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University of Groningen The University of Groningen (Dutch: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen), located in the city of Groningen, was founded in 1614. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands as well as one of its largest. Since its inception more than 100,000 students have graduated. It is a member of the distinguished Coimbra Group. In April 2012, according to the results of the International Student Barometer, the University of Groningen has been voted the best University of the Netherlands. HP G62-450ER Laptop Keyboard The University of Groningen has nine faculties, nine graduate schools, 27 research centres and institutes, and more than 175 degree programmes. The University of Groningen (Dutch: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, RUG) is organized in nine faculties that offer programmes and courses in the fields of Humanities, Social Sciences, Law, Economics and Business, Spatial Sciences, Life Sciences, and Natural Sciences and Technology. Each faculty (cf., College in the USA or School in Europe) is a formal grouping of academic degree programmes, schools and institutes, discipline areas, research centres, and/or any combination of these drawn together for educational purposes. Each faculty offers Bachelor's, Master's, PhD, and Exchange programmes, while some also offer short certificate courses. Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard The University of Groningen is in the top 3 of European research universities in the fields of: Ecology, Material Sciences, Chemistry and Astronomy. Other strong research groups are in: Nanoscience, Physics, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Medical Sciences, Neurosciences, Sociology, Philosophy, Theology, Archaeology and Arts. Every year more than 5,000 research publications go to print and an average of 260 PhD students are awarded their PhD degree. COMPAQ Presario CQ35 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The founding of the University in 1614 – at that time still a college of higher education – was an initiative taken by the Regional Assembly of the city of Groningen and the Ommelanden, or surrounding region. There were four faculties – Theology, Law, Medicine and Philosophy. The first 75 years of its existence were very fruitful for the University with about 100 students enrolling every year. Almost half of the students and lecturers came from outside the Netherlands – the first Rector Magnificus, Ubbo Emmius, came from East Frisia in modern day Germany, for instance – but at the same time there was already a close relationship between the University and the city and the surrounding region.  Toshiba Satellite M30X-S171ST Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The development of the University came to a standstill at the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century because of theological differences of opinion, a difficult relationship with the Regional Assembly and political problems that included the siege of the city by ‘Bommen Berend’ in 1672. On average two to three hundred students were registered with the University at any one time during this period. Petrus Camper, though, was a shining academic example during the second half of the eighteenth century and was famous far beyond the city limits as an anatomist, a fighter against rinderpest and the founder of the first outpatient’s clinic for surgical medicine. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Opportunities and threats followed on each other’s heels during the nineteenth century. In 1815, at the same time as Leiden and Utrecht, the University gained recognition as a national college of higher education, but this was followed by discussions about closure. The situation improved markedly when a new main university building, the Academiegebouw, was constructed in 1850, a building that was largely financed by the people of Groningen. This made the fire that completely destroyed this building in 1906 even more poignant. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ4VWN/X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the meantime, the Higher Education Act of 1876 had radically improved the position of the University, which was renamed the "Rijksuniversiteit Groningen" (RUG). Teaching now took place in Dutch as well as in Latin and the University was given a research as well as an educational duty. This laid the foundations for the present research university. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of Groningen developed apace during the first decades of the twentieth century. The number of faculties and courses grew steadily while the number of students showed an explosive growth. When the University celebrated its first 300 years in 1914 there were 611 registered students; this had already grown to 1000 by 1924. After a drop back during the Depression, and in particular during the Second World War, the number of students grew rapidly from 1945 to reach 20,000 in 1994. At the present time there are about 26,500 students registered at the University of Groningen with the number of foreign students again growing steadily, and following the tradition set by the first Rector Magnificus, the number of German students and researchers has grown strongly in recent years.  ASUS X51L Laptop CPU Cooling Fangraduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's degrees and Ph.D. degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.[1][2] A distinction is typically made between graduate schools (where courses of study do not provide training for a particular profession) and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business,engineering, ministry or law. HP Pavilion dv9338eu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., the UK and Canada),  HP Pavilion dv5-1003nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan "postgraduate education" is also used in some English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, India, New Zealand, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates andprofessional degrees.  SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S1E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Producing original research is often a significant component of graduate studies, including the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. The term "graduate school" is primarily North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not usually refer to medical school (whose students are called "medical students"), and only occasionally refers to law school or business school. (The latter types of programs are often collectively termed professional schools). Toshiba GDM610000172 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although graduate school programs are distinct experiences from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction (in Australia, the United States, and other countries) is often offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments that teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is rare for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level. At the Ph.D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study,  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is typically required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions designate separate graduate versus undergraduate staff and denote other divisions (often called School of X, e.g., diplomacy) HP Pavilion dv6-3257cl Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies (CAGS) or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures (ACES). The Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, and the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies.[3] Its mandate is to promote, advance, and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision, funding, and professional development. ASUS Eee PC 1201T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Both master's and doctoral programs may be done by coursework or research or a combination of the two, depending on the subject and faculty. Most faculties require both, with the emphasis on research, and with coursework being directly related to the field of research. HP 535442-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis.  TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ph.D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph.D. candidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese language.  ASUS A8000He Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master's and Ph.D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German for German literature, for example), but if this is the case, an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard French-speaking universities have varying sets of rules; some will accept students with little knowledge of French if they can communicate with their supervisors (usually in English). Admission to a master's program generally requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Admission to a doctoral program typically requires a master's degree in a related field, sufficiently high grades, recommendations, samples of writing, a research proposal, and typically an interview with a prospective supervisor. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Requirements are often set higher than those for a master's program. In exceptional cases, a student holding an honours BA with sufficiently high grades and proven writing and research abilities may be admitted directly to a Ph.D. program without the requirement to first complete a master's. Many Canadian graduate programs allow students who start in a master's to "reclassify" into a Ph.D. program after satisfactory performance in the first year, bypassing the master's degree. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research. HP Pavilion G7-1150US Laptop Keyboard Master's degrees can be completed in one year but normally take at least two; they typically may not exceed five years. Doctoral degrees require a minimum of two years but frequently take much longer, although not usually exceeding six years. Graduate students may take out student loans, but instead they often work as teaching or research assistants. Students often agree, as a condition of acceptance to a programme, not to devote more than twelve hours per week to work or outside interests. Various universities in Canada have different policies in terms of how much funding is available. This funding may also be different within a university in each of the disciplinesOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7135 Laptop Keyboard For Masters students, funding is generally available to first-year students whose transcripts reflect exceptionally high grades; this funding can also be obtained in the second year of studies. Funding for Ph.D. students comes from a variety of sources, and many universities waive tuition fees for doctoral candidates (This may also occur for masters students of some universities). Funding is available in the form of scholarships, bursaries and other awards, both private and public. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral Schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university : while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.). ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard Admission to a doctoral program requires a master's degree, both research-oriented and disciplinary focused. High marks are required (typically a très bienhonour, equating a cum laude), but the acceptance is linked to a decision of the School Academical Board. A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee.  SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard The establishment of Graduiertenkollegs in Germany started in the early 1990s funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the German Research Foundation. Unlike the American model of graduate schools, a Graduiertenkolleg consists only of a PhD programme. In contrast with the traditional German apprentice model of pursuing a PhD, a Graduiertenkolleg aims to provide young researchers with a structured doctoral training within an excellent research environment. A Graduiertenkolleg typically consists of 20-30 doctoral students,  TOSHIBA Satellite L755D Series Laptop Keyboard about half of whom are supported by stipends from the DFG or another sponsor. The research programme is usually narrowly defined around a specific topic and has an interdisciplinary aspect. The programme is set up for a specific period of time (up to nine years if funded by the DFG). The official English translation of the term Graduiertenkolleg is Research Training Group. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, a different type of graduate school, termed Graduiertenschule, was established by the DFG as part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative. They are thematically much broader than the focused Graduiertenkollegs and consist often of 100-200 doctoral students. HP 510 Laptop Keyboard While most graduate programs will have a similar list of general admission requirements, the importance placed on each type of requirement can vary drastically between graduate schools, departments within schools, and even programs within departments. The best way to determine how a graduate program will weigh admission materials is to ask the person in charge of graduate admissions at the particular program being applied to. Admission to graduate school requires a bachelor's degree. High grades in one's field of study are important—grades outside the field less so. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard he Graduate Record Examination standardized test is required by almost all graduate schools, while other additional standardised tests (such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Tests) scores may be required by some institutions or programs.[4][5] In addition, good letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors are often essential,[6] as strong recommendation letters from mentors or supervisors of undergraduate research experience provide evidence that the applicant can perform research and can handle the rigors of a graduate school education. HP G72-a20SB Laptop Keyboard Within the sciences and some social sciences, previous research experience may be important;[4][7] within most humanities disciplines, an example of academic writing normally suffices. Many universities require a personal statement (sometimes called Statement of purpose or Letter of Intent), which may include indications of the intended area(s) of research;[5] how detailed this statement is or whether it is possible to change one's focus of research depends strongly on the discipline and department to which the student is applying. ACER TravelMate 5742 Laptop Keyboard In some disciplines or universities, graduate applicants may find it best to have at least one recommendation from research work outside of the college where they earned their Bachelor's degree;[citation needed] however, as with previous research experience, this may not be very important in most humanities disciplines. SONY Vaio PCG-K315B Laptop Keyboard Some schools set minimum GPAs and test scores below which they will not accept any applicants;[8] this reduces the time spent reviewing applications. On the other hand, many other institutions often explicitly state that they do not use any sort of cut-offs in terms of GPA or the GRE scores. Instead, they claim to consider many factors, including past research achievements, the compatibility between the applicant's research interest and that of the faculty, the statement of purpose and the letters of reference, as stated above. Some programs also require professors to act as sponsors. Finally, applicants from non-English speaking countries often must take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).[9]Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[5] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[10] Packard Bell EasyNote TJ75 Laptop Keyboard Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD," for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil), or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[4] In some departments, acomprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences, and relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Most graduate students perform teaching duties, often serving as graders and tutors. In some departments, they can be promoted to Lecturer status, a position that comes with more responsibility. Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework, and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on course work or on "practicals" or "workshops". Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution, and under faculty supervision. HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.[4] Programs often require a Qualifying Examination("Quals"), a PhD Candidacy Examination ("Candidacy"), or a General Examination ("Generals"), designed to ensure students have a grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations ("Specials"), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline. If these examinations are held orally, they may be known colloquially as "orals".  SONY VAIO VGN NR385E/T Laptop Keyboard SONY VGN-FE790P Laptop Keyboard In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming, and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the thesis. Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master's level, which allows the student to leave with a master's without having completed a master's thesis. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard Though there is substantial variation among universities, departments, and individuals, humanities and social science doctorates on average take somewhat longer to complete than natural science doctorates. These differences are due to the differing nature of research between the humanities and some social sciences and the natural sciences, HP Mini 210-1161EZ Laptop Keyboard and to the differing expectations of the discipline in coursework, languages and length of thesis. However, time required to complete adoctorate also varies according to the candidate's abilities and choice of research. Some students may also choose to remain in a program if they fail to win an academic position, particularly in disciplines with a tight job market; by remaining a student, they can retain access to libraries and university facilities, while also retaining an academic affiliation, which can be essential for conferences and job-searches.  HP Pavilion DV7t-2200 CTO Laptop Keyboard Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Competition for jobs within certain fields, such as the life sciences, is so great that almost all students now enter a second training period after graduate school called a postdoctoral fellowship. In total most life scientists will invest 12–14 years in low paid training positions and only 14% will obtain tenure track jobs (Miller McCune, the real science gap). The average age at which life scientists obtain their first R01 grant to conduct independent research is now 42. DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard In some disciplines, doctoral programs can average seven to ten years. Archaeology, which requires long periods of research, tends towards the longer end of this spectrum. The increase in length of degree is a matter of great concern for both students and universities, though there is much disagreement on potential solutions to this problem. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph.D. students, as well as a tuition waiver. The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and especially to competition among the elite universities for graduate students. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, rarely allow the student to work on their own research. Science PhD students can apply for individual NRSA fellowships from the NIH or fellowships from private foundations. US universities often also offer competitive support from NIH-funded training programs. One example is the Biotechnology Training Program – University of Virginia. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard Departments often have funds for limited discretionary funding to supplement minor expenses such as research trips and travel to conferences. A few students can attain funding through dissertation improvement grants funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), or through similar programs in other agencies. Many students are also funded as lab researchers by faculty who have been funded by private foundations or by the NSF, National Institutes of Health (NIH), or federal "mission agencies" such as the Department of Defense or the Environmental Protection Agency. The natural sciences are typically well funded, so that most students can attain either outside or institutional funding, but in the humanities, not all do. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard Some humanities students borrow money during their coursework, then take full-time jobs while completing their dissertations. Students in the social sciences are less well funded than are students in the natural and physical sciences, but often have more funding opportunities than students in the humanities, particularly as science funders begin to see the value of social science research. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Funding differs greatly by departments and universities; some universities give five years of full funding to all Ph.D. students, though often with a teaching requirement attached; other universities do not. However, because of the teaching requirements, which can be in the research years of the Ph.D., even the best funded universities often do not have funding for humanities or social science students who need to do research elsewhere, whether in the United States or overseas.[citation needed] Such students may find funding through outside funders such as private foundations, such as the German Marshall Fund or the Social Science Research Council (SSRC). TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to U.S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[12] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. International students often have unique financial diffulties such as high costs to visit their families back home, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard support of a family not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is expensive by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and surveillance fees under the Student and Exchange Visitor Program of the United States Department of Homeland Security.[13]) TOSHIBA NB100-11G Laptop Keyboard At many universities, graduate students are employed by their university to teach classes or do research. While all graduate employees are graduate students, many graduate students are not employees. MBA students, for example, usually pay tuition and do not have paid teaching or research positions. In many countries graduate employees have collectively organized labor unions in order to bargain a contract with their university. In Canada, for example, almost all graduate employees are members of a CUPE local. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard In the United States there are many graduate employee unions at public universities. The Coalition of Graduate Employee Unions lists 25 recognized unions at public universities on its website. Private universities, however, are covered under the National Labor Relations Act rather than state labor laws and until 2001 there were no recognized unions at private universities. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard Many graduate students see themselves as akin to junior faculty, but with significantly lower pay.[citation needed] Many graduate students feel that teaching takes time that would better be spent on research, and many point out that there is a vicious circle in the academic labor economy. Institutions that rely on cheap graduate student labor have no need to create expensive professorships, so graduate students who have taught extensively in graduate school can find it immensely difficult to get a teaching job when they have obtained their degree. Many institutions depend heavily on graduate student teaching: a 2003 report by agitators for a graduate student union at Yale,[14] TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard for instance, claims that "70% of undergraduate teaching contact hours at Yale are performed by transient teachers: graduate teachers, adjunct instructors, and other teachers not on the tenure track." The state of Michigan leads in terms of progressive policy regarding graduate student unions with five universities recognizing graduate employee unions: Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, theUniversity of Michigan, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The United Auto Workers (under the slogan "Uniting Academic Workers") and the American Federation of Teachers are two international unions that represent graduate employees. Private universities' administrations often oppose their graduate students when they try to form unions, arguing that students should be exempt from labor laws intended for "employees". In some cases unionization movements have met with enough student opposition to fail. At the schools where graduate employees are unionized, which positions are unionized vary. Sometimes only one set of employees will unionize (e.g. teaching assistants, residential directors); at other times, most or all will. Typically, fellowship recipients, usually not employed by their university, do not participate. DELL KR737 Laptop Keyboard When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboardjournalism school is a school or department, usually part of an established university, where journalists are trained. An increasingly used term for a journalism department, school or college is 'J-School'. Many of the most famous and respectedjournalists of the past and present had no formal training in journalism, but learned their craft on the job, often starting out as copy boys/copy girls. Today, in many parts of the world it is usual for journalists to first complete university-level training which incorporates both technical skills such as research skills, interviewing technique and shorthand and academic studies in media theory, cultural studies and ethics. HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard Historically, in the United Kingdom entrants used first to complete a non media-studies related degree course, giving maximum educational breadth, prior to taking a specialist postgraduate pre-entry course. However, this has changed over the last ten years with journalism training and education moving to higher educational institutions. There are now over 60 universities in the UK offering BA honours degrees in journalism. Postgraduate courses are more well-established, some