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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly referred to as Penn or UPenn) is an American private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn considers itself the fourth-oldest institution ofhigher education in the United States,[note 2] as well as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. It is also one of the Colonial Colleges. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities. ASUS F80Q Laptop Keyboard Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow amultidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities, TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard concentrating multiple "faculties" (e.g., theology,classics, medicine) into one institution.[5] It was also home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), the first collegiate business school (Wharton, 1881) and the first student union (Houston Hall, 1896),[6] were all born at Penn. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Penn offers a broad range of academic departments, an extensive research enterprise and a number of community outreach and public service programs. It is particularly well known for its medical school, dental school, school of business, law school, communications school, nursing school, veterinary school, its social sciences and humanities programs, ASUS F80C Laptop Keyboard as well as its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Its undergraduate programs are also among the most selective in the country (12.3% acceptance rate).[7] One of Penn's most well known academic qualities is its emphasis on interdisciplinary education, which it promotes through numerous joint degree programs, research centers and professorships, a unified campus, and the ability for students to take classes from any of Penn's schools (the "One University Policy").[8]Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard All of Penn's schools, alone or jointly, exhibit very high research activity. Penn is consistently included among the top five research universities in the US,[9] and among the top research universities in the world, both in terms of quality and quantity of research.[10] In fiscal year 2011, Penn topped the Ivy League in academic research spending with a $814 millionbudget, involving some 4,000 faculty, SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard 1,100 postdoctoral fellows and 5,400 support staff/graduate assistants.[2] As one of the most active and prolific research institutions, Penn is associated with several important innovations and discoveries in many fields of science and the humanities. Among them are the first general purpose electronic computer (ENIAC), theRubella and Hepatitis B vaccines, Retin-A, cognitive therapy, conjoint analysis and others. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard Penn's academic and research programs are led by a large and highly productive faculty.[11] In the last ten years alone 9 Penn faculty members or graduates have won a Nobel Prize. Over its long history the university has also produced many distinguished alumni. These include 12 heads of state (including one U.S. President), 3 United States Supreme Courtjustices, and supreme court justices of other states, founders of technology companies, international law firms, and global financial institutions, university presidents and 18 living billionaires.[12]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time. It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well; TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. In the fall of 1749, eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals for the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania," his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia."[14] HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard However, according to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution." Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1743—Harvard, William and Mary, and Yale—Franklin's new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. DELL PK1303Q0100 Laptop Keyboard He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because provost William Smith preferred a traditional curriculum.[15]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees (November 13, 1749) the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from Independence Hall was offered without cost by James Logan, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. On February 1, 1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751 the Academy of Philadelphia, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard A charity school also was opened in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. In 1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution.[16]TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smith's loyalist tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania.[16] The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into the University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.[17]SONY VAIO VGN-AR500 Laptop Keyboard Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both "undergraduate" and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of "University"; and existing colleges were established as seminaries.[18]HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Laptop Keyboard it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date; this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard the date of "the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself."[19] The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn's General Alumni Society to re HP Pavilion dv3-1075us Laptop Keyboard university was chartered by the Meiji government in 1877 under its current name by amalgamating older government schools for medicine and Western learning. It was renamed "the Imperial University (帝國大學 Teikoku daigaku?)" in 1886, and then Tokyo Imperial University (東京帝國大學 Tōkyō teikoku daigaku?) in 1897 when the Imperial University system was created. In September 1923,  ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard an earthquake and the following fires destroyed about 700,000 volumes of the Imperial University Library.[6] The books lost included the Hoshino Library (星野文庫 Hoshino bunko?), a collection of about 10,000 books.