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University of Copenhagen The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Danish: Københavns Universitet) is the oldest and second largest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University (1477). The university has more than 37,000 students, and more than 7,000 employees. The university has several campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the oldest located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has 2,800 foreign students of which about half are from Nordic countries. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Yale University, The Australian National University, and UC Berkeley, amongst others. The Academic Ranking of World Universities, compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, sees Copenhagen as the leading university in Scandinavia and the 40th ranked university in the world in 2010. It is also ranked 52nd in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[1][2][3][4] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard Moreover, In 2010, according to the University Ranking by Academic Performance,[5]the University of Copenhagen is the best university in Denmark and 47th university in the world. The university is generally understood to be one of Europe's leading research institutions. The university has had 8[6] alumni become Nobellaureates and 1 Turing Award recipient. HP Pavilion G6-1B79US Laptop Keyboard The university is governed by a board consisting of 11 members: 6 members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, 2 members are appointed by the scientific staff, 1 member is appointed by the administrative staff, and 2 members are appointed by the university students. The Rector, the prorector and the director of the university is appointed by the university board. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The rector in turn appoints directors of the different parts of the central administration and deans of the different faculties. The deans appoint heads of 50 departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads. Hence the university has no faculty governance, although there are elected Academic Boards at faculty level who advise the deans.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark. Between the closing of the Studium Generale in Lund in 1536 and the establishment of the University of Aarhus in the late 1920s, it was the only university in Denmark. The university became a centre of Roman Catholic theological learning, but also had faculties for the study of law,medicine, and philosophy. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The university was closed by the Church in 1531 to stop the spread of Protestantism, and re-established in 1537 by Christian III after the Lutheran Reformation and transformed into an evangelical-Lutheran seminary. Between 1675 and 1788, the university introduced the concept of degree examinations. An examination for theology was added in 1675, followed by law in 1736. By 1788, all faculties required an examination before they would issue a degree. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard In 1801, under the command of Admiral Horatio Nelson, the British fleet bombarded Copenhagen during the Battle of Copenhagen, destroying most of the university's buildings.[citation needed] By 1836, however, the new main building of the university was inaugurated amid extensive building that continued until the end of the century. The university library, the Zoological Museum, the Geological Museum, the Botanic Garden with greenhouses, and the Technical College were also established during this period. IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard Between 1842 and 1850, the faculties at the university were restructured. Starting in 1842, the University Faculty of Medicine and the Academy of Surgeons merged to form the Faculty of Medical Science, while in 1848 the Faculty of Law was reorganised and became the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Political Science. In 1850, the Faculty of Mathematics and Sciencewas separated from the Faculty of Philosophy. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The first female student was enrolled at the university in 1877. The university underwent explosive growth between 1960 and 1980. The number of students rose from around 6,000 in 1960 to about 26,000 in 1980, with a correspondingly large growth in the number of employees. Buildings built during this time period include the new Zoological Museum, the Hans Christian Ørstedand August Krogh Institutes, the campus centre on Amager Island, and the Panum Institute. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The new university statute instituted in 1970 involved democratisation of the management of the university. It was modified in 1973 and subsequently applied to all higher education institutions in Denmark. The democratisation was later reversed with the 2003 university reforms. Further change in the structure of the university from 1990 to 1993 made a Bachelor's degree programme mandatory in virtually all subjects. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Also in 1993, the law departments broke off from the Faculty of Social Sciences to form a separate Faculty of Law. In 1994, the University of Copenhagen designated environmental studies, north-south relations, andbiotechnology as areas of special priority according to its new long-term plan. Starting in 1996 and continuing to the present, the university planned new buildings, including for the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Humanities at Amager (Ørestaden), along with a Biotechnology Centre. By 1999, the student population had grown to exceed 35,000, resulting in the university appointing additional professors and other personnel. HP 407218-001 Laptop Keyboard In 2003, the revised Danish university law removed faculty, staff and students from the university decision process, creating a top-down control structure that has been described as absolute monarchy, since leaders are granted extensive powers while being appointed exclusively by higher levels in the organization.[9]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard In 2005, the Center for Health and Society (Center for Sundhed og Samfund - CSS) opened in central Copenhagen, housing the Faculty of Social Sciences and Institute of Public Health, which until then had been located in various places throughout the city. In May 2006, the university announced further plans to leave many of its old buildings in the inner city of Copenhagen, an area that has been home to the university for more than 500 years. The purpose of this has been to gather the university's many departments and faculties on three larger campuses in order to create a bigger, TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard more concentrated and modern student environment with better teaching facilities, as well as to save money on rent and maintenance of the old buildings. The concentration of facilities on larger campuses also allows for more inter-disciplinary cooperation; for example, the Departments of Political Science and Sociology are now located in the same facilities at CSS and can pool resources more easily. TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST2721 Laptop Keyboard In January 2007, the University of Copenhagen merged with the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Science. The two universities are now faculties under the University of Copenhagen, and are now known as the Faculty of Life Sciences and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5606 Laptop Keyboard In January 2012, the Faculty og Pharmaceutical Sciences and the veterinary third of the Faculty of Life Sciences merged with the Faculty of Health Sciences forming the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences - and the other two thirds of the Faculty of Life Sciences merged with the Faculty of Science. FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although many privately owned dormitories (kollegier in Danish) exist in Copenhagen, there are also five which are partially administered by the university. Only students who have passed at least two years of studies are considered for admission. These are normally referred to as the old dormitories, and they consist of Regensen, Elers' Kollegium, Borchs Kollegium,Hassagers Kollegium, and Valkendorfs Kollegium.  