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19 septembre 2012 3 19 /09 /septembre /2012 05:53

University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or Oxford) is a university located in Oxford, England. It is the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and the second-oldest surviving university in the world.[1][5] Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096.[1] HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard The University grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.[1] In post-nominals the University of Oxford was historically abbreviated as Oxon., from the Latin Universitas Oxoniensis, although Oxf is now used in official university publications.[6]HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge, where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient English universities have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to their cultural and practical associations, as an historic part of British society, they have a long history of rivalry with each other. TOSHIBA P205-S6347 Laptop Keyboard Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at self-governing colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work organised by University faculties and departments. Oxford regularly contends withCambridge for first place in the league tables,[7][8][9] and consistently ranks among the top ten universities in the world, according to global rankings.[10][11] DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard For more than a century, it has served as the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, which brings students from a number of countries to study at Oxford as postgraduates or for a second bachelor's degree.[12]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also a core member of theEuropaeum and forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.[13]DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form in 1096, but it is unclear at what point a university came into being.[1] The expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris in 1167 caused many English scholars to return from France and settle in Oxford. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188, HP 550 Laptop Keyboard and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the University was named a chancellor from at least 1201, and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two “nations”, representing the North (including the Scots) and the South (including the Irish and the Welsh). In later centuries, Compaq Presario CQ71-200 Series Laptop Keyboard geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. Members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians, Compaq Presario CQ71-250SB Laptop Keyboard settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence, and maintained houses for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges to serve as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, and John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots: Balliol College bears his name.  HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Another founder, Walter de Merton, a chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford, as well as at the University of Cambridge. Thereafter, an increasing number of students forsook living in halls and religious houses in favour of living in colleges. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the Reformation and the breaking of ties with the Roman Catholic Church, Recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, HP 599572-031 Laptop Keyboard settling especially at the University of Douai. The method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval Scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. In 1636, Chancellor William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes; these to a large extent remained its governing regulations until the mid-19th century. DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press, and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library, the main library of the university. From the inception of the Church of England until 1866 membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from Oxford, and "dissenters" were only permitted to receive the MA in 1871. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard The mid nineteenth century saw the impact of the Oxford Movement (1833–1845), led among others by the future Cardinal Newman. The influence of the reformed model of German university reached Oxford via key scholars such as Edward Bouverie Pusey, Benjamin Jowett andMax Müller. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four women's colleges. Twentieth century Privy Council decisions (such as the abolition of compulsory daily worship, dissociation of the Regius professorship of Hebrew from clerical status, TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard diversion of theological bequests to colleges to other purposes) loosened the link with traditional belief and practice. Although the University's emphasis traditionally had been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded in the course of the 19th century to encompass scientific and medical studies. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required for admission until 1920, and Latin until 1960.  SONY VAIO VPC-F12 Laptop Keyboard The mid twentieth century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by Nazism and Communism, relocating to Oxford. The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to British politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature. More than forty Nobel laureates and more than fifty world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford.[14]  SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Women's education

The University passed a Statute in 1875 allowing its delegates to create examinations for women at roughly undergraduate level.[15] The first four women's colleges were established thanks to the activism of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women (AEW). Lady Margaret Hall (1878[16]) was followed by Somerville College in 1879;[17]TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7355 Laptop Keyboard the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop.[15] The first two colleges for women were followed by St Hugh's (1886[18]), St Hilda's (1893[19]) and St Anne's College (1952[20]). Oxford was long considered a bastion of male privilege,[21] and it was not until 7 October 1920 that women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees.[22] I Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard n 1927 the University's dons created a quota that limited the number of female students to a quarter that of men, a ruling not abolished until 1957.[15] However, until the 1970s all Oxford colleges were for men or women only, so that the number of women was effectively limited by the capacity of the women's colleges to admit students. It was not until 1959 that the women's colleges were given full collegiate status. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard In 1974 Brasenose, Jesus, Wadham, Hertford and St Catherine's became the first previously all-male colleges to admit women.[23][24] In 2008 the last single sex college, St Hilda's, admitted its first men, meaning all colleges are now co-residential. By 1988, 40% of undergraduates at Oxford were female;[25] the ratio is now about 48:52 in men's favour.  Compaq Presario CQ57-218 Laptop Keyboard The detective novel Gaudy Night by Dorothy Sayers – herself one of the first women to get an academic degree at Oxford – takes place in a (fictional) women's college at Oxford, and the issue of women's education is central to its plot. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard


As a collegiate university, Oxford's structure can be confusing to those unfamiliar with it. The university is a federation: it comprises over forty self-governing colleges and halls, along with a central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor. The academic departments are located centrally within this structure; they are not affiliated with any particular college. HP Pavilion DV6-1156tx Laptop Keyboard Departments provide facilities for teaching and research, determine the syllabi and guidelines for the teaching of students, perform research, and deliver lectures and seminars. Colleges arrange the tutorial teaching for their undergraduates. The members of an academic department are spread around many colleges; though certain colleges do have subject alignments (e.g. Nuffield College as a centre for the social sciences), SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard these are exceptions, and most colleges will have a broad mix of academics and students from a diverse range of subjects. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the central university (the Bodleian), by the departments (individual departmental libraries, such as the English Faculty Library), and by colleges (each of which maintains a multi-discipline library for the use of its members). IBM Thinkpad X61S Laptop Keyboard The university's formal head is the Chancellor, currently Lord Patten of Barnes, though as at most British universities, the Chancellor is a titular figure, and is not involved with the day-to-day running of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of Convocation, a body comprising all graduates of the university, and holds office until death. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard The Vice-Chancellor, currently Andrew Hamilton, is the de facto head of the University. Five Pro-Vice-Chancellors have specific responsibilities for Education; Research; Planning and Resources; Development and External Affairs; and Personnel and Equal Opportunities. The University Council is the executive policy-forming body, HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Laptop Keyboard which consists of the Vice-Chancellor as well as heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation, in addition to observers from the Student Union.Congregation, the "parliament of the dons", comprises over 3,700 members of the University’s academic and administrative staff, and has ultimate responsibility for legislative matters: it discusses and pronounces on policies proposed by the University Council. Only Oxford and Cambridge (which is similarly structured) have this democratic form of governance. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Two university proctors, who are elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges, are the internal ombudsmen who make sure that the university and its members adhere to its statutes. This role incorporates student welfare and discipline, as well as oversight of the university's proceedings. The University Professors are collectively referred to as the Statutory Professors of the University of Oxford. HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard They are particularly influential in the running of the university's graduate programmes. Examples of Statutory Professors are the Chichele Professorships and the Drummond Professor of Political Economy. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes are organised into four divisions, each with its own Head and elected board. They are the Humanities Division; the Social Sciences Division; the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division; and the Medical Sciences Division. DELL Latitude 131L Laptop Keyboard The University of Oxford is a "public university": it receives a large amount of public money from the government, but it is a "private university" in the sense that it is entirely self-governing and could choose to become entirely private by rejecting public funds.[26]ASUS X53K Laptop Keyboard There are thirty-eight colleges of the University of Oxford and six Permanent Private Halls, each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities.[27] All resident students, and most academic staff, must be members both of a college or hall, and of the University. The heads of Oxford colleges are known by various titles, according to the college, including warden, provost, principal, lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard president, rector, master and dean. The colleges join together as the Conference of Colleges to discuss policy and to deal with the central University administration. Teaching members of the colleges (fellows and tutors) are collectively and familiarly known as dons, although the term is rarely used by the University itself. In addition to residential and dining facilities, the colleges provide social,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS315B Laptop Keyboard cultural, and recreational activities for their members. Colleges have responsibility for admitting undergraduates and organising their tuition; for graduates, this responsibility falls upon the departments. HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard DELL MU194 Laptop Keyboard

Teaching and degrees

Undergraduate teaching is centred on the tutorial, where 1–4 students spend an hour with an academic discussing their week’s work, usually an essay (humanities, most social sciences, some mathematical, physical, and life sciences) or problem sheet (most mathematical, physical, and life sciences, and some social sciences). SONY VAIO VGN-AW17GU Laptop Keyboard Students usually have one or two tutorials a week, and can be taught by academics at any other college—not just their own—as expertise and personnel require. These tutorials are complemented by lectures, classes and seminars, which are organised on a departmental basis. Graduate students undertaking taught degrees are usually instructed through classes and seminars, though there is more focus upon individual research. ACER ZU2 Laptop Keyboard The university itself is responsible for conducting examinations and conferring degrees. The passing of two sets of examinations is a prerequisite for a first degree. The first set of examinations, called either Honour Moderations ("Mods" and "Honour Mods") or Preliminary Examinations ("Prelims"), are usually held at the end of the first year (after two terms for those studying Law, Theology, Philosophy and Theology, Experimental Psychology or Psychology, Philosophy and Physiology or after five terms in the case of Classics). Lenovo ThinkPad T410-2539 Laptop Keyboard The second set of examinations, the Final Honour School ("Finals"), is held at the end of the undergraduate course (for humanities and most social sciences) or at the end of each successive year of the course after the first (most mathematical, physical and life sciences, and some social sciences). Successful candidates receive first-, upper or lower second-, SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard or third-class honours, or simply a "pass" without honours, based on their performance in Finals. An upper second is the most usual result, and a first is generally prerequisite for graduate study. A "double first" reflects first class results in both Honour Mods. and Finals. Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university. SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard As a matter of tradition, bachelor's degree graduates are eligible, after seven years from matriculation (formal induction of students into the university) and without additional study, to purchase for a nominal fee an upgrade of their bachelor's degree to an "MA" or Master of Arts. All MAs were members of Convocation and until 1913 all resident members of Convocation were members of Congregation.[28]  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard MAs, as members of Convocation, elected the Chancellor and Professor of Poetry, but recently Convocation has been widened to consist of all graduates.[29][30] The academic year is divided into three terms, determined by Regulations.[31] Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December;Hilary Term from January to March; and Trinity Term from April to June. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Within these terms, Council determines for each year eight-week periods called Full Terms, during which undergraduate teaching takes place. These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities[32], and the total duration of Full Term-time takes up less than half the year. Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations). TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Internally at least, the dates in the term are often referred to by a number in reference to the start of each full term, thus the first week of any full term is called "1st week" and the last is "8th week". The numbering of the weeks continues up to the end of the term, and begins again with negative numbering from the beginning of the succeeding term, through "minus first week" and "noughth week", which precedes "1st week". Weeks begin on a Sunday. Undergraduates must be in residence from Thursday of 0th week. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Academic dress is required for examinations, matriculation, disciplinary hearings, and when visiting university officers. In July 2012 the regulations regarding academic dress were modified to be more inclusive to transgender people.[33] Until the 1960s this academic dress was worn by students at all times.[34] A referendum held amongst the Oxford student body in 2006 showed 81% against making it voluntary in examinations — 4,382 voted in the poll,  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard almost 1,000 more than voted in the previous term's students' union elections.[35] This was widely interpreted by students as not so much being a vote on making subfusc voluntary, but rather a vote on whether or not to effectively abolish it by default, as it was assumed that if a minority of people came to exams without subfusc, the rest would soon follow.[36]Compaq Presario CQ71-411EZ Laptop Keyboard Other traditions and customs vary by college, one of the most common being the requirement to wear gowns for certain formal dinners in hall.