[7][8] The books were the former possessions of Hoshino Hisashi before becoming part of the library of the university and were mainly about Chinese philosophy and history. ACER Aspire 1620 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1947, after Japan's defeat in World War II, it re-assumed its original name. With the start of the new university system in 1949, Todai swallowed up the former First Higher School (today's Komaba campus) and the former Tokyo Higher School, which henceforth assumed the duty of teaching first and second-year undergraduates, while the faculties on Hongo main campus took care of third and fourth-year students. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard Although the university was founded during the Meiji period, it has earlier roots in the Astronomy Agency (天文方; 1684), Shoheizaka Study Office (昌平坂学問所; 1797), and the Western Books Translation Agency (蕃書和解御用; 1811).[9] These institutions were government offices established by the 徳川幕府 Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1867), and played an important role in the importation and translation of books from Europe. ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard Kikuchi Dairoku, an important figure in Japanese education, served as president of Tokyo Imperial University. For the 1964 Summer Olympics, the university hosted the running portion of the modern pentathlon event.[10] On 20 January 2012, the university announced that it would shift the beginning of its academic year from April to September in order to align its calendar with the international standard. The shift would be phased in over five years.[11][12]ACER AEZG5R00020 Laptop Keyboard According to the Japan Times in February 2012, the university had 1,282 professors. Of those, 58 were women.[13]Sanshiro Pond (三四郎池 Sanshirō ike?), university's Hongo campus, dates to 1615. After the fall of the Osaka Castle, the shogun gave this pond and its surrounding garden to Maeda Toshitsune. With further development of the garden by Maeda Tsunanori, it became known as one of the most beautiful gardens in Edo (Now Tokyo), HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard with the traditional eight landscapes and eight borders, and known for originality in artificial pond, hills, and pavilions. It was at that time known as Ikutoku-en(Garden of Teaching Virtue). The pond's contours are in the shape of the character kokoro or shin (heart), and thus its official name is Ikutoku-en Shinjiike. It has been commonly called Sanshiro Pond after the title of Natsume Sōseki's novelSanshiro. HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard One of the five campuses of the University of Tokyo, the Komaba Campus is home to the College of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, and a number of advanced research facilities and campus services. This is the campus where all the freshmen and sophomores of the University of Tokyo spend their college life. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard The University of Tokyo is the only university in Japan which has a system of two years of general education before students can choose and move on to special fields of study. The Komaba Campus is the cornerstone of general education, and was designated as the "center of excellence" for three new areas of research by the Ministry of Education and Science. TOSHIBA NSK-TN0SC Laptop Keyboard There are currently over 7,000 students (freshmen and sophomores) enrolled in the general education courses, about 450 students (juniors and seniors) pursuing their specialties in the College of Arts and Sciences, and 1,400 graduate students in the advanced study. HP Pavilion dv4t-1300 CTO Laptop Keyboard He was born in Osaka, Japan. Studying physics at the University of Tokyo, he received his B.Sc. in 1947 and his Ph.D. in 1959. Esaki was awarded the Nobel Prize[1] for research had conducted around 1958 regarding electron tunneling[2] in solids. He moved to the United States in 1960 and joined the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, TOSHIBA Qosmio F45-AV411 Laptop Keyboard where he became an IBM Fellow in 1967. His first paper on the semiconductor superlattice[3] was published when he was with IBM. A comment by Esaki in a 1987 number of Current Contents regarding the original paper on superlattices notes: HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard "The original version of the paper was rejected for publication by Physical Review on the referee's unimaginative assertion that it was 'too speculative' and involved 'no new physics.' However, this proposal was quickly accepted by the Army Research Office..."[4]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard Subsequently, he served as the President of various Japanese universities, for example, University of Tsukuba and Shibaura Institute of Technology. Since 2006, he is serving as the President of the Yokohama College of Pharmacy. Esaki is also the recipient of The International Center in New York's Award of Excellence. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Penn's educational innovations include: the nation's first medical school in 1765; the first university teaching hospital in 1874; the Wharton School, the world's first collegiate school of business, in 1881; the first American student union building, Houston Hall, in 1896;[20] the country's second school of veterinary medicine; and the home of ENIAC, HP AER15U00510 Laptop Keyboard the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose digital computer in 1946. Penn is also home to the oldest continuously functioning psychology department in North America and is where the American Medical Association was founded.[21][22] Penn was also the first university to award a PhD to an African-American woman, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, in 1921 (in economics).[23]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Penn's motto is based on a line from Horace’s III.24 (Book 3, Ode 24), quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ("of what avail empty laws without [good] morals?") From 1756 to 1898, the motto read Sine Moribus Vanae.  TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard When it was pointed out that the motto could be translated as "Loose women without morals," the university quickly changed the motto to literae sine moribus vanae ("Letters without morals [are] useless"). In 1932, all elements of the seal were revised, and as part of the redesign it was decided that the new motto "mutilated" Horace, and it was changed to its present wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws without morals [are] useless").[24]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard The official seal of the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania serves as the signature and symbol of authenticity on documents issued by the corporation.