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University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of TUToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises twelve colleges that differ in character and history, each retaining substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism andcommunication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School. The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cellresearch, and was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of multi-touch technology, the identification of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole, and the theory of NP completeness. By a significant margin, it receives the most annual research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities located outside the United States. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with particularly long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. HP Pavilion DV3510nr Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto is ranked 1st in Canada and 19th worldwide in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings; 1st in Canada and 26th worldwide in the Academic Ranking of World Universities; 2nd in Canada and 19th globally in the QS World University Rankings; and 1st in Canada and third overall in Newsweek's ranking of top institutions outside of the United States. The university has educated two Governors General and four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court, and has been affiliated with ten Nobel laureates. Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard he founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada.[5][6] As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States.[6] The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital.[6]FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard On 15 March 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of an University ... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature ... to continue for ever, to be called King's College."[7] HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influentialAnglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the first president of the college.[7][8] The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was constructed on the present site of Queen's Park.[9]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Under Strachan's guidance, King's College was a religious institution that closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact.[10] Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized.[11] In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly-electedresponsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church.[8] TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary.[12] University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866.[13]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days.[14] While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine.[15]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees during that period.[15] The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, and it was followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate.[8] Women were admitted to the university for the first time in 1884.[16]TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and devoured thirty-three thousand volumes from the library,[17] but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years.[17] Over the next two decades, a collegiate system gradually took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904. The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions.[18][19] The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as the first academic publishing house in Canada.[20] HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The Faculty of Forestry was established in 1907, with Bernhard Fernow as founding dean; it was the first university faculty devoted to forest science in Canada. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toronto Schools. The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted.[21][22] SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended, although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held.[22] The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935, followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949.[8][23] The university opened satellite campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967. SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard The university's former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent as University of Guelph in 1964 and York University in 1965, respectively. Beginning in the 1980s, reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts.[8] The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than C$1 billion.[24]ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard The university grounds lie about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of the Financial District in Downtown Toronto, and immediately south of the neighbourhoods of Yorkville and The Annex. The site encompasses 71 hectares (180 acres) bounded mostly by Bay Street, Bloor Street, Spadina Avenue and College Street.[4] An enclave surrounded by university grounds,  HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard Queen's Park contains the Ontario Legislative Building and several historic monuments. With its green spaces and many interlocking courtyards, the university forms a distinct region of urban parkland in the city's downtown core.[25] The namesake University Avenue is a ceremonial boulevard and arterial thoroughfare that runs through downtown between Queen's Park and Front Street. The Spadina, St. George, Museum, Bay, andQueen's Park stations of the Toronto subway system are located in the vicinity. Compaq Presario CQ57-218 Laptop Keyboard The architecture is defined by a combination of Romanesque and Gothic Revival buildings spread across the eastern and central portions of campus, most of them dated between 1858 and 1929. The traditional heart of the university, known as Front Campus, is located near the centre of the campus in an oval lawn enclosed by King's College Circle.[25] Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard The centrepiece is the main building of University College, built in 1857 with an eclectic blend of Richardsonian Romanesqueand Norman architectural elements.[26] The dramatic effect of this blended design by architectFrederick William Cumberland drew praise from European visitors of the time: "Until I reached Toronto," HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard remarked Lord Dufferin during his visit in 1872, "I confess I was not aware that so magnificent a specimen of architecture existed upon the American continent."[27] The building was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1968.[28] Built in 1907, Convocation Hall is recognizable for its domed roof and Ionic-pillared rotunda. COMPAQ Presario V3621AU Laptop Keyboard Although its foremost function is hosting the annual convocation ceremonies, the building serves as a venue for academic and social events throughout the year.[29] The sandstone buildings ofKnox College epitomizes the North American collegiate Gothic design, with its characteristic cloisters surrounding a secluded courtyard.[30]HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard A lawn at the northeast is anchored by Hart House, a Gothic-revival student centre complex. Among its many common rooms, the building's Great Hall is noted for large stained-glass windows and a long quotation from John Milton's Areopagitica that is inscribed around the walls.[31][32] The adjacent Soldiers' Tower stands 143 feet (44 m) tall as the most prominent structure in the vicinity, SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard its stone arches etched with the names of university members lost to the battlefields of the two World Wars.