of which are either recognised by the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) or the National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ). SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard In 2007 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) named what it terms the Potential Centres of Excellence in Journalism Training in Africa. After thorough research there were twelve journalism and media training institutions named on the list and they were not placed in any order. SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/T Laptop Keyboard These twelve UNESCO Potential Centres of Excellence in Journalism Training in Africa are the Department of Journalism at the Tshwane University of Technology in Pretoria in South Africa (TUT), Mass Communication Department at Makerere University in Uganda, School of Journalism and Media Studies at Rhodes University in Grahamstown in South Africa, Department of Mass Communication at the University of Lagos in Nigeria, School of Communication, Legal and Secretarial Studies at the Namibia Polytechnic, Mozambican School of Journalism in Mozambique, Centre d'études des sciences et techniques de l'information in Senegal, SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard The School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Nairobi in Kenya, Department of Journalism at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa, Institut Supérieur de l'Information et de la Communication in Morocco, School of Communication Studies at Walter Sisulu University in South Africa and Ecole Supérieure de Sciences et Techniques de l'Information et de la Communication in Cameroon. UNESC0's list is not exhaustive, and new schools have been founded since the study was conducted. SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard With the rise of Internet and social media in the past five years there has been increasing demand for journalism schools offering specialized training in the kinds of modern challenges journalists face in the rapidly changing online-media landscape. E-jicom Graduate School of Journalism and Communication in Dakar, Senegal is one such institution, offering specialized training combining stringent media ethics with the modern technological demands of online media. Compaq Presario CQ56-102LA Laptop Keyboard In Australia, a ranking of all journalism schools has been assembled based on graduating students' assessments of the quality of their courses. The top five journalism schools in Australia, based on student satisfaction ratings over four years, are (in order), Jschool Journalism College in Brisbane, University of the Sunshine Coast in Queensland, University of Western Sydney, Murdoch University in Western Australia and the University of Technology, Sydney. SONY 147915321 Laptop Keyboard Figures for the most recent year for which data is available (2008) indicate 100 percent satisfaction among students at Bond University and Jschool (both in Queensland), and 85-86 percent satisfaction among students at the Universities of Canberra, Newcastle and the Sunshine Coast.[5][self-published source?]. The New Zealand Training Organisation has published a list of New Zealand's journalism schools recognised by industry.[6]SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W Laptop Keyboard New Zealand Institute of Business Studies has been teaching Freelance Journalism & Non-Fiction Writing for more than 20 years. Training is less 'academic-focused' and more 'income-earning' focused. Graduates are given a fortnightly list of journalism job vacancies.[7]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The Centre de Formation des Journalistes (CFJ[8]) was founded in 1946 by two Resistance leaders, although both Ecole Superieure de Journalisme of Paris and Lille had been founded earlier (1899 and 1924 respectively). Located on the rue du Louvre in Paris, many of the leading journalists in France today graduated from this school and come back to help train today's students. Other main French journalisme schools are École supérieure de journalisme de Lille, created in 1924, Ecole de journalisme de Sciences Po, CELSA, École supérieure de journalisme de Paris and Institut Pratique du Journalisme, all in Paris. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard During the Third Reich, the Nazis established the Reichspresseschule (Imperial School of Press), in which journalists were taught to write what the National Socialist German Workers' Party wanted the German public to think. After the war, the first Journalism school in Germany was founded in 1949 as Werner Friedmann Institute. 1961 the schools name was changed into Deutsche Journalistenschule (German school of journalism). In 1979, a new journalism school was created in Hamburg, later renamed after the founder of Stern magazine, Henri Nannen.  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Britain's newest and most innovative university based education in journalism is offered at the University of Kent's Centre for Journalism.[9] Established under the leadership of Professor Tim Luckhurst, a former editor of the Scotsman and former BBC Editor[10] The Centre runs both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees that are accredited by the National Council for the Training of Journalists.[11] Teaching blends professional training in multimedia journalism and intense instruction in traditional academic disciplines including history, politics and law. The Centre is equipped with three state-of-the-art multimedia newsrooms including radio and television studios. HP Mini 210-2090nr Laptop Keyboard It has its own dedicated multimedia website[12] Admission is competitive. Every candidate must attend for interview and test and must demonstrate sincere commitment to journalism. Very high academic standards are maintained and one to one teaching is offered to all students. The Centre offers guaranteed work placements with the KM Group.[13] It awards the annual Sky Bob Friend Memorial Scholarship, named after the legendary Sky News presenter, Bob Friend, and sponsored by Sky News[14] Mark Thompson, Director General of the BBC delivered the 2010 Bob Friend Memorial Lecture[15] John Snow, Presenter of Channel 4 News, delivered the lecture in 2011[16]ACER PK1307R1A01 Laptop Keyboard One of Europe's longest established centres of journalism education is the department of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Central Lancashire(also known as UCLan), which launched its first print journalism course in 1962 at the then Harris College, which later became part of the University of Central Lancashire.[17] The Times said, in 2008, that "It is acknowledged as one of the leading centres for the teaching of journalism in Britain".