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University of Freiburg

The University of Freiburg (German Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, colloquially Uni Freiburg), sometimes referred to with its full title, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the second university in Austrian-Habsburg territory after the University of Vienna. Today, Freiburg is the fifth-oldest university in Germany, with a long tradition of teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. The university is made up of 11 faculties and attracts students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. Foreign students constitute about 16% of total student numbers.[1]SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard The University of Freiburg is amongst Europe's top research and teaching institutions.[3][4] With its long-standing reputation of excellence, the university looks both to the past, to maintain its historic academic and cultural heritage, and to the future, developing new methods and opportunities to meet the needs of a changing world.[5] The University of Freiburg has been home to some of the greatest minds of the Western tradition, including such eminent figures as Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Rudolf Carnap, SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard David Daube, Johann Eck, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Friedrich Hayek, Edmund Husserl,Friedrich Meinecke, and Max Weber. In addition, 19 Nobel laureates are affiliated with the University of Freiburg and 15 academics have been honored with the highest German research prize, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, while working at the University of Freiburg. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard Originally Albrechts University, the university started with four faculties (theology, philosophy, medicine and law). Its establishment belongs to the second wave of German university foundings in the late Middle Ages, like the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen and the University of Basel. Established by papal privilege (papal bull) the University in Freiburg actually was - like all or most universities in the Middle Ages - a corporation of the church body and therefore belonged to theRoman Catholic Church and its hierarchy. Compaq Presario CQ56-102LA Laptop Keyboard The bishop of Basel consequently was its provost or chancellor (Kanzler), the bishop ofConstance was its patron while the real founder of the university was the sovereign, Archduke Albert VI of Austria, being the brother of Frederick III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. At its founding, the university was named afterAlbert VI of Austria. He provided the university with land and endowments as well as its own jurisdiction. Also he declared Albrechts University as the "county university" (German Landesuniversität) for his territory until it was handed over to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1490. SONY 147915321 Laptop Keyboard The University soon attracted many students as the humanists Geiler von Kaysersberg,Johann Reuchlin or Jakob Wimpfeling. When Ulrich Zasius was teaching law (until 1536), Freiburg became a centre of humanist jurisprudence. From 1529 to 1535 Erasmus of Rotterdam lived and taught in Freiburg. From around 1559 on, the university was housed at the Altes Collegium ("Old College"), today called the "new town-hall". The importance of the university decreased during the time of the Counter-Reformation. To counter reformatory tendencies, the administration of two faculties was handed over to the Roman Catholic order of the Jesuits in 1620. From 1682 on, the Jesuits built their college as well as the Jesuit church (nowadays the "University Church" orSONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Laptop Keyboard After Freiburg was re-conquered and appointed as capital of Further Austria, a new time began for the university by the reforms of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. The requirements for admission were changed for all faculties in 1767 (before that time only Roman Catholics were allowed to study) and Natural Sciences were added as well as Public Administration. Also in 1767, the university became a governmental institution despite the Church's protests. The Church finally lost its predominant influence on the university when the Jesuits were suppressed following a decree signed by Pope Clement XIII in 1773. Consequently,Johann Georg Jacobi (brother of the more famous philosopher Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi) in 1784 was the first Protestant professor teaching at the university in Freiburg. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard When Freiburg became a part of the newly established Grand Duchy of Baden (in German "Großherzogtum Baden") in 1805 (after Napoleon occupied the area of the formerly Further Austria), a crisis began for the university in Freiburg. Indeed there were considerations by Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden and Karl, Grand Duke of Baden to close down the university in Freiburg while both of them thought that the Grand Duchy could not afford to run two universities at the same time (the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg also already existed since 1386). Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

In the 1880s the population of the student body and faculty started to grow quickly. The scientific reputation of Albert Ludwigs University attracted several researchers like economist Adolph Wagner, historians Georg von Below and Friedrich Meinecke, or jurists Karl von Amira and Paul Lenel.

