Overblog Suivre ce blog
Editer l'article Administration Créer mon blog
19 mars 2012 1 19 /03 /mars /2012 08:34

The October Revolution had been relatively peaceful. The revolutionary forces already had de facto control of the capital thanks to the defection of the city garrison. Sony VGN-CR407ER Battery

Few troops had stayed to defend the Provisional Government in the Winter Palace.[52]Most citizens had simply continued about their daily business while the Provisional Government was actually overthrown.[49]Sony VGN-CR408 Battery

 

It thus appeared that all power had been transferred to the Soviets relatively peacefully. On the evening of the October Revolution, the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets met, with a Bolshevik-Left SR majority, in the Smolny Institute in Petrograd. Sony VGN-CR408E Battery

When the left-wing Menshevik Martov proposed an all-party Soviet government, the Bolshevik Lunacharsky stated that his party did not oppose the idea. The Bolshevik delegates voted unanimously in favour of the proposal.[53]Sony VGN-CR409 Battery

 

However, not all Russian socialists supported transferring all power to the Soviets. The Right SRs and Mensheviks walked out of this very first session of the Congress of Soviets in protest at the overthrow of the Provisional Government, of which their parties had been members.[54]Sony VGN-CR409E Battery

 

The next day, on the evening of 26 October O.S., Lenin attended the Congress of Soviets: undisguised in public for the first time since the July Days, although not yet having regrown his trademark beard. Sony VGN-CR409EL Battery

The American journalist John Reed described the man who appeared at about 8:40 pm to "a thundering wave of cheers":

A short, stocky figure, with a big head set down in his shoulders, bald and bulging. Sony VGN-CR409EP Battery

Little eyes, a snubbish nose, wide, generous mouth, and heavy chin; clean-shaven now, but already beginning to bristle with the well-known beard of his past and future. Sony VGN-CR409ET Battery

Dressed in shabby clothes, his trousers much too long for him. Unimpressive, to be the idol of a mob, loved and revered as perhaps few leaders in history have been. Sony VGN-CR410 Battery

A strange popular leader—a leader purely by virtue of intellect; colourless, humourless, uncompromising and detached, without picturesque idiosyncrasies—but with the power of explaining profound ideas in simple terms, of analysing a concrete situation. And combined with shrewdness, the greatest intellectual audacity.[55]Sony VGN-CR410E Battery

Sony VGN-CR410EL Battery

 

According to Reed, Lenin waited for the applause to subside before declaring simply: "We shall now proceed to construct the Socialist order!" Lenin proceeded to propose to the Congress a Decree on Peace, Sony VGN-CR410EN Battery

calling on "all the belligerent peoples and to their Governments to begin immediately negotiations for a just and democratic peace", and a Decree on Land, transferring ownership of all "land-owners' estates, Sony VGN-CR410EP Battery

and all lands belonging to the Crown, [and] to monasteries" to the Peasants' Soviets. The Congress passed the Decree on Peace unanimously, and the Decree on Land faced only one vote in opposition.[56]Sony VGN-CR410ER Battery

 

Having approved these key Bolshevik policies, the Congress of Soviets proceeded to elect the Bolsheviks into power as the Council of People's Commissars by "an enormous majority".[57]Sony VGN-CR410ET Battery

The Bolsheviks offered posts in the Council to the Left SRs: an offer which the Left SRs at first refused,[58]but later accepted, joining the Bolsheviks in coalition on 12 December O.S.[59]Sony VGN-CR410EW Battery

Lenin had suggested that Trotsky take the position of Chairman of the Council—the head of the Soviet government—but Trotsky refused on the grounds that his Jewishness would be controversial, and he took the post of Commissar for Foreign Affairs instead.[58]Thus Lenin became the head of government in Russia. Sony VGN-CR415 Battery

Sony VGN-CR415E Battery

 

Trotsky announced the composition of the new Soviet Central Executive Committee: with a Bolshevik majority, but with places reserved for the representatives of the other parties, Sony VGN-CR415EB Battery

including the seceded Right SRs and Mensheviks. Trotsky concluded the Congress: "We welcome into the Government all parties and groups which will adopt our programme."[57]Sony VGN-CR420 Battery

 

Lenin declared in 1920 that "Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the entire country" in modernising Russia into a 20th-century country:[60]Sony VGN-CR420E Battery

 

We must show the peasants that the organisation of industry on the basis of modern, advanced technology, on electrification, which will provide a link between town and country, will put an end to the division between town and country, Sony VGN-CR420EL Battery

will make it possible to raise the level of culture in the countryside and to overcome, even in the most remote corners of land, backwardness, ignorance, poverty, disease, and barbarism.[61]Sony VGN-CR420EN Battery

 