In 2005/06 the University had an income of £608m, and the colleges £237m (of which £41m is a flow-through from the University). For the University, key sources were HEFCE (£166m) and research grants (£213m). For the colleges, the largest single source was endowments and interest (£82m) and residential charges (£47m). While the University has the larger operating budget, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard the colleges have a far larger aggregate endowment, at around £2.7bn compared to the University's £900m.[37] The Central University's endowment, along with that of many of the colleges, is managed by the University's wholly owned endowment management office, Oxford University Endowment Management, formed in 2007. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard The University also launched a fundraising campaign in May 2008, called Oxford Thinking – The Campaign for the University of Oxford.[38] With a minimum goal of £1.25 billion, the Campaign is looking to support three areas: academic posts and programmes, student support, and buildings and infrastructure.[39] Oxford has no upper or lower limit on the age of those admitted as undergraduates. Historically, it was common for boys to become members of the university between the ages of fourteen and nineteen.[40]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Jeremy Bentham matriculated in 1761 at the age of thirteen, which was unusually young.[41] At the present time, the usual age range of those admitted to study for first degrees begins at about seventeen, although the majority are eighteen or nineteen.[clarification needed]Harris Manchester caters only to mature students above 21. In theory, much younger people can still be admitted to the university if they meet the entrance standard, and Ruth Lawrence matriculated at Oxford in 1983 at the age of twelve. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard


Prospective students apply through the UCAS application system, in common with most British universities, but (along with applicants for Medicine, Dentistry and Cambridge applicants) must observe an earlier deadline of 15 October.[42] To allow a more personalised judgement of students, who might otherwise apply for both, undergraduate applicants are not permitted to apply to both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year. The only exceptions are applicants for Organ Scholarships[43]DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard and those applying to read for a second undergraduate degree.[44] Students from all backgrounds are encouraged to apply, with "contextual data" (factors that may have influenced prior exam performance) taken into account during the admission procedure. The university believes that there are many potential students from less well off backgrounds whom the university cannot admit, simply because they do not apply.[45]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Most applicants choose to apply to one of the individual colleges, which work with each other to ensure that the best students gain a place somewhere at the University whichever college they choose.[46] Shortlisting is based on achieved and predicted exam results; school references and, in some subjects, written admission tests or candidate-submitted written work. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Approximately 60% of applicants are shortlisted, although this varies by subject. If a large number of shortlisted applicants for a subject choose one college, then students who named that college may be reallocated randomly to under-subscribed colleges for the subject. The colleges then invite shortlisted candidates for interview, SONY VAIO VGN-FS530B Laptop Keyboard where they are provided with food and accommodation for around three days in December. Most applicants will be individually interviewed by academics at more than one college. Students from outside Europe can be interviewed remotely, for example over the Internet. In 2007 the colleges, faculties and departments published a "common framework" outlining the principles and procedures they observe.[47]SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard Offers are sent out shortly before Christmas, with an offer usually being from a specific college. One in four successful candidates receive offers from a college that they did not apply to. Some courses may make "open offers" to some candidates, who are not assigned to a particular college until A Level results day in August.[48][49] TOSHIBA 99.n7482.001 Laptop Keyboard For graduate student admissions, many colleges express a preference for candidates who will be undertaking research in an area of interest of one of its fellows. St Hugh's College, for example, states that it accepts graduate students in most subjects, principally those in the fields of interest of the Fellows of the college.[50] TOSHIBA Equium A60 Series Laptop Keyboard Perhaps as a consequence of this, it is not uncommon for a graduate student to be a member of his or her supervisor's college, although this is not an official university requirement. For graduate students, admission is first handled by the relevant department, and then by a college. SONY VAIO VGN-AW17GU Laptop Keyboard Mature and part-time students are supported by the Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. Most part-time students will belong to Kellogg College, although a small number of other colleges also accept admissions. Lenovo Thinkpad X220 Laptop Keyboard The University states that its admissions policies avoid bias against candidates of certain socio-economic or educational backgrounds.[51] However, the fairness of Oxford admissions has attracted public controversy through episodes such as theLaura Spence Affair in 2000.[52] Gaining places at Oxford and Cambridge remains a central focus for many private and selective state schools - ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard much more so than most state schools - and the fact that the social make-up of undergraduates at the University differs substantially from the social make-up of society at large remains controversial.[53] Veiled accusations of racism, however, have been refuted by comparison of A-level results with successful applications.[54] In 2007, the University refined its admissions procedure to take into account the academic performance of its applicants' schools.[55]HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop KeyboardStudents who apply from state schools and colleges have a broadly comparable acceptance rate to those from independent schools (19% and 24% of applicants accepted respectively, 2010).[56] More than half of applications come from the state sector,[56] and the University of Oxford funds many initiatives to attract applicants from this sector, including the UNIQ Summer Schools, Oxford Young Ambassadors, Target Schools, and the FE Access Initiative.[51DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard ] Regarding the UNIQ Summer School, of all the UNIQ students who went on to make applications in autumn 2010 to enter the University in 2011/12, 39 per cent ended up with places. The overall success rate for Oxford applicants is around 20 per cent. Most colleges also run their own access schemes and initiatives. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard In 2002, the University of Oxford commissioned a research project to investigate access issues[57] under the auspices of Professor Anthony Heath.[58] Almost 2,000 applicants for admission participated in the project; about one third of them were admitted.[59] The project found that, if anything, admissions tutors treat applicants from state schools more favourably than applicants from private schools with the same attainment.[60] HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard The research also suggested that this discounting was justified as private school students need higher grades at entry to do as well as their state school educated peers in final university examinations.[61] Finally, the study found that applicants to arts subjects had an advantage in admission when they displayed high levels of cultural capital.[62]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Scholarships and financial support

