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University of Edinburgh The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583,[3] is a public research university in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Townbelonging to the university.[4] Edinburgh receives approximately 47,000 applications every year, making it the third most popular university in the UK by volume of applicants.[5] Entrance is intensely competitive, with 12 applications per place in the last admissions cycle.[6]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard The University of Edinburgh is ranked 6th and 7th in Europe according to the 2011 QS and Times Higher Education Ranking[7][8] and 21st in the world by the 2012 QS rankings.[7] It is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe.[9] In addition, the University has both historical links and current partnerships with academic institutions in the United States and Canada, including members of the Ivy League and U15.[10][11][12] It has the third largest endowment of any university in the UK. SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard The university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, and helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the north. Graduates of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including the naturalist Charles Darwin, physicist James Clerk Maxwell, philosopher David Hume, mathematician Thomas Bayes, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown, Deputy President of the British Supreme Court Lord Hope, Compaq Presario CQ56-103LA Laptop Keyboard surgeon and pioneer of sterilisation Joseph Lister, signatories of the American declaration of independence John Witherspoon and Benjamin Rush, inventor Alexander Graham Bell, first president of Tanzania Julius Nyerere, and a host of famous authors such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert Louis Stevenson, J. M. Barrie, and Sir Walter Scott. The University is also associated with 15 Nobel Prize winners, 1Abel Prize winner, several Turing Award winners and several Olympic gold medallists.[13] It also continues to have links to the British Royal Family, with the Duke of Edinburgh being chancellor from 1953 to 2010, and Princess Anne from 2011.[14]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The university began life as a College of Law, founded by the Edinburgh Town Council on the south side of Edinburgh using part of a legacy left by Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney, after his death in 1558.[15] Originally a mere College of the Liberal Arts, the constant efforts of the Town Council and Ministers of the City to establish a seat of learning meant it soon blossomed into a university, which was established by a Royal Charter granted by James VI in 1582 after the petitioning of the Council.[16] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard This was an unusual move at the time, as most universities were established throughPapal bulls.[17] The fact that its funding was granted by the Town Council makes it in many ways the first civic university. Known as the "Tounis College", it was renamed King James's College in 1617. Instruction began in 1583 under the charge of a young St Andrews graduate Robert Pollock.[15] It was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the much more populous and richer England had only two. By the 18th century Edinburgh was a leading centre of the European Enlightenment (seeScottish Enlightenment). HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh did not have a custom-built campus and existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century. The university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now theSchool of Law, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. HP Mini 1109TU Laptop Keyboard From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor. It went under what was then North College Street (now Chambers Street), and under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel that the body of William Burke was taken after he had been hanged. HP Mini 110-1014tu Laptop Keyboard Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875. The medical school was more or less built to his design and was completed by the addition of the McEwan Hall in the 1880s. The building now known as New College was originally built as a Free Church college in the 1840s and has been the home ofDivinity at the University since the 1920s. SONY KFRMBA220A Laptop Keyboard The university is responsible for a number of historic and modern buildings across the City, including the oldest purpose-built concert hall in Scotland, and the second oldest in use in the British Isles, St Cecilia's Concert Hall; Teviot Row House, which is the oldest purpose built Student Union Building in the world; and the restored 17th-century Mylne's Court student residence which stands at the head of Edinburgh's Royal Mile. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Edinburgh University Library pre-dates the university by three years. Founded in 1580 through the donation of a large collection by Clement Littill, its collection has grown to become the largest university library in Scotland with over 2 million periodicals, manuscripts, theses, microforms and printed works. These are housed in the main University Library building in George Square – one of the largest academic library buildings in Europe, designed by Basil Spence – and an extensive series of Faculty and Departmental Libraries.  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard The two oldest Schools – Law and Divinity – are both well-esteemed in their respective subjects, with Law being based in Old College, and Divinity being based in New College, on the Mound. Students at the university are represented by Edinburgh University Students' Association (EUSA), which consists of the Students' Representative Council (SRC), founded in 1884 by Robert Fitzroy Bell, the Edinburgh University Union (EUU) which was founded in 1889. They are also represented by theEdinburgh University Sports Union (EUSU) which was founded in 1866. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard In 2002 the University was re-organised from its 9 faculties into three 'Colleges'. While technically not a collegiate university, it now comprises the Colleges of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS), Science & Engineering (SCE) and Medicine & Vet Medicine (MVM). Within these Colleges are 'Schools' – roughly equivalent to the departments they succeeded; individual Schools have a good degree of autonomy regarding their finances and internal organisation. This has brought a certain degree of uniformity (in terms of administration at least) across the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard On 1 August 2011, the Edinburgh College of Art (founded in 1760) merged with the University of Edinburgh. At a result of the merger, Edinburgh College of Art has combined with the University’s School of Arts, Culture and Environment to form a new (enlarged) Edinburgh College of Art within the university.[18] Along similar lines, all teaching is now done over two semesters (rather than 3 terms) – bringing the timetables of different Schools into line with one another, and coming into line with many other large universities (in the US, and to an increasing degree in the UK as well). TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard According to QS Academic Reputation 2011-2012, University of Edinburgh is placed first in Scotland, 5th in the UK, and 20th in the world in terms of academic reputation.[26]It is ranked 49 in the world, 6 in the UK in reputation by Times Higher Education2012.[27]HP 606574-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of Edinburgh is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities and, along with Oxford and Cambridge, one of several British universities to be a member of both the Coimbra Group and the LERU (League of European Research Universities). The University is also a member of Universitas 21, an international association of research-led universities.  HP 537613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2008 UK RAE results, the University of Edinburgh was ranked in the top five in the UK and first in Scotland by the volume of four star, "world-leading" research (63% of the University’s research activity was in the highest categories (4* and 3*), of which one third was recognised as "world-leading"). The results also indicate that the University is home to 37% of Scotland’s 4* research. It was rated at the highest level in veterinary medicine, informatics and linguistics. It also has high ratings in Art, Chemistry and Mathematics [28]SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The QS World University Rankings 2011 ranked the University of Edinburgh 20th in the world,[29] while the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011/2012 ranked it as 36th overall, 7th in Europe and 5th in the UK.[30] In 2011, theAcademic Ranking of World Universities placed University of Edinburgh as 53rd overall, 14th in Europe and 6th in the UK.[31] Toshiba Satellite L300-217 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2012/2013 UK University Rankings, the university was ranked 15th in the UK overall by The Guardian,[32] 16th by The Independent/The Complete University Guide,[33] 27th by The Sunday Times[34] and 15th by The Times.[35] Despite these high international rankings, the University of Edinburgh has been ranked bottom in the UK for teaching quality by its students in the 2012 National Student Survey.[36][37][38]ACER Aspire 4755G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine has a long history as one of the best medical institutions in the world.[60]In the last research assessment exercise, it was rated top in the UK for medical research submitted to the Hospital-based Clinical Subjects Panel. All of the work was rated at International level and 40% at the highest, "world-leading" level.[61]The medical school is ranked 1st in Scotland and 3rd in the UK by the Times Good University Guide 2013, the Complete University Guide 2013 and the Guardian University Guide 2013.[62][63][64]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard The eight original faculties formed four Faculty Groups in August 1992. Medicine and Veterinary Medicine became one of these, and in September 2002, became the smallest of three Colleges in the University. HP AELX7U00410 Laptop Keyboard In the sixteenth century science was taught as 'natural philosophy'. The seventeenth century saw the institution of the University Chairs of Mathematics and Botany, followed the next century by Chairs of Natural History, Astronomy, Chemistry and Agriculture. During the eighteenth century, the University was a key contributor to the Scottish Enlightenment and it educated many of the most notable scientists of the time. It was Edinburgh's professors who took a leading part in the formation of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783. HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard In 1785, Joseph Black, Professor of Chemistry and discoverer of carbon dioxide, founded the world's first Chemical Society.[65] The nineteenth century was a time of huge advances in scientific thinking and technological development. The first named degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Science were instituted in 1864, and a separate 'Faculty of Science' was created in 1893 after three centuries of scientific advances at Edinburgh.[65] Chairs in Engineering and Geology were also created. In 1991 the Faculty of Science was renamed the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and in 2002 it became the College of Science and Engineering. ASUS X53 Laptop Keyboard The Central Area includes George Square, the Informatics Forum, The Dugald Stewart Building, Old College, New College,McEwan Hall, St Cecilia's Hall, Teviot Row House, the old Medical School buildings in Teviot Place, and surrounding streets in Edinburgh's Southside. It is the oldest region, occupied primarily by the College of Humanities and Social Science, and the Schools of Computing & Informatics and the School of Law, as well as the main university library. The Appleton Tower is also used for teaching first year undergraduates in science and engineering. Meanwhile, Teviot Place continues to house pre-clinical medical courses and biomedical sciences despite relocation of the Medical School to Little France. Compaq Presario CQ71-318SO Laptop Keyboard Nearby are the main EUSA buildings of Potterrow, Teviot and Pleasance. Old residents of George Square include Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Some of these buildings are used to host events during the Edinburgh International Festival every summer. The main library (Edinburgh University Library) is also located at George Square. New College, overlooks Princes Street and only a short walk from Waverley Rail Station and other Edinburgh landmarks. The building is on the Mound, which houses the School of Divinity - parts of which are also used by the Church of Scotland. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard The King's Buildings (KB) is located further south of the city. Most of the Science and Engineering College's research and teaching activities take place at the King's Buildings, which occupy a 35 hectare site. It includes C H Waddington Building (the Centre for Systems Biology at Edinburgh), James Clerk Maxwell Building (the administrative and teaching centre of the School of Physics and Astronomy and the School of Mathematics), The Royal Observatory, William Rankine Building (School of Engineering’s Institute for Infrastructure and Environment) and other schools' buildings. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard There are three libraries at KB: Darwin Library, James Clerk Maxwell Library and Robertson Engineering and Science Library. A new library called The King's Buildings Library opened for the 2012/13 session. It also houses National e-Science Centre (NeSC), Scottish Microelectronics Centre (SMC), Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), and the Scottish Institute for Enterprise. DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard Little France, the Chancellor's Building, was opened on 12 August 2002 by The Duke of Edinburgh and houses the £40 millionMedical School at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. It was a joint project between private finance, the local authorities and the University to create a large modern hospital, veterinary clinic and research institute. It has two large lecture theatres and a medical library. It is connected to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh by a series of corridors. Queen's Medical Research Institute was opened in 2005, and provides facilities for research into the understanding of common diseases. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The Edinburgh University Students' Association (EUSA) consists of the unions and the Student Representative Council. The union buildings include Teviot Row House, Potterrow, Kings Buildings House, the Pleasance, and shops, cafés and refectories across the various campuses. Teviot Row House is claimed to be the oldest purpose-built student union building in the world.[71] EUSA represents students to the university and the outside world. It is also responsible for over 250 student societies at the University. The association has four sabbatical office bearers – a president and three vice presidents. The association is affiliated to the National Union of Students. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The Easter Bush campus houses the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The Roslin Institute, Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education and The Veterinary Oncology and Imaging Centre. The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, founded in 1823 by William Dick, is a world leader in veterinary education, research and practice. ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard The new £42 million, two storey, 11,500 square metre building opened in 2011. The Roslin Institute is an animal sciences research institute which is sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.[67] The Institute won international fame in 1996, when Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and their colleagues created Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, at the institute.[68][69][70] A year later Polly and Molly were cloned, both sheep contained a human gene. ACER DC2800092A0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Edinburgh University's student sport consists of 67 clubs from the traditional football and rugby to the more unconventional korfball or gliding. Run by theEdinburgh University Sports Union, these 67 clubs have seen Edinburgh rise to 4th place in the British Universities' Sports Association (BUSA) rankings in 2006-07 and have been in the British Top 5 sporting Universities since 2005. ASUS F3F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, the University of Edinburgh alumni and students secured four medals - three gold and a silver.[78] The three gold medals were won by the cyclist Chris Hoy and the silver was won by Katherine Grainger in rowing. In the 2012 Summer Olympics Edinburgh University Alumni topped the UK University Medals table with three gold medals, 2 from cyclist Sir Chris Hoy and one from rower Katherine Grainger.[79]Gateway NV55C03U Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni and faculty of the university have included economist Adam Smith, signatories to the US Declaration of Independence James Wilson, John Witherspoon and Benjamin Rush, Prime Ministers Gordon Brown, Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell (the latter matriculated at Edinburgh, but did not graduate), astronaut Piers Sellers, engineers Alexander Graham Bell and William Rankine, naturalist Charles Darwin and biologist Ian Wilmut, physicists James Clerk Maxwell, Max Born, Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sir David Brewster, Tom Kibble, Peter Guthrie Tait and Peter Higgs, writers Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert Louis Stevenson, J.M. Barrie, Sir Walter Scott and Alistair Moffat, actor Ian Charleson, composers Kenneth Leighton, James MacMillan, and William Wordsworth, chemists Joseph Black, Daniel Rutherford, Alexander R. Todd and William Henry, botanist Robert Brown, medical pioneers Joseph Lister and James Simpson, mathematician Colin Maclaurin, philosopher David Hume, geologist James Hutton, Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan former BP CEO Tony Hayward, former director general of MI5 Stella Rimington, chemist and two-time recipient of Alexander von Humboldt research prize for senior scientists Narayan Hosmane, Dr. Valentin Fuster, the only cardiologist to receive all four major research awards from the world's four majorcardiovascular organizations,[86] and mathematician and president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Sir Michael Atiyah. HP G62-373DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.[N 1] Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[3] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first US patent for the telephone in 1876.[N 2] In retrospect, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[5][N 3] Dell Vostro 3400 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoilsand aeronautics. In 1888, Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.