[33] The tower houses a 51-bell carillon that is played on special occasions such as Remembrance Day and convocation.[34]The oldest surviving building on campus is the former Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory building, built in 1855.[35] North of University College, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard the main building of Trinity College displays Jacobethan Tudor architecture, while its chapel was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style of Giles Gilbert Scott.[36] The chapel features exterior walls of sandstone and interiors of Indiana Limestone, and was constructed by Italian stonemasons using ancient building methods.[37]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Philosopher's Walk is a scenic footpath that follows a meandering, wooded ravine linking with Trinity College, Varsity Arenaand the Faculty of Law. Victoria College is on the eastern side of Queen's Park, centred on a Romanesque main building made of contrasting red sandstone and grey limestone.[38]HP 413554-001 Laptop Keyboard Developed after the Second World War, the western section of the campus consists mainly of modernist and internationaliststructures that contain laboratories and faculty offices.[25] The most significant example of Brutalist architecture is the massive Robarts Library complex, built in 1972 and opened a year later in 1973. It features raised podia, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard extensive use of triangular geometric designs and a towering fourteen-storey concrete structure that cantilevers above a field of open space and mature trees.[39] The library is undergoing renovations to increase indoor space. The Leslie L. Dan Pharmacy Building, completed in 2006, exhibits a modern style of glass and steel by British architect Norman Foster.[40]FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard

Governance and colleges

The University of Toronto has traditionally been a decentralized institution, with governing authority shared among its central administration, academic faculties and colleges.[41] The Governing Council is the unicameral legislative organ of the central administration, overseeing general academic, business and institutional affairs.[42] Before 1971, HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard the university was governed under a bicameral system composed of the board of governors and the university senate.[41] The chancellor, usually a former governor general, lieutenant governor, premier or diplomat, is the ceremonial head of the university. The president is appointed by the council as the chief executive.[42] FUJITSU Lifebook P1620 Laptop Keyboard Unlike most North American institutions, the University of Toronto is a collegiate university with a model that resembles those of the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford in Britain.[43] The colleges hold substantial autonomy over admissions, scholarships, programs and other academic and financial affairs, in addition to the housing and social duties of typical residential colleges.[42][43] Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard The system emerged in the 19th century, as ecclesiastical colleges considered various forms of union with the University of Toronto to ensure their viability. The desire to preserve religious traditions in a secular institution resulted in the federative collegiate model that came to characterize the university.[43] HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard University College was the founding nondenominational college, created in 1853 after the university was secularized. Knox College, a Presbyterian institution, and Wycliffe College, a low church seminary, both encouraged their students to study for non-divinity degrees at University College.[44] In 1885, they entered a formal affiliation with the University of Toronto, and became federated schools in 1890.[30][45] HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard The idea of federation initially met strong opposition atVictoria University, a Methodist school in Cobourg, but a financial incentive in 1890 convinced the school to join.[46] Decades after the death of John Strachan, FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard the Anglican seminary Trinity College entered federation in 1904,[47] followed in 1910 by St. Michael's College, a Roman Catholic college founded by the Basilian Fathers.[48] Among the institutions that had considered federation but ultimately remained independent were McMaster University, a Baptist school that later moved to Hamilton,[44] and Queen's College, a Presbyterian school in Kingston that later became Queen's University.[49]HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard he post-war era saw the creation of New College in 1962, Innis College in 1964 and Woodsworth College in 1974, all of them nondenominational.[50] Along with University College, they comprise the university's constituent colleges, which are established and funded by the central administration and are therefore financially dependent.[51][52] Massey College was established in 1963 by the Massey Foundation as a college exclusively for graduate students.[53]Regis College, a Jesuit seminary, entered federation with the university in 1979.[54]ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard In contrast with the constituent colleges, the colleges of Knox, Massey, Regis, St. Michael's, Trinity, Victoria and Wycliffe continue to exist as legally distinct entities, each possessing a separate financial endowment. While St. Michael's, Trinity and Victoria continue to recognize their religious affiliations and heritage, they have since adopted secular policies of enrolment and teaching in non-divinity subjects.[52] FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard Some colleges have, or once had, collegiate structures of their own: Emmanuel College is a college of Victoria and St. Hilda's College is part of Trinity;[47][55] St. Joseph’s College had existed as a college within St. Michael's until it was dissolved in 2006.[48] Ewart College existed as an affiliated college until 1991, when it was merged into Knox College.[56] Postgraduate theology degrees are conferred by the colleges of Knox, Regis and Wycliffe, along with the divinity faculties within Emmanuel, St. Michael's and Trinity, including joint degrees with the university through the Toronto School of Theology.[57]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard The Faculty of Arts and Science is the university's main undergraduate faculty, and administers most of the courses in the college system.[58] While the colleges are not entirely responsible for teaching duties, most of them house specialized academic programs and lecture series. Among other subjects, Trinity College is associated with programs in international relations, HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard as are University College with Canadian studies, Victoria College with Renaissance studies, Innis College withfilm studies, New College with gender studies, Woodsworth College with industrial relations and St. Michael's College withMedievalism.[59] The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering is the other major faculty that allows direct-entry into bachelor's degree programs from secondary schools; undergraduate programs in other faculties generally admit by second entry.[60] Postgraduate programs in arts and science are administered by the School of Graduate Studies. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto is the birthplace of an influential school of thought on communication theory and literary criticism, known as the Toronto School.