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University of Göttingen The University of Göttingen (German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU), known informally as Georgia Augusta, is a university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. HP 3MLX8TATP20 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, it opened for classes in 1737. The University of Göttingen soon grew in size and popularity. Göttingen is a historic university city, with a high student and faculty population. The University of Göttingen is one of the highest-ranked universities in Germany. It is associated with 45 Nobel laureates. SONY 300-0001-1276 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university has a sound international reputation and was ranked 1st in Germany, 9th in Europe and 43rd in the world in 2010 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. At the same time, it was ranked 4th in Germany, 30th in Europe and 93rd in the world in 2010 by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The 2011 QS World University Rankings[2] ranked the university at 149th, 25 places higher than the year previous. HP Pavilion dv6-3180sd Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Throughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769-99)explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 volumes. HP Envy 14-2000et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. In 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant. HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the university's centenary in 1837, it was known as the "university of law", as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university's students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur..  Toshiba Satellite L20-155 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan However, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 in 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804–1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary. ACER Aspire 5520-5537 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 19th century, Gustav von Hugo, the forerunner[clarification needed] of the historical school of law, and Rudolf von Jhering, a jurist who created the theory of "culpa in contraendo" and wrote Battle for Right, taught here and maintained the reputation of the faculty of law. Otto von Bismarck, the main creator and the first Chancellor of the second German Empire, had also studied law in Göttingen in 1833: he lived in a tiny house on the "Wall", now known as "Bismarck Cottage". According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.  FUJITSU LifeBook S6510 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.  IBM ThinkPad T61 6465 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamicsover the next two decades. In 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl's students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics. Toshiba Satellite A205-S6810 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba Satellite L655-158 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From 1921 to 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, who, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics. Sony PCG-GRX580 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan To date, 45 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the "Göttingen Nobel prize wonder". After World War II, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. Later, Richard von Weizsäcker, the formerPresident of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here. Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter. HP Pavilion dv6-3020ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The most famous tradition of the university is that every PhD student who has just passed her/his rigorosum (oral doctoral test) shall sit in a wagon – decorated with flowers and balloons and accompanied by relatives and friends, drive around the inner city and arrive at the Marktplatz – the central square where the old town hall and the Gänseliesel statue are located. The "newly born doctor" shall climb up to the statue of Gänseliesel (a poor princess in an old fairy tale who was compelled to keep geese by a wicked woman and later regained her identity), kiss the Gänseliesel and give bouquets to her. HP Pavilion dv7-4101sl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Today the university consists of 13 faculties and about 24,000 students are enrolled. More than 2,500 professors and other academics work at the University, assisted by a technical and administrative staff of over 10,000. The post-war expansion of the University led to the establishment of a new, modern 'university quarter' in the north of the town. The architecture of the old university can still be seen in the Auditorium Maximum (1826/1865) and the Great Hall (1835/1837) on the Wilhelmsplatz.  HP Pavilion dv6-3034ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There is an old saying about life in Göttingen, still inscribed in Latin nowadays on the wall of the entrance to the Ratskeller (the restaurant located in the basement of the old town hall): Extra Gottingam non est vita, si est vita, non est ita (There is no life outside Göttingen. Even if it is life, it is no life like here). HP Pavilion dv6115tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan "Ancient university towns are wonderfully alike. Göttingen is like Cambridge in England or Yale in America: very provincial, not on the way to anywhere – no one comes to these backwaters except for the company of professors. And the professors are sure that this is the centre of the world. There is an inscription in the Rathskeller there which reads 'Extra Gottingam non est vita', 'Outside Göttingen there is no life'. This epigram, or should I call it epitaph, is not taken as seriously by the undergraduates as by the professors."(Bronowski, 1973, The Ascent of Man, p. 360)  HP Pavilion dv6-3033sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university is spread out in several locations around the city: The central university complex with the main library andMensa (dining hall) is located right next to the inner city and comprises the faculties for Theology, Law, Economics/Business Administration and Linguistics. The departments of Ancient History, Classics, various languages, and Psychology are nearby. Elsewhere in the city are the departments of Anthropology, Mathematics and Educational Sciences as well as the Medical Faculty with its associated hospitals.  