The University of Freiburg,  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard among others, served as a role model for the establishment of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA, in 1875. Johns Hopkins was the first US university committed to research following Alexander von Humboldt's ideas of research as practiced at German universities at the time. Daniel Coit Gilman, founding president of Johns Hopkins, who had studied in Germany, visited Freiburg and other German universities in preparation for the founding of Johns Hopkins.[6]HP Mini 210-2090nr Laptop Keyboard In 1900 Freiburg became the first German university to accept a female student.In the beginning of the 20th century several new university buildings were built in the centre of Freiburg, such as in 1911 the new main building. Just before World War I the university counted 3,000 students. After World War I the philosophers Edmund Husserland (since 1928) Martin Heidegger taught at Albert Ludwigs University, as well as Edith Stein. On the field of social sciences, Walter Eucken developed the idea ofordoliberalism, which consequently is also known as the "Freiburg School".ACER PK1307R1A01 Laptop Keyboard After World War II the university was re-opened. New buildings for natural sciences were erected in theInstitutsviertel ("institute quarter"). In the postwar years, the ideas of ordoliberalism, developed earlier by economists of the Freiburg School such as Walter Eucken, Franz Böhm, Hans Grossmann-Doerth and Leonhard Miksch drove the creation of the German social market economy and its attendant Wirtschaftswunder. Nobel Prize winner and former professor at the University of Freiburg, Friedrich Hayek is also associated with this theory. DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard He directed the Walter Eucken Institut, an economic think tank in Freiburg cooperating with the university. Arnold Bergstraesser, considered a founding father or German political science after World War II, was also a professor at the University of Freiburg. His research group later formed what is now the Arnold Bergstraesser Institute for socio-cultural research at the university. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In the late 20th century, the university was part of a mass education campaign and expanded rapidly. The student body grew to 10,000 by the 1960s, and doubled to 20,000 students by 1980. In the 1970s, the faculty structure was changed to 14 departments, with the Faculty of Engineering becoming the 15th faculty in 1994. In 2002, the number of faculties was reduced to eleven. The university opened a memorial dedicated to the victims of National Socialism among the students, staff, and faculty in 2003.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard In 2006, the University of Freiburg joined the League of European Research Universities (LERU). One year later, in 2007, the University of Freiburg was chosen as one of nine German Universities of Excellence.  HP COMPAQ 2510P Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the "Third Reich" the university went through the process of "political alignment" (Gleichschaltung) like the rest of the German universities. Under the rector Martin Heidegger all Jewish faculty members were forced to leave the university in accordance with the "‘Law for the Reintroduction of Professional Civil Service".SONY VAIO PCG-6J2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The seal of the University of Freiburg depicts the educator Christ seated on a gothic throne holding the gospel in his right hand with the temple curtain in the background. Christ offers the teachings of the gospel to the Jewish scholars who are crouched at his feet. To the left and right of Christ are structures resembling towers, most likely symbolic of the Temple ofJerusalem. Located to the right of Christ is the coat of arms of the Austrian duchies, a banner with five eagles. HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The shield on the opposite side symbolizes the coat of arms used by the Habsburgs in conjunction with their territories. The coat of arms of the city of Freiburg is located at the bottom of the seal, displaying St George's Cross. The Latin inscription on the seal readsSigillum universitatis studii friburgensis brisgaudie. The seal was slightly modified in 1913, but has otherwise been in continuous use since it was adopted in 1462.[8]SONY UDQF2PH22CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Having grown with the city since the 15th century, the university's buildings are deeply intertwined with the city. There are three large campuses (the university center next to the historical city center, the institutes quarter and the engineering campus), but other buildings can be found scattered throughout Freiburg. Toshiba Qosmio F15-AV201 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university complex in the historical center of Freiburg contains such picturesque buildings as the JugendstilKollegiengebäude I, built in 1911 by Hermann Billing, and the gothic revival old university library. The current University Library is also located in the historical center; it is a monumental building erected in the 1970s, and is to be renovated and redesigned beginning in September, 2008.[9] It is one of the largest in Germany and placed 4th in an October, 2007 German national ranking of university libraries.[10]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5170 Laptop Keyboard The University Church, located across from Kollegiengebäude II, was built in 1683 by the Jesuit order. The church and the Jesuit college were handed over to the university after the Jesuit order was suppressed in 1773. The church was destroyed in the November 27, 1944 bombing raid on Freiburg, and reconstructed in 1956.[11]HP 6730S Laptop Keyboard The “institute quarter” (Institutsviertel) is home to the science faculties. This campus was destroyed almost completely in the Freiburg bombing raid in 1944. After World War II, the reconstruction of the institutes began. Today, the quarter houses the physics buildings, the tall main chemistry building, visible from afar, the famous Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry at the Hermann-Staudinger-Haus, various other science buildings, as well as the renowned pre-clinical institutes of theFaculty of Medicine. SONY VGN-FE590P Laptop Keyboard The engineering campus is located next to the small Freiburg airfield to the northwest of the city center, close to the University Medical Center. The campus is home to the IMTEK (Institut für Mikrosystemtechnik, Department of Microsystems Engineering) and the Department of Computer Science. With the addition of the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Freiburg became the first classical university to combine traditional disciplines with microsystems technologies. TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S5811 Laptop Keyboard The University Medical Center Freiburg (Universitätsklinikum Freiburg) is one of Germany's largest medical centers. It boasts 1,600 beds and handles 55,000 in-patients a year, with another 357,000 being treated ambulatorily. It consists of 13 specialized clinics, 5 clinical institutes, and 5 centers (e.g. Center for Transplantation Medicine). The University Medical Center achieved many technical advances, such as the first implantation of an artificial heart Jarvik 2000 (2002). SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard Most recently, the University of Freiburg purchased a large historic villa in the district of Herdern, which will house part of the literature and linguistics as well as history departments of the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS). SONY VAIO VGN-AR605E Laptop Keyboard The university has a combined undergraduate and graduate student population of around 21,600.[1] Approximately 16% of these students are foreigners, from ca. 120 different countries. The admission largely depends on the faculty and program applied for and is strictly merit based, with the average score of final secondary-school examinations (German Abitur) or A-levels playing an important role. Overall, in the Fall of 2010, roughly 4,000 out of approximately 26,000 applicants were admitted.[12]HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard

The University of Freiburg offers a large variety of undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral degree programs at its eleven faculties in 150 fields of study.[13]