[7] He has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.[8]FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on March 3, 1847.[9] The family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, and has a stone inscription, marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell (1845–70) and Edward Charles Bell (1848–67). Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis.[10] His father was ProfessorAlexander Melville Bell, and his mother was Eliza Grace (née Symonds).[N 4] Although he was born "Alexander", at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers.[11][N 5] HP Pavilion dv6-2005et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the middle name "Graham", chosen out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father and boarder who had become a family friend.[12] To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck" which his father continued to call him into later life.[13]HP G62-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a child, young Alexander displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbor whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Aleck asked what needed to be done at the mill. He was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation and used steadily for a number of years.[14] In return, John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to "invent".[14]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ160P/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry and music that was encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist.[15] Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he reveled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits.[15] Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, SONY Vaio VPC-EA36FM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.[16] He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity.[17] Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics. FUJITSU LifeBook A6110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle inDublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists. His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860),[15] which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionistappeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Aleck's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound.[18] Aleck became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities. He could decipher Visible Speech representing virtually every language, includingLatin, Scottish Gaelic and even Sanskrit, accurately reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation.[18]HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, however, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at age 15, completing only the first four forms.[19] His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father.[20] Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.[21] At age 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy, at Elgin, Moray, HP Pavilion G6-1B79US Laptop Keyboard Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session.[22] The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his family, Aleck completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to the University of London.[23]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

First experiments with sound

Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton, developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.[24] The rudimentary "mechanical man" simulated a human voice. Aleck was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.[24] While his brother constructed the throat and larynx, Aleck tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull. His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words.[24] The boys would carefully adjust the "lips" and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe, a very recognizable "Mama" ensued, to the delight of neighbors who came to see the Bell invention.[25]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier, "Trouve".[26] After he taught it to growl continuously, Aleck would reach into its mouth and manipulate the dog's lips and vocal cords to produce a crude-sounding "Ow ah oo ga ma ma". With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you grandma?" More indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a "talking dog".[27] However, these initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission of sound, using tuning forks to explore resonance. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard At the age of 19, he wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father (who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion).[27] Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany, and also lent Aleck a copy of Hermann von Helmholtz's work, The Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music.[28]IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", he pored over the German scientist's book. Working from his own errant mistranslation of the original German edition, Aleck fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech." He also later remarked: "I thought that Helmhotz had done it ... and that my failure was due only to my ignorance of electricity. It was a valuable blunder ... If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!"[29][30][31]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Family tragedy In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London,[32] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment. Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.[33] Throughout late 1867, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion. His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard While Bell recovered (by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.G. Bell") and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath, England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover. Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in 1867. His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at the University College London, Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying. HP 407218-001 Laptop Keyboard Helping his father in Visible Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington, London. His first two pupils were "deaf mute" girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage. While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher. However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland. Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,[34][N 6] conclude all of his brother's affairs (Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp),[35] and join his father and mother in setting out for the "New World".[36] Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.[36]TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard Canada In 1870, at age 23, Bell, his brother's widow, Caroline (Margaret Ottaway),[37] and his parents travelled on the SS Nestorian to Canada.[38] After landing atQuebec City, the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario, to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend. After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a farm of 10.5 acres (42,000 m2) at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford, Ontario. The property consisted of an orchard, large farm house, stable, pigsty, hen-house and a carriage house, which bordered the Grand River.[39][N 7]TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST2721 Laptop Keyboard At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house[41] near to what he called his "dreaming place", a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.[42] Despite his frail condition upon arriving in Canada, Bell found the climate and environs to his liking, and rapidly improved.[43][N 8] He continued his interest in the study of the human voice and when he discovered the Six Nations Reserve across the river at Onondaga, he learned the Mohawk language and translated its unwritten vocabulary into Visible Speech symbols. For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.[44][N 9] HP G62-a10EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound.[41] He designed a piano, which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance. Once the family was settled in, both Bell and his father made plans to establish a teaching practice and in 1871, he accompanied his father to Montreal, where Melville was offered a position to teach his System of Visible Speech. SONY VGN-CS31S/V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the publicHorace Mann School for the Deaf),[45] in Boston, Massachusetts, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post, in favor of his son. Traveling to Boston in April 1871, Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors.[46] He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford, Connecticut, and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts.  HP Pavilion dv7-6135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".[47][N 10] The basic concept behind his device was that messages could be sent through a single wire if each message was transmitted at a different pitch, but work on both the transmitter and receiver was needed.[48] Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.[49] ACER Aspire 5715Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His father helped him set up his private practice by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard, the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation. Teaching his father's system, in October 1872 Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils with his first class numbering 30 students.[50][51] While he was working as a private tutor, one of his most famous pupils was Helen Keller, who came to him as a young child unable to see, hear, or speak. She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges."[52] HP Pavilion dv6-3050es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that ought to be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort they could teach the deaf to speak and avoid the use of sign language, thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.[53] However in several schools children were mistreated, for example by having their hands tied behind their backs so they could not communicate by signing—the only language they knew—in order to force them to attempt oral communication. Due to his efforts to suppress the teaching of sign language, Bell is often viewed negatively by those embracing deaf culture.[54]Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Continuing experimentation In the following year, Bell became professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University School of Oratory. During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city. He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation. While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house. Keeping up "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment. Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover.[55] Worse still, his health deteriorated as he suffered severe headaches.[48]Returning to Boston in fall 1873, Bell made a fateful decision to concentrate on his experiments in sound. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell only retained two students, six-year old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth and 15-year oldMabel Hubbard. Each pupil would serve to play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment". Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in 1872 where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr. Sanders was backing the proposal. HP Pavilion dv9730nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together with free room and board thrown in.[56] Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell's affection. Losing her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,[57][58][N 11] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.[59]ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Telephone Main article: Invention of the telephone By 1874, Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage with progress it made both at his new Boston "laboratory" (a rented facility) as well as at his family home in Canada a big success.[N 12] While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph", a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations. Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves.[60] Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulating currents back into sound. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.[61] Toshiba Qosmio G10 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, had become "the nervous system of commerce". Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines.[62] When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell's experiments.[63] Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard's patent attorney, Anthony Pollok.