HP G62-a10EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Contrary to the tradition of most American dormitories, Danish dormitories in general, and the old dormitories in particular, only offer single rooms for rent, meaning no student has to share their room with others. SONY VGN-CS31S/V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities[14] published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Denmark and Scandinavia, the 7th best university in Europe, and is #40 in Top 500 World Universities rankings.[15] According to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011, the University of Copenhagen is ranked at 135rd overall[16] in the world and 70th[17] in Europe. In 2011 THE–QS World University Rankings list, the University of Copenhagen was ranked as 52nd.  HP Pavilion dv7-6135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university cooperates with universities around the world. In January 2006, the University of Copenhagen entered into a partnership of ten universities, along with the Australian National University, ETH Zürich, National University of Singapore, Peking University, University of California Berkeley, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, University of Tokyo and Yale University. The partnership is referred to as the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU). ACER Aspire 5715Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was born in Vesterbro, then a suburb of Copenhagen, on 14 November 1779. His father, a Schleswiger by birth, was at that time organist, and later became keeper, of the royal palace of Frederiksberg; he was a very brisk and cheerful man. The poet's mother, on the other hand, who was partly German by extraction, suffered from depression, which afterwards deepened into melancholy madness.  HP Pavilion dv6-3050es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Oehlenschläger and his sister Sofia were allowed their own way throughout their childhood, and were taught nothing, except to read and write, until their twelfth year. At the age of nine, Oehlenschläger began to make fluent verses. Three years later, while walking in Frederiksberg Gardens, he attracted the notice of the poet Edvard Storm, and the result of the conversation was that he received a nomination to the college called Posterity's High School, an important institution of which Storm was the principal. Storm himself taught the class of Scandinavian mythology, and thus Oehlenschläger received his earliest bias towards the poetical religion of his ancestors. Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Oehlenschläger was confirmed in 1795, and was to have been apprenticed to a tradesman in Copenhagen. To his great delight there was a hitch in the preliminaries, and he returned to his father's house. He now, in his eighteenth year, suddenly took up study with great zeal, but soon again abandoned his books for the stage, where he was offered a small position. In 1797 he made his appearance on the boards in several successive parts, but soon discovered that he possessed no real histrionic talent. The brothers Ørsted, DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan with whom he had formed an intimacy that proved quite profitable to him, persuaded him to quit the stage, and in 1800 he entered the University of Copenhagen as a student. He was doomed, however, to disturbance in his studies, first from the death of his mother, next from his inveterate tendency towards poetry, and finally from the First Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801, which, however, inspired a dramatic sketch (April the Second 1801) which is the first thing of the kind by Oehlenschläger that we possess. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the summer of 1802, when Oehlenschläger had an old Scandinavian romance, as well as a volume of lyrics, in the press, the young Norse philosopher, Henrik Steffens, came back to Copenhagen after a long visit to Schelling in Germany, full of new romantic ideas. His lectures at the university, in which Goethe and Schiller were revealed to the Danish public for the first time, created a great sensation. Steffens and Oehlenschläger met one day at Dreier's Club, HP Pavilion dv9730nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and after a conversation of sixteen hours the latter went home, suppressed his two coming volumes, and wrote at a sitting his splendid poem Guldhornene, in a manner totally new to Danish literature. The result of his new enthusiasm speedily showed itself in a somewhat hasty volume of poems, published in 1803, now chiefly remembered as containing the lovely piece called Sanct Hansaften-Spil. ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The next two years saw the production of several exquisite works, in particular the epic of Thors Reise til Jotunheim, the charming poem in hexameters called Langelandsreisen, and the bewitching piece of fantasy Aladdin (1805). At the age of twenty-six, Oehlenschläger was universally recognized, even by the opponents of the romantic revival, as the leading poet ofDenmark. He now collected his Poetical Writings in two volumes. He found no difficulty in obtaining a grant for foreign travel from the government,  Toshiba Qosmio G10 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and he left his native country for the first time, joining Steffens at Halle in August 1805. Here he wrote the first of his great historical tragedies, Hakon Jarl, which he sent off to Copenhagen, and then proceeded for the winter months to Berlin, where he associated with Humboldt, Fichte, and the leading men of the day, and met Goethe for the first time. HP Pavilion DV6-1018el Laptop Keyboard In the spring of 1806 he went on to Weimar, where he spent several months in daily intercourse with Goethe. The autumn of the same year he spent with Tieck in Dresden, and proceeded in December to Paris. Here he resided eighteen months and wrote his three famous masterpieces, Baldur hin Gode (1808), Palnatoke (1809), and Axel og Valborg (1810). Oehlenschläger had also made his own translation of Aladdin into German, adding some extra new material which does not appear in the 1805 edition; this revised version was published in Amsterdam in 1808. Ferruccio Busoni later used the text of this translation for the last (choral) movement of his Piano Concerto Op. 39. Later editions of Oehlenschläger's play do not contain this text.