There are many opportunities for students at Oxford to receive financial help during their studies. The Oxford Opportunity Bursaries, introduced in 2006, are university-wide means-based bursaries available to any British undergraduate. With a total possible grant of £10,235 over a 3-year degree, it is the most generous bursary scheme offered by any British university.[63] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In addition, individual colleges also offer bursaries and funds to help their students. For graduate study, there are many scholarships attached to the University, available to students from all sorts of backgrounds, from Rhodes Scholarships to the new Weidenfeld Scholarships.[64]HP G62-451SA Laptop Keyboard Students successful in early examinations are rewarded by their colleges with scholarships and exhibitions, normally the result of a long-standing endowment, although since the introduction of tuition fees the amounts of money available are purely nominal. Scholars, and exhibitioners in some colleges, are entitled to wear a more voluminous undergraduate gown; SONY Vaio PCG-K23Q Laptop Keyboard "commoners" (originally those who had to pay for their "commons", or food and lodging) being restricted to a short, sleeveless garment. The term "scholar" in relation to Oxbridge, therefore, had a specific meaning as well as the more general meaning of someone of outstanding academic ability. In previous times, there were "noblemen commoners" and "gentlemen commoners", SONY VAIO VGN-FS690 Laptop Keyboard but these ranks were abolished in the 19th century. "Closed" scholarships, available only to candidates who fitted specific conditions such as coming from specific schools, exist now only in name. HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard


Oxford has 102 libraries,[65] of which 30[66] belong to the Bodleian Library group, Oxford's central research library. With over 11 million volumes housed on 120 miles (190 km) of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library. It is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year.[67] Its main central site consists of the original Bodleian Library in the Old Schools Quadrangle, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1598 and opened in 1602,[68] the Radcliffe Camera, theClarendon Building, and the New Bodleian Building. TOSHIBA Portege M200 Laptop Keyboard A tunnel underneath Broad Streetconnects these buildings. Other libraries within the Bodleian’s remit include theBodleian Law Library, Indian Institute Library, Radcliffe Science Library, the Oriental Institute Library and the Vere Harmsworth US History Library.[66] DELL Latitude D531 Laptop Keyboard A new book depository opened in South Marston, Swindon in October 2010,[69] and current building projects include the remodelling of the New Bodleian building, which will be renamed the Weston Library when it reopens in 2014-15.[70] The renovation is designed to better showcase the library’s various treasures (which include a Shakespeare First Folioand a Gutenberg Bible) as well as temporary exhibitions. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard Other specialised libraries in Oxford include the Sackler Library, which holds classical collections, and the libraries maintained by academic departments and colleges.[65] Almost all of Oxford's libraries share a common catalogue, the Oxford Libraries Information System,[71] though with such a huge collection, this is an ongoing task.[72TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard ] Oxford University Library Services, the head of which is Bodley’s Librarian, is the governing administrative body responsible for libraries in Oxford. The Bodleian is currently engaged in a mass-digitisation project with Google.[73][74]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard See also: Category:Libraries in Oxford Oxford maintains a number of museums and galleries in addition to its libraries. The Ashmolean Museum, founded in 1683, is the oldest museum in the UK, and the oldest university museum in the world.[75] It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Turner, and Picasso, as well as treasures such as theScorpion Macehead, tHP Mini 210-2005sa Laptop Keyboard he Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel. It also contains "The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence. The Ashmolean reopened in November 2009, after a £49m redevelopment,[76] doubling the display space as well as providing new facilities. DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard The Museum of Natural History holds the University’s anatomical and natural history specimens. It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, in the University’s Science Area.[77][78] Among its collection are the skeletons of aTyrannosaurus rex and triceratops, and the most complete remains of a dodo found anywhere in the world. It also hosts theSimonyi Professorship of the Public Understanding of Science, currently held by Marcus du Sautoy.  DELL Latitude E5510 Laptop Keyboard Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, which displays the University’s archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the University establish a lectureship in anthropology. SAMSUNG Q330-JS01 Laptop Keyboard The Museum of the History of Science is housed on Broad St in the world’s oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building.[79] It contains 15,000 artefacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the history of science. In the Faculty of Music on St Aldate's is the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, ACER Aspire 5745P Laptop Keyboard a collection mostly of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards. The Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in the UK, and the third-oldest scientific garden in the world. It contains representatives from over 90% of the world’s higher plant families. Christ Church Picture Gallery holds a collection of over 200 old master paintings. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EV Laptop Keyboard See also: Category:Museums in Oxford


