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University of Geneva The University of Geneva (French: Université de Genève) is a public research university located in Geneva,Switzerland. It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin, as a theological seminary and law school. It remained focused on theology until the 17th century, when it became a center for Enlightenment scholarship. In 1873, it dropped its religious affiliations and became officially secular. Today, the university is the second-largest university in Switzerland. It has programs in various fields but is particularly acknowledged for its academic and research programs in international relations (with Geneva being hostess to a dense agglomeration of international organizations), SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard law, astrophysics, astronomy, genetics(with a record of prominent contributions to the fields of planetary science, genetics, developmental psychology,neuroscience, and theology ). The university holds and actively pursues teaching, research, and community service as its primary objectives. In 2009, the University of Geneva celebrated the 450th anniversary of its founding. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard The university is a member of the League of European Research Universities. It was ranked 73rd worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, and 69th in the QS World University Rankings[1] in 2011. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard Image:Marc van Montagu and Jozef Schell.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Marc Van Montagu (left) and Jeff Schell (right) (1993)]] Marc Van Montagu (born 10 November 1933 in Ghent) is a Belgian molecular biologist. He was full Professor and director of the Laboratory of Genetics at the faculty of Sciences at Ghent University(Belgium) and scientific director of the Genetics Department of the Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB). Together with Jozef Schell he founded the biotech company Plant Genetic Systems Inc. Compaq Presario CQ56-102LA Laptop Keyboard (Belgium) in 1982, of which he was Scientific Director and member of the board of Directors. Marc Van Montagu was also involved in founding the biotech company CropDesign, of which he was a Board member from 1998 to 2004. He is president of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) and of the Public Research and Regulation Initiative (PRRI). SONY 147915321 Laptop Keyboard Together with his colleague Prof. Jeff Schell, Marc Van Montagu discovered the gene transfer mechanism between Agrobacterium and plants, which resulted in the development of methods to alter Agrobacterium into an efficient delivery system for gene engineering and to create transgenic plants.[1] He developed plantmolecular genetics, in particular molecular mechanisms for cell proliferation and differentiation and response to abiotic stresses (high light, ozone, cold,salt and drought) and constructed transgenic crops (tobacco, rape seed, corn) resistant to insect pest and tolerant to novel herbicides. His work with poplartrees resulted in engineering of trees with improved pulping qualities. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Laptop Keyboard Carolus Petrus Eduardus Maria "Karel" van de Woestijne (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈkaˑʀəl vɑndəβ̞usˈtɛˑɪ̯nə]; Ghent, 10 March 1878 - Zwijnaarde, 24 August 1929) was a Flemish writer and brother of the painter Gustave van de Woestijne. He went to highschool at the Koninklijk Athenaeum (E:Royal Athenaeum) at the Ottogracht in Ghent. He also studied Germanic philology at the University of Ghent, where he came into contact with French symbolism. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard He lived at Sint-Martens-Latem from April 1900 up to January 1904, and from April 1905 up to November 1906. Here he wrote Laetemsche brieven over de lente, for his friend Adolf Herckenrath (1901). In 1907 he moved to Brussels, and in 1915 he moved to Pamel, where he wrote De leemen torens together with Herman Teirlinck. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard From 1906 he was correspondent of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant in Brussels. Between 1920 and 1929 he taught history of Dutch literature at the University of Ghent. He was editor of successively the illustrated magazines of Van Nu en Straks(second range, 1896-1901) and Vlaanderen (1903-1907). Of the illustrated magazine Vlaanderen he became secretary of the redaction in 1906. From 1925 until his death in 1929, he lived in Zwijnaarde, nearby Ghent.  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop KeyboardFerdinand Augustijn Snellaert (Kortrijk, 21 July 1809-Ghent, 3 July 1872) was a Flemish writer. He studied medicine at theUniversity of Utrecht (1827-1829) and became officer of health in the Dutch army (1830-1835). After his dismissal, he graduated in medicine at the University of Ghent (1836-1837), HP Mini 210-2090nr Laptop Keyboard and became a general practitioner in Ghent. Ferdinand Augustijn Snellaert became active in the Flemish movement. He founded the Maetschappy van Vlaemsche Letteroefening De Tael is gantsch het Volk, and he participated in several Flemish actions, such as the Vlaams petitionnement (1840), the Kunst- en Letterblad (1840), the Dutch Linguistic and Literary Conferences(vanaf 1849), the Rapport van de Grievencommissie (1856-1859) en the Vlaemsch Verbond (1861). ACER PK1307R1A01 Laptop Keyboard In 1847, he succeeded his friend Jan Frans Willems as member of the Royal Belgian Academy in Brussels, where he represented the Flemish cause, and he was one of the co-founders of the Willemsfonds. In 1849, at the first Dutch Linguistic and Literary Conference, he held the opening speech, where he argued every possible means should be used to strengthen the spirit of the people, and that we should fight those who worked against the development of the spirit of the people. Language was believed to be an important tool to influence the character of the people. DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard From 1980 until 1986 he practiced as a veterinary surgeon in Tielt. From February 1986 until July 1992, he was veterinary inspector at the Belgian Department of Veterinary Services. From August 1992 until September 1994 he was Director at the Department, section animal diseases. From October 1994 until December 1997, Piet Vanthemsche was Director at the General Secretariat. From December 1997 until July 1999, he was Chef de Cabinet of the Minister of Agriculture and from July 1999 until February 2000, DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard Advisor-General at the General Secretariat. From March 2000 until July 2002, he worked as self-employed Consultant. From July 2002 until July 2006, he was CEO of the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC). From October 2006 until April 2007, he was Interministerial CommisisonerInfluenza. From July 2006 until April 2007, he was General Administrator of the Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products after which he was succeeded by Xavier De Cuyper. From April 2007 until March 2008, he was Vice President of the Boerenbond after which he succeeded Noël Devisch as its President and as regent of the National Bank of Belgium. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard He was born at Luxembourg City. He held a high appointment in the ministry of justice for some time before he became professor of civil law in the university of Ghent in 1836. His advocacy of liberal and anti-clerical principles both from his chair and in the press made him bitter enemies, but he retained his position until his death in 1887. SONY VAIO PCG-6J2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He treated the relations of church and state in L'Églisé et l'État (Brussels, 3 vols., 1858-1862; new and revised edition, 1865), and the same subject occupied a large proportion of the eighteen volumes of his chief historical work, Études sur l'histoire de l'humanité (Ghent and Brussels, 1855-1870), which aroused considerable interest beyond the boundaries ofBelgium. HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His fame as a lawyer rests on his authoritative exposition of the Code Napoleon in his Principes de droit civil français(Brussels, 33 vols., 1869-1878), and his Le droit civil international (Brussels, 8 vols., 1880-1881). SONY UDQF2PH22CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was charged in 1879 by the minister of justice with the preparation of a report on the proposed revision of the civil code. Besides his anti-clerical pamphlets, his minor writings include much discussion of social questions, of the organization of savings banks, asylums, &c. Laurent had much in common with Gustave Callier, whose funeral in 1863 was made the occasion of a display of clerical intolerance, and he founded the Societé Callier for the encouragement of thrift among the working classes. The efforts of the society were directed to the continuation of Callier's philanthropic schemes. Toshiba Qosmio F15-AV201 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For a complete list of his works, see Auguste de Koninck, Bibliographie nationale : dictionnaire des écrivains belges et catalogue de leurs publications 1830 - 1880 (Brussels, vol. ii., 1892). TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5170 Laptop Keyboard From 1965 to 1970, she was the president of the legal committee of the PVV Women (PVV-Vrouwen); in 1968, she became the director of the PVV Women of Ghent. She was president of the National Federation of Women PVV from 1970 until 1978, when that organization split due to language issues; she subsequently founded the Federation of Flemish PVV Women, becoming its first president. She remained a member of the Federation's Executive Board until her death.[1] From 1977 until 1991 she was a member of the Ghent municipal council and senator for the PVV in the Belgian Senate. For a short period in 1980, Herman-Michielsens was State Secretary for the Flemish community. HP 6730S Laptop Keyboard On 3 April 1990, the Belgian parliament approved a bill, which Herman-Michielsens had submitted together with Roger Lallemand, to legalize abortion under certain conditions.[nb 1] In addition to supporting gender equality and abortion rights for women, Herman-Michielsens fought for the legal guarantees of religious pluralism. After proposals on pluralism failed in June 1970—recognizing Islam, but not liberalism—a law was passed on 23 January 1981 providing limited support.[2]SONY VGN-FE590P Laptop Keyboard Herman-Michielsens resigned in 1991, at the peak of her political career, after diabetes began to cause blindness andrenal failure. She and her husband retired and moved to Knokke-Heist. Herman-Michielsens died in Ghent on 22 January 1995.[1]TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S5811 Laptop Keyboard He obtained a degree of Engineer for Chemistry and Agricultural Industries at the University of Ghent in 1954, and started his research career as an enzymologist in the laboratory of Laurent Vandendriessche in Ghent. In 1956-57, he worked with Heinz Holter in Copenhagen (Denmark). In 1960, he obtained a fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation and joined the group of Bob Sinsheimer as a postdoc. SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard At the California Institute of Technology Walter Fiers was exposed to Molecular Biology, which was then just developing, studying viral DNA. He demonstrated the physical, covalently closed circularity of Bacteriophage PhiX-174DNA.[1] In 1962, Fiers moved to Madison, Wisconsin, to work in the laboratory of future Nobel laureate, Gobind Khorana. SONY VAIO VGN-AR605E Laptop Keyboard At the end of 1962, Fiers returned to Belgium and set up the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the University of Ghent. His research involved Bacteriophage MS2; he was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a gene (1972) and of a viral genome (bacteriophage MS2)(1976).[2][3] In 1978 Fiers and his team were the first to reveal the complete nucleotide-sequence of SV40.[4] The development of totally new procedures and knowledge led to the ability to clone almost any gene and to express these efficiently in bacteria or in other heterologous hosts.[5]HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard In 1997 Fiers retired and became Professor Emeritus, and the following year he retired from his position as director of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Together with Xavier Saelens and their team, he continued his research, to find a universalinfluenza vaccine, based on the M2 protein on the surface of the influenza A virus.[6][7] The ectodomain of the M2 protein remains unchanged in all human influenza viruses known, including the strains that caused the pandemics in the last century, which makes it eligible for a universal influenza A vaccine.[8][9][10]COMPAQ Presario CQ50-209WM Laptop Keyboard  (2009-2012): Head of Cabinet of the Minister-President of the Flemish Government Kris Peeters, in charge of economy, finance, international affaires & trade and future thinking. Key author and architect of the New Industrial Policy for Flanders [1] including the setup of an Industrial Transformations Fund of 200 Meuro (TINA) and the formation of an Industry Council. Government Commissioner and member of the Board of the Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology of Flanders (IWT). Member of the TINA investment fund. SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard  (1982-1984): attaché at the department for Scientific Policy - office of the Belgium Prime Minister Wilfried Martens. He is a member of the Christian Democratic and Flemish party, situated politically at the centrum right wing of the party (Mark Eyskens, Leo Tindemans, Herman van Rompuy). Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Senior Full Professor (buitengewoon hoogleraar) Strategy and Marketing (business & international) and founder-director of the Institute for Futures Research atGhent University. He was elected Fellow of The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium.[2] in 2005 and of the Academia Europaea in 2012. HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Associate fellow of Green Templeton College and an Oxford Martin Associate Fellow of the Oxford Martin School, both at the University of Oxford. He was elected Fellow of Hogenheuvel College at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 2007. His research focuses on decision making in highly complex and uncertain situations.[3] The so called Futures en Foresight research based on strategic scenario planning or strategic conversations. He worked with Sir David King (scientist), Lord Martin Rees, Ian Goldin, Steve Rayner, John Lennox and Peter Piot. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard (2012-2014) Member of the Global Agenda Councils - Complex Systems of the World Economic Forum (2008-2010) Member of the Global Agenda Councils - Strategic Foresight [4] of the World Economic Forum. (2007-2011) Associate fellow of the Institute for Science, Innovation and Society (InSIS), University of Oxford. (2008-2011) Board member of the European Council of Applied Sciences and Engineering (Euro-CASE) HP Mini 110-1014tu Laptop Keyboard、 He started in 1984 at Arthur Andersen and joined with Julien De Wilde in 1990, John J. Goossens, when he took the helm of Alcatel Bell. (1990-2002) Alcatel: As of 1995: Member of the Executive Committee - As of 1998: vice president marketing & business development for Northern & Central Europe including, Japan, Korea, en MEA. SONY KFRMBA220A Laptop Keyboard  (2002-2006) Suez: executive vice president of the international energy branch of Suez, responsible for the worldwide strategy, portfolio management, early development and business communications in electricity and gas. Strongly involved in the early development of the group in MEA and BRIC. (2007-2009) GDF Suez (Paris HQ): Group SVP heading the worldwide development & strategy. Introduced new methods for strategic risk management. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Corneille Jean François Heymans (28 March 1892, Ghent, Flanders – 18 July 1968, Knokke, Flanders) was a Flemishphysiologist. He studied at the prestigious Jesuit College of Sainte Barbe after which he proceeded to Ghent University, where he obtained a doctor's degree in 1920.[1]COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard After graduation Heymans worked at the Collège de France (under Prof. E. Gley), the University of Lausanne (under Prof. M. Arthus), the University of Vienna (under Prof. H. H. Meyer), University College London (under Prof. E. H. Starling) and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (under Prof. C. F. Wiggers).[1] In 1922 Heymans became Lecturer in Pharmacodynamics at Ghent University, and in 1930 succeeded his father, Jean-François Heymans, as Professor of Pharmacology, as well as being appointed Head of the Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics, and Toxicology; and Director of the J. F. Heymans Institute.[1]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Heymans was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1938 for showing how blood pressure and the oxygencontent of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain. Born in New York City December 25, 1906, the son of Harry and Ida Kaplan Dobelle, he grew up in Brooklyn, New York. An alumnus of Boys High School, he received a track and field scholarship to and graduated from Fordham University in 1926 where he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. After working in a Brooklyn pharmacy for two years, he studied medicine at the University of Ghent in Belgium, where he received his M.D. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard degree in 1932. As an intern and resident, he served in various American hospitals, including Boston City Hospital, at which time he held teaching fellowships at both Tufts University and Harvard University. Later he became one of the first doctors in this country to successfully develop an artificial hip joint. ACER Aspire 5520-5537 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Dr. Dobelle came to Pittsfield in 1939, opening offices in the Onota Building. He was affiliated with Hillcrest, Fairview and North Adams Regional hospitals, as well as the House of Mercy, later Pittsfield General Hospital, and St. Luke's Hospital, the last two of which were later merged to become Berkshire Medical Center. ACER Aspire 6920-6621 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1943 he closed his private practice and entered the Army as a first lieutenant. He left nearly four years later as a lieutenant colonel, having served as chief of orthopedic surgery at the Army hospital in Fort Belvoir, VA., and chief of surgery service at Halloran General Hospital in Staten Island. He was cited for meritorious performance while at Fort Belvoir, where he reorganized the orthopedic section and set up a teaching program, and was decorated three times for surgical accomplishment.  HP Pavilion dv7-6199us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was named civilian orthopedic consultant to the Veterans Administration, a post he held for 20 years, and to the office of the surgeon general, the Federal Security Commission and U.S. Department of Labor. Dr. Dobelle returned to Pittsfield in 1947. He moved in 1955 to 769 North Street, a house he converted to contain offices for six doctors, acting as his own architect and contractor. FUJITSU LifeBook E8410 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He spent much of his life working with crippled children. He was chief of surgery at the Carrie Tingly Crippled Children's Hospital for Indian Children in Hot Springs, NM., and consulting orthopedic surgeon for Kaiser Permanente Foundation Hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii. He also served as chief orthopedic surgeon at the Cape Kennedy Missile Center in Florida for three years during Project Mercury and was consultant in orthopedic surgery to the Air Force Military Support Facility at Patrick Air Force Base.  HP Pavilion dv5-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He returned to Pittsfield in 1965 and two years later was appointed medical examiner for Central Berkshire, a post he held until 1982. He was also a five-year member of the state Board of Registration in Nursing. Dr. Dobelle was president of the Nicholas Andre Orthopedic Society, a diplomat of the American Board of Orthopedists, a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine and a founding fellow of the International College of Surgeons, as well as a member of the American Medical Association and Massachusetts and Berkshire medical societies. He retired from the practice of medicine in 1975.  