[64]HP Pavilion DV6-1018el Laptop Keyboard In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the famous scientist Joseph Henry, who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph. Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!" That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying, even though he did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas. However, a chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and Thomas A. Watson, an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant,[N 13] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy. On June 2, 1875, Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech. That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone, which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech. HP G62-460SD Laptop Keyboard The race to the patent office Main article: Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell telephone controversy In 1875, Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.S. profits with his investors Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, Bell requested that an associate in Ontario, George Brown, attempt to patent it in Britain, instructing his lawyers to apply for a patent in the U.S. only after they received word from Britain (Britain would issue patents only for discoveries not previously patented elsewhere).[67]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February 26. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Bell's patent 174,465, was issued to Bell on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically ... by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound"[69] [N 14] Bell returned to Boston the same day and the next day resumed work, drawing in his notebook a diagram similar to that in Gray's patent caveat.  TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design. Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying theelectrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the famous sentence "Mr Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,[70] Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.[71]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,[72] Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent was granted and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment[73] to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" (Bell's words) could be electrically transmitted.[74] After March 1876, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and never used Gray's liquid transmitter in public demonstrations or commercial use.[75]HP Pavilion dv6-2077la Laptop Keyboard The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the Examiner before he approved Bell's patent application. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in Bell's previous application in which Bell described a cup of mercury, DELL F759C Laptop Keyboard not water. Bell had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, 1875, long before Elisha Gray described the water device. In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because Gray did not contest Bell's priority, the Examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, 1876. Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.[76]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The patent examiner, Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in a sworn affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey, with whom he had served in the Civil War. He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed (after Bell arrived in Washington D.C. from Boston) that he showed Gray's caveat to Bell and that Bell paid him $100. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details. Bell denied in a sworn affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money.[77] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Later developments Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone. On August 3, 1876, from the telegraph office in Mount Pleasant five miles (8 km) away from Brantford, Bell sent a tentative telegram indicating that he was ready. With curious onlookers packed into the office as witnesses, faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family when a message was received at the Bell home from Brantford, four miles (six km) distant along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel. This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. These experiments clearly proved that the telephone could work over long distances.[78]SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard Bell and his partners, Hubbard and Sanders, offered to sell the patent outright to Western Union for $100,000. The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.[79] Bell's investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point had assets of nearly one million dollars.[80]ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public. A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.[81] Influential visitors to the exhibition included Emperor Pedro II of Brazil. HP Mini 210-2145dx Laptop Keyboard Later Bell had the opportunity to demonstrate the invention personally to Sir William Thomson (later, Lord Kelvin), a renowned Scottish scientist, as well as to Queen Victoria who had requested a private audience at Osborne House, her Isle of Wight home. She called the demonstration "most extraordinary". The enthusiasm surrounding Bell's public displays laid the groundwork for universal acceptance of the revolutionary device.[82] GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard The Bell Telephone Company was created in 1877, and by 1886, more than 150,000 people in the U.S. owned telephones. Bell company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever. In 1879, the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone. HP Mini 110-3130tu Laptop Keyboard In January 1915, Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. Calling from the AT&T head office at 15 Dey Street in New York City, Bell was heard by Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco. The New York Times reported: HP G61-430SL Laptop Keyboard On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, 1915] the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago.[83] Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