As common among German universities, the academic year consists of summer and winter terms (semesters). The winter term runs from October 1 to March 31, while the summer term runs from April 1 to September 30. However, lectures and classes usually do not run for the full duration of these periods and allow for breaks in spring and fall. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-209WM Laptop Keyboard German universities enjoy government subsidies, so tuition fees are moderate. The University of Freiburg charges EUR 210 per year for all undergraduate and most graduate and doctoral programs, regardless of the EU or non-EU citizenship of students. SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard There are numerous student clubs and organizations, among them a campus radio station, echo-fm,[14] and a Student television station, alma*,[15] which is also available as a podcast. Because of the nearby French and Swiss borders and the adjacent Black Forest, where the university owns a retreat on SchauinslandMountain, there are fine opportunities for leisure and outdoor activities. Students come from Central and Eastern Europe for language studies, majority of the demographic are females in range of age 18-25(58%).Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The university provides student housing in its various dormitories, run by the Studentenwerk. Additionally, there are further dormitories in Freiburg which are operated by other institutions, such as the Catholic Archdiocese or the Evangelical Church. Due to the affordable rent and limited spots, rooms in the various dormitories are very popular. Many students find private living arrangements, such as Wohngemeinschaften (shared apartments). However, the popularity of Freiburg for prospective students can make finding an apartment or room quite time consuming, especially before the start of the academic terms. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard The university scored well with its submissions to the German Universities Excellence Initiative. The university received funding in all three categories. In the first category, funding for a new graduate school, the Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine, was granted; in the second, funding was granted for the excellence cluster Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (bioss); and in the third category, Institutional Strategy Line of Funding, open only to institutions with submissions qualified in the first two categories, HP Mini 110-1014tu Laptop Keyboard the university is receiving funding for "Windows for Research", which aims to promote a high level of interdisciplinarity between research fields and attract scientists from all over the world. To that end, the university founded the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS). Being selected for the third category ranks Freiburg as one of nine "excellence universities" in Germany. The University is to receive over EUR 130 million in additional funds over five years (from 2007) from this third category funding.[17][18] SONY KFRMBA220A Laptop Keyboard In 2009, the University was also successful in a nationwide competition for excellence in teaching, held by the Stifterverband der deutschen Wissenschaft. The University of Freiburg, with its plans for future innovative teaching concepts, was selected as one of ten winners from a field of over one hundred higher education institutions.[19]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard In 2012, in the third round of the Excellence Initiative, the university was able to successfully extend funding for the Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine as well as bioss while also gaining funding for a new cluster called BrainLinks-Brain Tools, an interdisciplinary neurotechnology project. Citing insufficient evidence of integration of the FRIAS concept into the university's framework, the committee did not extend funding for the FRIAS and the institutional strategy line of funding, despite acknowledging the impressive research and advances achieved at FRIAS in the past years.[20] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard In university rankings published by German magazines and periodicals (Der Spiegel, Die Zeit, Focus, etc.[21][22]) the University of Freiburg has established itself as one of Germany's top universities.[23] The faculties for law, medicine, economics, history, English studies, German studies, biology, dentistry, and pharmacology achieve especially high scores.[24][25][26] In regards to the natural sciences, the University of Freiburg ranked 6th in Europe and 2nd in Germany[3]COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard in a ranking of the European Commission of the universities according to their overall impact on scientific research. The Centre for Higher Education Development (CHE), a German higher education think tank, periodically publishes a comprehensive ranking of European Master's and PhD programs. Freiburg garnered five spots in the top Excellence Group among seven subject fields examined.[27] The ranking results of various commonly referenced international rankings are shown below. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Teams of the University of Freiburg frequently participate in academic competitions with considerable success. The moot court team of the Faculty of Law has already won the Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot twice. The humanoid robot team of the Faculty of Engineering regularly competes with distinction in international tournaments.[28] The University of Freiburg team has also repeatedly scored highly at the iGEM undergraduate synthetic biology competition held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[29] The team was supported by numerous university institutions, among them the recently established bioss cluster of excellence. The University of Freiburg also participates in the National Model United Nations (NMUN) held annually in New York City, NY. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard The genetically engineered golden rice was developed by the University of Freiburg (Peter Beyer) and the ETH Zurich (Ingo Potrykus) from 1992 to 2000. It was considered a breakthrough in biotechnology at the time of publication and now helps to provide Vitamin A to people lacking access to it in their diet. ACER Aspire 5520-5537 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan When previous rector Prof. Dr. Jäger retired in 2008, law professor Prof. Dr. Andreas Voßkuhle was chosen as his successor. However, shortly after the start of his term, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) nominated Voßkuhle as vice-president of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany. Voßkuhle accepted the nomination, was confirmed and took his seat on the court in May 2008. In July 2008, then vice-rector Prof. Dr. Hans-Jochen Schiewer was elected as successor to Voßkuhle. Schiewer has assumed the position of rector with the start of the winter term 2008/2009. ACER Aspire 6920-6621 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The University of Freiburg has a variety of graduate education and research opportunities. In an evaluation of European graduate programs, Freiburg was ranked among the leading universities in several subject fields examined.[32][33]

One of the notable graduate opportunities is the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), a project funded by the German Excellence Initiative.(see Current affairs and academics above)  HP Pavilion dv7-6199us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Apart from the many graduate programs of its faculties, Freiburg has set up additional specialized graduate schools and graduate research centers, coordinated by the newly founded International Graduate Academy (IGA) Freiburg. The IGA coordinates five Graduate Schools: the Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine (SGBM); the European Cultures and Intercultural Interweaving school; the Theology and Religious Studiesschool; the Hermann Paul School of Language Sciences and the Environment, Society and Global Change graduate school of the Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences. FUJITSU LifeBook E8410 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The IGA also coordinates twelve Graduate Research Centers (Graduiertenkolleg): Biochemistry of Enzymes;Friends, Patrons, Clients; Formation and Development of Present-Day Landscapes; Mathematical Logics and Applications; Mechanisms of Neuronal Signal Transduction; Catalysts and Catalytic Reactions for Organic Synthesis (in cooperation with the University of Basel); Hadron Collider Physics; Embedded Microsystems; From Cells to Organs: Molecular Mechanisms of Organogenesis; Signal Systems in Model Organisms of Plant Origin; Micro Energy Harvesting; and PhD program Computational Neuroscience at the Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Freiburg HP Pavilion dv5-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Finally, the university operates three joint graduate schools with the Max Planck Society: the International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology; the International Max Planck Research School on Retaliation, Mediation and Punishment; and the International Max Planck Research School for Comparative Criminal Law.  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Together with the EUCOR universities of Basel and Strasbourg and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the University of Freiburg also runs the shared graduate school École supérieure de biotechnologie Strasbourg, enabling the students to obtain an international degree in biotechnology and a trilingual education, as classes are taught in English, German, and French. IBM ThinkPad T60 2623 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan University College Freiburg is the University’s central facility for promoting and administering international, interdisciplinary teaching activities. It complements and supports the faculties’ work in this field, serves as a laboratory for innovative approaches to teaching and instructional design and houses high profile projects, notably the Bachelor program in Liberal Arts and Sciences (LAS).The four-year Bachelor’s Degree in Liberal Arts and Sciences is the University of Freiburg’s first interdisciplinary, English-taught undergraduate program and the first of its kind in Germany. It started in October 2012. UCF works in close co-operation with the faculties, the Rectorate’s departments for Instructional Development and International Relations and with the Language Teaching Center.  HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city of Freiburg is known for its environmentally friendly policies and focus on renewable energy and sustainability, attracting solar industry and research to the city. This environmentally conscious attitude also extends to the University of Freiburg which has founded the work group "Nachhaltige Universität Freiburg" (Sustainable University of Freiburg) and has drawn up environmental guidelines to be implemented in university practice. Compaq Presario CQ71-318SO Laptop Keyboard The university has also founded the initiative Solar-Uni Freiburg in 2007, with the aim of further expanding its capabilities in sustainability and environmental research. Solar panels were installed on the roofs of university buildings. To bundle renewable energy research and teaching at the university, the Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE, Zentrum für Erneuerbare Energien), an interdisciplinary and cross-faculty facility, was founded. Aside from research in the fields of solar energy, biomass, geothermal energy, energy efficiency and new energies, an international Master of Science degree in Renewable Energy Management is being offered. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard In addition to its own expertise, the Center for Renewable Energy can draw upon the support of the renewable energy industrial sector in Freiburg, as well as the university's cooperation with other research institutes in the area, such as the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, the Öko-Institut - Institute for Applied Ecology, or the University of Applied Sciences Offenburg. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard The university is part of the regional EUCOR federation together with the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the universities of Basel, Mulhouse, and, marked by particularly close ties, Strasbourg.[35] Freiburg is further a member of the League of European Research Universities; the European University Association; ASEA-Uninet; AC21; and theInternational Forum of Public Universities (IFPU). The university also has exchange agreements and cooperative efforts with renowned universities on almost every continent. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The University of Freiburg initiated an English language international master's program in social sciences, the Global Studies Programme (GSP) in 2001. The aim of the program is to enable students to study social sciences in different regions and cultures. Combining various disciplines such as sociology, political sciences, anthropology and geography, students approach globalization with a unique perspective. The program is conducted jointly by the University of Freiburg with the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa, the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India, theLatin American Social Sciences Institute in Buenos Aires, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Argentina, and the Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok,Thailand. Students in the GSP master's program study on three different continents during the two-year degree program. Since 2008, the GSP also offers a PhD program in Global Studies. The Global Studies Program has received many awards, among them the BMW Group Award for Intercultural Learning in 2004 as well as being listed a Top Ten International Master's Degree Course in Germany by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in 2006.[36]ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard

The university also supports the Institute for Russian-German Literature and Cultural Relations at the Russian State University for the Humanities as well as the Vladimir Admoni School for Doctoral Studies at the University of Latvia.

The University of Göttingen (German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU), known informally as Georgia Augusta, is a university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, it opened for classes in 1737. The University of Göttingen soon grew in size and popularity. Göttingen is a historic university city, with a high student and faculty population.

The University of Göttingen is one of the highest-ranked universities in Germany. It is associated with 45 Nobel laureates. SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard The university has a sound international reputation and was ranked 1st in Germany, 9th in Europe and 43rd in the world in 2010 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. At the same time, it was ranked 4th in Germany, 30th in Europe and 93rd in the world in 2010 by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The 2011 QS World University Rankings[2] ranked the university at 149th, 25 places higher than the year previous. Compaq Presario CQ56-103LA Laptop Keyboard rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769-99)explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 volumes. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. In 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard By the university's centenary in 1837, it was known as the "university of law", as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university's students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur.. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard However, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 in 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804–1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary. HP Mini 1109TU Laptop Keyboard

banned from living within the city walls.

Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the SONY Vaio VGN-SZ160P/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamicsover the next two decades. In 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl's students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics. SONY Vaio VPC-EA36FM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From 1921 to 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, who, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics. FUJITSU LifeBook A6110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

To date, 45 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the "Göttingen Nobel prize wonder".

Carnap was born to a west German family that had been humble until his parents' generation. He began his formal education at the Barmen Gymnasium. From 1910 to 1914, he attended the University of Jena, intending to write a thesis in physics. But he also studied carefully Kant's Critique of Pure Reason during a course taught by Bruno Bauch, and was one of very few students to attend Gottlob Frege's courses in mathematical logic. After serving in the German army during World War I for three years, he was given permission to study physics at the University of Berlin, HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 1917–18, where Albert Einstein was a newly appointed professor. Carnap then attended the University of Jena, where he wrote a thesis defining an axiomatic theory of space and time. The physics department said it was too philosophical, and Bruno Bauch of the philosophy department said it was pure physics. Carnap then wrote another thesis, with Bauch's supervision, on the theory of space in a more orthodox Kantian style, and published as Der Raum (Space) in a supplemental issue of Kant-Studien (1922). In it he makes the clear distinction between formal, physical andperceptual (e.g., visual) spaces. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Frege's course exposed him to Bertrand Russell's work on logic and philosophy, which put a sense of the aims to his studies. He accepted the effort to surpass traditional philosophy with logical innovations that inform the sciences. He wrote a letter to Russell, who responded by copying by hand long passages from his Principia Mathematica for Carnap's benefit, as neither Carnap nor Freiburg could afford a copy of this epochal work. In 1924 and 1925, he attended seminars led by Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, and continued to write on physics from a logical positivistperspective. HP 606574-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carnap discovered a kindred spirit when he met Hans Reichenbach at a 1923 conference. Reichenbach introduced Carnap to Moritz Schlick, a professor at theUniversity of Vienna who offered Carnap a position in his department, which Carnap accepted in 1926. Carnap thereupon joined an informal group of Viennese intellectuals that came to be known as the Vienna Circle, directed largely by Moritz Schlick and including Hans Hahn, Friedrich Waismann, Otto Neurath, andHerbert Feigl, with occasional visits by Hahn's student Kurt Gödel. When Wittgenstein visited Vienna, Carnap would meet with him. He (with Hahn and Neurath) wrote the 1929 manifesto of the Circle, and (with Hans Reichenbach) initiated the philosophy journal Erkenntnis.

In 1928, Carnap published two important books:

The Logical Structure of the World (German: "Der logische Aufbau der Welt"), in which he developed a rigorous formal version of empiricism, defining all scientific terms in phenomenalistic terms. The formal system of the Aufbau (as the work is commonly termed) was grounded in a single primitive dyadic predicate, which is satisfied if "two" individuals "resemble" each other. The Aufbau was greatly influenced by Principia Mathematica, and warrants comparison with the mereotopological metaphysics A. N. Whitehead developed over 1916-29. It appears, however, that Carnap soon became somewhat disenchanted with this book. In particular, he did not authorize an English translation until 1967.  HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP 537613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Pseudoproblems in Philosophy asserted that many philosophical questions were meaningless, i.e., the way they were posed amounted to an abuse of language. An operational implication of this opinion was taken to be the elimination of metaphysics from responsible human discourse. This is the statement for which Carnap was best known for many years. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