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A former president of Temple Anshe Amunim, he was a member of the American Legion, and Crescent Lodge of Masons and the Shriner Melha Temple in Springfield, Massachusetts from which he received his 50-year pin in 1983. He was given a gold medal by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union for 50 years of service and interest in the labor movement. IBM ThinkPad T60 2623 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He started his career at Alcatel in 1982, at that time ITT. During his career at Alcatel, he held various key positions in Alcatel's research center in Antwerp. In 1985, he started research on ATM, which resulted in a first world prototype in Telecom Geneva in 1991. In 1996, as head of the Access Business Unit, he led Alcatel's ADSL virtual company for the development of ADSL. In 2000, he became Chief Technology Officer (CTO) and a member of the Executive Committee of Alcatel in Paris. In February 2002, he became the CEO of Barco, where he succeeded Hugo Vandamme.  HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Martin De Prycker was teaching at Boston University from 1988 to 1992 and at Ghent University from 1994 to 1999. He is a member of the board of Agoria and of VOKA. In addition he is a member of the committee Proces voor Prioriteitstelling inzake Technologie en Innovatie in Vlaanderen of the Flemish Council for Science Policy and of the board of advice of the GIMV.  HP COMPAQ 2510P Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Cailliau was born in Tongeren, Belgium. In 1958 he moved with his parents to Antwerp. After secondary school he graduated from Ghent University in 1969 as civil engineer in electrical and mechanical engineering (Flemish: Burgerlijk Werktuigkundig en Elektrotechnisch ingenieur). He also has an MSc from the University of Michigan in Computer, Information and Control Engineering, 1971. Compaq Presario CQ71-318SO Laptop Keyboard During his military service in the Belgian Army he maintained Fortran programs to simulate troop movements.[1] In December 1974 he started working at CERN as a Fellow in the Proton Synchrotron (PS) division, working on the control system of the accelerator. In April 1987 he left the PS division to become group leader of Office Computing Systems in the Data Handling division.[2] In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee proposed a hypertext system for access to the many forms of documentation at and related to CERN.[3] SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Berners-Lee created the system, calling it World Wide Web, between September to December 1990. During this time, Cailliau and he co-authored a proposal for funding for the project.[4] Cailliau later became a key proponent of the project and developed with Nicola Pellow the first web browser for the Mac OS operating system called MacWWW.[4][5][6][7]ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard In 1993, in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Cailliau started the European Commission's first web-based project for information dissemination in Europe (WISE). As a result of his work with CERN's Legal Service, CERN released the web technology into the public domain on 30 April 1993. DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard In December 1993 Cailliau called for the first International WWW Conference which was held at CERN in May 1994.[4][8][9]The oversubscribed conference brought together 380 web pioneers and was a milestone in the development of the web. The conference led to the forming of the International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee which has organized an annual conference since then. Cailliau was a member of the Committee from 1994 until 2002. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1994 Cailliau started the "Web for Schools" project with the European Commission, introducing the web as a resource for education. After helping to transfer the web development from CERN to the World Wide Web Consortium, he devoted his time to public communication. He went on early retirement from CERN in January 2007. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Cailliau is now an active member of Newropeans, a transeuropean political movement for which he and Luca Cominassi have recently drafted a proposal concerning the European information society.[10] He is a public speaker on the past and future of the World Wide Web and delivered the keynote opening speech at the annual Runtime Revolution developer conference in Edinburgh, Scotland on 1 September 2009. ACER PK1306F0200 Laptop Keyboard Jacques-Joseph Haus (5 January 1796 - 23 February 1881) was a Belgian lawyer. He was born in Würzburg, Germany to Ernest-Augustus Haus and Marie-Barbe Stang. He died in Ghent, Belgium. Haus attended school through to university in Würzburg. He achieved a doctor's rank in philosophy on 3 January 1814, two days before turning eighteen. Three years later, on 26 April 1817, he was proclaimed summa cum laude doctor in civil law and in canonical law. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Around 1817, King William I of the Netherlands enacted the creation of three universities in the southern provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands: in Ghent, in Liège and in Louvain (former Catholic University). As a consequence of the disturbances brought by the French revolution to teaching in these provinces, the personnel necessary for correct operation of these universities was missing. SAMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard The government was obliged to search for staffing abroad and mainly inGermany. The thing was facilitated because lessons were to be given in Latin, so knowledge of the national languages was not required. The rector of the University of Würzburg, consulted by a Dutch diplomat, designated several candidates, including Jacques-Joseph Haus. A royal decree of 26 August 1817 named him professor in criminal law and in natural rightsto the Ghent University. Compaq Presario CQ56-103LA Laptop Keyboard Jacques-Joseph Haus is particularly known as theorist and renovator of Belgian penal law. He appeared as such by his work in three volumes, published in 1835 with the title: Observations sur le projet de révision du Code pénal. This great work is at the same time a critic of the project of revision deposited on 1 August 1834 by the Belgian government and was a counterpart project explained in 516 articles. This work could not miss drawing the attention to its author. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The project of the government was withdrawn and in 1848 a new commission was established with as mission presenting a new project. Jacques-Joseph Haus, who was part of this commission, was appointed as reporter. As such the commission prepared a preliminary draft and wrote all the reports and exposed reasons for discussion for the government. His work underwent only very light modifications, so that one can say that Jacques-Joseph Haus is the true author of the Belgian Penal law. This law was published only in 1867, HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard whereas the Ghent University celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. Haus, who was rector, was the only survivor of the first team of professors. With this occasion, colleagues and alumni offered his marble bust by Paul de Vigne. King Leopold II of Belgium appointed him grand officier de l’Ordre de Léopold and offered to him a sapphire ring, the royal figure surrounded of brilliances. On proposal of the government he was granted unanimously great naturalization on 12 and 13 May 1870. At the time a distinction extremely rare and very flattering. In 1840, he had obtained ordinary naturalization. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Alberic Rolin wrote in the Liber memorialis of the Ghent University (p. 303), Jacques-Joseph Haus was an unquestioned authority in criminal right. He was part of the commission who prepared a new criminal law and took part in setting up a new military Penal law. The Portuguese government charged him with working out a new Penal law. A national association made up in 1866 in England, for advancing social sciences, asked him to set up a project for an international law. HP Mini 1109TU Laptop Keyboard Since 11 January 1847 he was member of the royal Academy of Belgium and had an active role in its work. He was grand officier de l’Ordre de Léopoldgrand-officier de la Couronne de chêne du Luxembourgchevalier du Lion néerlandais and chevalier de l’Ordre de St-Jacques et de l’Épée du Portugal. HP G62-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Tycho Brahe

