] IBM 41W5269 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, andtechnology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life. NIST had an operating budget for fiscal year 2007 (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007) of about $843.3 million. NIST's 2009 budget was $992 million, but it also received $610 million as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.[2] NIST employs about 2,900 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support and administrative personnel. About 1,800 NIST associates (guest researchers and engineers from American companies and foreign nations) complement the staff. In addition, NIST partners with 1,400 manufacturing specialists and staff at nearly 350 affiliated centers around the country. NIST publishes the Handbook 44 that provides the "Specifications, tolerances, and other technical requirements for weighing and measuring devices".Toshiba Satellite A215-S7462 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1821 John Quincy Adams stated, "Weights and measures may be ranked among the necessities of life to every individual of human society",[3] but this had long been understood. The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, contained the clause, "The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States— ....". Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States (1789), transferred this power to Congress; "The Congress shall have power...To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures".SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In January 1790 President Washington, in his first annual message to Congress stated that, "Uniformity in the currency, weights, and measures of the United States is an object of great importance, and will, I am persuaded, be duly attended to", and ordered Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson to prepare a plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage,  ACER Aspire 5333 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Weights, and Measures of the United States, afterwards referred to as the Jefferson report. On October 25, 1791, Washington appealed a third time to Congress, "A uniformity of the weights and measures of the country is among the important objects submitted to you by theConstitution and if it can be derived from a standard at once invariable and universal, must be no less honorable to the public council than conducive to the public convenience", but it was not until 1838 that a uniform set of standards was worked out. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S1E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan NIST also operates a neutron science user facility: the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). The NCNR provides scientists access to a variety of neutron scattering instruments, which are used in many fields of research (materials science, fuel cells, biotechnology, etc.).  HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility is a source of synchrotron radiation, in continuous operation since 1961. SURF III now serves as the U.S. national standard for source-based radiometry throughout the generalized optical spectrum. All NASA-borne extreme-ultraviolet observation instruments have been calibrated at SURF since the 1970s, and SURF is used for measurement and characterization of systems for extreme ultraviolet lithography.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW130D/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) performs research in nanotechnology, both through internal research efforts and by running a user-accessible cleanroom nanomanufacturing facility. This "NanoFab" is equipped with tools forlithographic patterning and imaging (e.g., electron microscopes and atomic force microscopes).  HP Pavilion dv7-6152er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2002 the National Construction Safety Team Act mandated NIST to conduct an investigation into the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings 1 and 2 and the 47-story 7 World Trade Center. The "World Trade Center Collapse Investigation", directed by lead investigator Shyam Sunder,[11] covered three aspects, including a technical building and fire safety investigation to study the factors contributing to the probable cause of the collapses of the WTC Towers (WTC 1 and 2) and WTC 7. Toshiba Satellite P300-18M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan NIST also established a research and development program to provide the technical basis for improved building and fire codes, standards, and practices, and a dissemination and technical assistance program to engage leaders of the construction and building community in implementing proposed changes to practices, standards, and codes. HP Pavilion dv9755ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan NIST also is providing practical guidance and tools to better prepare facility owners, contractors, architects, engineers, emergency responders, and regulatory authorities to respond to future disasters. The investigation portion of the response plan was completed with the release of the final report on 7 World Trade Center on November 20, 2008. The final report on the WTC Towers – including 30 recommendations for improving building and occupant safety – was released on October 26, 2005.[12] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan NIST publishes the Handbook 44 each year after the annual meeting of the National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM). Each edition is developed through cooperation of the Committee on Specifications and Tolerances of the NCWM and theWeights and Measures Division (WMD) of the NIST. The purpose of the book is a partial fulfillment of the statutory responsibility for "cooperation with the states in securing uniformity of weights and measures laws and methods of inspection".DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard NIST has been publishing various forms of what is now the Handbook 44 since 1918 and began publication under the current name in 1949. The 2010 edition conforms to the concept of the primary use of the SI (metric) measurements recommended by theOmnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988.[9][10]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard  Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

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