HP Pavilion dv6-3150ej Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Just north of the city a new scientific center has been built in which most of the natural sciences (Chemistry, Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Agronomy, Forestry, Geology, Physics, Computer Science) are now located, including the GZMB. Other institutes are set around the inner city. The University offers eight snack shops and six Mensas serving lunch at low prices for the students. One Mensa also provides dinner for students. ACER Aspire 5672WLMi Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Public law is a theory of law governing the relationship between individuals (citizens, companies) and the state. Under this theory, constitutional law,administrative law and criminal law are sub-divisions of public law. This theory is at odds with the concept of constitutional law, which requires all laws to be specifically enabled, and thereby sub-divisions, of a constitution. HP Pavilion dv7-6056eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Generally speaking, private law is the area of law in a society that affects the relationships between individuals or groups without the intervention of the state or government. In many cases the public/private law distinction is confounded by laws that regulate private relations while having been passed by legislative enactment. In some cases these public statutes are known as laws of public order, as private individuals do not have the right to break them and any attempt to circumvent such laws is void as against public policy. Toshiba Satellite L645-S4038 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Constitutional law deals with the relationship between the state and individual, and the relationships between different branches of the state, such as the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. In most legal systems, these relationships are specified within a written constitutional document. However, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), due to historical and political reasons there does not exist one supreme, entrenched written document. The UK has an unwritten constitution—the constitution of this state is usually found in statutes,  SONY Vaio VGN-NW91VS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan uch as the Magna Carta (see Holt, J.C., Magna Carta, 2nd edition 1992), the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights, The Act of Settlement 1700 and the Parliament Act 1911 and Parliament Act 1949. The constitution is also found in case-law, such as the historical decision in Entick v. Carrington (1765) 19 St Tr 1030, and the landmark decision of M v. Home Office [1994] 1 AC 377; [1992] QB 270. Due to the lack of a written constitution, the idea of the legislative supremacy of Parliament and the rule of law play an important role in the constitution (see A. V. Dicey, The Law of the Constitution (ed. E. C. S. Wade), 10th edition, 1959). Despite all this, in reality, much of the constitution is a political phenomenon, rather than a legal one. Toshiba Satellite A215-S7416 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Administrative law refers to the body of law which regulates bureaucratic managerial procedures and defines the powers of administrative agencies. These laws are enforced by the executive branch of a government rather than the judicial or legislative branches (if they are different in that particular jurisdiction). This body of law regulates international trade, manufacturing, pollution, taxation, and the like. This is sometimes seen as a subcategory ofcivil law and sometimes seen as public law as it deals with regulation and public institutions. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard Criminal law involves the state imposing sanctions for defined crimes committed by individuals or businesses, so that society can achieve its brand ofjustice and a peaceable social order. This differs from civil law in that civil actions are disputes between two parties that are not of significant public concern. COMPAQ Presario CQ50 Series Laptop Keyboard All U.S. states except Louisiana share a heritage with English law, so the private law of most U.S. states is called the common law; indeed, the U.S. Constitution makes specific reference to the common law of England as the fundamental law of the federal United States. Some states, such as New York (owing to its Dutch heritage), have strong civil-law influences, and have enacted laws relating to obligations; e.g., the General Obligations Law and the General Business Law. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The distinction between what is public and what is private in the law is often a hazy one. Many consumer protection laws are of a public law nature, which limits the ability of companies to engage in transactions that fail to respect the rights of consumers. Most laws that impose criminal penalties are considered public law, as these laws are intended to protect all members of society, and this not just in the areas of interaction covered by contract and tort laws. The legal system of Louisiana follows the French legal tradition, especially the Code Napoleon, except where those traditions are effectively overridden by contrary English-based legal principles in the U.S. Constitution.  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard Under the latter theory, both a contract of situation such as the government buying office supplies are subject to private law. There are areas of law which are mixed under that definition, such as employment law, parts of which are public law (e.g. the activities of an employment inspectorate when investigating workplace safety etc.) and parts of which are private law (e.g. the employment contract). ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard The differentiation is primarily an academic debate, important mainly for the delineation between the competences of the court system and administrative authorities. A statute will normally include a section stating who is in charge of enforcement.  Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard However, under the Austrian constitution the distinction is of some importance, as private law is among the exclusive compentences of federal legislation, whereas public law is partly a matter of state legislation. As a practical result, the distinction is thus a matter of how the constitution is to be interpreted most accurately.  Packard Bell Easynote TK83 Laptop Keyboard Weber was born in Wittenberg, where his father, Michael Weber, was professor of theology. Wilhelm was the second of three brothers, all of whom were distinguished by an aptitude for science. After the dissolution of the University of Wittenberg his father was transferred to Halle in 1815. William had received his first lessons from his father, but was now sent to the Orphan Asylum and Grammar School at Halle. After that he entered the University, and devoted himself to natural philosophy. He distinguished himself so much in his classes, and by original work, that after taking his degree of Doctor and becoming a Privatdozent he was appointed Professor Extraordinary of natural philosophy at Halle. ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard In 1831, on the recommendation of Carl Friedrich Gauss, he was hired by the university of Göttingen as professor of physics, at the age of twenty-seven. His lectures were interesting, instructive, and suggestive. Weber thought that, in order to thoroughly understand physics and apply it to daily life, mere lectures, though illustrated by experiments, were insufficient, and he encouraged his students to experiment themselves, free of charge, in the college laboratory. As a student of twenty years he, HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard with his brother, Ernst Heinrich Weber, Professor of Anatomy at Leipzig, had written a book on the Wave Theory and Fluidity, which brought its authors a considerable reputation. Acoustics was a favourite science of his, and he published numerous papers upon it in Poggendorffs Annalen, Schweigger's Jahrbücher für Chemie und Physik, and the musical journalCarcilia. The 'mechanism of walking in mankind' was another study, undertaken in conjunction with his younger brother, Eduard Weber. These important investigations were published between the years 1825 and 1838. Gauss and Weber constructed the first electromagnetic telegraph in 1833, which connected the observatory with the institute for physics in Göttingen.  HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard In December 1837, the Hannovarian government dismissed Weber, one of the Göttingen Seven, from his post at the university for political reasons. Weber then travelled for a time, visiting England, among other countries, and became professor of physics in Leipzig from 1843 to 1849, when he was reinstated at Göttingen. One of his most important works, co-authored with Carl Friedrich Gauss and Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt, was Atlas des Erdmagnetismus: nach den Elementen der Theorie entworfen (Atlas of Geomagnetism: According to the Elements of the Theory of Design),[1][2] COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard a series of magnetic maps, and it was chiefly through his efforts that magnetic observatories were instituted. He studied magnetism with Gauss, and during 1864 published his Electrodynamic Proportional Measures containing a system of absolute measurements for electric currents, which forms the basis of those in use. Weber died in Göttingen, where he is buried in the same cemetery as Max Planck and Max Born. SONY VAIO PCG-792L Laptop Keyboard He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1855. In 1856 with Rudolf Kohlrausch (1809–1858) he demonstrated that the ratio of electrostatic to electromagnetic units produced a number that matched the value of the then known speed of light. This finding led to Maxwell's conjecture that light is an electromagnetic wave. This also led to Weber's development of his theory of electrodynamics. Also, the first usage of the letter "c" to denote the speed of light was in an 1856 paper by Kohlrausch and Weber. HP Pavilion DV6-1040ej Laptop Keyboard The SI unit of magnetic flux, the weber (symbol: Wb) is named after him. He was born at Lörrach in Baden. From the gymnasium at Karlsruhe he passed in 1782 to the University of Göttingen, where he studied law for three years. Having received the appointment of tutor to the prince of Anhalt-Dessau, he took his doctor's degree at the University of Halle in 1788. Recalled in the same year to Göttingen as extraordinary professor of law, he became a full professor in 1792. In the preface to his Beiträge zur civilistischen Bucherkenntniss der letzten vierzig Jahre(1828–1829) he gives a sketch of the condition of the civil law teaching at Göttingen at that time. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard The Roman and German elements of the existing law were, without criticism or differentiation, welded into an ostensible whole for practical needs, with the result that it was difficult to say whether historical truth or practical ends were most prejudiced. As it was passed from person to person, new errors crept in, and even the best of teachers could not escape from the false method which had become traditional. These were the evils which Hugo set himself to combat, and he became the founder of that historical school of jurisprudence which was continued and further developed by Savigny. His magna opera are the Lehrbuch eines civilistischen Cursus (7 vols., 1792–1821), in which his method is thoroughly worked out, and theZivilistisches Magazin (6 vols., 1790–1837). SONY Vaio VGN-AW290 Laptop Keyboard Hugo was criticized, and ridiculed, by Marx in the Rheinische Zeitung for justifying the "law of arbitrary power", that is, for endorsing societal injustice and exploitation simply because the institutions which generate them exist. In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In some of the country's most important universities there is a higher title known as Livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries. However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because "livre docência" nowadays is an internal title, that applies solely within the institution granting it. In the past, "livre docência" was a degree in the fullness of the term, and a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of "livre docência" if he transferred from one institution to another; there are still living professors who hold the "old" livre docência degrees; but all new titles of that name only confer privileges within the institution granting it. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard The doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a "livre docência". Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are also required to earn a minimum number of credits. SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Laptop Keyboard Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Nevertheless, copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution's library. Usually, doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will then pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are usually required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard Admission to doctoral courses is almost universally reserved to holders of a Master's degree (the Master's in Brazil is a graduate degree and is not the first professional degree). Therefore, a bachelor of Laws (a bearer of the first professional degree), seeking the degree of doctor must usually complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws (to attain that degree one must write and defend a dissertation before a panel of three professors, bearing the title of master, doctor or a "livre docência, and also complete credits), and only then, after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard There are, however, a few universities that allow "direct" admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master's course in exceptional circumstances. Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws (i.e., a holder of the first professional degree), can be admitted directly to a doctoral course. Usually, one is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, and four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and immediately enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a "direct" doctorate, he is usually allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws (LL.D.); Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science (J.S.D./S.J.D); Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.); and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). The Doctor of Jurisprudence (Juris Doctor or J.D.) is the professional doctorate degree that is usually required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. GATEWAY MT3422 Laptop Keyboard The first law degree was known until recently as the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.). However, since law schools in Canada generally insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.B. degrees awarded by programs abroad, which would accept high school graduates.