[18] In 2010, the University won the Broadcast Journalism Training Council's award for general excellence.[19]DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard Another well-established course is the highly-regarded School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University which was founded in 1970 by Sir Tom Hopkinson. The course was also the UK's top-rated course by the National Council for the Training of Journalists for the academic year 2007/8.[20] The International Media Center (Slovenia-Austria-Serbia), offers in cooperation with South East Europe Media Organisation (SEEMO) and South East and Central Europe PR Organisation (SECEPRO) several courses, including master programme. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The School of Journalism at the University of Lincoln was described by John Pilger as '...one of the most enlightened in the world'.[21] The internationally acclaimed investigative journalist formally opened the School in 2004.[22] It provides undergraduate, MA and PhD programmes covering the theory and practice of journalism. Research in the School focuses on media ethics, international human rights, peace journalism, the coverage of US/UK warfare, the diasporic media andliterary journalism,  HP COMPAQ 2510P Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan with 70% of the research output assessed in 2008 as 'internationally excellent' or 'world leading'.[23] Teaching emphasizes the growing focus on convergence; production workshops are delivered in seven newsrooms with integral broadcast studios. Staff in the school have published leading textbooks in the field of print,[24] broadcast journalism and comparative media history.[25] Courses are accredited by the BJTC and PTC[disambiguation needed][26]and the School is 'Recognised for Excellence’ by the European Journalism Training Association.[27]SONY VAIO PCG-6J2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan City University London's Journalism Department is one of the best known and most well-respected in the UK. The Independent said City's postgraduate courses had "rightly accrued legendary status within the media"[28] and ex-Guardian Editor Peter Preston wrote: "What's the passport to journalism? The dreaming spires of... City University".[29] City's faculty includes Professor George Brock and Professor Roy Greenslade, and alumni include Sophie Raworth of the BBC, Sky's Dermot Murnaghan and Channel 4 News Economics Editor Faisal Islam. HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Press Association offer a fast-track 17-week course in Multimedia and print journalism (NCTJ), which is widely regarded as the best of its kind in the UK and one of the best courses overall. The short length and intensity of the course makes entry on to the course extremely competitive and usually only those with exceptional promise will be accepted. It was previously owned by Trinity Mirror and many national newspapers send trainees to take part in at least some PA-training within a graduate scheme. Press Association TrainingSONY UDQF2PH22CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The National Student Survey results for both 2009 and 2010 place University of Sheffield No. 1 in the UK for overall satisfaction with Journalism. Journalism Studies at Sheffield also ranked 1st under the Times Good University Guide 2009 subject league table for Communications and Media Studies. Liverpool John Mooresand Bournemouth have well-respected journalism courses. Kingston University, Bournemouth and Birmingham City have developed fully converged journalism courses without reference to separate production disciplines such as radio, Toshiba Qosmio F15-AV201 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan newspaper or magazine journalism. Issues from a European perspective in evaluating journalism schools were discussed by the president of the European Journalism Training Association in an interview with Marianne Peters of the European Journalism Training Association (EJTA).[30]HP 6730S Laptop Keyboard SONY VGN-FE590P Laptop Keyboard The London School of Journalism (LSJ)[31] is an independent and highly acclaimed institution with well-recognised Postgraduate programs in Journalism and writing. It was founded in 1920 by Sir Max Pemberton. Kingston University also has a well-respected department of journalism. Founded in 2003 it has courses accredited by the NCTJ and PTC. The campus newspaper and magazine produced by its journalism students have won best student publication in the national Guardian Student Media Awards. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5170 Laptop Keyboard In Denmark, the University of Southern Denmark established a journalism study programme in 1998 at the then founded Centre for Journalism, as did Roskilde University, following the political decision to break the Danish School of Journalism’s monopoly on educating journalists in Denmark. The purpose was and is to increase the diversity of teaching and research within the field of journalism. Since its establishment, the Centre for Journalism has launched several innovative features within the field, including the by now renowned award for journalists, "The Journalistic Fellowship", and the introduction of a journalist’s oath similar to the Hippocratic oath. Also, in terms of scientific publications it is the most productive journalism research department in Denmark (status: 2005).[32]TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S5811 Laptop Keyboard In Russia, the MSU Faculty of Journalism is the leading journalism school. The majority of textbooks on journalism in Russian were written by MSU scientists. In Minsk (Belarus), the Institute of Journalism of BSU is one of the leading scientific and educational centers in the sphere of Mass Media in the territory of the former soviet countries. It possesses a highly respected scientific and pedagogical standard and prepares professionals in mass media for work in Belarus and abroad. SAMSUNG N145 Laptop Keyboard The Hungarian, Bálint György Academy of Journalism (previously known as Hungarian School of Journalism) runs under the aegis of the National Association of Hungarian Journalists (MÚOSZ). Before 1989, the Hungarian School of Journalism served as a highly selective post-graduate program for well-trained journalists in Hungary. Since 2003, the Bálint György Academy of Journalism belongs to the accredited professional education system. SONY VAIO VGN-AR605E Laptop Keyboard The top Journalism School in Spain is based at the Complutense University of Madrid, founded in 1293. Many reputed and well-known journalists have studied at Madrid's most prestigious university. Princess Letizia of Spain studied journalism at this University, established by