[25] A request for one was first recorded in a meeting of the trustees in 1753 during which some of the Trustees “desired to get a Common Seal engraved for the Use of [the] Corporation.” HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard However, it was not until a meeting in 1756 that “a public Seal for the College with a proper device and Motto” was requested to be engraved in silver.[26] The most recent design, a modified version of the original seal, was approved in 1932, adopted a year later, and is still used for much of the same purposes as the original.[25]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The outer ring of the current seal is inscribed with “Universitas Pennsylvaniensis,” the Latin name of the University of Pennsylvania. The inside contains seven stacked books on a desk with the titles of what was the common curriculum in 1932: Theolog, Astronom, Philosoph, Mathemat, Logica, Rhetorica, Grammatica. Between the books and the outer ring is the Latin motto of the University, “Leges Sine Moribus Vanae.”[25] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Campus Much of Penn's architecture was designed by the Cope & Stewardson firm, whose principal architects combined the Gothic architecture of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge with the local landscape to establish the Collegiate Gothic style. The present core campus covers over 279 acres (1.13 km2) in a contiguous area of West Philadelphia's University City district;  HP pavilion DV7-1055ea Laptop Keyboard the older heart of the campus comprises the University of Pennsylvania Campus Historic District. All of Penn's schools and most of its research institutes are located on this campus. The surrounding neighborhood includes several restaurants and pubs, a large upscale grocery store, and a movie theater on the western edge of campus. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard The Module 6 Utility Plant and Garage at Penn was designed by BLT Architects and completed in 1995. Module 6 is located at 38th & Walnut and includes spaces for 627 vehicles, 9,000 sq ft (840 m2) of storefront retail operations, a 9,500-ton chiller module and corresponding extension of the campus chilled water loop, and a 4,000-ton ice storage facility.[27]Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Penn acquired about 35 acres (140,000 m2) between the campus and the Schuylkill River (the former site of thePhiladelphia Civic Center and a nearby 24-acre (97,000 m2) site owned by the United States Postal Service). Dubbed the Postal Lands, the site extends from Market Street on the north to Penn's Bower Field on the south, including the former main regional U.S. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5214 Laptop Keyboard Postal Building at 30th and Market Streets, now the regional office for the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. Over the next decade, the site will become the home to educational, research, biomedical, and mixed-use facilities. The first phase, a comprising a park and athletic facilities, opened in the fall of 2011. Penn also plans new connections between the campus and the city, including a pedestrian bridge. In 2010 Penn, in its first significant expansion across the Schuylkill River, purchased 23 acres at the northwest corner of 34th Street and Grays Ferry Avenue from DuPont for storage and office space. DELL Inspiron n7110 Laptop Keyboard Penn's library began in 1750 with a donation of books from cartographer Louis Evans. Twelve years later, then-provost William Smith sailed to England to raise additional funds to increase the collection size. More than 250 years later, it has grown into a system of 15 libraries (13 are on the contiguous campus) with 400 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees and a total operating budget of more than $48 million. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The library system holds 6.01 million book and serial volumes as well as 4.21 million microform items.[2] It subscribes to over 68,000 print serials and e-journals.[29] Penn's Libraries, with associated school or subject area: Annenberg (School of Communications), located in the Annenberg School; Biddle (Law), located in the Law School; Biomedical, DELL Inspiron M4110 Laptop Keyboard located adjacent to the Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion of the Medical School; Chemistry, located in the 1973 Wing of the Chemistry Building; Dental Medicine; Engineering, located on the second floor of the Towne Building in the Engineering School; Fine Arts, located within the Fisher Fine Arts Library, designed by Frank Furness; SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, located on Walnut Street at Washington Square; Lea Library, located within the Van Pelt Library; Lippincott (Wharton School), located on the second floor of the Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center; Math/Physics/Astronomy, located on the third floor of David Rittenhouse Laboratory; Museum (Anthropology); Rare Books and Manuscripts; Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center (Humanities and Social Sciences) – location ofWeigle Information Commons; Veterinary Medicine, located in Penn Campus and New Bolton Center; and High Density Storage. HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard In September 2011 Penn completed the construction of the $46.5 million 24-acre (97,000 m2) Penn Park, which features passive and active recreation and athletic components framed and subdivided by canopy trees, lawns, and meadows. It is located east of the Highline Green and stretches from Walnut Street to South Streets. The University also owns the 92-acre (370,000 m2)Morris Arboretum in Chestnut Hill in northwestern Philadelphia, SONY VAIO VGN-FS285M Laptop Keyboard the official arboretum of the state of Pennsylvania. Penn also owns the 687-acre (2.78 km2) New Bolton Center, the research and large-animal health care center of its Veterinary School. Located near Kennett Square, New Bolton Center received nationwide media attention when Kentucky Derby winner Barbarounderwent surgery at its Widener Hospital for injuries suffered while running in the Preakness Stakes. HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard Penn borders Drexel University and is near the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia. The renowned cancer research center Wistar Institute is also located on campus. In 2014 a new 7-story glass and steel building will be completed next to the Institute's historic 117-year old brick building further expanding collaboration between the university and the Wistar Institute.[28]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard Since the University museum was founded in 1887, it has taken part in 400 research projects worldwide.[30] The museum's first project was an excavation of Nippur, a location in current day Iraq.[31] The museum has three gallery floors with artifacts from Egypt, the Middle East, Mesoamerica, Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa, and indigenous artifacts of the Americas.[30]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Its most famous object is the goat rearing into the branches of a rosette-leafed plant, from the royal tombs of Ur. Features of its Beaux-Arts building include a rotunda and gardens that include Egyptian papyrus. The Institute of Contemporary Art, which is based on Penn's campus, showcases various art exhibitions throughout the year.  HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard


Every College House at the University of Pennsylvania has at least four members of faculty in the roles of House Dean, Faculty Master, and College House Fellows.[32] Within the College Houses, Penn has nearly 40 themed residential programs for students with shared interests such as world cinema or science and technology. Many of the nearby homes and apartments in the area surrounding the campus are often rented by undergraduate students moving off campus after their first year, as well as by graduate and professional students. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard The College Houses include W.E.B. Du Bois, Fisher Hassenfeld, Gregory, Harnwell, Harrison, Hill, Kings Court English, Riepe, Rodin, Stouffer, and Ware.[33]Fisher Hassenfeld, Ware, and Riepe together make up one building called "The Quad." TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7305 Laptop Keyboard The College of Arts and Sciences is the undergraduate division of the School of Arts and Sciences, which also contains the Graduate Division and the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, Penn's division for non-traditional undergraduate and graduate students. Wharton is the business school of the University of Pennsylvania. Other undergraduate schools include the School of Nursing and the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS)  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Penn has a strong focus on interdisciplinary learning and research. It offers joint-degree programs, unique majors, and academic flexibility. Penn's "One University" policy allows undergraduates access to courses at all of Penn's undergraduate and graduate schools, except the medical, veterinary and dental schools. Undergraduates at Penn may also take courses at Bryn Mawr, Haverford, and Swarthmore, under a reciprocal agreement known as the Quaker Consortium. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Dual-degree programs which lead to the same multiple degrees without participation in the specific above programs are also available. Unlike CDD programs, "dual degree" students fulfill requirements of both programs independently without involvement of another program. Specialized dual-degree programs include Liberal Studies and Technology as well as a Computer and Cognitive Science Program. HP G61-323CA Laptop Keyboard Both programs award a degree from the College of Arts and Sciences and a degree from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. In addition, the Vagelos Scholars Program in Molecular Life Sciences allows its students to either double major in the sciences or submatriculate and earn both a B.A. and a M.S. in four years ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard . The most recent Vagelos Integrated Program in Energy Research (VIPER) will be first offered for the class of 2015. A joint program of Penn’s School of Arts and Sciences and the School of Engineering and Applied Science, VIPER leads to dual Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in Engineering degrees by combining majors from each school. TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5601 Laptop Keyboard For graduate programs, Penn offers many formalized joint-degree graduate degrees such as a joint J.D./MBA, and maintains a list of interdisciplinary institutions, such as the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, the Joseph H. Lauder Institute for Management and International Studies, and the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard Penn's health-related programs—including the Schools of Nursing, Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine, and programs in bioengineering (School of Engineering) and health management (the Wharton School)—are among the university's strongest academic components. The combination of intellectual breadth, research funding (each of the health sciences schools ranks in the top 5 in annual NIH funding), clinical resources and overall scale ranks Penn with only a small handful of peer universities in the U.S. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard The size of Penn's biomedical research organization, however, adds a very capital intensive component to the university's operations, and introduces revenue instability due to changing government regulations, reduced federal funding for research, and Medicaid/Medicare program changes. This is a primary reason highlighted in bond rating agencies' views on Penn's overall financial rating, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard which ranks one notch below its academic peers. Penn has worked to address these issues by pooling its schools (as well as several hospitals and clinical practices) into the University of Pennsylvania Health System, thereby pooling resources for greater efficiencies and research impact.  Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard

Admissions selectivity

The Princeton Review ranks Penn as the 6th most selective school in the United States.[42] For the Class of 2015, entering in the fall of 2011, the University received a record of 31,659 applications and admitted 12.26 percent of the applicants (9.5% in the regular decision cycle), marking Penn's most selective admissions cycle in the history of the University.[43] TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard The Atlantic also ranked Penn among the 10 most selective schools in the country. At the graduate level, Penn's admissions rates, like most universities', vary considerably based on school and program. Based on admission statistics from U.S. News and World Report, Penn's most selective programs include its law school, the health care schools (medicine, dental medicine, nursing, and veterinary), and its business school. DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard Penn is considered a "very high research activity" university.[44] Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2010 amounted to $14 billion.