In the subject tables of the Times Good University Guide 2008, Oxford is ranked as the top university in the UK with Cambridge as the second.[87] Oxford is ranked first in Politics, Physiological Sciences, English, Fine Art, Business Studies, Middle Eastern andAfrican Studies, Music, Philosophy, and also Education and Linguistics which it shares first with Cambridge. Oxford comes second after Cambridge in a further seventeen subjects. The University then takes three third-places and an equal-third, as well as a fourth, fifth, and equal-sixth place in one subject each.[88]HP G42-459TX Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard In The Guardian's subject tables for institutions in tariff-band 6 (universities whose prospective students are expected to score 400 or more tariff points) Oxford took first place for Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropology, Biosciences, Medicine, Business andManagement Studies, Earth and Marine Sciences, Economics, English, Law, Materials and Mineral Engineering, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Modern Languages, Music, Politics, Psychology, and Sociology. Oxford came second to Cambridge in Geography, Archaeology, Classics, History, History of Art, Mathematics, Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies. Oxford came second in General Engineering, and third in Fine Art, General Engineering and Physics; fourth place in Chemistry; second place in Computer Science and IT.[89]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard In the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Oxford was ranked 10th in the world and second in Europe.[90] In the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Oxford placed fourth in the world (Caltech placed first while Harvardand Stanford tied for second) and first in Europe.[91] In the 2011 QS World University Rankings[92] Oxford University placed fifth in the world (while Cambridge University came first), rising from sixth in the 2010 rankings. With the exception of 2010,  HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard it has been consistently in the top five since the THE – QS World University Rankings began in 2004 (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings).  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop KeyboardIn 2009 it had been ranked second in the world for arts and humanities, third in life sciences and biomedicine, third in social sciences, and fifth in natural sciences. Oxford also came second in the world in terms of graduate employability. According to the 2011 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings[93] – Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard based on a survey of 13,388 academics over 131 countries which is the largest evaluation of academic reputation to date[94] – Oxford belongs to the elite group of six universities touted as the 'globally recognised super brands'.[95] Oxford is one of four UK universities that belong to the Coimbra Group, one of four UK universities that belong to the League of European Research Universities, and one of three UK universities that belong to both. It is the only UK university to belong to the Europaeum group. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard League table rankings There are many notable Oxonians (as alumni of the University are known): Twenty-six British prime ministers have attended Oxford, including William Gladstone, Herbert Asquith, Clement Attlee, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Edward Heath, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair[123] and most recently David Cameron.[124]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard At least thirty other international leaders have been educated at Oxford.[14] This number includes Harald V of Norway,[125] Abdullah II of Jordan,[14] three Prime Ministers of Australia (John Gorton, Malcolm Fraser and Bob Hawke),[126][127][128] two Prime Ministers of Canada (Lester B. Pearson, and John Turner),[14][129] twoPrime Ministers of India (Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi (although she did not finish her degree),[14][130] DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard five Prime Ministers of Pakistan (Liaquat Ali Khan,Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Sir Feroz Khan Noon, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, and Benazir Bhutto),[14] S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike (former Prime Minister of Ceylon), Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica,[131] Eric Williams (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago), Álvaro Uribe (Colombia's former President), Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard Abhisit Vejjajiva (former Prime Minister of Thailand) and Bill Clinton (the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a Rhodes Scholar).[14][132] Arthur Mutambara (Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe), was a Rhodes Scholar in 1991. Festus Mogae (former president of Botswana) was a student at University College. SONY Vaio VGN-AW390 Laptop Keyboard The Burmese democracy activist and Nobel laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, was a student of St. Hugh's College.[133] Including Aung San Suu Kyi, forty-seven Nobel prize-winners have studied or taught at Oxford.[14]DELL Latitude D610 Laptop Keyboard Oxford has also produced at least twelve saints, and twenty Archbishops of Canterbury, including the current incumbent, Rowan Williams, (who studied at Wadham College and was later a Canon Professor at Christ Church).[14][134] Religious reformer John Wycliffe was an Oxford scholar, for a time Master of Balliol College.John Colet, Christian humanist, Dean of St. Paul's,  DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard and friend of Erasmus, studied at Magdalen College. The founder of Methodism, John Wesley, studied at Christ Church and was elected a fellow of Lincoln College.[135] Other religious figures were Mirza Nasir Ahmad, the third Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, andShoghi Effendi, one of the appointed leaders of the Baha'i faith. ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard Some fifty Olympic medal-winners have academic connections with the university, including Sir Matthew Pinsent, quadruple gold-medallist rower.[14][136] T. E. Lawrence was a student at Jesus College,[137] while other illustrious students include the explorer, courtier, and man of letters, Sir Walter Raleigh, (who attended Oriel College but left without taking a degree)[138] to the Australian media mogul, Rupert Murdoch.[139]SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard The long list of writers associated with Oxford includes John Fowles, Theodor Geisel, Thomas Middleton, Samuel Johnson, Robert Graves, Evelyn Waugh,[140] Lewis Carroll,[141] Aldous Huxley,[142] Oscar Wilde,[143] C. S. Lewis,[144] J. R. R. Tolkien,[145] Graham Greene,[146] V.S.Naipaul, Philip Pullman,[14] Joseph Heller,[147]Vikram Seth,[14] SONY 99.N1782.001 Laptop Keyboard the poets Percy Bysshe Shelley,[148] John Donne,[149] A. E. Housman,[150] W. H. Auden,[151] T. S. Eliot, Wendy Perriam and Philip Larkin,[152] and seven poets laureate (Thomas Warton,[153] Henry James Pye,[154] Robert Southey,[155] Robert Bridges,[156] Cecil Day-Lewis,[157] Sir John Betjeman,[158] and Andrew Motion).[159]HP Pavilion dv6-2190ev Laptop Keyboard Economists Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, E. F. Schumacher and Amartya Sen, and philosophers Robert Grosseteste, William of Ockham, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes,Jeremy Bentham, and A. J. Ayer all spent time at Oxford. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard Some notable scientists include Robert Hooke,[14] Stephen Hawking,[14] Richard Dawkins,[160] Frederick Soddy,[161] Tim Berners-Lee,[14] co-inventor of the World Wide Web, and Dorothy Hodgkin.[162] Robert Boyle, Albert Einstein, Edwin Hubble,[14] Erwin Schrödinger also spent time at the university. Composers Sir Hubert Parry, George Butterworth, John Taverner, William Walton, James Whitbourn and Andrew Lloyd-Webber have all been involved with the university.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard Actors Hugh Grant,[163] Kate Beckinsale,[163] Dudley Moore,[164] Michael Palin,[14] and Terry Jones[165] were undergraduates at the University, as were Oscar-winnerFlorian Henckel von Donnersmarck[14] and film-makers Ken Loach[166] and Richard Curtis. Sportspeople who have attended the university include Imran Khan.[14]HP 431416-001 Laptop Keyboard More complete information on famous senior and junior members of the University can be found in the individual college articles (an individual may be associated with two or more colleges, as an undergraduate, postgraduate, and/or member of staff). HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard There are other higher and further education institutions in Oxford, including various independent "colleges", not part of the University. These include Oxford Brookes University; Ruskin College, Oxford – an adult education college – which, although not part of the University of Oxford, has close links with it; and the former Lady Spencer Churchill teaching college (now the Wheatley campus of Oxford Brookes). HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The University of Oxford is an Educational Alliance Partner of the Meade 4M Community which supports the University's 'Project Jetwatch' program. Oxford University is the setting for numerous works of fiction. Oxford was mentioned in fiction as early as 1400 when Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales referred to a "Clerk [student] of Oxenford":FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard "For him was levere have at his beddes heed/ Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed,/ of Aristotle and his philosophie/ Than robes riche, or fithele, or gay sautrie". As of 1989, 533 Oxford-based novels had been identified, and the number continues to rise.[167] Famous literary works range from Brideshead Revisited, by Evelyn Waugh, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard to the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman, which features an alternate-reality version of the University. Sir Humphrey Appleby, GCB, KBE, MVO, MA (Oxon) attended the fictional Baillie College in Yes Minister, and The Complete Yes Minister book's introduction, dated September 2019, was written from the equally fictitious Hacker College. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Oxford i/ˈɒksfərd/[1][2] is a city in central southern England, and home of the University of Oxford. The city is the county town of Oxfordshire, and forms a district within the county. It has a population of just under 165,000, of whom 153,900 live within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles (80 km) north-west of London. The riversCherwell and Thames (also sometimes known as the Isis locally) run through Oxford and meet south of the city centre. Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard Oxford has a diverse economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate an example of every English architectural period since the arrival of the Saxons, including the iconic, mid-18th century Radcliffe Camera. Oxford is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold in reference to the harmonious architecture of Oxford's university buildings. The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world.[3]SONY VAIO PCG-FR215S Laptop Keyboard


Main article: History of Oxford Oxford was first settled in Saxon times, and was initially known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "Ford of the Oxen"; fords were more common than bridges at that time.[4] It began with the foundation of an oxen crossing in the early 900 AD period. In the 10th century Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Merciaand Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. TOSHIBA Satellite A500 Series Laptop Keyboard Oxford was heavily damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area. The castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks (St George in the Castle). The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of the oldest places of formal education in Oxford. It is there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends.[5] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin,[6] "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, and by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard "Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island; and besides, because we have undertaken on our own part and on behalf of our heirs to guarantee the aforesaid island to the same canons wheresoever and against all men; lkeyboard.co.uk/packard-bell-easynote-tk85-keyboard.html">Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard they themselves, by this guarantee, will pay to us and our heirs each year at Easter another half mark which we have demanded; and we and our heirs faithfully will guarantee the aforesaid tenement to them for the service of the aforesaid mark annually for all matters and all services. HP G62-a33EO Laptop Keyboard "We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this concession and confirmation." (There follows a list of witnesses, ending with the phrase, "... and all the Commune of the City of Oxford.") FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom; and various important religious houses were founded in or near the city. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order; ACER Aspire 7720 Laptop Keyboard and friars of various orders (Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, Augustinians, and Trinitarians), all had houses at Oxford of varying importance. Parliaments were often held in the city during the 13th century. The Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort; these documents are often regarded as England's first written constitution. ACER 002-07A23L-A01 Laptop Keyboard The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. As the University took shape, friction between the hundreds of students living where and how they pleased led to a decree that all undergraduates would have to reside in approved halls[citation needed]. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall (c 1225) remains. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College (1249),Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264). These colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology – inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts – as society began to see itself in a new way. Compaq Presario CQ42-285TU Laptop Keyboard These colleges at Oxford were supported by the Church in the hope of reconciling Greek Philosophy and Christian Theology. The relationship between "town and gown" has often been uneasy – as many as 93 students and townspeople were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot of 1355. ACER Aspire 5745P Laptop Keyboard The sweating sickness epidemic in 1517 was particularly devastating to Oxford andCambridge where it killed half of both cities' populations, including many students and dons.