[2]TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard In July 1808 he left Paris and spent the autumn and winter in Switzerland as the guest of Madame de Staël at Coppet, in the midst of her circle of wits. In the spring of 1809 Oehlenschläger went to Rome to visit Bertel Thorvaldsen, and in his house wrote his tragedy of Correggio. He hurriedly returned to Denmark in the spring of 1810, partly to take the chair of aesthetics at the University of Copenhagen, partly to marry the sister-in-law of Rahbek, to whom he had been long betrothed. His first course of lectures dealt with his Danish predecessor Johannes Ewald, the second with Schiller. From this time forward his literary activity became very great; in 1811 he published the Oriental tale of Ali og Gulhyndi, and in 1812 the last of his great tragedies, Stærkodder. HP G62-460SD Laptop Keyboard His talent may be said to have culminated in the glorious cycle of verse-romances called Helge, published in 1814. The tragedy of Hagbarth og Signe, (1815), showed a distinct falling-off in style. In 1817 he went back to Paris, and published Hroars Saga and the tragedy of Fostbrødrene. In 1818 he was again in Copenhagen, and wrote the idyll of Den lille Hyrdedreng and the Eddaic cycle called Nordens Guder. His next productions were the tragedies of Erik og Abel (1820) and Væringerne i Miklagaard (1826) HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard and the epic of Hrolf Krake (1829). His last volumes were Tordenskjold (1833), Dronning Margrethe (1833), Sokrates (1835), Olaf den Hellige (1836), Knud den Store (1838), Dina (1842), Erik Glipping(1843), and Kiartan og Gudrun (1847). On his seventieth birthday, 14 November 1849, a public festival was arranged in his honor, and he was decorated by the king of Denmark under circumstances of great pomp. He died on 20 January 1850 and was buried in the cemetery of Frederiksberg. Immediately after his death hisRecollections were published in two volumes. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard With the exception of Ludvig Holberg, no Danish writer before 1870 has exercised so wide an influence as Oehlenschläger. His great work was to awaken in the breasts of his countrymen an enthusiasm for the poetry and religion of their ancestors, and this he performed to so complete an extent that his name remains to this day synonymous with Scandinavian romance.  TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard He supplied his countrymen with romantic tragedies at the very moment when all eyes were turned to the stage, and when the old-fashioned pieces were felt to be inadequate. His plays, partly no doubt in consequence of his own early familiarity with acting, fulfilled the stage requirements of the day, and were popular beyond all expectation. The earliest are the best: Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Oehlenschlager's dramatic masterpiece being, without doubt, his first tragedy, Hakon Jarl. In his poems and plays alike his style is limpid, elevated, profuse; his flight is sustained at a high pitch without visible excitement. His fluent tenderness and romantic zest have been the secrets of his extreme popularity. Although his inspiration came from Germany, he is not much like a German poet, except when he is consciously following Goethe; his analogy is rather to be found among English poets than his contemporaries. HP Pavilion dv6-2077la Laptop Keyboard His mission towards antiquity reminds us of Scott; he sometimes has touches of exquisite diction and of overwrought sensibility which recall Coleridge. In his wide ambition and profuseness he possessed some characteristics ofRobert Southey, although his style has far more vitality. With all his faults he was a very great writer, and one of the principal pioneers of the romantic movement in Europe. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard In 1829 he was publicly crowned with laurel as the "king of Nordic poetry" and the "Scandinavian King of Song" (by BishopEsaias Tegnér, who would be his Swedish parallel) in the cathedral of Lund, Sweden, based on a vast production of poetry, theatre plays and prose, inspired by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Gottlieb Fichte, and Friedrich von Schelling. (See also Jens Immanuel Baggesen) DELL F759C Laptop KeyboardHans Christian Ørsted (Danish: [hans kʰʁæsd̥jan ˈɶɐ̯sd̥ɛð]; often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 1777 – 9 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, an important aspect of electromagnetism. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century.[1] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard In 1824, Ørsted founded Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse (SNU), a society to disseminate knowledge of the natural sciences. He was also the founder of predecessor organizations which eventually became the Danish Meteorological Institute and the Danish Patent and Trademark Office. Ørsted was the first modern thinker to explicitly describe and name the thought experiment. A leader of the so-called Danish Golden Age, Ørsted was a close friend of Hans Christian Andersen and the brother of politician and jurist Anders Sandøe Ørsted, who eventually served as Danish prime minister (1853–54). SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard The oersted (Oe), the cgs unit of magnetic H-field strength, is named after him. Ørsted was born in Rudkøbing. As a young boy Ørsted developed his interest in science while working for his father, who owned a pharmacy.[2] He and his brother Anders received most of their early education through self-study at home, going to Copenhagen in 1793 to take entrance exams for the University of Copenhagen, where both brothers excelled academically. By 1796 Ørsted had been awarded honors for his papers in both aesthetics and physics. He earned his doctorate in 1799 for a dissertation based on the works of Kant entitled "The Architectonics of Natural Metaphysics".ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard In 1801 Ørsted received a travel scholarship and public grant which enabled him to spend three years travelling across Europe. InGermany he met Johann Wilhelm Ritter, a physicist who believed there was a connection between electricity and magnetism. This made sense to Ørsted since he believed in Kantian ideas about the unity of nature and that deep relationships existed between natural phenomena.[2]HP Mini 210-2145dx Laptop Keyboard Their conversations drew Ørsted into the study of physics. He became a professor at the University of Copenhagen in 1806 and continued his research with electric currents and acoustics. Under his guidance the University developed a comprehensive physics and chemistry program and established new laboratories.  GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard On 21 April 1820, during a lecture, Ørsted noticed a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when an electric current from a battery was switched on and off, confirming a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism.[3] His initial interpretation was that magnetic effects radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, as do light and heat. HP G61-430SL Laptop Keyboard Three months later he began more intensive investigations and soon thereafter published his findings, showing that an electric current produces a circular magnetic field as it flows through a wire. This discovery was not due to mere chance, since Ørsted had been looking for a relation between electricity and magnetism for several years. The special symmetry of the phenomenon was possibly one of the difficulties that retarded the discovery.[4]HP Mini 110-3130tu Laptop Keyboard It is sometimes claimed that Italian Gian Domenico Romagnosi was the first person who found a relationship between electricity and magnetism, about two decades before Ørsted's 1820 discovery of electromagnetism. However, Romagnosi's experiments did not deal with electric currents, and only showed that an electrostatic charge from a voltaic pile could deflect a magnetic needle.[5] His researches were published in two Italian newspapers and were largely overlooked by the scientific community.[6] Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ørsted's findings stirred much research into electrodynamics throughout the scientific community, influencing French physicistAndré-Marie Ampère's developments of a single mathematical formula to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors. Ørsted's work also represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy. HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Brøndsted was born at Fruering in Jutland. After studying at the University of Copenhagen (initially majoring in theology but moving to philology from 1802 onwards) he visited Paris in 1806 with his friend Georg Koes. After remaining there two years, they went together to Italy. Both were zealously attached to the study of antiquities and the tastes and interests they held in common led them, in 1810, to join an expedition to Greece with Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, Carl Haller von Hallerstein, the German painter Jakob Linckh, and the then Austrian consul in Greece George Christian Gropius. Unexpectedly, the following year, Koes died on Zante at the age of 29 of pneumonia. COMPAQ nx6325 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The group went its separate ways in order to carry out excavations at different places. Whilst one uncovered the Temple of Zeus on Aegina and the temple of Apollo at Bassae in Arcadia, Brøndsted and Linckh in the winter of 1811/12 led the excavations of the shrine of Apollo at Katheira on Ceos. Brøndsted was the first Dane who was involved in archeological work in Greece. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard After three years of active researches in Greece, Brøndsted returned to Copenhagen in 1813, where, as a reward for his labours, he was appointed extraordinary professor of Greek and philology in the university. He married Frederikke, Koes's sister, who died after the birth of their third child. During these years, Brøndsted gathered and organized the notes and materials he had brought out of Greece. His lectures awakened great interest in many students, who even after his death sent out even more Danish expeditions to the Mediterranean world under his successor Ussing (Lindos on Rhodos). Packard Bell Easynote TM80 Laptop Keyboard However, as he began to arrange and prepare for publication the vast materials he had collected during his travels, he found that Copenhagen did not afford him the desired facilities, and so he exchanged his professorship for the office of Danish envoy at the papal court in 1818, and took up residence in Rome. In 1820 and 1821 he visited Sicily and the Ionian Islands to collect additional materials for his great work. Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard In 1826 he went to London, chiefly with a view to studying the Elgin Marbles and other remains of antiquity in the British Museum, and became acquainted with the principal archaeologists of England. From 1828–1832 he resided in Paris, to superintend the publication of his Travels, and then returned to Copenhagen on being appointed director of the museum of antiquities and the collection of coins and medals. In 1842 he became rector of the university; but a fall from his horse caused his death on the 26 June. HP Compaq G50-104NR Laptop Keyboard His principal work was the Travels and Archaeological Researches in Greece (in German and French, 1826-1830), of which only two volumes were published, dealing with the island of Ceos and the metopes of the Parthenon. Grundtvig. He was brought up in a very religious atmosphere, although his mother also had great respect for old Norse legends and traditions. He was schooled in the tradition of the European Enlightenment, but his faith in reason was shaken by Germanromanticism and the history of the Nordic countries.[1]SONY VAIO VGN-FS315E Laptop Keyboard In 1791 he was sent to live at the house of a pastor in Jutland, Laurids Feld, and studied at the Cathedral School of Aarhusfrom 1798 until he graduated. He left for Copenhagen in 1800 to study theology and was accepted to the University of Copenhagenin 1801.[2][3] At the close of his university life, Grundtvig began to study Icelandic and the Icelandic Sagas. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard From 1813 to 1815, he attempted to form a movement to support the Norwegians against the Swedes. Later he preached on how the weakness of the Danish faith was the cause of the loss of Norway in 1814. His sermon was met by an enthusiastic congregation in Copenhagen. Grundtvig withdrew from the pulpit because of lacking his own parish, and being barred by other churches.[13]In 1821 he resumed preaching briefly when granted the country living of Præstø, and returned to the capital the year after. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 1825 Grundtvig published a pamphlet, The Church's Rejoinder (Kirkens Gienmæle), a response to Henrik Nicolai Clausen's work on the doctrines, rites and constitutions of Protestantism and Catholicism. A professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen, Clausen argued that although the Bible was the principal foundation of Christianity, it was in itself an inadequate expression of its full meaning. He described the church as a "community for the purpose of advancing general religiousness."[14] ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard In his reply, Grundtvig denounced Clausen as an anti-Christian teacher and argued that Christianity was not a theory to be derived from the Bible and elaborated by scholars. He questioned the right of theologians to interpret the Bible.[15][16] Grundtvig was publicly prosecuted for libel and fined. The Lutheran Church forbade him to preach for seven years. During this time he published a collection of theological works, visited England three times (1829–31), and studiedAnglo-Saxon.