See also: Carnap–Ramsey sentences

In February 1930 Tarski lectured in Vienna, and during November 1930 Carnap visited Warsaw. On these occasions he learned much about Tarski's model theoreticmethod of semantics. In 1931, Carnap was appointed Professor at the German language University of Prague. There he wrote the book that was to make him the most famous logical positivist and member of the Vienna Circle, his Logical Syntax of Language (Carnap 1934). In this work, Carnap advanced his Principle of Tolerance, according to which there is not any such thing as a "true" or  Toshiba Satellite L300-217 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan "correct" logic or language. One is free to adopt whatever form of language is useful for one's purposes. In 1933, W. V. Quine met Carnap in Prague and discussed the latter's work at some length. Thus began the lifelong mutual respect these two men shared, one that survived Quine's eventual forceful disagreements with a number of Carnap's philosophical conclusions. ACER Aspire 4755G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Carnap, whose socialist and pacifist beliefs put him at risk in Nazi Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1935 and became a naturalized citizen in 1941. Meanwhile back in Vienna, Moritz Schlick was murdered in 1936. From 1936 to 1952, Carnap was a professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago. Thanks partly to Quine's help, Carnap spent the years 1939-41 at Harvard, where he was reunited with Tarski. Carnap (1963) later expressed some irritation about his time at Chicago, where he and Charles W. Morris were the only members of the department committed to the primacy of science and logic. (Their Chicago colleagues included Richard McKeon, SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard Mortimer Adler, Charles Hartshorne, and Manley Thompson.) Carnap's years at Chicago were nonetheless very productive ones. He wrote books on semantics (Carnap 1942, 1943, 1956), modal logic, being very similar in Carnap (1956) to the now-standard possible worlds semantics for that logic Saul Kripke proposed starting in 1959, and on the philosophical foundations of probability and induction (Carnap 1950, 1952). HP AELX7U00410 Laptop Keyboard After a stint at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he joined the philosophy department at UCLA in 1954, Hans Reichenbach having died the previous year. He had earlier refused an offer of a similar job at the University of California, because accepting that position required that he sign a loyalty oath, a practice to which he was opposed on principle. While at UCLA, he wrote on scientific knowledge, the analytic - synthetic dichotomy, and the verification principle. His writings on thermodynamics and on the foundations of probability and induction, were published posthumously as Carnap (1971, 1977, 1980). HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard

Carnap taught himself Esperanto when he was a mere fourteen years of age, and remained very sympathetic to it (Carnap 1963). He later attended the World Congress of Esperanto in 1908 and 1922, and employed the language while traveling.

Carnap had four children by his first marriage, which ended in divorce in 1929. His second wife committed suicide in 1964. ASUS X53 Laptop Keyboard Logical positivism (also known as logical empiricismscientific philosophy, and neo-positivism) is a philosophy that combines empiricism—the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge—with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions of epistemology. It may be considered as a type of analytic philosophy.[1]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard Logical positivism, in the formal sense, began from discussions of a group known as the First Vienna Circle which gathered during the earliest years of the 20th century in Vienna at the Café Central. After World War I, Hans Hahn, a member of that early group, helped bring Moritz Schlick to Vienna. Schlick's Vienna Circle, along with Hans Reichenbach's Berlin Circle, propagated the new doctrines more widely during the 1920s and early 1930s. It was Otto Neurath's advocacy that made the movement self-conscious and more widely known. A 1929 pamphlet written by Neurath, TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard Hahn, and Rudolf Carnap summarized the doctrines of the Vienna Circle at that time. The doctrines included the opposition to all metaphysics, especially ontology and synthetic a priori propositions; the rejection of metaphysics not as wrong but as having no meaning; a criterion of meaning based on Ludwig Wittgenstein's early work; the idea that all knowledge should be codifiable by a single standard language of science; and above all the project of rational reconstruction, in which ordinary-language concepts were gradually to be replaced by more precise equivalents in that standard language. TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST2721 Laptop Keyboard During the early 1930s, the Vienna Circle dispersed, mainly because of political upheaval and the deaths of Hahn and Schlick. The most prominent proponents of logical positivism emigrated to the United Kingdom and the United States, where they influenced American philosophy considerably. Until the 1950s, logical positivism was the leading school in the philosophy of science. Ultimately, it failed to solve many of the problems with which it was centrally concerned,[2][3][4] and after the Second World War, its doctrines increasingly came under attack by thinkers such as Nelson Goodman, Willard Van Orman Quine, J. L. Austin, Peter Strawson, Hilary Putnam, and Richard Rorty. TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5606 Laptop Keyboard During the late 1920s, '30s, and '40s, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein's formalism was developed by a group of philosophers in Vienna and Berlin, who formed the Vienna Circle and Berlin Circle into a doctrine known as logical positivism (or logical empiricism). Logical positivism used formal logic to underpin an empiricist account of our knowledge of the world.[5] Philosophers such as Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach, along with other members of the Vienna Circle, ACER DC2800092A0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan claimed that the truths of logic and mathematics were tautologies, and those of science were verifiable empirical claims. These two constituted the entire universe of meaningful judgements; anything else was nonsense. The claims of ethics and aesthetics were subjective preferences. Theology and other metaphysics were pseudo-statements, neither true nor false, simply meaningless nonsense. ASUS F3F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Karl Popper's insistence upon the role of falsification in the philosophy of science was a reaction to the logical positivists.[6] With the rise of Adolf Hitlerand National Socialism in Germany and Austria, some members of the Vienna and Berlin Circles fled Germany, mainly to Britain and the USA, which helped to reinforce the dominance of logical positivism and analytic philosophy in the Anglophone world.[7]Gateway NV55C03U Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Logical positivists typically considered philosophy as having a very limited function. For them, philosophy is concerned with the organization of thoughts, rather than having distinct topics of its own. The positivists adopted the principle of verificationism, according to which every meaningful statement is eitheranalytic or is capable of being verified by experience. This caused the logical positivists to reject many traditional problems of philosophy, especially those of metaphysics or ontology, as meaningless. Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Perhaps the view for which the logical positivists are best known is the verifiability criterion of meaning, or verificationism. In one of its earlier and stronger formulations, this is the doctrine that a proposition is "cognitively meaningful" only if there is a finite procedure for conclusively determining its truth.[9] An intended consequence of this opinion, for most logical positivists[citation needed], is that metaphysical, theological, and ethical statements fail this criterion, and so are not cognitively meaningful.[10]Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan They distinguished cognitive from other varieties of meaningfulness (e.g. emotive, expressive, figurative), and most authors concede that the non-cognitive statements of the history of philosophy possess some other kind of meaningfulness. The positive characterization of cognitive meaningfulness varies from author to author. It has been described as the property of having a truth value, corresponding to a possible state of affairs, naming a proposition, or being intelligible or understandable in the sense in which scientific statements are intelligible or understandable.[11]HP G62-373DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In response to criticism of verificationism, A. J. Ayer proposed a weak version. In Language, Truth and Logic he defines the distinction between "strong" and "weak" verification: "A proposition is said to be verifiable, in the strong sense of the term, if, and only if, its truth could be conclusively established by experience." (Ayer 1946:50) It is this sense of verifiable that causes the problem of verification with negative existential claims and positive universal claims. However, the weak sense of verification states that a proposition is "verifiable..  Dell Vostro 3400 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan . if it is possible for experience to render it probable" (ibid.). After establishing this distinction, Ayer claims that "no proposition, other than a tautology, can possibly be anything more than a probable hypothesis" (Ayer 1946:51), and therefore can only be subject to weak verification. This defense was controversial among logical positivists, some of whom touted strong verification, and claimed that general propositions were indeed nonsense.[citation needed]FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Logical positivists divided knowledge into analytic and synthetic categories. Analytic knowledge, such as mathematical theorems, is tautological (it is entirely deducable from its presuppositions) and thus can be validated a priori. Synthetic knowledge, such as assertions about the real world, must be verified a posteriori by observation. Logical positivists rejected the existence of any synthetic a priori knowledge. HP Pavilion dv6-2005et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan (For example, the scientific progress of general relativity demonstrates that philosophers are wrong to pronounce a priori that space should have a Euclidean nature.) The analytic-synthetic distinction was attacked by Quine's 1951 paper "Two Dogmas of Empiricism". Logical positivists also distinguished observational and theoretical terms. This distinction was criticised by Popper, who emphasised even basic observations as being "theory-laden".[8]HP G62-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another characteristic feature of logical positivism is the commitment to "Unified Science"; that is, the development of a common language or, in Neurath's phrase, a "universal slang" in which all scientific propositions can be expressed.[12] The adequacy of proposals or fragments of proposals for such a language was often asserted on the basis of various "reductions" or "explications" of the terms of one special science to the terms of another, TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard putatively more fundamental one. Sometimes these reductions consisted of set-theoretic manipulations of a few logically primitive concepts (as in Carnap's (1928) Logical Structure of the World); sometimes these reductions consisted of allegedly analytic or a priori deductive relationships (as in Carnap's Testability and Meaning). A number of publications over a period of thirty years would attempt to elucidate this concept. HP G62-460SD Laptop Keyboard