[3] The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL.B.;[4] the University of Saskatchewan replaced its LL.B. with a J.D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL.B. is exactly equivalent to the J.D.[5]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard All Canadian J.D. programs are three years, and all (except those in Quebec) have similar mandatory first-year courses: In "public," "constitutional," or "state" law; tort law; contract law; criminal law, and some sort of "professional practice" course. Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective, with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, and Aboriginal law. TOSHIBA Satellite M105-S3004 Laptop Keyboard After the first law degree, one may pursue a second, the Masters of Laws (LL.M.) and after that, the Doctor of Law (LL.D.), at some Canadian universities. (The LL.D. is awarded by several universities only as an honorary degree, but when awarded by a law school is an earned degree). Of the universities in Canada that offer earned academic doctorates in law, four (University of Ottawa,[6] University of Montreal,[7] Laval University,[8] and University of Quebec at Montreal[9]) offer LL.Ds, HP Pavilion dv5-1142la Laptop Keyboard three (University of British Columbia,[10] Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, and University of Victoria[11]) offer Ph.Ds, two (University of Toronto,[12] and Dalhousie University[13]) offer J.S.D./S.J.D degrees (Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science), and one (McGill University[14]) offers a D.C.L (Doctor of Civil Law). The differences largely reflect the divide between Canada's two legal systems (the common law and the civil law). Faculties that teach in the civil law tradition grant LL.D degrees, whereas those in the common law tradition grant either Ph.Ds or J.S.Ds. TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5984 Laptop Keyboard In the Czech Republic and Slovakia the Doctor is a postgraduate degree in two types - as a traditional doctorate (JUDr) and the PhD doctorate. JUDr (Juris Utrisque Doctor) is a degree with tradition of few centuries, originally the highest possible degree. Nowadays, its scholar importancy is quite limited but it serves as traditional and popular badge degree especially useful for attorneys. In older times with no Master degree, JUDr. served as only law degree, somehow similar to master+special exam. Nowadays, it is disputable, if JUDr. is a law degree or only a law title. Requirements for obtaining JUDr degree are a highly rated Master (Mgr.) degree in law, the compilation of a thesis and passing an oral exam called "rigorosum". Also the thesis is sometimes called rigorosum. Many JUDr. theses are based on the students previous Master theses. TOSHIBA P205-S7476 Laptop Keyboard Doctoral studies leading to PhD degree are different from JUDr exam. PhD studies are internal (PhD student is at the same time teacher at the University) which lasts 3–5 years and external up to 8 years long. PhD. students are obliged to pass some exams during the studies and before all to work on their dissertation. The PhD is intended basically for candidates interested in an academic career and gives the right to teach. Czech system is in many way similar to German and Austrian. Therefore, PhD.  HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard Through habilitation, to doctor of law who submits his Habilitation work (similar to German Habilitationsschrift) can be given a capacity and title of Docent (Doc.), similar to German Dozent, Privatdozent or US Assistant Professor. Docent is not a degree, but a scholar title. Only Docent can be appointed Professor through another special procedure. Unlike Germany (and unlike own Czech tradition), Professor is not a function (a seat, Cathedra) at the University, but just a scholar title. This leads to many problems, especially to the phenomenon of so-called flying professors, who are teaching at two or three universities at the same time and to the decline of academic life. HP G62-346NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Finland, the Doctor of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen tohtori, OTT) is the highest academic degree in law, based on 60 credits of course studies and, most importantly, successful completion of a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation usually takes the form of a monograph at least of 250 pages in length, or of a series of published articles. A successful oral disputation is also required. It usually takes at least four years to complete the degree. Toshiba Portege R835 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The degree of the Doctor of Laws does not qualify its holder for judicial offices. Instead, the degree of the Master of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen maisteri) is the requirement for the membership of the Finnish Bar Association and for judicial offices. As the doctoral programs for the doctoral degree are, in principle, open for the holders of all master's degrees, the possession of the degree of the Doctor of Laws is not a guarantee for the possession of the Master of Laws -degree. However, it is very seldom that someone who has not graduated in law graduates for a doctor of law. Compaq Presario V3670tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte) is the terminal degree in law, abbreviated as Dr. iur. (Doctor iuris) or Dr. jur. (Doctor juris). The terminology varies: while most universities refer to the degree as Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte (pl.), e.g. Munich, Münster, Berlin (HU), Cologne, Tübingen,Göttingen), some others refer to it either as Doctor of Jurisprudence (Doktor der Rechtswissenschaft, e.g. Heidelberg) or Doctor of Law (Doktor des Rechts(sg.), e.g. Berlin (FU)). It is conferred based on a thesis consisting of a suitable body of original academic research, HP Envy 14-1085eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and an oral examination (rigorosum ordisputation). The thesis must have been published as a book or - less common - as a series of articles in a peer reviewed law journal before the degree can be formally conferred. Admission usually requires the grade of "Fully Satisfactory" (approximately top quintile of class) in the student's first Staatsexamen (the Master's level first professional degree). Having successfully passed the second Staatsexamen (the German equivalent to the bar exam) is not required. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-273TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Doctor of Both Laws (Doktor beider Rechte), awarded as Dr. iur. utr. (Doctor iuris utriusque, conferred e.g. in Würzburg) is rare, since it means considering both Civil Law and Canonical Law. A doctorate solely in the latter area is the degree of Dr. iur. can. (Doctor iuris canonici). Compaq Presario C745EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Approximately ten percent of German law graduates hold a doctoral degree. However, the Doctor of Laws is still only the first step to tenure at German law schools. Despite the initiative to establish a junior professorship with tenure option after five to seven years, and special professorships specializing in teaching (Lehrprofessur), to become a university professor of law a habilitation (de iure not an academic degree) is still mandatory at most German law schools. Toshiba Satellite P200-13Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Italy In Italy, the title of "Master Doctor of Law" (Dottore magistrale in Giurisprudenza) is the title given to students who complete the five-year Laurea magistraledegree. Despite the adoption of the Bologna process, in Italy law remains a field that retains the traditional Italian system. Compaq Presario CQ50-215nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Once a prospective lawyer has been awarded the Master Doctor of Law and worked two years as a trainee lawyer, he or she is required to pass a state bar examination in order to be licensed to practice as an attorney at law (Avvocato). Previously, dottore in giurisprudenza was the title given to the students that completed the old (four-year) course of studies in law.  