[11] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In 1832 Grundtvig obtained permission to preach again. In 1839 he was called as pastor of the workhouse church of Vartov hospital, Copenhagen, a post he held until his death. Between 1837 and 1841 he published Sang-Værk til den Danske Kirke (Song Work for the Danish Church), a rich collection of sacred poetry; in 1838 he brought out a selection of early Scandinavian verse; in 1840 he edited the Anglo-Saxon poem "The Phoenix", with a Danish translation. In 1843 he visited England for a fourth time. SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M Laptop Keyboard From 1844 until after the First Schleswig War, Grundtvig took a prominent part in politics, developing from a conservative into an absolute liberal. In 1861 he received the titular rank of bishop, but without a see. He continued to write and publish until his death, and preached in Vartov every Sunday until a few days before his death. HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr Laptop Keyboard His preaching attracted large congregations, and he soon had a following. His hymn book effected a great change in Danish church services, substituting thehymns of the national poets for the slow measures of the orthodox Lutherans. In all Grundtvig wrote or translated about 1500 hymns, including "God's Word Is Our Great Heritage". IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard In 1805 Grundtvig took a position of tutor in a house on the island of Langeland. The next three years he used his free time to study writers Shakespeare, Schiller, Schelling and Fichte.[4] In 1802 his cousin, the philosopher Henrich Steffens, returned toCopenhagen full of the teaching of Schelling. His lectures and the early poetry of Adam Oehlenschläger opened Grundtvig's eyes to the new era in literature.[5] His first work, On the Songs in the Edda, attracted no attention. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Returning to Copenhagen in 1808, Grundtvig achieved greater success with his Northern Mythology, and again in 1809 with a long drama, The Fall of the Heroic Life in the North. Grundtvig boldly denounced the clergy of the city in his first sermon in 1810.[6] When Grundtvig published the sermon three weeks later it offended the ecclesiastical authorities, and they demanded him punished.[6][7]HP Pavilion dv6-2110el Laptop Keyboard In 1810 Grundtvig underwent a religious crisis and converted to a strongly held Lutheranism. He retired to his father's country parish in Udby as his chaplain.[8] His new-found conviction was expressed in his The First World Chronicle (Kort Begreb af Verdens Krønike i Sammenhæng) of 1812, a presentation of European history in which he attempted to explain how God is throughout human history and in which he criticized the ideology of many prominent Danes.[9][10] It won him notoriety among his peers and cost him several friends, notably the historian Christian Molbech.[10] Upon his father's death in 1813, Grundtvig applied to be his successor in the parish but was rejected.[11]HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard In the following years his rate of publication was staggering: aside from a continuing stream of articles and poems, he wrote a number of books, including two more histories of the world (1814 and 1817); the long historical poem Roskilde-Riim (Rhyme of Roskilde) (1813); and a book-sized commentary, Roskilde Saga.[12]From 1816 to 1819 he was editor of and almost sole contributor to a philosophical and polemical journal entitled Danne-Virke, which also published poetry.[9] Toshiba Satellite M70-142 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Grundtvig is the ideological father of the folk high school, though his own ideas on education had another focus. He advocated reforming the ailing Sorø Academyinto a popular school aiming at another form of higher education than what was common at the university. Rather than educating learned scholars, he believed the university should educate its students for active participation in society and popular life. Thus practical skills as well as national poetry and history should form an essential part of the instruction. HP Pavilion dv7-3170el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This idea came very close to implementation during the reign of Christian VIII, whose wife Caroline Amalie was an ardent supporter of Grundtvig. The death of the monarch in 1848 and the dramatic political development in Denmark during this and the following years put an end to these plans. At the time, however, Kristen Kold, one of Grundtvig's followers, had already established the first folk high school.  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Grundtvig's ambitions for school reform were not limited to the popular folk high school. He also dreamed of forming a Great Nordic University (the School for Passion) to be situated at the symbolic point of intersection between the three Scandinavian countries in Gothenburg, Sweden. The two pillars of his school program, the School for Life (folk high school) and the School for Passion (university) were aimed at quite different horizons of life. The popular education should mainly be taught within a national and patriotic horizon of understanding, yet always keeping an open mind towards a broader cultural and intercultural outlook, while the university should work from a strictly universal, i.e. humane and scientific, outlook.  FUJITSU Siemens Amilo Pro V2055 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The common denominator of all Grundtvig's paedagogical efforts was to promote a spirit of freedom, poetry and disciplined creativity, within all branches of educational life. He promoted values such as wisdom, compassion, identification and equality. He opposed all compulsion, including exams, as deadening to the human soul. Instead Grundtvig advocated unleashing human creativity according to the universally creative order of life. Only willing hands make li  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1815 Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin published the first edition of the Epic of Beowulf titled De Danorum rebus gestis secul. III & IV : Poëma Danicum dialecto Anglosaxonica in a Latin translation. Despite his lack of knowledge of Anglo-Saxon literature, Grundtvig quickly discovered a number of flaws in Thorkelin's rendering of the poems. After a heated debate with Thorkelin, Johan Bülow, who had sponsored Thorkelin's work, offered to support a new translation by Grundtvig - this time into Danish. The result, Bjovulfs Drape (1820), was the first modern language translation of Beowulf. HP G62-b50SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Grundtvig went on to explore the extensive literature of the Anglo-Saxons which survived in Old English and Latin. In both poetry and prose, it revealed the spirituality of the early Church in the North. Grundtvig was very influenced by these ancient models of Christian and historical thought (notably the 8th-century Bede's Ecclesiastical History, written in Latin). Using the resources of the Royal Library in Copenhagen and of the libraries of Exeter, Oxford and Cambridge in three successive summer visits to England (1829–31), Toshiba Satellite X205-SLi2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he went on to make transcriptions of two of the four great codices of Anglo-Saxon poetry: theExeter Book and the codex designated Junius 11 in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Although he thought to publish them, this project was never realized. Beowulfand Anglo-Saxon literature continued to be a major source of inspiration to Grundtvig. It had a wide-ranging influence upon his work.[17]HP Pavilion dv5-1033el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho Brahe (14 December 1546 – 24 October 1601), born Tyge Ottesen Brahe,[1][2][3][4] was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in Scania, then part of Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden. Tycho was well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist.  