[45] In 2011 Penn topped the Ivy League in research expenditures with $814 million worth of research,[2][46] of which about 70% comes from federal support and in the most part from the Department of Health and Human Services.[47] ACER Aspire 5542 Laptop Keyboard Penn also enjoys strong support from the private sector, which in 2010 contributed almost $400 million to Penn, making it the 6th strongest US university in terms of fundraising.[48] In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn's research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–11 academic year alone 5 interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; HP Pavilion dv6-3351ef Laptop Keyboard these include the Center for Health-care Financing,[49] the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School,[50] the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center,[51] the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton,[52] and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine.[53] With these additions, SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,000 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,400 academic support staff and graduate student trainees.[2] To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the "Penn Integrates Knowledge" title awarded to selected Penn professors "whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge."[54]HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn's schools. The most recent of the 13 PIK professors is Ezekiel Emanuel, who started at Penn in September 2011 as the Diane S. Levy and Robert M. Levy University Professor with a joint appointment at the Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, which he chairs in the Perelman School of Medicine, and the Department of Health Care Management in the Wharton School.[54]ACER TravelMate 4080 Laptop Keyboard As a powerful research-oriented institution Penn is also among the most prolific and high-quality producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia and Cornell (Harvard did not report data).[55] It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–07), ACER Aspire 3002LMi Laptop Keyboard ranking third in the Ivy League (behind Harvard and Yale), and tenth nationally.[56] In most disciplines Penn professors' productivity is among the highest in the nation, and first in the fields of Epidemiology, Business, Communication Studies, Comparative Literature, Languages, Information Science, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Social Sciences and Sociology.[11] SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top 5 rankings in these fields.[57]SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E Laptop Keyboard Penn's research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school, the first university teaching hospital, the first business school, and the first student union, Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852 Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, DELL Latitude E5410 Laptop Keyboard now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world);[58] under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today;[59] The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. HP G61-410SA Laptop Keyboard It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973,[60] and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek wrote, "Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education."[61][62]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best well known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.[63] It was here also where the world's first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popularCOBOL programming language.[63]  DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med;[64] theRubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were developed at Penn;[64][65]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard the discovery of cancer's link with genes, cognitive therapy, Retin-A (the cream used to treat acne), and Resistin were all discovered by Penn Med researchers.[64] More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, Kennedy's disease, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard a disorder marked by progressive muscle and bulbar atrophy, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet, and limbs.[64] Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger,Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Ralph L. Brinster, on faculty since 1965, TOSHIBA 92.N4XBC.A01 Laptop Keyboard developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then faculty member John Robert Schrieffer (along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, TOSHIBA Satellite l525 Laptop Keyboard widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research, Simon Kuznets's method of measuring Gross National Product,[66] the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones), and the "Wharton Model"[67] developed by Nobel-laurete Lawrence Klein to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during Nixon's health reform in the 1970s.[66]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard According to U.S. News & World Report Penn is currently ranked 8th in the United States (tied with Duke), behind Harvard,Princeton, Yale, Columbia, The University of Chicago, MIT, and Stanford.[75] The eighth position is three spot down compared to 2011; the university attributed the drop in U.S. News' new methodology that takes into account graduation rates and the opinions of high school college counselors,  HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard who emphasize the benefits of large urban centers like New York.[76] U.S. Newsalso includes Penn in its Most Popular National Universities list,[77] and so does The Princeton Review in its Dream Colleges list.[78]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In their latest editions Penn was ranked 12th in the world by the QS World University Rankings,[79] 14th by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities (up one spot from 2010),[80] and 16th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (up three spots from 2010).[81] According to the Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranking Penn is also the 8th and 9th best university in the world for economics and business and social sciences studies accordingly. Packard Bell Easynote TM01 Laptop Keyboard The Center for Measuring University Performance places Penn in the first tier of the United States' top research universities (tied with Columbia, MIT andStanford), based on research expenditures, faculty awards, PhD granted and other academic criteria.