HP Pavilion dv5129tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In South Africa the Doctorate in Law is offered as a research doctorate of at least two years duration,[6] in various specialised areas of law.[7] In general, South African universities offer either the PhD [8][9] or the LLD, [10] [11] [12] with no significant difference between these. (At UCT, UKZNand Wits, the PhD is the research doctorate, while the LLD is the higher doctorate;[13][14][15] UWC offers the LLD to law graduates, and the PhD to other graduates researching a legal-related topic.[16])  ACER Aspire 5733 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In order to obtain the degree, the student will complete a thesis under the guidance of a supervisor, after completion of a module in research methodology, the submission of a research proposal and an oral examination. The thesis will demonstrate evidence of in-depthindependent research and understanding of the topic, and constitute an original scientific contribution. Admission is usually on the basis of an LLM, and in some cases an LLB.  HP 580718-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Malta, the European Union's smallest member state, the LL.D. is a doctorate-level academic degree in law requiring at least three years of post-graduate full-time study at the University of Malta,[15] Malta's national university. At least three years of previous law study are required for entry. Students are required to complete coursework in a number of core areas of law, SONY Vaio VGN-TX3HP/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan as well as to submit a thesis which is to be "an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out sufficient research therein".[16] It confers the title of Doctor, which in Malta is rigorously used to address a holder of the degree. The LL.D. is one of the requirements for admission to the profession of advocate in Malta (an advocate, as opposed to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts). FUJITSU Siemens Amilo Pro V2055 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Malta, practising lawyers are of three designations – notaries, legal procurators and advocates. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. A one-year full-time taught post-graduate diploma of Notary Public (N.P.) is required after the LL.B. for admission to the profession of notary public, while a taught post-graduate diploma of Legal Procurator (L.P.) is required for admission to the profession of legal procurator. HP G42-364LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta that has rights of audience in the lower courts, a profession that was existent in Malta as early, and even prior to 1553.[17] All three professions also require members to be holders of a warrant issued by the President of Malta, obtainable after a minimum of one year of work experience in that profession, and examination. It is not possible for a Maltese lawyer to hold a warrant in more than one of the professions at a time. HP Pavilion dv7-4083cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Notable holders of the LL.D. degree include Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici (former President of Malta), Prof. Guido de Marco (former President of the United Nations General Assembly and former President of Malta), Dr. George Borg Olivier (first post-independence Prime Minister of Malta), Dr. Edward Fenech Adami (former Prime Minister and former President of Malta) and Dr. Lawrence Gonzi (current Prime Minister of Malta). ACER Aspire 4750G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the UK, the degree of Doctor of Laws is a higher doctorate, ranking above the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a portfolio of advanced research. It is also often awarded honoris causa to public figures (typically those associated with politics or the law) whom the university wishes to honour. In most British universities, the degree is styled "Doctor of Laws" and abbreviated LL. D., however some universities award instead the degree of Doctor of Civil Law, abbreviated DCL.  HP Pavilion dv7-1267cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In former years, Doctors of Law were a distinct form of Attorney-at-Law who were empowered to act as advocates in civil law courts. The Doctors had their ownInns of Court, which was called Doctors' Commons. In 1953, a case was brought under long-dormant law in the High Court of Chivalry. The opening arguments in that case were by George Drewry Squibb, who was simultaneously distinguished as a barrister, a doctor of laws, and a historian. Squibb argued, to the satisfaction of the court, that since the modern class of Doctors of Laws were no longer trained as advocates, their role must necessarily be performed by barristers.[18] This was because Victorian reforms, which had unified the other classes of court attorney into the single profession of Barrister, had overlooked the Doctors of Law.  Toshiba Satellite A305-S6825 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The term "Doctor of Law" refers generally to the degree of Juris Doctor (JD), which, in the U.S., is the primary professional law degree,[19][20][21][22] and to the S.J.D. (Scientiae Juridicae Doctor or J.S.D., the degree name in English or Doctor of Juridical Science). HP Pavilion dv6-2121eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The S.J.D. is the research doctorate in law, and as such it is generally accepted as comparable to the more commonly awarded research doctorate, the Ph.D.[24]The S.J.D. is described as the "highest (research) degree in law" by the University of Virginia,[25] the "terminal (research) degree in law" by Indiana University[26] and Harvard Law School [27] and as the "most advanced (research) law degree" by Yale Law School,[28] Georgetown Law,[29] New York University [30] and Stanford University.[31]  HP Pavilion dv7-6106so Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The National Association of Legal Professionals states that the J.S.D./S.J.D. is "typically the most advanced or terminal (research) law degree that would follow the earning of the LL.M. and J.D. degrees."[32] However, while the degree may be the highestresearch doctorate in law, the J.D. is also a doctorate (the highest professional doctorate in law),[33] as evinced by universities' description of the S.J.D. as a "postdoctoral degree."