Gateway W340UI Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his De nova stella (On the new star) of 1573, he refuted the Aristotelian belief in an unchanging celestial realm. His precise measurements indicated that "new stars" (stellae novae, now known as supernovae), in particular that of 1572, lacked the parallax expected in sub-lunar phenomena, and were therefore not "atmospheric" tail-less comets as previously believed, but occurred above the atmosphere and moon. Using similar measurements he showed that comets were also not atmospheric phenomena, as previously thought, and must pass through the supposedly "immutable" celestial spheres.[5]HP Pavilion dv7-3128ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As an astronomer, Tycho worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into his own model of the universe, the Tychonic system. Furthermore, he was the last of the major naked eye astronomers, working without telescopes for his observations. HP Mini 210 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho Brahe was granted an estate on the island of Hven and the funding to build the Uraniborg, an early research institute, where he built large astronomical instruments and took many careful measurements, and later Stjerneborg, underground, when he discovered that his instruments in the former were not sufficiently steady. Something of an autocrat on the island he nevertheless founded manufactories such as paper-making to provide material for printing his results. After disagreements with the new Danish king in 1597, HP Pavilion dv6-2066dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he was invited by the Bohemian king and Holy Roman emperor Rudolph II to Prague, where he became the official imperial astronomer. He built the new observatory at Benátky nad Jizerou. Here, from 1600 until his death in 1601, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler who later used Tycho's astronomical data to develop Kepler's laws of planetary motion. HP 535766-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho was born at his family's ancestral seat of Knutstorp Castle (Danish: Knudstrup borg; Swedish: Knutstorps borg),[6]about eight kilometres north of Svalöv in then Danish Scania, now Swedish, to Otte Brahe (of the Brahe family) and Beate Bille (of the Bille family). His twin brother died before being baptized. Tycho wrote a Latin ode to his dead twin,[7] which was printed in 1572 as his first published work. He also had two sisters, one older (Kirstine Brahe) and one younger (Sophia Brahe).  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Otte Brahe, Tycho's father, was a nobleman and an important figure at the court of the Danish king. His mother, Beate Bille, came from an important family that had produced leading churchmen and politicians. Both parents are buried under the floor of Kågeröd Church, four kilometres east of Knutstorp. An epitaph, originally from Knutstorp, but now on a plaque near the church door, shows the whole family, including Tycho as a boy. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Tycho later wrote that when he was around age two, his uncle, Danish nobleman Jørgen Thygesen Brahe, "without the knowledge of my parents took me away with him while I was in my earliest youth to become a scholar". Apparently, this did not lead to dispute, nor did his parents attempt to get him back. According to one source,[8] Tycho's parents had promised to hand over a boy child to Jørgen and his wife, who were childless, but had not honoured this promise. Jørgen seems to have taken matters into his own hands and took the child away to his own residence, Tosterup Castle. HP HDX18 Laptop Keyboard DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard Tycho attended Latin school from ages 6 to 12, but the name of the school is not known. It is also thought he may have been taught by a private tutor between these ages. At age 12, on 19 April 1559, Tycho began studies at the University of Copenhagen. There, following his uncle's wishes, he studied law, but also studied a variety of other subjects and became interested in astronomy. The solar eclipse of 21 August 1560, especially the fact that it had been predicted,[9]so impressed him that he began to make his own studies of astronomy, FUJITSU Lifebook T4220 Laptop Keyboard helped by some of the professors. He purchased an ephemeris and books on astronomy, including Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera mundi, Petrus Apianus's Cosmographia seu descriptio totius orbis and Regiomontanus's De triangulis omnimodis. Jørgen Thygesen Brahe, however, wanted Tycho to educate himself in order to become a civil servant, and sent him on a study tour of Europe in early 1562. Tycho was given the 19-year-old Anders Sørensen Vedel as mentor, whom he eventually talked into allowing the pursuit of astronomy during the tour.[10]ACER PK1307R1A01 Laptop Keyboard Tycho realized that progress in astronomy required systematic, rigorous observation, night after night, using the most accurate instruments obtainable. This program became his life's work. Tycho improved and enlarged existing instruments, and built entirely new ones. His sister Sophia assisted Tycho in many of his measurements. Tycho was the last major astronomer to work without the aid of a telescope, soon to be turned skyward by Galileo and others. Tycho jealously guarded his large body of celestial measurements, which Kepler took under his care following Tycho's death.[11]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard While studying at University of Rostock in Germany, on 29 December 1566 Tycho lost part of his nose in a sword duel against fellow Danish nobleman (and his third cousin), Manderup Parsberg.[12][13] Tycho had earlier quarrelled with Parsbjerg over the legitimacy of a mathematic formula, at a wedding dance at professor Lucas Bachmeister's house on the 10th, and again on the 27th. Since neither had the resources to prove the other wrong, they ended up resolving the issue with a duel.[14]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Though the two later reconciled, the duel two days later (in the dark) resulted in Tycho losing the bridge of his nose.[13] From this event Tycho became interested in medicine and alchemy.[12] For the rest of his life, he was said to have worn a replacement made of silver and gold,[12] using apaste or glue to keep it attached.[13] Some people, such as Fredric Ihren and Cecil Adams, have suggested that the false nose also had copper. Ihren wrote that when Tycho's tomb was opened on June 24, 1901 green marks were found on his skull, suggesting copper.[13] Toshiba Satellite L300-29X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Cecil Adams also mentions a green colouring and that medical experts examined the remains.[15] Some historians have speculated that he wore different prosthetics for different occasions, noting that a copper nose would have been more comfortable and less heavy than a precious metal one.[2] Nonetheless, in November 2012, Danish and Czech researchers, after chemically analyzing "a small bone sample from the nose" from the body exhumed in 2010, reported the prosthetic was "made out of brass".[16] Towards the end of 1571, Tycho fell in love with Kirsten, daughter of Jørgen Hansen, the Lutheran minister in Knudstrup.