See also: Canadian Parliamentary Motion on Alexander Graham Bell As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.[5] Over a period of 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced 587 court challenges to its patents, including five that went to the U.S. Supreme Court,[84] but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent[85][86] and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial st

age.[85] HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bell's laboratory notes and family letters were the key to establishing a long lineage to his experiments.[85] The Bell company lawyers successfully fought off myriad lawsuits generated initially around the challenges by Elisha Gray and Amos Dolbear. In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.[87]COMPAQ nx6325 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On January 13, 1887, the US Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.[88][89]By the time that the trial wound its way through nine years of legal battles, the U.S. prosecuting attorney had died and the two Bell patents (No. 174,465 and dated March 7, 1876 and No. FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 186,787 dated January 30, 1877) were no longer in effect, although the presiding judges agreed to continue the proceedings due to the case's importance as a "precedent". With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest (on both sides) arising from the original trial, theUS Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, 1897 leaving several issues undecided on the merits.[90]Packard Bell Easynote TM80 Laptop Keyboard During a deposition filed for the 1887 trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in 1834. In 1886, in the first of three cases in which he was involved, Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hopes of establishing his invention's priority. Meucci's evidence in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph (ADT) of New York, Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in 1901.[91][92] Meucci's work, like many other inventors of the period, was based on earlier acoustic principles and despite evidence of earlier experiments, the final case involving Meucci was eventually dropped upon Meucci's death.[93] However, due to the efforts of Congressman Vito Fossella, the U.S. House of Representatives on June 11, 2002 stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged", even though this did not put an end to a still contentious issue.[94][95] [N 15][96] Some modern scholars do not agree with the claims that Bell's work on the telephone was influenced by Meucci's inventions.[97] [N 16]HP Compaq G50-104NR Laptop Keyboard The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and patent applications were made in most major countries, but when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent. The Siemens company produced near-identical Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties.[98] The establishment of the International Bell Telephone Company in Brussels, Belgium in 1880, as well as a series of agreements in other countries eventually consolidated a global telephone operation. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315E Laptop Keyboard On July 11, 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1,487 of his 1,497 shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company.[101] Shortly thereafter, the newlyweds embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe. During that excursion, Alec took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday". ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Alexander waited until he was more financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897.[102] One unusual request exacted by his fiancée was that he use "Alec" rather than the family's earlier familiar name of "Aleck". From 1876, he would sign his name "Alec Bell".[ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard 103][N 18] They had four children: Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married Gilbert Grosvenor of National Geographic fame,[N 19][N 20][N 21] [N 22] Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as "Daisy",[N 23] and two sons who died in infancy. The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until 1880 when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.C., and later in 1882 bought a home in the same city for Bell's family, so that they could be with him while he attended to the numerous court cases involving patent disputes.[105] HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until 1882, when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1915, he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries."[106] Despite this declaration, Bell has been proudly claimed as a "native son" by all three countries he resided in: the United States, Canada and Scotland.[107]SONY VAIO VGN-FS415M Laptop Keyboard By 1885, a new summer retreat was contemplated. That summer, the Bells had a vacation on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, spending time at the small village of Baddeck.[108] Returning in 1886, Bell started building an estate on a point across from Baddeck, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.[109] By 1889, a large house, christened The Lodge was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings, including a new laboratory,[108] were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic:beautiful mountain) after Alec's ancestral Scottish highlands.[110] [N 24]Bell would spend his final, and some of his most productive, years in residence in both Washington, D.C., where he and his family initially resided for most of the year, and at Beinn Bhreagh.[111]HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr Laptop Keyboard Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened. Both Mabel and Alec became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own".[108] The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the Halifax Explosion occurred on December 6, 1917. Mabel and Alec mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.[112] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied. According to one of his biographers, Charlotte Gray, Bell's work ranged "unfettered across the scientific landscape"and he often went to bed voraciously reading the Encyclopædia Britannica, scouring it for new areas of interest.[113] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes" and two for selenium cells. Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels. HP Pavilion dv6-2110el Laptop Keyboard HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard

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