[31][34] The American Bar Association has issued a Council Statement[35] Packard Bell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard stating that the J.D. be considered as being equivalent to the Ph.D. for educational employment purposes.[36] The S.J.D. typically requires three to five years to complete, and requires an advanced study in law as a scientific discipline and a dissertation, which serves as an original contribution to the scholarly field of law.[37]Notable recipients of the degree of Doctor of Juridical Science include: Harvey L. Strelzin (New York U., 1906);[38]Charles Hamilton Houston (Harvard, 1923);[39] Lowell Turrentine (Harvard, 1929);[40]Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard Judge William Henry Hastie (Harvard, 1932);[41] Justice Bernard Jefferson (Harvard, 1934);[42] Pauli Murray (Yale, 1965);[43] Ma Ying-jeou (Harvard, 1981)[44]and Ayala Procaccia (University of Pennsylvania, 1972). The Chancellor of Germany (known in German as Bundeskanzler(in) ("Federal Chancellor"), or Kanzler for short) is, under the German 1949 constitution, the head of government of Germany. It is historically a continuation of the office of Chancellor (German: Kanzler, later Reichskanzler) ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard that was originally established as the office of Chancellor of theNorth German Confederation in 1867. The 1949 constitution increased the role of the Chancellor compared to the 1919Weimar Constitution by making the Chancellor more independent of the influence of the Federal President and granting the Chancellor the right to set the guidelines for all policy areas.[2] The role is generally comparable to that of Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard There have been eight chancellors since 1949. The current Chancellor of Germany is Angela Merkel, who was elected in 2005. She is the first female Chancellor since the establishment of the original office in 1867, and known in German asBundeskanzlerin, the feminine form of Bundeskanzler. Merkel is also the first Chancellor elected since the fall of theBerlin Wall to have been raised in the former East Germany. acer eMachines E640 Laptop Keyboard The office of Chancellor has a long history, stemming back to the Holy Roman Empire. The title was at times used in several states of German-speaking Europe. The power and influence of this office varied strongly over time. Otto von Bismarck in particular had a great amount of power, but it was not until 1949 that the Chancellor was established as thecentral executive authority of Germany.  Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Due to his administrative tasks, the head of the chapel of the imperial palace during the Holy Roman Empire was called Chancellor. The Archbishop of Mainz was German Chancellor until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 while the Archbishop of Cologne was Chancellor of Italy and the Archbishop of Trier of Burgundy. These three Archbishops were also Prince-electorsof the empire. Already in medieval times the Chancellor had political power like Willigis of Mainz (Archchancellor 975–1011, regent for Otto III 991–994) or Rainald von Dassel (Chancellor 1156–1162 and 1166–1167) under Frederick I. HP Pavilion dv5-1125em Laptop Keyboard The modern office of Chancellor was established with the North German Confederation, of which Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor (German, Bundeskanzler) in 1867. After unification of Germany in 1871, the office became known in German asReichskanzler ("Reich Chancellor"). Since the adoption of the current constitution of Germany in 1949 the formal title of the office in the German language is once again Bundeskanzler. Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard In the now defunct German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany), which existed from 7 October 1949 to 3 October 1990 (when the territory of the former GDR was reunified with the Federal Republic of Germany), the position of Chancellor did not exist. The equivalent position was called either Minister President (Ministerpräsident) or Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR (Vorsitzender des Ministerrats der DDR). (See Leaders of East Germany.) COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard West Germany's 1949 constitution, the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), invests the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) with central executive authority. Since the 1961 election, the two major parties (CDU/CSU and SPD) call their leading candidates for the federal election "chancellor-candidate" (Kanzlerkandidat), although this is not an official term and any party can nominate a Kanzlerkandidat (even if there is no chance at all to lead or even become part of a coalition). The Federal Government (Bundesregierung) consists of the chancellor and his or her cabinet ministers. SONY VGN-FE31H Laptop Keyboard The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and from his or her status as leader of the party (or coalition of parties) holding a majority of seats in the Bundestag (federal parliament). With the exception of Helmut Schmidt, the chancellor has usually also been chairman of his or her own party. This was the case with Chancellor Gerhard Schröder from 1999 until he resigned the chairmanship of the SPD in 2004. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard The first chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, set many precedents that continue today. He arrogated nearly all major decisions to himself, and established the chancellorship as the clear focus of power in Germany. He often treated his ministers as mere extensions of his authority rather than colleagues. While his successors have tended to be less domineering, the chancellor has acquired enough power that Germany is often described as a "chancellor democracy."  HP Mini 110-1033cl Laptop Keyboard The chancellor determines the composition of the Federal Cabinet. The President formally appoints and dismisses cabinet ministers, at the recommendation of the chancellor; no parliamentary approval is needed. According to the Basic Law, the chancellor may set the number of cabinet ministers and dictate their specific duties. Chancellor Ludwig Erhard had the largest cabinet, with twenty-two ministers in the mid-1960s. Helmut Kohl presided over 17 ministers at the start of his fourth term in 1994; the 2002 cabinet, the second of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, had 13 ministers and the Angela Merkel cabinet as of 22 November 2005 has 15. HP G42-265LA Laptop Keyboard Article 65 of the Basic Law sets forth three principles that define how the executive branch functions: Every four years, after national elections and the convocation of the newly elected members of the Bundestag, the chancellor is elected by a majority of the members of the Bundestag upon the proposal of the President (Bundespräsident). This vote is one of the few cases where a majority of all elected members of the Bundestag must be achieved, as opposed to a mere majority of those that are currently assembled. This is referred to as the Kanzlermehrheit (chancellor's majority), and is designed to ensure the establishment of a stable government. It has in the past occasionally forced ill or pregnant members to have to attend parliament when a party's majority was only slim.