the King and Queen of Castille, which is the main public university in the country. Other universities include Pompeu Fabra University, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Pontifical University of Salamanca and University of Navarre with specialised Bachelor degrees in Audiovisual Communications and Advertising. HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard A listing (unranked) of Canadian journalism schools has been assembled by Canadian-Universities.net [18]. Journalism schools are listed and classified on the "J-Schools & Programs" page of[33] In the United States the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC)[34] applies nine standards in evaluating university programs: mission, governance and administration; curriculum and instruction; diversity and inclusiveness; full-time and part-time faculty; scholarship: research, creative and professional activity; student services; resources, facilities and equipment; professional and public service; and assessment of learning outcomes. The ACEJMCC has awarded accreditation to 109 university and college programs of study in journalism and mass communications, but does not attempt to rank the courses or programs. It accredits colleges, schools, Departments or "Divisions. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-209WM Laptop Keyboard The listing of a unit as accredited indicates that the unit has been judged by ACEJMC to meet its standards. That judgment is rendered after a self-study prepared by the faculty and administration of the unit and an independent evaluation of the unit by educators and practitioners.The listing shows the bachelor's and professional master's degree programs that were examined during the unit's most recent accreditation review. Some units offer degrees in addition to those listed here. ACEJMC does not accredit programs leading to the Ph.D., which is considered a research (and not a professional) degree. The Council does not list sequences or specialties. SONY KFRMBA151B Laptop Keyboard There are only four graduate-only journalism programs in North America: Columbia University Graduate School o

f Journalism, CUNY School of Journalism, UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and University of British Columbia Graduate School of Journalism. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Editor & Publisher has presented an unranked list of leading journalism schools[35][dead link], while U.S. News & World Report produces annual lists of the top schools in advertising, print, and other categories based on responses to questionnaires sent to deans and faculty members.[citation needed] A list based on a variety of resources claims to identify the "ten most popular journalism schools in the United States".[36] One critic has pointed to the anecdotal nature of much j-school ranking in the absence of effective tracking of journalism graduates' career paths.[37]HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard In Colombia, the high court determined in 1998 that journalism was not a career. This High court said that journalism is a human right, not a profession. Because of the ruling there are many schools of communications in Colombia where people study to work in mainly enterprises, but not in mass media There are only two schools of journalism: HP Mini 110-1014tu Laptop Keyboard University of Antioquia, a public institution in Medellín, offers Journalism inside the Communications faculty.[39] And University of Rosario in Bogotá, a private institution offers Public Opinion Journalism[40] Chilean universities with journalism impart the profession as a full 5 years degree. With a grade of "bachelor in social communications" and professional title of Journalist, currently exist more than 30 journalism schools in the country. The national system have an accrediting council that independently certifies the universities as a whole and each of the careers. Nevertheless, only a few are accredited. SONY KFRMBA220A Laptop Keyboard The top school in the country are the Faculty of Communications of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, accredited by US's ACEJMC, and the Institute of Communication and Image of the University of Chile, accredited by the National Accrediting Council (CNA). Outside Santiago, the top school is the School of Journalism of the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso, also accredited by the CNA. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard One of the most cited critiques of a journalism school was Michael Lewis's article in The New Republic (1993), "J-school ate my brain",[41] which was strongly criticized by University of Maryland College of Journalism dean Reese Cleghorn in American Journalism Review.[42] Discussion of the issues raised by Lewis was evident a decade later in the Chronicle of Higher Education colloquy on journalism education,[43] Columbia Journalism Review's "Searching for the perfect j-school",[44]  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard and "The j-school debate" in the Christian Science Monitor.[45] Alternative approaches to journalism education were suggested in Jack Shafer's Slatearticle "Can J-school be saved? Professional advice for Columbia University".[46] An article in The Australian discusses "What makes a good school of journalism".[47]COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard On the internet, a range of weblogs have been set up by journalism students to chronicle or to criticize their journalism colleges. Examples are:"jschoolyear", "jschool05", "the pod" blogspot, "jschool" blog, australia. An example of a weblog criticising university journalism education in Australia is.[48] One journalism school in the UK, at the,[49] has established a clearing house where all students are expected to contribute to the development and content of their own education and training using blogs. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Various commentaries on journalism education are related to criticisms of contemporary news media standards and values. One example is a paper by Jan Schaffer, executive director of J-Lab: the Institute for Interactive Journalism .[50] A controversial paper to Australia's peak newspaper industry body PANPA (Pacific Area Newspaper Publishers Association) by Professor John Henningham ("Journalism sold short in media courses") blamed industry lack of interest and university cost-cutting for falling standards in journalism education.[51] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2804 Laptop Keyboard In Canada, Mark Anderson of the Ottawa Citizen has argued the case for teaching business journalism in college rather than on the job.