Another crucial difference between Tycho's 1587 geo-heliocentric model and those of other geo-heliocentric astronomers, such as Paul Wittich, Reimarus Ursus,Helisaeus Roeslin and David Origanus, was that the orbits of Mars and the Sun intersected.[70] This was because Tycho had come to believe the distance of Mars from the Earth at opposition (that is, when Mars is on the opposite side of the sky from the Sun) was less than that of the Sun from the Earth. Tycho believed this because he came to believe Mars had a greater daily parallax than the Sun. But in 1584 in a letter to a fellow astronomer, Brucaeus, he had claimed that Mars had been further than the Sun at the opposition of 1582, SONY Vaio VGN-SZ160P/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan because he had observed that Mars had little or no daily parallax. He said he had therefore rejected Copernicus's model because it predicted Mars would be at only two-thirds the distance of the Sun.[71] But he apparently later changed his mind to the opinion that Mars at opposition was indeed nearer the Earth than the Sun was, but apparently without any valid observational evidence in any discernible Martian parallax.[72] Such intersecting Martian and solar orbits meant that there could be no solid rotating celestial spheres, because they could not possibly interpenetrate. Arguably this conclusion was independently supported by the conclusion that the comet of 1577 was superlunary, because it showed less daily parallax than the Moon and thus must pass through any celestial spheres in its transit. SONY Vaio VPC-EA36FM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Galileo's 1610 telescopic discovery that Venus shows a full set of phases refuted the pure geocentric Ptolemaic model. After that it seems 17th century astronomy mostly converted to geo-heliocentric planetary models that could explain these phases just as well as the heliocentric model could, but without the latter's disadvantage of the failure to detect any annual stellar parallax that Tycho and others regarded as refuting it.[73] The three main geo-heliocentric models were the Tychonic, the Capellan with just Mercury and Venus orbiting the Sun such as favoured by Francis Bacon, FUJITSU LifeBook A6110 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan for example, and the extended Capellan model of Riccioli with Mars also orbiting the Sun whilst Saturn and Jupiter orbit the fixed Earth. But the Tychonic model was probably the most popular, albeit probably in what was known as 'the semi-Tychonic' version with a daily rotating Earth. This model was advocated by Tycho's ex-assistant and discipleLongomontanus in his 1622 Astronomia Danica that was the intended completion of Tycho's planetary model with his observational data, and which was regarded as the canonical statement of the complete Tychonic planetary system. HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A conversion of astronomers to geo-rotational geo-heliocentric models with a daily rotating Earth such as that of Longomontanus may have been precipitated by Francesco Sizzi's 1613 discovery of annually periodic seasonal variations of sunspot trajectories across the sun's disc. They appear to oscillate above and below its apparent equator over the course of the four seasons. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This seasonal variation is explained much better by the hypothesis of a daily rotating Earth together with that of the sun's axis being tilted throughout its supposed annual orbit than by that of a daily orbiting sun, if not even refuting the latter hypothesis because it predicts a daily vertical oscillation of a sunspot's position, contrary to observation. This discovery and its import for heliocentrism, but not for geo-heliocentrism, is discussed in the Third Day of Galileo's 1632 Dialogo.[74] However, prior to that discovery, in the late 16th century the geo-heliocentric models of Ursus and Roslin had featured a daily rotating Earth, unlike Tycho's geo-static model, as indeed had that of Heraclides in antiquity, for whatever reason. HP 606574-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The fact that Longomontanus's book was republished in two later editions in 1640 and 1663 no doubt reflected the popularity of Tychonic astronomy in the 17th century. Its adherents included John Donne and the atomist and astronomer Pierre Gassendi.  HP Pavilion dv6-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The ardent anti-heliocentric French astronomer Jean-Baptiste Morin devised a Tychonic planetary model with elliptical orbits published in 1650 in a simplified, Tychonic version of the Rudolphine Tables.[75] Some acceptance of the Tychonic system persisted through the 17th century and in places until the early 18th century; it was supported (after a 1633 decree about the Copernican controversy) by "a flood of pro-Tycho literature" of Jesuit origin. Among pro-Tycho Jesuits,  HP 537613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ignace Pardies declared in 1691 that it was still the commonly accepted system, and Francesco Blanchinus reiterated that as late as 1728.[76]Persistence of the Tychonic system, especially in Catholic countries, has been attributed to its satisfaction of a need (relative to Catholic doctrine) for "a safe synthesis of ancient and modern". After 1670, even many Jesuit writers only thinly disguised their Copernicanism. But in Germany, Holland, and England, the Tychonic system "vanished from the literature much earlier".[77]SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan James Bradley's discovery of stellar aberration, published in 1729, eventually gave direct evidence excluding the possibility of all forms of geocentrism including Tycho's. Stellar aberration could only be satisfactorily explained on the basis that the Earth is in annual orbit around the Sun, with an orbital velocity that combines with the finite speed of the light coming from an observed star or planet, to affect the apparent direction of the body observed.  