Yet the Bolshevik Government had to first withdraw Russia from the First World War (1914–18). Facing continuing Imperial German eastward advance, Lenin proposed immediate Russian withdrawal from the West European war; yet, other, doctrinaire[clarification needed]Sony VGN-CR420EP Battery

Bolshevik leaders (e.g. Nikolai Bukharin) advocated continuing in the war to foment revolution in Germany. Lead peace treaty negotiator Leon Trotsky proposed No War, No Peace, an intermediate-stance Russo–German treaty conditional upon neither belligerent annexing conquered lands; Sony VGN-CR420ER Battery

the negotiations collapsed, and the Germans renewed their attack, conquering much of the (agricultural) territory of west Russia. Resultantly, Lenin's withdrawal proposal then gained majority support, and, on 3 March 1918, Sony VGN-CR420ET Battery

Russia withdrew from the First World War via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, losing much of its European territory. Because of the German threat Lenin moved the Soviet Government from Petrograd to Moscow on 10–11 March 1918.[62][63]Sony VGN-CR420EW Battery

 

On 19 January 1918, relying upon the soviets, the Bolsheviks, allied with anarchists and the Socialist Revolutionaries, dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly thereby consolidating the Bolshevik Government's political power. Sony VGN-CR425 Battery

Yet, that left-wing coalition collapsed consequent to the Social Revolutionaries opposing the territorially expensive Brest-Litovsk treaty the Bolsheviks had concorded with Imperial Germany. Sony VGN-CR425E Battery

The anarchists and the Socialist Revolutionaries then joined other political parties in attempting to depose the Bolshevik Government, who defended themselves with persecution and jail for the anti-Bolsheviks. Sony VGN-CR460A Battery

 

To initiate the Russian economic recovery, on 21 February 1920, he launched the GOELRO plan, the State Commission for Electrification of Russia (Государственная комиссия по электрификации России), Sony VGN-CR460AL Battery

and also established free universal health care and free education systems, and promulgated the politico-civil rights of women.[64]Moreover, since 1918, in re-establishing the economy, Sony VGN-CR460AP Battery

for the productive business administration of each industrial enterprise in Russia, Lenin proposed a government-accountable leader for each enterprise. Workers could request measures resolving problems, Sony VGN-CR460AR Battery

but had to abide the leader's ultimate decision. Although contrary to workers' self-management, such pragmatic industrial administration was essential for efficient production and employment of worker expertise. Yet Lenin's doctrinaire[clarification needed]Sony VGN-CR460AW Battery

Bolshevik opponents argued that such industrial business management was meant to strengthen State control of labour, and that worker self-management failures were owed to lack of resources, Sony VGN-CR490 Battery

not incompetence. Lenin resolved that problem by licencing (for a month) all workers of most factories; thus historian S. A. Smith's observation: "By the end of the civil war, Sony VGN-CR490E Battery

not much was left of the democratic forms of industrial administration promoted by the factory committees in 1917, but the government argued that this did not matter since industry had passed into the ownership of a workers' state." Sony VGN-CR490EBL Battery

 

Internationally, Lenin's admiration of the Irish socialist revolutionary James Connolly, led to the USSR's being the first country to grant diplomatic recognition to the Irish Republic that fought the Irish War of Independence from Britain. In the event, Lenin developed a friendship with Connolly's revolutionary son, Roddy Connolly. Sony VGN-CR490EBN Battery

 

Establishing the Cheka

On December 20, 1917, "The Whole-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage", the Cheka (Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya – Extraordinary Commission) was created by a decree issued by Lenin to defend the Russian Revolution.[65]Sony VGN-CR490EBP Battery

The establishment of the Cheka, secret service, headed by Felix Dzerzhinsky, formally consolidated the censorship established earlier, when on "17 November, Sony VGN-CR490EBR Battery

the Central Executive Committee passed a decree giving the Bolsheviks control over all newsprint and wide powers of closing down newspapers critical of the régime. . . .";[66]non-Bolshevik soviets were disbanded; Sony VGN-CR490EBT Battery

anti-soviet newspapers were closed until Pravda (Truth) and Izvestia (The News) established their communications monopoly. According to Leonard Schapiro the Bolshevik "refusal to come to terms with the [Revolutionary] Sony VGN-CR490EBW Battery

socialists, and the dispersal of the Constituent assembly, led to the logical result that revolutionary terror would now be directed, not only against traditional enemies, such as the bourgeoisie or right-wing opponents, Sony VGN-CR490EELC Battery

but against anyone, be he socialist, worker, or peasant, who opposed Bolshevik rule".[67]On December 19, 1918, a year after its creation, a resolution was adopted at Lenin's behest that forbade the Bolshevik's own press from publishing "defamatory articles" about the Cheka.[68]As Lenin put it: "A Good Communist is also a good Chekist."[68]Sony VGN-CR490EEPC Battery

 