[52] Canadian journalism professor Rick MacLean has rejected criticism by Robert Fulford ("Just what is the point of j-school") that the best potential journalists will find their way into the media, while many existing j-school students show no interest in news or the media. MacLean argues that education in journalism helps empower members of the public to understand how media work.[53]ACER Aspire 5520-5537 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The following list of optometry schools covers many countries, although the list is not exhaustive. Internationally, optometry as a profession includes different levels of education.[1] The institutions listed below provide academic and professional education and clinical training that ranges from Doctor of Optometry degree level to other professional degrees in optometry and also non-degree level education leading to a diploma or other qualifications in optometry. ACER Aspire 6920-6621 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In many countries the role of optometry is statutorily defined, practice is regulated and there is uniformity in professional education and clinical training and the scope of practice is consistent with the definition of optometry as a profession. In such countries the nomenclature of terminal qualification may be reviewed as and when necessary. In Australia, for example, Doctor of Optometry (OD) is now established at University of Melbourne (first intake 2011) and OD is described as "an internationally recognised qualification and the gold standard for optometry education."[2] HP Pavilion dv7-6199us Laptop CPU Cooling Fandental school (or dental college) is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches dentistry to prospective dentists. Upon successful completion, the graduate receives a degree in Dentistry, which, depending upon the jurisdiction, might be a bachelor's degree, master's degree, a professional degree, or a doctorate. Schools can also offer postgraduate training in general dentistry, and/or training in endodontics,oral surgery, dental pathology, dental radiography, orthodontics, pedodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, or dental public health. FUJITSU LifeBook E8410 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the European Union, Dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental nurses, dental technicians, dental therapists, or other members of the dental auxiliary are trained in universities of applied science or polytechnics. Sometimes dental education is done within medical schools, as in Pakistan; the separation between medical and dental educations is also blurred within certain sub-specialties, such as oral and maxillofacial surgery.  HP Pavilion dv5-2155dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Canada, the term "college" usually refers to a technical, applied arts, applied science school or community college. These are post-secondary institutions granting certificates, diplomas, associate's degree, and bachelor's degrees. In Quebec, the term is seldom used; the French acronym for public colleges, CEGEP(College d'enseignement général et professionnel, "college of general and professional education"), is more commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to thecollegiate level specific to the Quebec education system that is required to continue onto university (unless one applies as a "mature" student, meaning 21 years of age or over, and out of the educational system for at least 2 years),  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan or to learn a trade. In Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta, there are also institutions which are designated university colleges, as they only grant undergraduate degrees. This is to differentiate between universities, which have both undergraduate and graduate programs and those that do not. In contrast to usage in the United States, there is a strong distinction between "college" and "university" in Canada. In conversation, one specifically would say either "They are going to university" (i.e., studying for a three- or four-year degree at a university) or "They are going to college" (suggesting a technical or career college). IBM ThinkPad T60 2623 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Royal Military College of Canada, a full-fledged degree-granting university, does not follow the naming convention used by the rest of the country, nor does its sister school Royal Military College Saint-Jean or the now closed Royal Roads Military College.  HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The term "college" also applies to distinct entities within a university (usually referred to as "federated colleges" or "affiliated colleges"),to the residential colleges in the United Kingdom. These colleges act independently, but in affiliation or federation with the university that actually grants the degrees. For example, Trinity College was once an independent institution, but later became federated with the University of Toronto, and is now one of its residential colleges (though it remains a degree granting institution through its Faculty of Divinity). SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard In the case of Memorial University of Newfoundland, located in St. John's, the Corner Brook campus is called Sir Wilfred Grenfell College. Occasionally, "college" refers to a subject specific faculty within a university that, while distinct, are neither federated nor affiliated—College of Education, College of Medicine, College of Dentistry, College of Biological Science[2] among others. DELL Studio 1458 Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard There are also universities referred to as art colleges, empowered to grant academic degrees of BFA, Bdes, MFA, Mdes and sometimes collaborative PhD degrees. Some of them have "university" in their name (NSCAD University, OCAD University and Emily Carr University of Art and Design)and others do not. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Online and distance education (E-learning) use "college" in the name in the British sense, for example : Canada Capstone College.[citation needed] One use of the term "college" in the American sense is by the Canadian Football League (CFL), which calls its annual entry draft the Canadian College Draft. The draft is restricted to players who qualify under CFL rules as "non-imports"—essentially, players who were raised in Canada (see the main CFL article for a more detailed definition). Because a player's designation as "non-import" is not affected by where he plays post-secondary football, the category includes former players at U.S. college football programs ("universities" in the Canadian sense) as well as CIS football programs at Canadian universities. 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