[82] Penn was also ranked 9th by the National Science Foundation in terms of R&D expenditures topping all other Ivy League Schools.[46] Packard Bell Easynote TX86 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard he High Impact Universities research performance index ranks Penn 8th in the world, whereas the 2010 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities (published by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan) ranks Penn 11th in the world for 2010, 2008 and 2007, and 9th for 2009.[citation needed] Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers measures universities' research productivity, research impact, and research excellence based on the scientific papers published by their academic staff. The SCImagoInstitutions Rankings World Reports, which ranks world universities, national institutions and academies in terms of research output, ranks Penn 7th nationally among universities (and 2nd in the Ivy League behind Harvard) and 24th in the world overall (the first being the Chinese Academy of Sciences).[83]SONY Vaio VGN-AW220J Laptop Keyboard The Mines ParisTech International Professional Ranking, which ranks universities on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies, ranks Penn 11th worldwide, and 2nd nationally behind Harvard.[84] According to a US News article in 2010, Penn is tied for second (tied withDartmouth College and Tufts University) TOSHIBA Satellite M75 Series Laptop Keyboard for the number of undergraduate alumni who are current Fortune 100 CEOs.[85] The Washington Monthly ranked Penn 27th in National University Rankings (Social mobility: percentage of, and support for, Pell grant recipients; Research: total research spending; PhDs granted in science and engineering; and Community Service: the number of students in ROTC, Peace Corps, etc.).[86] Forbes ranked Penn 17th, based on a variety of criteria.[87]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate programs Penn's arts and science programs are all well regarded, with many departments ranked amongst the nation's top 10. At the undergraduate level, Wharton, Penn's business school, and Penn's nursing school have maintained their No. 1, 2 or 3 rankings since U.S. News began reviewing such programs.[citation needed] In the School of Engineering, top departments are bioengineering (typically ranked in the top 5 by U.S. News), mechanical engineering, chemical engineering andnanotechnology.[citation needed] The school is also strong in some areas of computer science and artificial intelligence. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Graduate and professional programs Among its professional schools, the schools of business, communication, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and veterinary medicine rank in the top 5 nationally (seeU.S. News and National Research Council).[citation needed] Penn's Law School is ranked 7th, and its School of Education and School of Social Policy & Practice are ranked in the top 10 (see U.S. News).[citation needed] In the 2010 QS Global 200 Business Schools Report, Penn was ranked 2nd in North America.[88]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard Of those accepted for admission to the Class of 2014, 40.8 percent are Asian, Hispanic, African-American, or Native American.[2] In addition, 51.1% of current students are women.[2] More than 11% of the first year class are international students.[2] The composition of international students accepted in the Class of 2014 is: 50.2% from Asia; 9.2% from Africa and the Middle East; 17.7% from Europe; 15.5% from Canada and Mexico; 4.8% from the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; 1.1% from Australia and the Pacific Islands.[2] The acceptance rate for international students applying for the class of 2014 was 411 out of 4,390 (9.4%).[2]ACER Aspire 5738PZG Laptop Keyboard The Philomathean Society, founded in 1813,[92] is the United States' oldest continuously-existing collegiate literary society. The Mask and Wig Club is the oldest all-male musical comedy troupe in the country. The University of Pennsylvania Glee Club, founded in 1862, is one of the oldest continually operating collegiate choruses in the United States. Bruce Montgomery, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard its best-known and longest-serving director, led the club from 1956 until 2000.[93] The International Affairs Association (IAA) was founded in 1963 as an organization to promote international affairs and diplomacy at Penn and beyond.[94] With over 400 members, it is the largest student-funded organization on campus. The IAA serves as an umbrella organization for various conferences (UPMUNC, ILMUNC, and PIRC), as well as a host of other academic and social activities. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard The University of Pennsylvania Band has been a part of student life since 1897.[95] The Penn Band performs at football and basketball games as well as university functions (e.g. commencement and convocation) throughout the year and was the first college band to perform at Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.[95] Membership fluctuates between 80 and 100 students.[95]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP08 Laptop Keyboard The Daily Pennsylvanian is an independent, student-run newspaper, which has been published daily since it was founded in 1885.[96] The newspaper went unpublished from May 1943 to November 1945 due to World War II.[96] In 1984, the University lost all editorial and financial control of The Daily Pennsylvanian when the newspaper became its own corporation.[96] In 2007, The Daily Pennsylvanian won the Pacemaker Award administered by the Associated Collegiate Press.[97]ACER Aspire 5739G Laptop Keyboard The Penn Men's Rugby Football Club is recognized as one of the oldest collegiate rugby teams in America. The earliest documentation of its existence comes from a 1910 issue of the Daily Pennsylvanian: HP 540 Laptop Keyboard


Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school. The country's illiteracy rate has been stuck at around 50% for some years, with male literacy at 65.7% and female at 39.6%.[3] On September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries such as Cuba, Pakistan, India and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize".[86]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Morocco has about 230,000 students enrolled in fourteen public universities. The Mohammed V University in Rabat and Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (public university) are highly regarded. Al-Akhawayn, founded in 1993 by King Hassan II andKing Fahd of Saudi Arabia, is an English-language American-style university comprising about 1,780 students. Morocco allocates approximately one fifth of its budget to education.[citation needed] HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Much of this is spent on building schools to accommodate the rapidly growing population. Education is mandatory for children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. In urban areas the majority of children in this age group attend school, though on a national scale the level of participation drops significantly. About three fourths of school age males attend school, but only about half of school age girls; Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard these proportions drop markedly in rural areas. Slightly more than half of the children go on to secondary education, including trade and technical schools. Of these, few seek higher education. Poor school attendance, particularly in rural areas, has meant a low rate of literacy, which is about two fifths of the population. SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard Morocco has more than four dozen universities, institutes of higher learning, and polytechnics dispersed at urban centres throughout the country. Its leading institutions include Muḥammad V University in Rabat, the country’s largest university, with branches in Casablanca and Fès; the Hassan II Agriculture and Veterinary Institute in Rabat, HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard which conducts leading social science research in addition to its agricultural specialties; and Al-Akhawayn University in Ifrane, the first English-language university in North Africa,[87] inaugurated in 1995 with contributions from Saudi Arabia and the United States.  IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard The al-Qarawiyin University, founded in the city of Fez in 859 as a madrasa,[88] is considered by some sources, including UNESCO, to be the "oldest university of the world".[89] Some historians though [90]SONY VAIO PCG-FR415M Laptop Keyboard consider it not a "university" before the 13th century, when the teaching became general and it started to form philosophers and thinker, including several non-Muslims. These views, however, are contested by other historians who consider the university to have been a uniquely Christian creation of medieval Europe.[91] The university was established in 1963 and designated University of Al-Karouine in 1965.[92]TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard Morocco has also some of prestigious Postgraduate Schools like : EMI, ISCAE, INSEA, l'École nationale d'industrie minérale, École Hassania des travaux publics, ENCG (écoles nationales de commerce et de gestion), EST (écoles supérieures de technologie).[93]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Morocco is an ethnically diverse country with a rich culture and civilization. Through Moroccan history, it has hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans,Vandals, Andalusians (including Moors and Jews). All those civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It conceived various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam. HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard The production of Moroccan literature has continued to grow and diversify. To the traditional genres—poetry, essays, and historiography—have been added forms inspired by Middle Eastern and Western literary models. French is often used in publishing research in the social and natural sciences, and in the fields of literature and literary studies, works are published in both Arabic and French. HP 646568-001 Lap

top Keyboard Moroccan writers, such as Mohamed Choukri, Driss Chraïbi, Abdallah Laroui, Abdelfattah Kilito, and Fatema Mernissi, publish their works in both French and English. Expatriate writers such as Pierre Loti, William S. Burroughs, and Paul Bowles have drawn attention to Moroccan writers as well as to the country itself. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard Since independence a veritable blossoming has taken place in painting and sculpture, popular music, amateur theatre, and filmmaking. The Moroccan National Theatre (founded 1956) offers regular productions of Moroccan and French dramatic works. Art and music festivals take place throughout the country during the summer months, among them the World Sacred Music Festival at Fès. HP Envy 17-3002ea Laptop Keyboard Moroccan music, influenced by Arab, Amazigh, African, and Andalusian traditions, makes use of a number of traditional instruments, such as the flute (nāy), shawm (ghaita), zither (qanūn), and various short necked lutes (including the ʿūd and gimbrī). These are often backed by explosive percussion on the darbūkka (terra-cotta drum).  HP G62-a33EO Laptop Keyboard Among the most popular traditional Moroccan artists internationally are the Master Musicians of Jajouka, an all-male guild trained from childhood, and Hassan Hakmoun, a master of gnāwa trance music, a popular spiritual style that traces its roots to sub-Saharan Africa. Younger Moroccans enjoy raï, a style of plain-speaking Algerian music that incorporates traditional sounds with those of Western rock, Jamaican reggae, and Egyptian and Moroccan popular music. Acer eMachines G730Z Laptop Keyboard Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage. SONY VAIO PCG-FX804 Laptop Keyboard Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard


Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is mainly Berber-Moorish, European, Mediterranean cuisines. The cuisine of Morocco is essentially Berber cuisine (sometimes referred to as the Moorish cuisine).  Lenovo Ideapad G560 Laptop Keyboard It is also Influenced by Sephardic cuisine and by the Moriscos when they took refuge in Morocco after the Reconquista. Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine,mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. Couscous is the most famous Moroccan dish along with pastilla, tajine, and harira. The most popular drink is green tea with mint. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber and French. It also contains literature produced in Al-Andalus. Under the Almohaddynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5735 Laptop Keyboard the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library. HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Morocco, as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5362 Laptop Keyboard During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williamsand William S. Burroughs. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Other important Moroccan authors include, TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard Abdellatif Laabi, Abdelkrim Ghallab, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. It should be noted also, that orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Amazigh. SONY VAIO VGN-N Series Laptop Keyboard Moroccan music is of Amazigh, Arab and sub-Saharan origins. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is trance musicwith historical origins in Muslim music. Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout North Africa. It probably evolved under the Moors inCordoba, and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. A genre known as Contemporary Andalusian music and art is the brainchild of Morisco visual artist/composer/ oudist Tarik Banzi founder of the Al-Andalus EnsembleTOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard Chaabi (popular) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and particularly hip hop. Morocco participated in 1980's Eurovision Song Contest, being in penultimate position. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard


Spectator sports in Morocco traditionally centred on the art of horsemanship until European sports—football (soccer), polo,swimming, and tennis—were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Football is the country’s premier sport, popular among the urban youth in particular, and in 1986 Morocco became the first Arab and African country to qualify to the second round in World Cup competition. Many football players with Moroccan roots hold dual citizenship and play for European league teams. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Examples include Ibrahim Afellay (FC Barcelona/Netherlands national side), Marouane Fellaini (Everton/Belgium national side), and Adil Rami (Valencia/French national side). Morocco will be hosting the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations. The host cities will include Tangier, Casablanca, Rabat, Agadir and Marrakech.[94]ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard At the 1984 Olympic Games, two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field events. Nawal El Moutawakel won in the 400 metres hurdles; she was the first woman from an Arab or Islamic country to win an Olympic gold medal. Saïd Aouita won the 5000 metres at the same games. Hicham El Guerrouj won gold medals in the 1500 metres and 5000 metres for Morocco at the 2004 Summer Olympics and holds several 1.609 km (1.000 mi) [world records. Morocco is identified by theabbreviation MAR at the Olympics. DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Tennis and golf have become popular. Several Moroccan professional players have competed in international competition, and the country fielded its first Davis Cup team in 1999. Kickboxing is also popular in Morocco. Badr Hari, heavyweight kickboxer and martial artist, is a former K-1 heavyweight champion and K-1 World Grand Prix 2008 and 2009 finalist. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard There are about 2 million Moroccan Berber-speakers living in Europe. They represent about 80% of all Moroccans in the Netherlands, about 70% of Moroccans in Belgium, about 50% of Moroccans in France, Germany, and Spain, and about 25% of all Moroccans in Italy. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Linguistically, Berber belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family, and has many accents and dialects. Berber is known by Arabic-speaking Moroccans as "Shelha", "Rifiya", or "Susiya". Classical Arabic of the Middle East had used the word "al-Barbariyya" (The equivalent of "Berber" in English) since the first contacts between Berbers and Arabs 14 centuries ago. SONY VAIO VGN-AR520E Laptop Keyboard Although, there is a dominating trend, that occurred in the first decade of the 21st century, among all Arabic-speaking media in both the Middle East and North Africa of using the word "al-Amazighiyya" to refer to the Berber language and "al-Amazigh" to refer to the Berbers, as the Arabic word "Barbari" means both "Berber" and "Barbaric"/"uncivilized". TOSHIBA Satellite P305D-S8829 Laptop Keyboard The strong campaigns and discourses of Berber cultural activists who master Arabic have managed to influenece Arab media and Arab intellectuals as far as the Persian Gulf. Berber activists and intellectuals have succeeded in promoting their own cultural terminology, their own symbols like the Berber flag, and their own identity keywords on a large scale in Arab and European media. This made the Berber language and Berber culture go from unnoticed to unavoidable.  Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard Recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic and non-Arabic speaking populations, HLA DNA data suggest that most Moroccans are of a Berber origin and that Arabs who invaded North Africa and Spain in the 7th century did not substantially contribute to the gene pool.[40][49] The Moorish refugees from Spain settled in the coast-towns.[42] According to a 2000 article in European Journal of Human Genetics, Moroccans from North-Western Africa were genetically closer to Iberians than to West Africans and Middle Easterners[50]TOSHIBA Satellite Pro C650-SP4166M Laptop Keyboard The different loci studied revealed close similarity between the Berbers and other north African groups, mainly with Moroccan Arabic-speakers, which is in accord with the hypothesis that the current Moroccan population has a strong Berber background.[51]TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Morocco is a de jure constitutional parliamentary monarchy with an elected parliament. With the 2011 constitutional reforms, the King of Morocco still retains few executive powers whereas those of the prime minister have been enlarged. Opposition political parties are legal. Politics of Morocco take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco and the Assembly of Councillors. The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with aParliament and an independent judiciary. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard The constitution grants the king honorific powers; he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the Prime Minister from the political party that has won the most seats in the parliamentary elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. HP Pavilion dv6-2112ea Laptop Keyboard The previous constitution(note constitution of 1996) theoretically allows the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the  HP G42-265LA Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z Laptop Keyboard  HP G72-b15SA Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite A135-S2356 Laptop Keyboard

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