[17] ASUS M51SN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan She was a commoner, and Tycho never formally married her. However, under Danish law, when a nobleman and a common woman lived together openly as husband and wife, and she wore the keys to the household at her belt like any true wife, their alliance became a binding morganatic marriage after three years. The husband retained his noble status and privileges; the wife remained a commoner. Their children were legitimate in the eyes of the law, but they were commoners like their mother and could not inherit their father's name, coat of arms, or landholdings.[18] However, Kirsten and Tycho's children were later testified as legitimate by Tycho's younger sister, Sophie. ACER Aspire 4750G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kirsten Jørgensdatter gave birth to their first daughter, Kirstine (named after Tycho's late sister, who died at 13) on October 12, 1573. Together they had eight children, six of whom lived to adulthood. In 1574, they moved to Copenhagen where their daughter Magdalene was born. Kirsten and Tycho lived together for almost thirty years until Tycho's death. ASUS M51SN Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho suddenly contracted a bladder or kidney ailment after attending a banquet in Prague, and died eleven days later, on 24 October 1601. According to Kepler's first hand account, Tycho had refused to leave the banquet to relieve himself because it would have been a breach of etiquette.[23][24] After he had returned home he was no longer able to urinate, except eventually in very small quantities and with excruciating pain. The night before he died he suffered from a delirium during which he was frequently heard to exclaim that he hoped he would not seem to have lived in vain.[25] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad G550 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Before dying, he urged Kepler to finish the Rudolphine Tables and expressed the hope that he would do so by adopting Tycho's own planetary system, rather than that of Copernicus. It was reported that Brahe himself had written his own epitaph, stating "He lived like a sage and died like a fool".[26] A contemporary physician attributed his death to a kidney stone, but no kidney stones were found during an autopsy performed after his body was exhumed in 1901, and the 20th century medical assessment is that it is more likely to have resulted from uremia.[27]Compaq Presario CQ60-155ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Recent investigations have suggested that Tycho did not die from urinary problems but instead from mercury poisoning—extremely toxic levels of it have been found in hairs from his moustache. This may have even been due to the various metals used to create his prosthetic noses. The results were, however, not conclusive.  HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some modern theories suggest that due to the discovery of the mercury in his body, it is possible he was intentionally or unintentionally poisoned. The two main suspects are his assistant, Johannes Kepler, whose motives would be to gain access to Brahe's laboratory and chemicals, and his cousin, Erik Brahe, at the order of friend-turned-enemy Christian IV due to rumors at the time that Tycho had had an affair with Christian's mother.[28][29]Toshiba Satellite M70-142 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Prague City Hall approved a request by Danish scientists to exhume the remains in February 2010, and a team of Czech and Danish scientists from Aarhus University arrived in November 2010, to take bone, hair and clothing samples for analysis.[30][31][32] The scientists, led by Dr Jens Vellev, analyzed Tycho's beard hair once again. The team reported in November 2012 that not only was there not enough mercury present to substantiate murder, but that there were no lethal levels of any poisons present. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard The team's conclusions was that "it is impossible that Tycho Brahe could have been murdered" [33][34] and "most likely died of a burst bladder".[16] The findings were confirmed by scientist from University of Rostock who examined a sample of Brahe's beard hairs that had been taken in 1901. Although traces of mercury were found, these were present only in the outer scales. Therefore a mercury poisoning as the cause of death was ruled out while the study suggests that the accumulation of mercury may have come from the "precipitation of mercury dust from the air during [Brahe's] long-term alchemistic activities."[35]APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Tycho was said[by whom?] to own one percent of the entire wealth of Denmark at one point in the 1580s.[19][better source needed] Tycho often held large social gatherings in his castle.[20] Pierre Gassendi wrote that Tycho also had a tame elk (moose) and that his mentor the Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel (Hesse-Cassel) asked whether there was an animal faster than a deer.[13] Tycho replied, writing that there was none, but he could send his tame elk. When Wilhelm replied he would accept one in exchange for a horse, Tycho replied with the sad news that the elk had just died on a visit to entertain a nobleman atLandskrona. Apparently during dinner[21] the elk had drunk a lot of beer, fallen down the stairs, and died.[13][22]DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard On 11 November 1572, Tycho observed (from Herrevad Abbey) a very bright star, now named SN 1572, which had unexpectedly appeared in the constellation Cassiopeia. Because it had been maintained since antiquity that the world beyond the Moon's orbit was eternally unchangeable (celestial immutability was a fundamental axiom of the Aristotelian world-view), other observers held that the phenomenon was something in the terrestrial sphere below the Moon. However, in the first instance Tycho observed that the object showed no daily parallax against the background of the fixed stars. SAMSUNG P28 Laptop Keyboard This implied it was at least farther away than the Moon and those planets that do show such parallax. He also found the object did not

change its position relative to the fixed stars over several months as all planets did in their periodic orbital motions, even the outer planets for which no daily parallax was detectable. This suggested it was not even a planet, but a fixed star in the stellar sphere beyond all the planets. In 1573 he published a small book, De nova stella[37] SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard thereby coining the term nova for a "new" star (we now classify this star as a supernova and we know that it is 7500 light-years from Earth). This discovery was decisive for his choice of astronomy as a profession. Tycho was strongly critical of those who dismissed the implications of the astronomical appearance, writing in the preface to De nova stella: "O crassa ingenia. O caecos coeli spectatores" ("Oh thick wits. Oh blind watchers of the sky").HP Mini 110-3141ss Laptop Keyboard Tycho's discovery was the inspiration for Edgar Allan Poe's poem "Al Aaraaf".