Toshiba Satellite L300-217 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho's distinctive contributions to lunar theory include his discovery of the variation of the Moon's longitude. This represents the largest inequality of longitude after the equation of the center and the evection. He also discovered librations in the inclination of the plane of the lunar orbit, relative to the ecliptic (which is not a constant of about 5° as had been believed before him, but fluctuates through a range of over a quarter of a degree), and accompanying oscillations in the longitude of the lunar node. ACER Aspire 4755G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan These represent perturbations in the Moon's ecliptic latitude. Tycho's lunar theory doubled the number of distinct lunar inequalities, relative to those anciently known, and reduced the discrepancies of lunar theory to about 1/5 of their previous amounts. It was published posthumously by Kepler in 1602, and Kepler's own derivative form appears in Kepler's Rudolphine Tables of 1627.[78]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard Although Tycho's planetary model was soon discredited, his astronomical observations were an essential contribution to the scientific revolution. The traditional view of Tycho is that he was primarily an empiricist who set new standards for precise and objective measurements.[79] This appraisal originated inPierre Gassendi's 1654 biography, Tychonis Brahe, equitis Dani, astronomorum coryphaei, vita. It was furthered by Johann Dreyer's biography in 1890,[citation needed] which was long the most influential work on Tycho.[citation needed] According to historian of science Helge Kragh, this assessment grew out of Gassendi's opposition to Aristotelianism and Cartesianism, and fails to account for the diversity of Tycho's activities.[79]HP AELX7U00410 Laptop Keyboard Tycho considered astrology to be a subject of great importance.[80] In addition to his contributions to astronomy, he was famous in his own time also for his contributions to medicine; his herbal medicines were in use as late as the 1900s.[81]HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard Although the research community Tycho created in Uraniborg did not survive him, while it existed it was both a research center and an institution of education, functioning as a graduate school for Danish and foreign students in both astronomy and medicine.[81] Tycho's success as a scientist also depended on his adroit political skills, to obtain patronage and funding for his work. ASUS X53 Laptop Keyboard The crater Tycho on the Moon is named after him, as is the crater Tycho Brahe on Mars. The Tycho Brahe Planetarium in Copenhagen is also named after him. HEAT1X-TYCHO BRAHE is the name of a manned private spacecraft to be launched by Copenhagen Suborbitals. Other things named after him include a bar in Zagreb and a ferry operating between Sweden and Denmark. HP 407218-001 Laptop Keyboard such a fast motion could not belong to the earth, a body very heavy and dense and opaque, but rather belongs to the sky itself whose form and subtle and constant matter are better suited to a perpetual motion, however fast.[55]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard In regards to the stars, Tycho also believed that if the Earth orbited the Sun annually there should be an observable stellar parallax over any period of six months, during which the angular orientation of a given star would change thanks to Earth's changing position. (This parallax does exist, but is so small it was not detected until 1838, when Friedrich Besseldiscovered a parallax of 0.314 arcseconds of the star 61 Cygni.[56]) The Copernican explanation for this lack of parallax was that the stars were such a great distance from Earth that Earth's orbit was almost insignificant by comparison. However, Tycho noted that this explanation introduced another problem: TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard Stars as seen by the naked eye appear small, but of some size, with more prominent stars such as Vega appearing larger than lesser stars such as Polaris, which in turn appear larger than many others. Tycho had determined that a typical star measured approximately a minute of arc in size, with more prominent ones being two or three times as large. In writing to Christoph Rothmann, a Copernican astronomer, Tycho used basic geometry to show that, assuming a small parallax that just escaped detection, the distance to the stars in the Copernican system would have to be 700 times greater than the distance from the sun to Saturn. TOSHIBA Satellite L550-ST2721 Laptop Keyboard Moreover, the only way the stars could be so distant and still appear the sizes they do in the sky would be if even average stars were gigantic — at least as big as the orbit of the Earth, and of course vastly larger than the sun. And, Tycho said, the more prominent stars would have to be even larger still. And what if the parallax was even smaller than anyone thought, so the stars were yet more distant? Then they would all have to be even larger still.[57] Tycho saidTOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5606 Laptop Keyboard Deduce these things geometrically if you like, and you will see how many absurdities (not to mention others) accompany this assumption [of the motion of the earth] by inference.[58] Copernicans offered a religious response to Tycho's geometry: titanic, distant stars might seem unreasonable, but they were not, for the Creator could make his creations that large if He wanted.[59] In fact, Rothmann responded to this argument of Tycho's by sayingACER DC2800092A0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan ASUS F3F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan [W]hat is so absurd about [an average star] having size equal to the whole [orbit of the Earth]? What of this is contrary to divine will, or is impossible by divine Nature, or is inadmissible by infinite Nature? These things must be entirely demonstrated by you, if you will wish to infer from here anything of the absurd. These things that vulgar sorts see as absurd at first glance are not easily charged with absurdity, for in fact divine Sapience and Majesty is far greater than they understand. Grant the vastness of the Universe and the sizes of the stars to be as great as you like — these will still bear no proportion to the infinite Creator. It reckons that the greater the king, so much greater and larger the palace befitting his majesty. So how great a palace do you reckon is fitting to GOD?.[60]Gateway NV55C03U Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Religion played a role in Tycho's geocentrism also – he cited the authority of scripture in portraying the Earth as being at rest. He rarely used Biblical arguments alone (to him they were a secondary objection to the idea of Earth's motion) and over time he came to focus on scientific arguments, but he did take Biblical arguments seriously.[61]Toshiba Satellite L635-S3010 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho advocated an alternative to the Ptolemaic geocentric system: A "geo-heliocentric" system now known as the Tychonic system, which he developed in the late 1570s. In such a system, the sun, moon, and stars circle a central Earth, while the five planets orbit the Sun.