[61][62][63] Described as "the theory of the primacy of communication in the structuring of human cultures and the structuring of the human mind",[63] the school is rooted in the works of Eric A. Havelock and Harold Innis and the subsequent contributions of Edmund Snow Carpenter, Northrop Frye and Marshall McLuhan. Since 1963, the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology of the Faculty of Information has carried the mandate for teaching and advancing the Toronto School.[64]Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard Several notable works in arts and humanities are based at the university, including the Dictionary of Canadian Biographysince 1959 and the Collected Works of Erasmus since 1969.[65][66] The Records of Early English Drama collects and edits the surviving documentary evidence of dramatic arts in pre-Puritan England,[67] while the Dictionary of Old English compiles the early vocabulary of the English language from the Anglo-Saxon period.[68]SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses the university's various programs and curricula in international affairs and foreign policy. As the Cold War heightened, Toronto's Slavic studies program evolved into an important institution on Soviet politics and economics, financed by the Rockefeller, Ford and Mellon foundations.[69]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard The Munk School is also home to the G20 Research Group, which conducts independent monitoring and analysis on the Group of Twenty, and the Citizen Lab, which conducts research on Internet censorship as a joint founder of the OpenNet Initiative.[70][71] The university operates international offices in Berlin, Hong Kong and Siena.[72]ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard The Faculty of Medicine is affiliated with a network of ten teaching hospitals, providing medical treatment, research and advisory services to patients and clients from Canada and abroad.[73] A core member of the network is University Health Network, itself a specialized federation of Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Hospital, HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard Toronto Western Hospital, and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute.[74] Physicians in the medical institutes have cross-appointments to faculty and supervisory positions in university departments. The Rotman School of Management developed the discipline and methodology of integrative thinking, upon which the school bases its curriculum.[75] TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1887, the Faculty of Law's emphasis on formal teachings of liberal arts and legal theory was then considered unconventional, but gradually helped shift the country's legal education system away from the apprenticeship model that prevailed until the mid-20th century.[76] The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education is the teachers collegeof the university, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard affiliated with its two laboratory schools, the Institute of Child Study and the University of Toronto Schools.[77] Autonomous institutes at the university include the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and the Fields Institute. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto Libraries is the fourth-largest academic library system in North America, following those ofHarvard, Yale and Illinois, measured by number of volumes held.[78] The collections include more than 10 million bound volumes, 5.4 million microfilms, 70,000 serial titles and 1 million maps, films, graphics and sound recordings.[79]HP 444635-B31 Laptop Keyboard The largest of the libraries, Robarts Library, holds about five million bound volumes that form the main collection forhumanities and social sciences. The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library constitutes one of the largest repositories of publicly accessible rare books and manuscripts. Its collections range from ancient Egyptian papyri to incunabula and libretti;[80]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP07 Laptop Keyboard the subjects of focus include British, European and Canadian literature, Aristotle, Darwin, the Spanish Civil War, the history of science and medicine, Canadiana and the history of books.[81] Most of the remaining holdings are dispersed at departmental and faculty libraries, in addition to about 1.3 million bound volumes that are held by the colleges.[79] The university has collaborated with the Internet Archive since 2005 to digitize some of its library holdings.[82]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Housed within University College, the University of Toronto Art Centre contains three major art collections. The Malcove Collection is primarily represented by Early Christian and Byzantine sculptures, bronzeware, furniture, icons and liturgical items.[83] It also includes glassware and stone reliefs from the Greco-Roman period, and the painting Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Elder, dated from 1538.[83] The University of Toronto Collection features Canadian contemporary art,[84] while the University College Art Collection holds significant works by theGroup of Seven and 19th century landscape artists.[84]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

Reputation

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2012-2013 ranks the University of Toronto at 21st place globally and first in Canada.[92] The QS World University Rankings of 2012 place the University of Toronto at 19th in the world (and second overall in Canada), 21st in natural sciences, 21st in engineering and technology, 14th in arts and humanities, ACER Aspire 5710 Laptop Keyboard 16th in life sciences and biomedicine, and 20th in social sciences.[103] In the Academic Ranking of World Universities of 2012, the University of Toronto is placed at 27th in the world and first in Canada;[104] by academic subject, it ranks 21st in engineering and computer science, 27th in medicine, 34th in natural science and mathematics, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard 49th in life and agricultural sciences, and 48th in social science.[104] It is ranked 43rd in Mathematics, 41st in Physics, 23rd in Chemistry, 10th in Computer Science, and 47th in Economics/Business in the world.[104] It ranked 9th worldwide in the 2010 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,[105] DELL XPS M1530 Laptop Keyboard and 14th in the High Impact Universities ranking.[106] In a employability survey published by the New York Times in October 2011, when CEOs and chairmans were asked to select the top universities which they recruited from, the university placed 49th in the world, and third in Canada.[107] In 2011, the university received a grade of A- for environmental sustainability from the Sustainable Endowments Institute.[108] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto ranked as the nation's top medical-doctoral university in Maclean's magazine for twelve consecutive years between 1994 and 2005.[109] Since 2009, it has joined 22 other national institutions in withholding data from the magazine, citing continued concerns regarding methodology.[110] The university places second in the Maclean's ranking of 2009.[111] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The university has placed first among Canada's research universities in the annual ranking by Research Infosource since 2001.[112] In 2012, the Higher Education Strategy Associates ranked Canadian universities based off their research strengths, in which the University of Toronto placed third nationally in the field of science and engineering and third nationally in the field of social sciences and humanities.[113] In 2010, the Faculty of Law was named the top law school in Canada by Maclean's for the fourth consecutive year.[114]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Research