Lenin was enthusiastic about new mass communication technology like the radio and the gramophone and its capacity for educating Russia's mostly illiterate peasant population. Sony VGN-CR490EERC Battery

In 1919 Lenin recorded eight speeches on to gramophone records. During the Nikita Khrushchev era (1953–64), seven were published. The eighth speech, which was not published, outlined Lenin's thoughts on anti-Semitism:[69]Sony VGN-CR490EEWC Battery

 

The tsarist police, in alliance with the landowners and the capitalists, organised pogroms against the Jews. The landowners and capitalists tried to divert the hatred of the workers and peasants who were tortured by want against the Jews. ... Sony VGN-CR490NBB Battery

Sony VGN-CR490NCB Battery

It is not the Jews who are the enemies of the working people. The enemies of the workers are the capitalists of all countries. Among the Jews there are working people, and they form the majority. They are our brothers, who, like us, are oppressed by capital; Sony VGN-CR490NDB Battery

they are our comrades in the struggle for socialism. ... The capitalists strive to sow and foment hatred between workers of different faiths, different nations and different races. ... Sony VGN-CR506 Battery

Rich Jews, like rich Russians, and the rich in all countries, are in alliance to oppress, crush, rob, and disunite the workers. ... Shame on those who foment hatred towards the Jews, who foment hatred towards other nations.[70]Sony VGN-CR506E Battery

Sony VGN-CR506EJ Battery

 

The first occasion was on 14 January 1918 in Petrograd, when assassins ambushed Lenin in his automobile after a speech. He and Fritz Platten were in the back seat when assassins began shooting, and "Platten grabbed Lenin by the head and pushed him down... Platten's hand was covered in blood, having been grazed by a bullet as he was shielding Lenin".[71]Sony VGN-CR507 Battery

Sony VGN-CR507DJ Battery

 

The second event was on 30 August 1918, when the Socialist Revolutionary Fanya Kaplan approached Lenin at his automobile after a speech; he was resting a foot on the running board as he spoke with a woman. Kaplan called to Lenin, and when he turned to face her she shot at him three times. Sony VGN-CR507E Battery

The first bullet struck his arm, the second bullet his jaw and neck, and the third missed him, wounding the woman with whom he was speaking; the wounds felled him and he became unconscious. Sony VGN-CR507EJ Battery

 

Pravda publicly ridiculed Fanya Kaplan as a failed assassin, a latter-day Charlotte Corday (the murderess of Jean-Paul Marat) who could not derail the Russian Revolution, Sony VGN-CR507EJA Battery

reassuring readers that, immediately after surviving the assassination: "Lenin, shot through twice, with pierced lungs spilling blood, refuses help and goes on his own. Sony VGN-CR507ELA Battery

The next morning, still threatened with death, he reads papers, listens, learns, and observes to see that the engine of the locomotive that carries us towards global revolution has not stopped working..."; despite unharmed lungs, the neck wound did spill blood into a lung.[73]Sony VGN-CR507ELC Battery

 

The Russian public remained ignorant of the gravity of the physical wounds of the Soviet Head of State[citation needed]. Other than from panegyrics of immortality (viz. the cult of personality[citation needed]), Sony VGN-CR507EP Battery

they knew nothing about the (second) failed assassination attempt, the assassin, Fanya Kaplan, or about Lenin's health[citation needed]. Historian Richard Pipes reports that "the impression one gains ... is that the Bolsheviks deliberately underplayed the event to convince the public that, Sony VGN-CR507EPC Battery

whatever happened to Lenin, they were firmly in control". Moreover, in a letter to his wife (7 September 1918), Leonid Borisovich Krasin, a Tsarist and Soviet régime diplomat, describes the public atmosphere and social response to the failed assassination attempt on 30 August and to Lenin's survival: Sony VGN-CR507ER Battery

As it happens, the attempt to kill Lenin has made him much more popular than he was. One hears a great many people, who are far from having any sympathy with the Bolsheviks, Sony VGN-CR508 Battery

saying that it would be an absolute disaster if Lenin had succumbed to his wounds, as it was first thought he would. And they are quite right, for, in the midst of all this chaos and confusion, he is the backbone of the new body politic, the main support on which everything rests.[74]Sony VGN-CR508E Battery

 

A cult of personality originated from his having survived the second assassination attempt[citation needed]. This Lenin, per his intellectual origins and pedigree, disliked and discouraged as the revival of superstition; nevertheless, his health, as a fifty-three-year-old man, declined from the effects of the two bullet wounds, later aggravated by three strokes, culminating in his death.[75]Sony VGN-CR508EL Battery

Sony VGN-CR508ELC Battery

 