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Unlike regular voting by the Bundestag, the vote to elect the chancellor is by secret ballot. This is intended to ensure that the chancellor's majority does not depend on members of his or her party only outwardly showing support. If the nominee of the President is not elected, the Bundestag may elect its own nominee within fourteen days. If no-one is elected within this period, the Bundestag will attempt an election. If the person with the highest number of votes has a majority, the President must appoint him or her. If the person with the highest number of votes does not have a majority, the President may either appoint them or call new elections for the Bundestag. As all chancellors have been elected in the first vote as yet (1949–2010) neither of these constitutional provisions has been applied. SAMSUNG N148 Laptop Keyboard The chancellor is the only member of the federal government elected by the Bundestag. The other cabinet ministers are chosen by the chancellor himself or herself, although they are formally appointed by the President on the chancellor's proposal. IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard Jürgen Habermas (pron.: /ˈjɜrɡən/ or /ˈjʊərɡən ˈhɑːbərmɑːs/;[1] German: [ˈjʏʁɡən ˈhaːbɐmaːs]; born June 18, 1929) is a German sociologist and a philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. He is perhaps best known for his theory on the concepts of communicative rationality and the public sphere. His work focuses on the foundations of social theory and epistemology, the analysis of advanced capitalistic societies and democracy, the rule of law in a critical social-evolutionary context, HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard and contemporary politics, particularly German politics. Habermas's theoretical system is devoted to revealing the possibility of reason, emancipation, and rational-critical communication latent in modern institutions and in the human capacity to deliberate and pursue rational interests. Habermas is known for his work on the concept of modernity, particularly with respect to the discussions of rationalization originally set forth by Max Weber. He has been influenced by American pragmatism,action theory, and even poststructuralism. Global polls identified him as one of the leading intellectuals of the present day.[2]  Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Born in Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, in 1929, to a middle class and rather traditional family. In his early teens, during World War II, Habermas was profoundly affected by the war. He was born with a cleft palate which made it difficult for him to learn to speak clearly, and which meant that he had difficulties forming social relationships as he was often met with rejection. He received corrective surgery twice during his childhood.[3] Habermas himself argues that his speech disability made him think differently about the importance of communication, and prefer writing over the spoken word as a medium.[4]Compaq Presario CQ42-139TU Laptop Keyboard Until his graduation fr

om gymnasium, Habermas lived in Gummersbach, near Cologne. His father, Ernst Habermas, was executive director of the Cologne Chamber of Industry and Commerce, and was described by Habermas as a Nazi sympathizer. He was brought up in a staunchly Protestant milieu, his grandfather being the director of the seminary in Gummersbach. He studied at the universities of Göttingen (1949/50), DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard Zürich (1950/51), and Bonn (1951–54) and earned a doctorate in philosophy from Bonn in 1954 with a dissertation written on the conflict between the absolute and history in Schelling's thought, entitled, Das Absolute und die Geschichte. Von der Zwiespältigkeit in Schellings Denken ("The absolute and history: on the schism inSchelling's thought"). His dissertation committee included Erich Rothacker and Oskar Becker. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard From 1956 on, he studied philosophy and sociology under the critical theorists Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main Institute for Social Research, but because of a rift between the two over hisdissertation—Horkheimer had made unacceptable demands for revision—as well as his own belief that the Frankfurt School had become paralyzed with political skepticism and disdain for modern culture[5]—he finished his habilitation in political scienceat the University of Marburg under the Marxist Wolfgang Abendroth. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard His habilitation work was entitled, Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit; Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der Bürgerlichen Gesellschaft (published in English translation in 1989 asThe Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: an Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society). It is a detailed social history of the development of the bourgeois public sphere from its origins in the 18th century salons up to its transformation through the influence of capital-driven mass media. In 1961, he became a privatdozent in Marburg, and—in a move that was highly unusual for the German academic scene of that time—he was offered the position of "extraordinary professor" (professor without chair) DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard of philosophy at the University of Heidelberg (at the instigation of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Karl Löwith) in 1962, which he accepted. In this same year he gained his first serious public attention, in Germany, with the publication of his habilitation. In 1964, strongly supported by Adorno, Habermas returned to Frankfurt to take over Horkheimer's chair in philosophy and sociology. The philosopher Albrecht Wellmer was his assistant in Frankfurt from 1966 to 1970. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard He accepted the position of Director of the Max Planck Institute in Starnberg (near Munich) in 1971, and worked there until 1983, two years after the publication of his magnum opus, The Theory of Communicative Action. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1984.[6]HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Laptop Keyboard Habermas then returned to his chair at Frankfurt and the directorship of the Institute for Social Research. Since retiring from Frankfurt in 1993, Habermas has continued to publish extensively. In 1986, he received the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, which is the highest honour awarded in German research. He also holds the uncharacteristically postmodern position of "Permanent Visiting" Professor at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and "Theodor Heuss Professor" at The New School, New York. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Habermas was awarded The Prince of Asturias Award in Social Sciences of 2003. Habermas was also the 2004 Kyoto Laureate[7] in the Arts and Philosophy section. He traveled to San Diego and on March 5, 2005, as part of the University of San Diego's Kyoto Symposium, gave a speech entitled The Public Role of Religion in Secular Context, regarding the evolution of separation ofChurch and State from neutrality to intense secularism. He received the 2005 Holberg International Memorial Prize (about € 520,000). In 2007, Habermas was listed as the 7th most-cited author in the humanities (including the social sciences) by The Times Higher Education Guide, ahead of Max Weber and behind Erving Goffman.