he main influences on the early logical positivists were the positivist Ernst Mach, Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell and the young Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Mach's influence is most apparent in the logical positivists' persistent concern with metaphysics, the unity of science, and the interpretation of the theoretical terms of science, as well as the doctrines of reductionism and phenomenalism, later abandoned by many positivists. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus was a text of great importance for the positivists. The Tractatus introduced many doctrines which later influenced logical positivism, including the concept of philosophy as a "critique of language," and the possibility of making a theoretically principled distinction between intelligible and nonsensical discourse. The Tractatus also adhered to a correspondence theory of truth which the positivists adopted, although some, like Otto Neurath, preferred a form of coherentism. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard ittgenstein's influence is also evident in certain formulations of the verification principle. Compare, for example, Proposition 4.024 of the Tractatus, where Wittgenstein asserts that we understand a proposition when we know what happens if it is true, with Schlick's assertion that "To state the circumstances under which a proposition is true is the same as stating its meaning."[13] The tractarian doctrine that the truths of logic are tautologies was widely believed among the logical positivists. Wittgenstein also influenced the logical positi

vists' interpretation of probability. According to Neurath, some logical positivists disliked the Tractatus, since they thought it included a great deal of metaphysics.[14]SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard Contemporary developments in logic and the foundations of mathematics, especially Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead's monumental Principia Mathematica, impressed the more mathematically minded logical positivists such as Hans Hahn and Rudolf Carnap. "Language-planning" and syntactical techniques derived from these developments were used to defend logicism in the philosophy of mathematics and various reductionist theses. Russell's theory of types was employed to great effect in Carnap's early anti-metaphysical polemics.[15]HP Pavilion G6-1B79US Laptop Keyboard Immanuel Kant also had an important influence on the positivists, both positive and negative. Negatively, Kant was often scorned by the positivists in their early debates, and Kant's doctrine of synthetic a priori truths was the doctrine they most wished to discredit. However, Kant's opinions about the nature of physical objects pervaded the protocol sentence debate,[16] and Kantian opinions of the relationship between philosophy and science were shared by the positivists to some degree.[17]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Positivism in Germany is thought to have developed in response to Hegelian and neo-Hegelian metaphysics, which was a famous philosophy in Germany.[18] Hegelian successors such as F.H. Bradley attempted to explain reality by postulating metaphysical entities that did not have any empirical basis.[18] Logical positivists in response wanted to stop such metaphysical entities from being used as an explanation. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard Another, less well-known factor that encouraged logical positivism was the urgency of solving new philosophical problems raised by new scientific developments. The Vienna Circle under the influence of Moritz Schlick and the Berlin Circle under the influence of Hans Reichenbach consisted of scientists, mathematicians, and scientists turned philosophers, who shared a common goal of solving new problems in the philosophy of science. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Witgenstein's principle of verifiability posed fairly obvious problems in any scientific context. No universal generalization can ever be verified. Perhaps independently, Karl Popper perceived the same problem... This led him to replace the requirement of verfiability with that of falsifiability, though only as a criterion to demarcate science from metaphysics, and not as one to be also used to demarcate meaningful from meaningless claims. It is also unclear what the status of the principle itself is, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard that is, whether it is meaningful by its own criterion of meaningfulness. Carnap, as well as other members of the Vienna Circle including Hahn and Neurath, realized that a weaker criterion of meaningfulness was necessary. Thus began the program of the "liberalization of empiricism." There was no unanimity within the Vienna Circle on this point. The differences between the members are sometimes described as those between a conservative "right" wing, led by Schlick and Waismann, which rejected both the liberalization of empiricism and the epistemological antifoundationalism of the move [from phenomenalism] to physicalism, IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard and a radical "left" wing, led by Neurath and Carnap, which endorsed the opposite views. The "left" wing also emphasized fallibilism and pragmatics; Carnap went far enough along this line to suggest that empiricism itself was a proposal to be accepted on pragmatic grounds. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard In an important pair of papers, "Testability and Meaning," Carnap (1936-1937) replaced the requirement of verification with that of confirmation; at this stage, he made no attempt to quantify the latter. Individual terms replace sentences as the unit of meaning. Universal generalizations are no longer problematic; though they cannot be conclusively verified, they can yet be confirmed. Moreover, in "Testability and Meaning," theoretical terms no longer require explicit definition from observational ones in order to acquire meaning; the connection between the two may be indirect through a system of implicit definitions. Carnap also provides an important pioneering discussion of disposition predicates.[23]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard A well-known critic of logical positivism was Karl Popper, who published the book Logik der Forschung in 1934 (translated by himself as The Logic of Scientific Discovery, published 1959). In it he argued that the positivists' criterion of verifiability was too strong a criterion for science, and should be replaced by a criterion of falsifiability. Popper thought that falsifiability was a better criterion because it did not invite the philosophical problems inherent in verifying an inductive inference, and it allowed statements from the physical sciences which seemed scientific but which did not satisfy the verification criterion. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Popper's concern was not with distinguishing meaningful from meaningless statements, but distinguishing scientific from metaphysical statements. Unlike the positivists, he did not claim that metaphysical statements must be meaningless; he also claimed that a statement which was "metaphysical" and unfalsifiable in one century (like the ancient Greek philosophy about atoms) could, in another century, be developed into falsifiable theories that have the metaphysical views as a consequence, and thus become scientific. HP 407218-001 Laptop Keyboard