[62] The essential difference between the heavens (including the planets) and the Earth remained: Motion stayed in the aethereal heavens; immobility stayed with the heavy sluggish Earth. It was a system that Tycho said violated neither the laws of physics nor sacred scripture — with stars located just beyond Saturn and of reasonable size.[63]Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tycho was not the first to propose a geoheliocentric system. It used to be thought that Heraclides in the 4th century BC had suggested that Mercury and Venusrevolve around the Sun, which in turn (along with the other planets) revolves around the Earth.[64] Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius (395–423 AD) later described this as the "Egyptian System," stating that "it did not escape the skill of the Egyptians," though there is no other evidence it was known in ancient Egypt.[65][66]HP G62-373DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The difference was that Tycho's system had all the planets (with the exception of Earth) revolving around the Sun, instead of just the interior planets of Mercury and Venus. In this regard, he was anticipated in the 15th century by the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji, whose geoheliocentric system also had all the planets revolving around the Sun.[67][68][69] The difference to both these systems was that Tycho's model of the Earth does not rotate daily, as Heraclides and Nilakantha claimed, but is static.  Dell Vostro 3400 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In regards to physics, Tycho held that the Earth was just too sluggish and heavy to be continuously in motion. According to the accepted Aristotelian physics of the time, the heavens (whose motions and cycles were continuous and unending) were made of "Aether" or "Quintessence"; this substance, not found on Earth, was light, strong, unchanging, FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and its natural state was circular motion. By contrast, the Earth (where objects seem to have motion only when moved) and things on it were composed of substances that were heavy and whose natural state was rest. Accordingly, Tycho said the Earth was a "lazy" body that was not readily moved.[54] Thus while Tycho acknowledged that the daily rising and setting of the sun and stars could be explained by the Earth's rotation, as Copernicus had said, stillHP Pavilion dv6-2005et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In partnership with Gardiner Hubbard, Bell helped establish the publication Science during the early 1880s. In 1888, Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president (1897–1904), and also became a Regent of the Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922). The French government conferred on him the decoration of the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honor); the Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert Medal in 1902; and the University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a PhD He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson Medal in 1912. He was one of the founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1884, and served as its president from 1891–92. Bell was later awarded the AIEE's Edison Medal in 1914 "For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone".[153]HP Pavilion DV6-1018el Laptop Keyboard The bel (B) and the smaller decibel (dB) are units of measurement of sound intensity invented by Bell Labs and named after him.[154] [N 29][155] Since 1976 theIEEE's Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been awarded to honor outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard In 1940 the US Post Office issued a commemorative stamp honoring Bell in its 'Famous Americans Series'. The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf. The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became, and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.[156]HP G62-460SD Laptop Keyboard The 150th anniversary of Bell's birth in 1997 was marked by a special issue of commemorative £1 banknotes from the Royal Bank of Scotland. The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.[157] Additionally, the Government of Canada honored Bell in 1997 with a C$100 gold coin, in tribute also to the 150th anniversary of his birth,[158] and with a silver dollar coin in 2009 to honor of the 100th anniversary of flight in Canada. That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart[159] Bell's image, and also those of his many inventions have graced paper money, coinage and postal stamps in numerous countries worldwide for many dozens of years. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard Bell's name is widely known and still used as part of the names of dozens of educational institutes, corporate namesakes, street and place names around the world. Alexander Graham Bell was also ranked 57th among the 100 Greatest Britons (2002) in an official BBC nationwide poll, and among the Top Ten Greatest Canadians (2004), and the 100 Greatest Americans (2005).[160][161] In 2006, Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the National Library of Scotland's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'.[162]SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard During his world tour of 1910–11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag, the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.[123]The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial HD-4, powered byRenault engines. A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability and steering along with the ability to take waves without difficulty.[124HP Pavilion G6-1B79US Laptop Keyboard ] In 1913, Dr. Bell hired Walter Pinaud, a Sydney yacht designer and builder as well as the proprietor of Pinaud's Yacht Yard in Westmount, Nova Scotia to work on the pontoons of the HD-4. Pinaud soon took over the boatyard at Bell Laboratories on Beinn Bhreagh, Bell's estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD-4. After the First World War, work began again on the HD-4. Bell's report to the U.S. Navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kW) engines in July 1919. On September 9, 1919, the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 km/h),[125] a record which stood for ten years. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard In 1891, Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Alexander was at the graceful age of 60. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5151 Laptop Keyboard In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.[N 25] The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet Icrashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912. Some of Bell's kites are on display at theAlexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.[127]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop K