Since 1926, the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities, a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada, with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878.725 million in 2010.[112][115][116] SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard The federal government was the largest source of funding, with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Councilamounting to about one-third of the research budget. About 8 percent of research funding came from corporations, mostly in the health care industry.[116] HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938.[117][118] During World War II, the university developed the G-suit, a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots, later adopted for use by astronauts.[119] Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions.[120] HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1963, the asteroid 2104 Toronto is discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill and is named after the university.[121] In 1972, studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes.[122] Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranus moons of Caliban and Sycorax,[123]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5095 Laptop Keyboard thedwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III, and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology, the university designed and built UTEC, one of the world's first operational computers, and later purchased Ferut, the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I.[124] Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto, with applications ranging from handheld devicesto collaboration walls.[125][126] HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine.[127][128] The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963, forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells.[129]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells, including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells.[130][131] The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers,[132] who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia, brain tumors and colorectal cancer.[133][134] SONY VAIO VGN-NR32M/S Laptop Keyboard Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index,[135] the infant cereal Pablum,[136] the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery[137] and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker.[137] The first successfulsingle-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981, followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988,[138] SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division, and discovered the T-cell receptor which trigger responses of the immune system.[139] HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa Laptop Keyboard The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases.[140]Between 1914 and 1972, the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.[141] ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world's largest concentrations ofbiotechnology firms.[142] More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometres from the university grounds in Toronto's Discovery District, conducting $1 billion of medical research annually.[142] MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university'stechnology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies.[4] Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.[143]SONY Vaio PCG-K86P Laptop Keyboard

Athletics

The 44 sports teams of the Varsity Blues represent the university in intercollegiate competitions. The two main leagues in which the Blues participate areCanadian Interuniversity Sport for national competitions, and the auxiliary Ontario University Athletics conference at the provincial level. The athletic nickname of Varsity Blues was not consistently used until the 1930s; previously, references such as "Varsity", "The Big Blue", "The Blue and White" and "The Varsity Blue" also appeared interchangeably.[144] The Blue and White is commonly played and sung in athletic games as a fight song.[145]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard North American football traces its very origin to the University of Toronto, with the first documented football game played at University College on 9 November 1861.[146][147] The Blues played their first intercollegiate football match in 1877 against the University of Michigan, in a game that ended with a scoreless draw.[144] Since intercollegiate seasons began in 1898, TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard the Blues have won four Grey Cup, two Vanier Cup and 25 Yates Cupchampionships, including the inaugural championships for all three trophies.[144] However, the football team has hit a rough patch following its last championship in 1993.[148] From 2001 until 2008, the Blues suffered the longestlosing streak in Canadian collegiate history, recording 49 consecutive winless games.[149] This was preceded by a single victory in 2001 that ended a run of 18 straight losses.[150] The site of Varsity Stadium has served as the primary playing grounds of the Varsity Blues football and soccer programs since 1898.[8]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Formed in 1891, the storied Varsity Blues men's ice hockey team has left many legacies on the national, professional and international hockey scenes. Conn Smythe played for the Blues as a centre during his undergraduate years, and was a Blues coach from 1923 to 1926.[151] When Smythe took over the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1927, Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard the familiar blue-and-white sweater design of the Varsity Blues was adopted by his new team.[151] Blues hockey competed at the 1928 Winter Olympics and captured the gold medal for Canada.[152] At the 1980 Winter Olympics, Blues coach Tom Watt served as co-coach of the Canadian hockey team in which six players were Varsity grads.[151]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard In all, the Blues have won the University Cup national hockey title ten times, last in 1984. Varsity Arena has been the permanent home of the Blues ice hockey programs since it opened in 1926.[8] In men's basketball, the Varsity Blues have won 14 conference titles, including the inaugural championship in 1909, but have not won a national title.[153] SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard In swimming, the men's team has claimed the national crown 16 times since 1964, while the women's team has claimed the crown 14 times since 1970.[154] Established in 1897, the University of Toronto Rowing Club is the oldest collegiate rowing club in Canada.[155] It earned a silver medal for the country in the 1924 Summer Olympics, finishing second to Yale's crew.[155]HP G62-b12SA Laptop Keyboard Culture and student life In the heart of social, cultural and recreational life at the University of Toronto lies Hart House, the sprawling neo-Gothicstudent activity centre that was conceived by alumnus-benefactor Vincent Massey and named for his grandfather Hart.[156]Opened in 1919, the complex established a communitarian spirit in the university and its students,  Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard who at the time kept largely within their own colleges under the decentralized collegiate system.[157] At Hart House, a student can read in the library, dine casually or formally, have a haircut, visit the art gallery, watch a play in the theatre, listen to a concert, observe or join in debates, play billiards, or go for a swim and find a place to study, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us Laptop Keyboard all under the same roof and within the span of a day. The confluence of assorted functions is the result of a deliberate effort to create a holistic educational experience, a goal summarized in the Founders' Prayer.