Popper denied that science need rely on inductive reasoning, or that inductive reasoning actually exists, although most philosophers think it obvious that science does rely on it.[24]

Key tenets of logical positivism, including its atomistic philosophy of science, the verifiability principle, and the fact–value distinction, came under attack after the Second World War by philosophers such as Nelson Goodman, Quine, J. L. Austin, and Peter Strawson. Nicholas G. Fotion comments that "By the late 1960s it became obvious that the movement had pretty much run its course."[26] Most philosophers consider logical positivism to be, as John Passmore expressed it, "dead, or as dead as a philosophical movement ever becomes".[27]FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the late 1970s, its ideas were so generally recognized to be seriously defective that one of its own main proponents, A. J. Ayer, could say in an interview: "I suppose the most important [defect]...was that nearly all of it was false."[27] It retains an important place in the history of analytic philosophy as the antecedent of contemporary philosophies, such as constructive empiricism, positivism, andpostpositivism.  HP G62-a10EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Early critics of logical positivism said that its fundamental tenets could not themselves be formulated consistently. The verifiability criterion of meaning did not seem verifiable; but neither was it simply a logical tautology, since it had implications for the practice of science and the empirical truth of other statements. This presented severe problems for the logical consistency of the theory.[19]SONY VGN-CS31S/V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another problem was that universal claims (e.g. "(all) philosophers are mortal") are problematic in terms of verification.[20][21] The verifiability criterion was seen as being too strong. In its initial formulation, it made universal statements meaningless, and this was seen as a problem for science. This led to the weakening of the criterion.  HP Pavilion dv7-6135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Phenomenalism is a radical form of empiricism and, hence, its roots as an ontological view of the nature of existence can be traced back to George Berkeley and his subjective idealism, which David Hume further elaborated.[1] John Stuart Mill had a theory of perception which is commonly referred to as classical phenomenalism. ACER Aspire 5715Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This differs from Berkeley's idealism in its account of how objects continue to exist when no one is perceiving them. Berkeley claimed that an omniscient God perceived all objects and that this was what kept them in existence, whereas Mill claimed that permanent possibilities of experience were sufficient for an object's existence. These permanent possibilities could be analysed into counterfactual conditionals, such as "if I were to have y-type sensations, then I would also have x-type sensations". HP Pavilion dv6-3050es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As an epistemological theory about the possibility of knowledge of objects in the external world, however, it is probable that the most easily understandable formulation of phenomenalism is to be found in the transcendental aesthetics of Immanuel Kant. According to Kant, space and time, which are the a priori forms and preconditions of all sensory experience, "refer to objects only to the extent that these are considered as phenomena, but do not represent the things in themselves". While Kant insisted that knowledge is limited to phenomena, he never denied or excluded the existence of objects which were not knowable by way of experience, the things-in-themselves or noumena, though he never proved them. Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kant's "epistemological phenomenalism", as it has been called, is therefore quite distinct from Berkeley's earlier ontological version. In Berkeley's view, the so-called "things-in-themselves" do not exist except as subjectively perceived bundles of sensations which are guaranteed consistency and permanence because they are constantly perceived by the mind of God. Hence, while Berkeley holds that objects are merely bundles of sensations (see bundle theory), Kant holds (unlike other bundle theorists) that objects do not cease to exist when they are no longer perceived by some merely human subject or mind. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the late 19th century, an even more extreme form of phenomenalism was formulated by Ernst Mach, later developed and refined by Russell, Ayer and the logical positivists. Mach rejected the existence of God and also denied that phenomena were data experienced by the mind or consciousness of subjects. Instead, Mach held sensory phenomena to be "pure data" whose existence was to be considered anterior to any arbitrary distinction between mental and physical categories of phenomena. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In this way, it was Mach who formulated the key thesis of phenomenalism, which separates it from bundle theories of objects: objects are logical constructions out of sense-data or ideas; whereas according to bundle theories, objects are made up of sets, or bundles, of actual ideas or perceptions. That is, according to bundle theory, to say that the pear before me exists is simply to say that certain properties (greenness, hardness, etc.) are being perceived at this moment. When these characteristics are no longer perceived or experienced by anyone, then the object (pear, in this case) no longer exists. HP Pavilion dv9730nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Phenomenalism as formulated by Mach, in contrast, is the view that objects are logical constructions out of perceptual properties. On this view, to say there is a table in the other room when there is no one in that room to perceive it, is to say that if there were someone in that room, then that person would perceive the table. It is not the actual perception that counts, but the conditional possibility of perceiving.  Toshiba Qosmio G10 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Logical positivism, a movement begun as a small circle which grew around the philosopher Moritz Schlick in Vienna, inspired many philosophers in the English speaking world from the 1930s through the 1950s. Important influences on their brand of empiricism included Ernst Mach — himself holding the Chair of Inductive Sciences at the University of Vienna, a position Schlick would later hold — and the Cambridge philosopher Bertrand Russell. The idea of the logical positivists, such as A.J. Ayer and Rudolf Carnap, was to formulate the doctrine of phenomenalism in linguistic terms, so as to define references to such entities as physical objects in the external world out of existence. Sentences which contained terms such as "table" were to be translated into sentences which referred exclusively to either actual or possible sensory experiences. ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