eyboard Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October 1907 at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.[128] The AEA was headed by Bell and the founding members were four young men: American Glenn H. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, an official observer from the US Federal government and the only person in the army who believed aviation was the future; Frederick W. Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in Hammondsport, New York, and J.A.D. McCurdy —Baldwin and McCurdy being new engineering graduates from the University of Toronto. IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing, framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.[129] On March 12, 1908, over Keuka Lake, the biplane lifted off on the first public flight in North America.[N 26] [N 27] ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and tail rudder(later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control). One of the AEA's inventions, the aileron, which was also created independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others, was to become a standard component on all airplanes. The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished. However, the AEA had depleted its initial reserves and only a $15,000 grant from Mrs. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments.[130]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines. On February 23, 1909, Bell was present as theSilver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell had worried that the flight was too dangerous and had arranged for a doctor to be on hand. With the successful flight, the AEA disbanded and the Silver Dart would revert to Baldwin and McCurdy who began the Canadian Aerodrome Company and would later demonstrate the aircraft to the Canadian Army.[131]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Eugenics Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States. In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on November 13, 1883 he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.[132] However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association. The committee unequivocally extended the principle to man.[133] Dell Studio XPS 1645 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From 1912 until 1918 he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings. In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Organisations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race". By the late 1930s, about half the states in the U.S. had eugenics laws, and California's compulsory sterilization law was used as a model for that of Nazi Germany.[134]HP Pavilion dv5-2072nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his most famous invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew. Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities, to the point that the requests almost became burdensome.[137] During his life he also received dozens of major awards, medals and other tributes. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, notably the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in Brantford, Ontario, in 1917.[138]COMPAQ nx6325 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A large number of Bell's writings, personal correspondence, notebooks, papers and other documents[139] reside at both the United States Library of Congress Manuscript Division (as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers), and at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute], Cape Breton University, Nova Scotia; major portions of which are available for online viewing. A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies of the United States and Canada. Among the major sites are: FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 francs (approximately US$250,000 in today's dollars[143]) for the invention of the telephone from the Académie française, representing the French government. Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas. The Volta Prize was conceived by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801, and named in honor of Alessandro Volta, with Bell receiving the third grand prize in its history.[144][145][146][147][148][149][150][151]Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent,  HP G62-a10EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the 'Volta Fund') and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C.. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' (1880), also known as the Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, SONY VGN-CS31S/V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the very next year invented a wax phonograph cylinder that was later used by Thomas Edison;[152] The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his "proudest achievement", "the photophone", the "optical telephone" which presaged fibre optical telecommunications, while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and pedagogy of deafness.  HP Pavilion dv7-6135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound. Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder, the hard disc and floppy disc drive and other magnetic media. ACER Aspire 5715Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.  HP Pavilion dv6-3050es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone, which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.[114][115] Both men later became full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association. Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On June 21, 1880, Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C., to Bell at the window of his laboratory, some 213 metres (700 ft) away, 19 years before the first voice radio transmissions.[104][116][117][118]DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".[119] The photophone was a precursor to the fiber-optic communication systems which achieved popular worldwide usage in the 1980s.[120][121] Its master patent was issued in December 1880, many decades before the photophone's principles came into popular use. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Metal detector Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881. The device was quickly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of US President James Garfield. The metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find the assassin's bullet partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.[122] HP Pavilion dv9730nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The president's surgeons, who were skeptical of the device, ignored Bell's requests to move the president to a bed not fitted with metal springs. Alternatively, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have been lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.[122] Bell gave a full account of his experiments in a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in August 1882. ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The March 1906 Scientific American article by American pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoilsand hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. Based on information gained from that article he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.  Toshiba Qosmio G10 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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