[157][158] The Hart House model was influential in the planning of student centres at other universities, notably Cornell University's Willard Straight Hall.[159][160]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Hart House resembles some traditional aspects of student representation through its financial support of student clubs, and its standing committees and board of stewards that are composed mostly of undergraduate students. However, the main students' unions on administrative and policy issues are the University of Toronto Students' Union, Association of Part-time Undergraduate Students and the Graduate Students' Union. Student representative bodies also exist at the various colleges, academic faculties and departments. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The Hart House Debating Club employs a debating style that combines the American emphasis on analysis and the British use ofwit.[161] Smaller debating societies at Trinity, University and Victoria College have served as initial training grounds for debaters who later progress to Hart House.[161] The club won the World Universities Debating Championship in 1981 and 2006.[162] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard University of Toronto Model United Nations (UTMUN) hosts an annualModel United Nations conference in Toronto, while the United Nations Society participates in various North American and international conferences.[163][164] The Toronto chess team has captured the top title six times at the Pan American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship. The Formula SAE Racing Team won the Formula Student European Championships in 2003, 2005 and 2006.[165]HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard The University of Toronto is home to the first collegiate fraternity in Canada, Zeta Psi, whose Toronto chapter has been active since 1879.[166] Because few other Canadian universities in the 19th century were deemed comparable to their American counterparts in repute, age and secularity, most early American fraternities chose to open their first international chapter at the University of Toronto, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard including Sigma Chi, Delta Upsilon, Phi Delta Theta, Phi Kappa Sigma,Phi Gamma Delta, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Psi Upsilon, Alpha Delta Phi, Beta Theta Pi, Pi Kappa Phi, Lambda Phi Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Theta Delta Chi, Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Omicron Pi, Delta Delta Delta, Alpha Kappa Delta Phi and Lambda Chi Alpha.[167] Other Greek-letter societies include Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Phi, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Society, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Pi Beta Phi, Sigma Pi, and Alpha Epsilon Pi. A secret society known as Episkopon has operated from Trinity College since 1858. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

Theatre and music

Hart House Theatre is the university's student amateur theatre, generally producing four major plays every season. As old as Hart House itself, the theatre is considered a pioneer in Canadian theatre for introducing the Little Theatre Movement from Europe.[168][169] It has cultivated numerous performing-arts talents, including Donald Sutherland, Lorne Michaels, Wayne and Shuster and William Hutt. Three members of the Group of Seven artists (Harris, Lismer and MacDonald) have been set designers at the theatre,[170]  HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard and composer Healey Willan was director of music for fourteen productions.[170] The theatre also hosts annual variety shows run by several student theatrical companies at the colleges and academic faculties, the most prominent of which are U.C. Follies of University College, Skule Nite of the Faculty of Engineering, and Daffydil of the Faculty of Medicine, the latter in its hundredth year of production in 2010–2011.[171]TOSHIBA Satellite L770D Series Laptop Keyboard The main musical ensembles at Hart House are the orchestra, the chamber strings, the chorus, the jazz choir, the jazz ensemble and the symphonic band. The Jazz at Oscar's concert series performs big band and vocal jazz on Friday nights at the period lounge and bar of the Hart House Arbor Room.[172] Open Stage is the monthly open mike event featuring singers, comics, poets and storytellers. HP Pavilion DV6-1190ev Laptop Keyboard The Sunday Concert is the oldest musical series at Hart House; since 1922 the series has performed more than 600 classical music concerts in the Great Hall, freely attended by the university community and general audiences.[173][174] The public may also screen midday events held at noon, when concerts are recited prior to formal debut. SONY VAIO VGN-N31M/W Laptop Keyboard The Varsity is one of Canada's oldest student-run newspapers, in publication since 1880.[16] The paper was originally a daily broadsheet, but has since adopted a compact format and is now weekly with three summer issues. Hart House Review, a literary magazine by students of the Literary and Library Committee of Hart House, features prose, poetry, art and photography from emerging writers and artists. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard The Newspaper is an independent student-run community newspaper, published weekly since 1978.CIUT-FM is the university's campus radio station, while the University of Toronto Television broadcasts student-produced content. Students at each college and academic faculty also produce their own set of journals and news publications. University College's The Gargoyle was an early training ground for such notables as journalist Naomi Klein, and musician/comedian Paul Shaffer. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515E Laptop Keyboard Members of the student press have contributed to activist causes on several notable occasions. At the height of debate on coeducation in 1880, The Varsity published an article in its inaugural issue voicing in favour of admitting women.[16] In 1895, the university suspended the editor of The Varsity for breach of collegiality, after he published a letter that harshly criticized the provincial government's dismissal of a professor and involvement in academic affairs. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard University College students then approved a motion by Varsity staff member William Lyon Mackenzie King and boycotted lectures for a week.[175][176] After Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau decriminalized homosexuality in 1969, a medical research assistant placed an advertisement in The Varsity seeking volunteers to establish the first university homophile association in Canada.[177] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Laptop Keyboard Each college at the University of Toronto operates its own set of residence halls and dining halls clustered in a different area of the campus. Innis, New, St. Michael's, Trinity, University, Victoria, and Woodsworth colleges reserve most of their dormitories for their undergraduate students within the Faculty of Arts and Science, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard while setting a portion available to students from the professional and postgraduate faculties.[178] Massey College is exclusively for graduate students, while Knox and Wycliffe Colleges mainly house graduate theology students. Annesley Hall of Victoria College, a National Historic Site, was the first university residence for women in Canada. After St. Hilda's College became coeducational in 2005, Annesley Hall and Loretto College of St. Michael's College are the last remaining women's halls at the university.  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard As campus residences accommodate just 6,400 students in all, the university guarantees housing only for undergraduates in their first year of study, while most upper-year and graduate students reside off-campus.[4][179] Traditionally, the adjacent neighbourhoods of The Annex and Harbord Village are popular settling grounds for University of Toronto students, HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard forming a distinct student quarter enclave.[180][181] In 2004, the university purchased and converted a nearby hotel into the Chestnut Residence, which houses students from all colleges and faculties. There are also numerous fraternity houses and student housing cooperatives, where boarders pay reduced rent for assuming housekeeping duties. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2779 Laptop Keyboard