20th century American philosopher Arthur Danto asserted that "a phenomenalist, believ[es] that whatever is finally meaningful can be expressed in terms of our own [sense] experience.".[2] He claimed that "The phenomenalist really is committed to the most radical kind of empiricism: For him reference to objects is always finally a reference to sense-experience ... ."[3] To the phenomenalist, objects of any kind must be related to experience. "John Stuart Mill once spoke of physical objects as but the 'permanent possibility of experience' and this, by and large, is what the phenomenalist exploits: All we can mean, in talking about physical objects —HP Pavilion DV6-1018el Laptop Keyboard or nonphysical objects, if there are any — is what experiences we would have in dealing with them ... ." However, phenomenalism is based on mental operations. These operations, themselves, are not known from sense experience. Such non-empirical, non-sensual operations are the "...nonempirical matters of space, time, and continuity that empiricism in all its forms and despite its structures seems to require ... ."[3] University of FreiburgCompaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The University of Freiburg (German Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, colloquially Uni Freiburg), sometimes referred to with its full title, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. HP Pavilion dv6-2077la Laptop Keyboard The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the second university in Austrian-Habsburg territory after the University of Vienna. Today, Freiburg is the fifth-oldest university in Germany, with a long tradition of teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. The university is made up of 11 faculties and attracts students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. Foreign students constitute about 16% of total student numbers.[1]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The University of Freiburg is amongst Europe's top research and teaching institutions.[3][4] With its long-standing reputation of excellence, the university looks both to the past, to maintain its historic academic and cultural heritage, and to the future, developing new methods and opportunities to meet the needs of a changing world.[5] The University of Freiburg has been home to some of the greatest minds of the Western tradition, including such eminent figures as Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Rudolf Carnap, David Daube, Johann Eck, Hans-Georg Gadamer, DELL F759C Laptop Keyboard Friedrich Hayek, Edmund Husserl,Friedrich Meinecke, and Max Weber. In addition, 19 Nobel laureates are affiliated with the University of Freiburg and 15 academics have been honored with the highest German research prize, the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, while working at the University of Freiburg.  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Originally Albrechts University, the university started with four faculties (theology, philosophy, medicine and law). Its establishment belongs to the second wave of German university foundings in the late Middle Ages, like the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen and the University of Basel. Established by papal privilege (papal bull) the University in Freiburg actually was - like all or most universities in the Middle Ages - a corporation of the church body and therefore belonged to theRoman Catholic Church and its hierarchy. SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard The bishop of Basel consequently was its provost or chancellor (Kanzler), the bishop ofConstance was its patron while the real founder of the university was the sovereign, Archduke Albert VI of Austria, being the brother of Frederick III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. At its founding, the university was named afterAlbert VI of Austria. He provided the university with land and endowments as well as its own jurisdiction. Also he declared Albrechts University as the "county university" (German Landesuniversität) for his territory until it was handed over to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1490. ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard The University soon attracted many students as the humanists Geiler von Kaysersberg,Johann Reuchlin or Jakob Wimpfeling. When Ulrich Zasius was teaching law (until 1536), Freiburg became a centre of humanist jurisprudence. From 1529 to 1535 Erasmus of Rotterdam lived and taught in Freiburg. From around 1559 on, the university was housed at the Altes Collegium ("Old College"), today called the "new town-hall".HP Mini 210-2145dx Laptop Keyboard  GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard The importance of the university decreased during the time of the Counter-Reformation. To counter reformatory tendencies, the administration of two faculties was handed over to the Roman Catholic order of the Jesuits in 1620. From 1682 on, the Jesuits built their college as well as the Jesuit church (nowadays the "University Church" orHP Mini 110-3130tu Laptop Keyboard After Freiburg was re-conquered and appointed as capital of Further Austria, a new time began for the university by the reforms of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. The requirements for admission were changed for all faculties in 1767 (before that time only Roman Catholics were allowed to study) and Natural Sciences were added as well as Public Administration. Also in 1767, the university became a governmental institution despite the Church's protests. The Church finally lost its predominant influence on the university when the Jesuits were suppressed following a decree signed by Pope Clement XIII in 1773. Consequently,Johann Georg Jacobi (brother of the more famous philosopher Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi) in 1784 was the first Protestant professor teaching at the university in Freiburg. HP G61-430SL Laptop Keyboard When Freiburg became a part of the newly established Grand Duchy of Baden (in German "Großherzogtum Baden") in 1805 (after Napoleon occupied the area of the formerly Further Austria), a crisis began for the university in Freiburg. Indeed there were considerations by Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden and Karl, Grand Duke of Baden to close down the university in Freiburg while both of them thought that the Grand Duchy could not afford to run two universities at the same time (the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg also already existed since 1386).  Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 1880s the population of the student body and faculty started to grow quickly. The scientific reputation of Albert Ludwigs University attracted several researchers like economist Adolph Wagner, historians Georg von Below and Friedrich Meinecke, or jurists Karl von Amira and Paul Lenel. HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of Freiburg, among others, served as a role model for the establishment of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA, in 1875. Johns Hopkins was the first US university committed to research following Alexander von Humboldt's ideas of research as practiced at German universities at the time. Daniel Coit Gilman, founding president of Johns Hopkins, who had studied in Germany, visited Freiburg and other German universities in preparation for the founding of Johns Hopkins.[6]COMPAQ nx6325 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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