[38] In 1998, Sky & Telescope magazine published an article by Donald W. Olson, Marilynn S. Olson and Russell L. Doescher arguing, in part, that Tycho's supernova was also the same "star that's westward from the pole" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1574, Tycho published the observations made in 1572 from his first observatory atHerrevad Abbey. He then started lecturing on astronomy, but gave it up and left Denmark in spring 1575 to tour abroad. He first visited William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel's observatory at Kassel, then went on to Frankfurt, Basel and Venice. Upon his return he intended to relocate to Basel, but King Frederick II of Denmark, desiring to keep the distinguished scientist, offered Tycho the island of Hven in Oresund and funding to set up an observatory. Tycho built the observatory Uraniborg on Hven in 1576 (with a laboratory for his alchemical experiments in its cellar) and thenStjerneborg nearby in 1581.[12] Unusual for the time, Tycho established Uraniborg as a research centre, where almost 100 students and artisans worked from 1576 to 1597.[39][40]DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard After Frederick died in 1588 and his 11-year-old son, Christian IV, succeeded him, Tycho's influence steadily declined. After several unpleasant disagreements, Tycho left Hven in 1597. The instruments he had used in Uraniborg and Stjerneborg were depicted and described in detail in his book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica, first published in 1598. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard He moved to Prague in 1599. Sponsored by Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Tycho built a new observatory in a castle in Benátky nad Jizerou, 50 km from Prague, and worked there for one year. The emperor then brought him back to Prague, where he stayed until his death. Tycho received financial support from several nobles in addition to the emperor, including Oldrich Desiderius Pruskowsky von Pruskow, to whom he dedicated his famous "Mechanica". In return for their support, Tycho's duties included preparing astrological charts and predictions for his patrons on events such as births,weather forecasting, and astrological interpretations of significant astronomical events, such as the supernova of 1572 (sometimes called Tycho's supernova) and the Great Comet of 1577.[41] HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard The year 1588, which saw the death of his royal benefactor, saw also the publication of a volume of Tycho's great work Astronomiæ Instauratæ Progymnasmata or "Introduction to the New Astronomy". The first volume, devoted to the new star of 1572, was not ready, because the reduction of the observations of 1572-3 involved so much research to correct the star places for refraction, precession, the motion of the sun etc., and was not completed in Tycho's lifetime, but the second volume, devoted to the comet of 1577, HP Pavilion DV6-1000 Laptop Keyboard was printed at Uraniborg and some copies were issued in 1588. Besides the comet observations it included an account of Tycho's system of the world.[42] The third volume was to treat the comets of 1580 and following years in a similar manner, but it was never published, nor even written, though a great deal of material about the comet of 1585 was put together and first published in 1845 with the observations of this comet.[43]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Tycho's observations of stellar and planetary positions were noteworthy both for their accuracy and quantity.[44] His celestial positions were much more accurate than those of any predecessor or contemporary. Rawlins (1993, §B2) asserts of Tycho's Star Catalog D, "In it, Tycho achieved, on a mass scale, a precision far beyond that of earlier catalogers. Cat D represents an unprecedented confluence of skills: instrumental, observational, & computational—all of which combined to enable Tycho to place most of his hundreds of recorded stars to an accuracy of ordermag 1'!" SAMSUNG BA59-02487A Laptop Keyboard He aspired to a level of accuracy in his estimated positions of celestial bodies of being consistently within 1 arcminute of their real celestial locations, and also claimed to have achieved this level. But in fact many of the stellar positions in his star catalogues were less accurate than that. The median errors for the stellar positions in his final published catalog were about 1'.5, indicating that only half of the entries were more accurate than that, with an overall mean error in each coordinate of around 2'.[45][46] HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Although the stellar observations as recorded in his observational logs were more accurate, varying from 32.3" to 48.8" for different instruments,[47] systematic errors of as much as 3' were introduced into some of the stellar positions Tycho published in his star catalog - due for instance, to his application of an erroneous ancient value of parallax and his neglect of polestar refraction.[48] Incorrect transcription in the final published star catalogue, by scribes in Brahe's employ, was the source of even larger errors, sometimes by many degrees.[49]DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard After Tycho's death, Kepler used his records of the motion of Mars to deduce his own laws of planetary motion.[50] Kepler's application of these two laws to obtain astronomical tables of unprecedented accuracy (the Rudolphine Tables)[51] provided powerful support for his heliocentric model of the solar system.[52]HP G72-b49WM Laptop Keyboard Celestial objects observed near the horizon and above appear with a greater altitude than the real one, due to atmosphericrefraction, and one of Tycho's most important innovations was that he worked out and published the very first tables for the systematic correction of this possible source of error. But as advanced as they were, they attributed no refraction whatever above 45 degrees altitude for solar refraction, and none for starlight above 20 degrees altitude.[53]DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard To perform the huge number of multiplications needed to produce much of his astronomical data, Tycho relied heavily on the then-new technique ofprosthaphaeresis, an algorithm for approximating products based on trigonometric identities that predated logarithms.  HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop Keyboard Tycho was not a Copernican, but proposed a "geo-heliocentric" system in which the Sun and Moon orbited the Earth, while the other planets orbited the Sun. His system provided a safe position for astronomers who were dissatisfied with older models but were reluctant to accept the Earth's motion. It gained a considerable following after 1616 when Rome decided officially that the heliocentric model was contrary to both philosophy and Scripture, and could be discussed only as a computational convenience that had no connection to fact. HP G42-384TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His system also offered a major innovation: while both the purely geocentric model and the heliocentric model as set forth by Copernicus relied on the idea of transparent rotating crystalline spheres to carry the planets in their orbits, Tycho eliminated the spheres entirely. Kepler tried, but was unable, to persuade Tycho to adopt the heliocentric model of the solar system. Tycho advocated for a system with an unmoving Earth for reasons of physics, astronomical observations of stars, and religion. ACER Aspire 5541 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba Satellite A500-17X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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