Noted people

In addition to Havelock, Innis, Frye, Carpenter and McLuhan, former professors of the past century include Frederick Banting, Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, Robertson Davies, John Charles Fields, Leopold Infeld and C. B. Macpherson. Ten Nobel laureates studied or taught at the University of Toronto. As of 2006, University of Toronto academics accounted for 15 of 23 Canadian members in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (65%) and 20 of 72 Canadian fellows in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (28%).[115] ASUS X88S Laptop Keyboard Among honorees from Canada between 1980 and 2006, University of Toronto faculty made up 11 of 21 Gairdner Foundation International Award recipients (52%), 44 of 101 Guggenheim Fellows (44%), 16 of 38 Royal Society fellows (42%), 10 of 28 members in the United States National Academies (36%) and 23 of 77 Sloan Research Fellows (30%).[115]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Alumni of the University of Toronto's colleges, faculties and professional schools have assumed notable roles in a wide range of fields and specialties. In government, Governors General Vincent Massey and Adrienne Clarkson, Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King, Arthur Meighen, Lester B. Pearson and Paul Martin, and 14 Justices of the Supreme Court have all graduated from the university, ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard while world leaders include President of Latvia Vaira Vike-Freiberga, Premier of the Republic of China Liu Chao-shiuan and President of Trinidad and Tobago Noor Hassanali. Economist John Kenneth Galbraith, political scientist David Easton, historian Margaret MacMillan, philosophers David Gauthier andTed Honderich, GATEWAY M-6750 Laptop Keyboard anthropologist Davidson Black, social activist Ellen Pence, sociologist Erving Goffman, psychologists Endel Tulving, Daniel Schacter, and Lisa Feldman Barrett, physicians Norman Bethune and Charles Best, geologists Joseph Tyrrell and John Tuzo Wilson, mathematicians Irving Kaplanskyand William Kahan, physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Bertram Brockhouse, architect James W. Strutt, engineer Gerald Bull, computer scientists Alfred Ahoand Brian Kernighan, astronauts Roberta Bondar and Julie Payette are also some of the most well-known academic figures from the university. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In business, University of Toronto alumni include Rogers Communications' Ted Rogers, Toronto-Dominion Bank's W. Edmund Clark, Bank of Montreal's Bill Downe,Scotiabank's Peter Godsoe, Barrick Gold's Peter Munk, Research In Motion's Jim Balsillie, eBay's Jeffrey Skoll and Fiat S.p.A.'s Sergio Marchionne. In literature and media, the university has produced writers Stephen Leacock, John McCrae, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Rohinton Mistry, Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje, film directorsArthur Hiller, Norman Jewison, David Cronenberg and Atom Egoyan, actor Donald Sutherland, screenwriter David Shore, television producer and writer Hart Hanson, musician Paul Shaffer, journalists Malcolm Gladwell, Naomi Klein and Barbara Amiel. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Although any given solution to such a problem can be verified quickly, there is no known efficient way to locate a solution in the first place; indeed, the most notable characteristic of NP-complete problems is that no fast solution to them is known. That is, the time required to solve the problem using any currently known algorithmincreases very quickly as the size of the problem grows. HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard This means that the time required to solve even moderately sized versions of many of these problems can easily reach into the billions or trillions of years, using any amount of computing power available today. As a consequence, determining whether or not it is possible to solve these problems quickly, called the P versus NP problem, is one of the principal unsolved problems in computer science today. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard While a method for computing the solutions to NP-complete problems using a reasonable amount of time remains undiscovered, computer scientists and programmersstill frequently encounter NP-complete problems. NP-complete problems are often addressed by using approximation algorithms. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard NP-complete is a subset of NP, the set of all decision problems whose solutions can be verified in polynomial time; NP may be equivalently defined as the set of decision problems that can be solved in polynomial time on a nondeterministic Turing machine. A problem p in NP is also in NPC if and only if every other problem in NP can be transformed into p in polynomial time. NP-complete can also be used as an adjective: problems in the class NP-complete are known as NP-comp

lete problems. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard NP-complete problems are studied because the ability to quickly verify solutions to a problem (NP) seems to correlate with the ability to quickly solve that problem (P). It is not known whether every problem in NP can be quickly solved—this is called the P = NP problem. But if any single problem in NP-complete can be solved quickly, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard then every problem in NP can also be quickly solved, because the definition of an NP-complete problem states that every problem in NP must be quickly reducible to every problem in NP-complete (that is, it can be reduced in polynomial time). Because of this, it is often said that the NP-complete problems are harder or more difficult than NP problems in general. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard The concept of NP-complete was introduced in 1971 by Stephen Cook in a paper entitled The complexity of theorem-proving procedures on pages 151–158 of theProceedings of the 3rd Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, though the term NP-complete did not appear anywhere in his paper. At that computer scienceconference, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard there was a fierce debate among the computer scientists about whether NP-complete problems could be solved in polynomial time on a deterministicTuring machine. John Hopcroft brought everyone at the conference to a consensus that the question of whether NP-complete problems are solvable in polynomial time should be put off to be solved at some later date, since nobody had any formal proofs for their claims one way or the other. This is known as the question of whether P=NP. HP G42-466LA Laptop Keyboard Nobody has yet been able to determine conclusively whether NP-complete problems are in fact solvable in polynomial time, making this one of the great unsolved problems of mathematics. The Clay Mathematics Institute is offering a US$1 million reward to anyone who has a formal proof that P=NP or that P≠NP. HP Envy 15-1050nr Laptop Keyboard In the celebrated Cook-Levin theorem (independently proved by Leonid Levin), Cook proved that the Boolean satisfiability problem is NP-complete (a simpler, but still highly technical proof of this is available). In 1972, Richard Karp proved that several other problems were also NP-complete (see Karp's 21 NP-complete problems); SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard thus there is a class of NP-complete problems (besides the Boolean satisfiability problem). Since Cook's original results, thousands of other problems have been shown to be NP-complete by reductions from other problems previously shown to be NP-complete; many of these problems are collected in Gareyand Johnson's 1979 book Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness.[1] For more details refer design and analysis of algorithm by Anany levintin. HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard To the right is a diagram of some of the problems and the reductions typically used to prove their NP-completeness. In this diagram, an arrow from one problem to another indicates the direction of the reduction. Note that this diagram is misleading as a description of the mathematical relationship between these problems, as there exists a polynomial-time reduction between any two NP-complete problems; but it indicates where demonstrating this polynomial-time reduction has been easiest. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard There is often only a small difference between a problem in P and an NP-complete problem. For example, the 3-satisfiability problem, a restriction of the boolean satisfiability problem, remains NP-complete, whereas the slightly more restricted 2-satisfiability problem is in P (specifically, NL-complete), and the slightly more general max. Packard Bell NEW90 Laptop Keyboard 2-sat. problem is again NP-complete. Determining whether a graph can be colored with 2 colors is in P, but with 3 colors is NP-complete, even when restricted to planar graphs. Determining if a graph is a cycle or is bipartite is very easy (in L), but finding a maximum bipartite or a maximum cycle subgraph is NP-complete. A solution of the knapsack problem within any fixed percentage of the optimal solution can be computed in polynomial time, but finding the optimal solution is NP-complete. SAMSUNG Q330-JS09 Laptop Keyboard In the definition of NP-complete given above, the term reduction was used in the technical meaning of a polynomial-time many-one reduction. Another type of reduction is polynomial-time Turing reduction. A problem  is polynomial-time Turing-reducible to a problem  if, given a subroutine that solves  in polynomial time, one could write a program that calls this subroutine and solves  in polynomial time. This contrasts with many-one reducibility, which has the restriction that the program can only call the subroutine once, and the return value of the subroutine must be the return value of the program. TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard If one defines the analogue to NP-complete with Turing reductions instead of many-one reductions, the resulting set of problems won't be smaller than NP-complete; it is an open question whether it will be any larger. Packard Bell Easynote TM97 Laptop Keyboard Another type of reduction that is also often used to define NP-completeness is the logarithmic-space many-one reduction which is a many-one reduction that can be computed with only a logarithmic amount of space. Since every computation that can be done in logarithmic space can also be done in polynomial time it follows that if there is a logarithmic-space many-one reduction then there is also a polynomial-time many-one reduction. Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard This type of reduction is more refined than the more usual polynomial-time many-one reductions and it allows us to distinguish more classes such as P-complete. Whether under these types of reductions the definition of NP-complete changes is still an open problem. All currently known NP-complete problems are NP-complete under log space reductions. Indeed, all currently known NP-complete problems remain NP-complete even under much weaker reductions.[2] It is known, however, that AC0 reductions define a strictly smaller class than polynomial-time reductions.[3]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard Naming According to Don Knuth, the name "NP-complete" was popularized by Alfred Aho, John Hopcroft and Jeffrey Ullman in their celebrated textbook "The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms". He reports that they introduced the change in the galley proofs for the book (from "polynomially-complete"), in accordance with the results of a poll he had conducted of the Theoretical Computer Science community.[4] DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard Other suggestions made in the poll[5] included "Herculean", "formidable", Steiglitz's "hard-boiled" in honor of Cook, and Shen Lin's acronym "PET", which stood for "probably exponential time", but depending on which way the P versus NP problem went, could stand for "provably exponential time" or "previously exponential time".[6]ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard The Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval forms, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard In England, the centre of this revival, it was intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic self-belief (and by the Catholic convert Augustus Welby Pugin) concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism. Ultimately, the style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread rapidly to the continent of Europe, in Australia, South Africa and to the Americas; indeed the number of Gothic Revival and Carpenter Gothicstructures built in the 19th and 20h centuries may[clarification needed] exceed the number of authentic Gothic structures that had been built previously. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities. As industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories also grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation.[1]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Gothic Revival also took on political connotations; with the "rational" and "radical" Neoclassical style being seen as associated with republicanism and liberalism (as evidenced by its use in the United States and to a lesser extent inRepublican France), the more "spiritual" and "traditional" Gothic Revival became associated with monarchism andconservatism, which was reflected by the choice of styles for the rebuilt Palace of Westminster in London and Parliament Hill in Ottawa. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novelgenre, beginning with Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, and inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems like "Idylls of the King" byAlfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival also had a grounding in literary fashions.[2] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Gothic architecture began at the Abbey of Saint-Denis,[citation needed] Paris, in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster. However, Gothic architecture did not die out completely in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects and the construction of churches in increasingly isolated rural districts of England, France, Spain, Germany, and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults (completed 1658) for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, which had been under construction since 1390; there, the Gothic context of the structure overrode considerations of the current architectural mode. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Likewise, Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the later 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporaryBaroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, Oxford University, and, later,Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic revival. TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard、 In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased interest and awareness of the Middle Ages among some influential connoisseurs created a more appreciative approach to selected medieval arts, beginning with church architecture, the tomb monuments of royal and noble personages, stained glass, and late Gothic illuminated manuscripts.[citation needed] Other Gothic arts continued to be disregarded as barbaric and crude, however: tapestries and metalwork, as examples. Sentimental and nationalist associations with historical figures were as strong in this early revival, as purely aesthetic concerns. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard A few Britons, and soon some German Romanticist (philosopher and writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel), began to appreciate the picturesque character of ruins — "picturesque" becoming a new aesthetic quality — and those mellowing effects of time that the Japanese call wabi-sabi and that Horace Walpole independently admired, FUJITSU Lifebook T4215 Laptop Keyboard mildly tongue-in-cheek, as "the true rust of the Barons' wars." The "Gothick" details of Walpole's Twickenham villa, "Strawberry Hill", (illustrated, right) appealed to the rococo tastes of the time, and, by the 1770s, thoroughly neoclassical architects such asRobert Adam and James Wyatt were prepared to provide Gothic details in drawing-rooms, libraries, and chapels, for a romantic vision of a Gothic abbey, Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire.  SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland. Inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746 with design input from William Adam displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some external features of the Scots baronial style. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Robert Adam's houses in this style include Mellerstain andWedderburn in Berwickshire and Seton House in East Lothian, but it is most clearly seen at Culzean Castle, Ayrshire, remodelled by Adam from 1777.[3] The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to "improve" Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard A younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Britten's series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt… to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, "a text-book for the architectural student".HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard Its long title is descriptive: Attempt to discriminate the styles of English architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation; preceded by a sketch of the Grecian and Roman orders, with notices of nearly five hundred English buildings. The categories he used were Norman, Early English,Decorated, and Perpendicular. It went through numerous editions and was still being republished in 1881. HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture. Whimsical Gothic detailing in English furniture is traceable as far back at Lady Pomfret's house in Arlington Street, London (1740s), and Gothic fretwork in chairbacks and glazing patterns of bookcases is a familiar feature of Chippendale's Director (1754, 1762), where, for example, the three-part bookcase employs gothick details with Rococo profusion, on a symmetrical form. Sir Walter Scott's Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the "Regency gothic".TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, and Gothic blind arcading could decorate a ceramic pitcher. The illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard French neo-Gothic had its roots in a minor aspect of Anglomanie, starting in the late 1780s. In 1816, when French scholarAlexandre de Laborde said "Gothic architecture has beauties of its own",[citation needed] the idea was novel to most French readers. Starting in 1828, Alexandre Brogniart, the director of the Sèvres porcelain manufactory, produced fired enamel paintings on large panes of plate glass, for Louis-Philippe's royal chapel atDreux. It would be hard to find[who?] a large, significant commission in Gothic taste that preceded this one, save for some Gothic features in a handful ofjardins à l'anglaise. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Canning's views on the Catholic Question were not well received by the most conservative Tories, including the Duke of Wellington. As a result the ministry was forced to include Whigs.[53] Canning died later in that year, leaving Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich to lead the tenuous Tory-Whig coalition. Lord Goderich left office in 1828, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard to be succeeded by the Duke of Wellington, who had by that time accepted that the denial of some measure of relief to Roman Catholics was politically untenable.[54][55] With great difficulty Wellington obtained the King's consent to the introduction of a Catholic Relief Bill on 29 January 1829. Under pressure from his fanatically anti-Catholic brother,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard the Duke of Cumberland, the King withdrew his approval and in protest the Cabinet resigned en masse on 4 March. The next day the King, now under intense political pressure, reluctantly agreed to the Bill and the ministry remained in power.[5] Royal Assent was finally granted to the Catholic Relief Act on 13 April.[56]HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard George IV's heavy drinking and indulgent lifestyle had taken their toll of his health by the late 1820s. His taste for huge banquets and copious amounts of alcohol caused him to become obese, making him the target of ridicule on the rare occasions that he did appear in public.[57] By 1797 his weight had reached 17 stone 7 pounds (111 kg; 245 lb),[58] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R50e-1848 Laptop Keyboard and by 1824 his corset was made for a waist of 50 inches (130 cm).[59] He suffered from gout, arteriosclerosis, peripheral edema ("dropsy"), and possible porphyria. He would spend whole days in bed and suffered spasms of breathlessness that would leave him half-asphyxiated.[5] Some accounts claim that he showed signs of mental instability towards the end of his life, SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard although less extreme than his father. For example, he sometimes claimed that he had been at the Battle of Waterloo, which may have been a sign of dementia or just a joke to annoy the Duke of Wellington. He died at about half-past three in the morning of 26 June 1830 at Windsor Castle; he called out "Good God, what is this?" clasped his page's hand and said "my boy, this is death."[60]He was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor on 15 July.[61]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP03 Laptop Keyboard His only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, had died from post-partum complications in 1817, after delivering a still-born son. The second son of George III, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, had died in 1827. He was therefore succeeded by another brother, the third son of George III, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, who reigned as William IV.[62] SAMSUNG NP-N150-KA03 Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG NB30 Laptop Keyboard  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415S Laptop Keyboard

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