[7] Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford is unique in combining a college chapel and a cathedral in one foundation. Originally the Priory Church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of the Cardinal's College shortly before its refounding as Christ Church in 1546, since when it has functioned as the cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford. DELL AEUM8U00010 Laptop Keyboard The Oxford Martyrs were tried for heresy in 1555 and subsequently burnt at the stake, on what is now Broad Street, for their religious beliefs and teachings. The three martyrs were the bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, and the Archbishop Thomas Cranmer[citation needed]. The Martyrs' Memorial stands nearby, round the corner to the North on St. Giles. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I in 1642, after the king was expelled from London, although there was strong support in the town for the Parliamentarian cause. The town yielded to Parliamentarian forces under General Fairfax in the Siege of Oxford of 1646. It later housed the court of Charles II during the Great Plague of London in 1665–66. Although reluctant to do so, he was forced to evacuate when the plague got too close. The city suffered two serious fires in 1644 and 1671.[8]SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard In 1790, the Oxford Canal connected the city with Coventry. The Duke's Cut was completed by the Duke of Marlborough in 1789 to link the new canal with the River Thames; and in 1796 the Oxford Canal company built its own link to the Thames, at Isis Lock. In 1844, the Great Western Railway linked Oxford with London via Didcot and Reading,[9][10] and other rail routes soon followed. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In the 19th century, the controversy surrounding the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought. Oxford Town Hall was built by Henry T. Hare; the foundation stone was laid on 6 July 1893 and opened by the future King Edward VII on 12 May 1897. The site has been the seat of local government since the Guild Hall of 1292 and though Oxford is a city and a Lord Mayoralty, the building is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall".Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard By the early 20th century, Oxford was experiencing rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. Also during that decade, the economy and society of Oxford underwent a huge transformation as William Morris established Morris Motors Limited to mass produce cars in Cowley, FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard on the south-eastern edge of the city. By the early 1970s over 20,000 people worked in Cowley at the huge Morris Motors and Pressed Steel Fisherplants. By this time Oxford was a city of two halves: the university city to the west of Magdalen Bridge and the car town to the east. This led to the witticism that "Oxford is the left bank of Cowley".HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard Cowley suffered major job losses in the 1980s and 1990s during the decline of British Leyland, but is now producing the successful Mini for BMW on a smaller site. A large area of the original car manufacturing facility at Cowley was demolished in the 1990s and is now the site of the Oxford Business Park.[11]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard The influx of migrant labour to the car plants and hospitals, recent immigration from south Asia, and a large student population, have given Oxford a notable cosmopolitan character, especially in the Headington and Cowley Road areas with their many bars, cafes, restaurants, clubs, ethnic shops and fast food outlets. Oxford is one of the most diverse small cities in Britain with the most recent population estimates for 2005.[12] HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard showing that 27% of the population were from ethnic minority groups, including 16.2% from non-white ethnic minority ethnic groups (ONS). These figures do not take into account more recent international migration into the city, with over 10,000 people from overseas registering for National Insurance Numbers in Oxford in 2005/06 and 2006/07.[13]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard On 6 May 1954, Roger Bannister, a 25 year old medical student, ran the first authenticated four-minute mile at the Iffley Road running track in Oxford. Although he had previously studied at Oxford University, Bannister was studying at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London at the time. HP pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard Oxford's second university, Oxford Brookes University, formerly the Oxford School of Art, then Oxford Polytechnic, based at Headington Hill, was given its charter in 1991 and has been voted for the last ten years the best new university in the UK.[citation needed] It was named to honour the school's founding principal, John Henry Brookes.  Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard


There is a long history of brewing in Oxford. Several of the colleges had private breweries, one of which, at Brasenose, survived until 1889. In the 16th century brewing and malting appear to have been the most popular trades in the city. There were breweries in Brewer Street and Paradise Street, near the Castle Mill Stream. HP G62-a34SO Laptop Keyboard The development of Oxford's railway links after the 1840s and the rapid expansion of Oxford supported expansion of the brewing trade in Oxford.[17] As well as expanding the market for Oxford's brewers, railways enabled brewers further from the city to compete for a share of its market.[17] By 1874 there were nine breweries in Oxford and 13 brewers' agents in Oxford shipping beer in from elsewhere.[17Compaq Presario CQ56-102SA Laptop Keyboard ] The nine breweries were: Flowers & Co in Cowley Road, Hall's St Giles Brewery, Hall's Swan Brewery (see below), Hanley's City Brewery in Queen Street, Le Mills's Brewery in St. Ebbes, Morrell's Lion Brewery in St Thomas Street(see below), Simonds's Brewery in Queen Street, Weaving's Eagle Brewery (by 1869 the Eagle Steam Brewery) in Park End Street and Wootten and Cole's St. Clement's Brewery.[17]DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard The Swan's Nest Brewery, later the Swan Brewery, was established by the early 18th century in Paradise Street, and in 1795 was acquired by William Hall.[18] The brewery became known as Hall's Oxford Brewery, which acquired other local breweries. Hall's Brewery was acquired by Samuel Allsopp & Sons in 1926, after which it ceased brewing in Oxford.[19]DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard Morrell's, the Oxford based regional brewery was founded in 1743 by Richard Tawney. He formed a partnership in 1782 with Mark and James Morrell, who eventually became the owners.[20] After an acrimonious family dispute this much-loved brewery was closed in 1998,[21] the beer brand names being taken over by the Thomas Hardy Burtonwood brewery,[22] SONY VAIO VGN-CS21S/R Laptop Keyboard while the 132 tied pubs were bought by Michael Cannon, owner of the American hamburger chain Fuddruckers, through a new company, Morrells of Oxford.