[8]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard Habermas is a famed teacher and mentor. Among his most prominent students were the pragmatic philosopher Herbert Schnädelbach (theorist of discourse distinction and rationality), the political sociologist Claus Offe (professor at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin), the social philosopher Johann Arnason (professor at La Trobe University and chief editor of the journal Thesis Eleven), the social philosopher Hans-Herbert Kögler (Chair of Philosophy at University of North Florida), Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard the sociological theorist Hans Joas (professor at the University of Erfurt and at the University of Chicago), the theorist of societalevolution Klaus Eder, the social philosopher Axel Honneth (the current director of the Institute for Social Research), the environmental ethicist Konrad Ott, the anarcho-capitalist philosopher Hans-Hermann Hoppe, the American philosopher Thomas McCarthy, the co-creator of mindful inquiry in social research Jeremy J. Shapiro, and the assassinated Serbian prime minister Zoran Đinđić. Compaq Presario CQ57-319WM Laptop Keyboard Jürgen Habermas considers his major contribution to be the development of the concept and theory of communicative reason or communicative rationality, which distinguishes itself from the rationalist tradition, by locating rationality in structures of interpersonal linguistic communication rather than in the structure of the cosmos. This social theory advances the goals ofhuman emancipation, while maintaining an inclusive universalist moral framework. This framework rests on the argument calleduniversal pragmatics - that all speech acts have an inherent telos (the Greek word for "end") — the goal of mutualunderstanding, HP 594706-001 Laptop Keyboard and that human beings possess the communicative competence to bring about such understanding. Habermas built the framework out of the speech-act philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin and John Searle, the sociological theory of the interactional constitution of mind and self of George Herbert Mead, the theories of moral development of Jean Piaget andLawrence Kohlberg, and the discourse ethics of his Frankfurt colleague and fellow student Karl-Otto Apel. DELL Inspiron 1435 Laptop Keyboard Habermas's works resonate within the traditions of Kant and the Enlightenment and of democratic socialism through his emphasis on the potential for transforming the world and arriving at a more humane, just, and egalitarian society through the realization of the human potential for reason, in part through discourse ethics. While Habermas has stated that the Enlightenment is an "unfinished project," he argues it should be corrected and complemented, not discarded.[9] In this he distances himself from the Frankfurt School, criticizing it, as well as much of postmodernist thought, for excessive pessimism,radicalism, and exaggerations.[9]FUJITSU Lifebook S6240 Laptop Keyboard Within sociology, Habermas's major contribution was the development of a comprehensive theory of societal evolution andmodernization focusing on the difference between communicative rationality and rationalization on one hand and strategic /instrumental rationality and rationalization on the other. This includes a critique from a communicative standpoint of the differentiation-based theory of social systems developed by Niklas Luhmann, a student of Talcott Parsons. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard His defence of modernity and civil society has been a source of inspiration to others, and is considered a major philosophical alternative to the varieties of poststructuralism. He has also offered an influential analysis of late capitalism. HP Mini 210-2056tu Laptop Keyboard Habermas perceives the rationalization, humanization and democratization of society in terms of the institutionalization of the potential for rationality that is inherent in the communicative competence that is unique to the human species. Habermas contends that communicative competence has developed through the course of evolution, but in contemporary society it is often suppressed or weakened by the way in which major domains of social life, such as the market, the state, and organizations, have been given over to or taken over by strategic/instrumental rationality, so that the logic of the system supplants that of thelifeworld. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Habermas introduces the concept of "reconstructive science" with a double purpose: to place the "general theory of society" between philosophy and social science and re-establish the rift between the "great theorization" and the "empirical research". The model of "rational reconstructions" represents the main thread of the surveys about the "structures" of the world of life ("culture", "society" and "personality") and their respective "functions" (cultural reproductions, social integrations and socialization). For this purpose, the dialectics between "symbolic representation" of "the structures subordinated to all worlds of life" ("internal relationships") and the "ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard material reproduction" of the social systems in their complex ("external relationships" between social systems and environment) has to be considered. This model finds an application, above all, in the "theory of the social evolution", starting from the reconstruction of the necessary conditions for a phylogeny of the socio-cultural life forms (the "hominization") until an analysis of the development of "social formations", which Habermas subdivides into primitive, traditional, modern and contemporary formations. "COMPAQ Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This paper is an attempt, primarily, to formalize the model of "reconstruction of the logic of development" of "social formations" summed up by Habermas through the differentiation between vital world and social systems (and, within them, through the "rationalization of the world of life" and the "growth in complexity of the social systems").  IBM 42X4399 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Secondly, it tries to offer some methodological clarifications about the "explanation of the dynamics" of "historical processes" and, in particular, about the "theoretical meaning" of the evolutional theory's propositions. Even if the German sociologist considers that the "ex-post rational reconstructions" and "the models system/environment" cannot have a complete "historiographical application", these certainly act as a general premise in the argumentative structure of the "historical explanation"".[10]SONY Vaio VGN-NW120D Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv9335nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SONY Vaio VGN-NR150FE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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