[23] The new owners sold most of the pubs on to Greene King in 2002.[24] The Lion Brewery was converted into luxury apartments in 2002.[25]Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard As well as being a major draw for tourists (9.1 million in 2008, similar in 2009),[30] Oxford city centre has many shops, several theatres, and an ice rink. The historic buildings make this location a popular target for film and TV crews. SONY VAIO PCG-FR215S Laptop Keyboard The city centre is relatively small, and is centred on Carfax, a cross-roads which forms the junction of Cornmarket Street(pedestrianised), Queen Street (semi-pedestrianised), St Aldate's and The High. Cornmarket Street and Queen Street are home to Oxford's various chain stores, as well as a small number of independent retailers, one of the longest established of which is Boswells, which was founded in 1738.[31] SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard St Aldate's has few shops but has several local government buildings, including the Town Hall, the city police station and local council offices. The High (the word street is traditionally omitted) is the longest of the four streets and has a number of independent and high-end chain stores, but mostly University and College buildings.  ACER Aspire 7336 Laptop Keyboard There are two small shopping centres in the city centre: The Clarendon Centre[32] and The Westgate Centre.[33] The Westgate Centre is named for the original West Gate in the city wall, and is located at the west end of Queen Street. It is quite small and contains a number of chain stores and a supermarket. The Westgate Shopping Centre is to undergo a large and controversial refurbishment; SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard the plans involve tripling the size of the centre to 750,000 sq ft (70,000 m2), a new 1,335 space underground car park and 90 new shops and bars, including a 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2) John Lewis department store. There is to be a new and improved transport system, a complete refurbishment of the existing centre and the surrounding Bonn Square area. The development plans include a number of new homes, and completion is expected in 2011, although this is being delayed due to the current financial climate.  IBM Thinkpad X60S Laptop Keyboard Blackwell's Bookshop is a large bookshop which claims the largest single room devoted to book sales in the whole of Europe, the cavernous Norrington Room (10,000 sq ft). In 1844, the Great Western Railway linked Oxford with London (Paddington) via Didcot and Reading;[9][10] in 1851, the London and North Western Railway opened their own route from Oxford to London (Euston), via Bicester, Bletchley and Watford;[35] and in 1864 a third route, also to Paddington, running via Thame, High Wycombe and Maidenhead, was provided;[36]HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard this was shortened in 1906 by the opening of a direct route between High Wycombe and London (Paddington) via Denham.[37] The distance from Oxford to London was 78 miles (125.5 km) via Bletchley; 63.5 miles (102.2 km) via Didcot and Reading; 63.25 miles (101.8 km) via Thame and Maidenhead;[38] and 55.75 miles (89.7 km) via Denham.[37] Of these, only the original route via Didcot is still in use for its full length, although portions of each of the others remain.  HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard There were also routes to the north and west. The line to Banbury was opened in 1850,[39] and was extended to Birmingham in 1852;[40] a route to Worcester opened in 1853.[41] A branch to Witney was opened in 1862,[42] which was extended to Fairford in 1873.[43] The line to Witney and Fairford closed in 1962, but the others remain open. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard Oxford has had three main railway stations. The first was opened at Grandpont in 1844,[44] but this was a terminus, inconvenient for routes to the north;[39] it was replaced by the present station on Park End Street in 1852 with the opening of the Birmingham route.[40] Another terminus, at Rewley Road, was opened in 1851 to serve the Bletchley route;[45] this station closed in 1951.[46] There have also been a number of local railway stations, all of which are now closed. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Oxford railway station is half a mile (about 1 km) west of the city centre. The station is served by numerous routes, including CrossCountry services to as far away as Manchester and Edinburgh, First Great Western (who operate the station) services to London Paddington and other destinations such as Worcester and occasional Chiltern Railways services to Birmingham. The present station opened in 1852. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Oxford is the junction for a short branch line to Bicester, which is being extended to form the East-West Rail Link to Milton Keynes, providing a passenger route avoiding London. The Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge is planned to link Bedford with a short gap to be reconstructed to Sandy then a rail link between the two cities will be restored via Hitchin. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects London to Birmingham. The M40 approached Oxford in 1974 (the first section through Buckinghamshire opened in 1967) and went from London to Waterstock where the A40 continued to Oxford. When the M40 extension to Birmingham was completed in January 1991, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard a mile of the old motorway became a spur as the extension curved sharply north. The M40 comes no closer than 10 miles (16 km) away from the city centre, curving to the east of Otmoor. The M40 meets the A34 to the north of Oxford, the latter now being in two parts, the A34 restarting near Solihull, while the A41 (which previous passed through Banbury and Warwick) restarts in the same area. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Oxford is home to wide range of schools many of which receive pupils from around the world. There are two University choral foundation schools, Christ Church Cathedral School and New College School, established to educate the boy choristers of the chapel choirs, and have kept the tradition of single sex education.Magdalen College School was also a school for choristers but later became a grammar school and then independent school. St Edward's is another leading independent HMC member school and is the one of the few fully co-educational public schools in the county.  HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Other independent schools in Oxford include Oxford High School, Rye St Antony School and Headington School (all girls only), St. Clare's, Oxford (co-ed, international school), Greene's Tutorial College (post-GCSE) and two prep schools, Dragon School and Emmanuel Christian School. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Examination results in state-run Oxford schools are consistently below the national average and regional average. However, results in the city are improving with 44% of pupils gaining 5 grades A*-C in 2006.[49] The city and its suburbs are served by two academies, three state schools and a voluntary-aided Catholic school. SAMSUNG R518 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard

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