Red Terror

In response to Fanya Kaplan's failed assassination of Lenin on 30 August 1918, and the successful assassination of the Petrograd Cheka chief Moisei Uritsky, Stalin proposed to Lenin "open and systematic mass terror . . . [against] . . . those responsible"; Sony VGN-CR508ER Battery

the Bolsheviks instructed Felix Dzerzhinsky to commence a Red Terror, announced in the 1 September 1918 issue of the Krasnaya Gazeta (Red Gazette).[76]To that effect, among other acts, at Moscow, execution lists signed by Lenin authorised the shooting of 25 Tsarist ministers, Sony VGN-CR508ERC Battery

civil servants, and 765 White Guards in September 1918.[77]In his Diaries in Exile, 1935, Leon Trotsky recollected that Lenin authorised the execution of the Russian Royal Family.[78]However, according to Greg King and Penny Wilson's investigation into the fate of the Romanovs, Sony VGN-CR509 Battery

Trotsky's recollections on this matter, seventeen years after the events described, are unsubstantiated, inaccurate and contradicted by what Trotsky himself said on other occasions.[79]Sony VGN-CR509D Battery

Most historians say there is enough evidence to prove Lenin ordered the killings.[80]According to the late Soviet historian Dmitri Volkogonov[81]: Sony VGN-CR509DJ Battery

Sony VGN-CR509E Battery

 

Indirect evidence shows that the order to execute the royal family was given verbally by Lenin and Sverdlov. The object of 'exterminating the entire Romanov kin' is confirmed by the almost simultaneous murders of Grand Duchess Yelizaveta Feodorovna, Sony VGN-CR509EJ Battery

Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, Prince Ivan Konstantinovich, Prince Konstantin Konstantinovich, Prince Igor Konstantinovich and Count Vladimir Paley (son of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich), all of them in Alapaevsk, a hundred miles from Yekaterinburg. Sony VGN-CR510 Battery

 

Earlier, in October, Lev Kamenev and cohort, had warned the Party that terrorist rule was inevitable, given Lenin's assumption of sole command.[82]In late 1918, when he and Nikolai Bukharin tried curbing Chekist excesses, Lenin over-ruled them; in 1921, via the Politburo, he expanded the Cheka's discretionary death-penalty powers.[83][84]Sony VGN-CR510D Battery

 

The foreign-aided White Russian counter-revolution failed for want of popular Russian support, because the Bolshevik proletarian state, protected with "mass terror against enemies of the revolution", Sony VGN-CR510DT Battery

was socially organised against the previous capitalist establishment, thus class warfare terrorism in post–Tsarist Russia originated in working class (peasant and worker) anger against the privileged aristocrat classes of the deposed absolute monarchy.[85]Sony VGN-CR510DW Battery

Sony VGN-CR510E Battery

During the Russian Civil War, anti-Bolsheviks faced torture and summary execution, and by May 1919, there were some 16,000 enemies of the people imprisoned in the Tsarist katorga labour camps; by September 1921 the prisoner populace exceeded 70,000.[86][87][88][89][90][91]Sony VGN-CR510EJ Battery

In pursuing their revolution and counter-revolution the White and the Red Russians committed atrocities, against each other and their supporting populaces, Sony VGN-CR510EL Battery

yet contemporary historians disagree about equating the terrorisms—because the Red Terror was Bolshevik Government policy (e.g. Decossackization) against given social classes, Sony VGN-CR510EN Battery

whilst the class-based White Terror was racial and political, against Jews, anti-monarchists, and Communists, (cf. White Movement).[92][93]Such numbers are recorded in cities occupied by the Bolsheviks: Sony VGN-CR510EP Battery

 

In Kharkov there were between 2,000 and 3,000 executions in February–June 1919, and another 1,000-2,000 when the town was taken again in December of that year; in Rostov-on-Don, approximately 1,000 in January 1920; Sony VGN-CR510ER Battery

Sony VGN-CR510ET Battery

in Odessa, 2,200 in May–August 1919, then 1,500-3,000 between February 1920 and February 1921; in Kiev, at least 3,000 in February–August 1919; in Ekaterinodar, at least 3,000 between August 1920 and February 1921; Sony VGN-CR515 Battery

In Armavir, a small town in Kuban, between 2,000 and 3,000 in August–October 1920. The list could go on and on.[94]Sony VGN-CR510EW Battery

 

Professor Christopher Read states that though terror was employed at the height of the Civil War fighting, "from 1920 onwards the resort to terror was much reduced and disappeared from Lenin's mainstream discourses and practices".[95]Sony VGN-CR515E Battery

However, after a clerical insurrection in the town of Shuia, in a 19 March 1922 letter to Vyacheslav Molotov and the Politburo, Lenin delineated action against defiers of the decreed Bolshevik removal of Orthodox Church valuables: Sony VGN-CR515EB Battery

"We must... put down all resistance with such brutality that they will not forget it for several decades... The greater the number of representatives of the reactionary clergy and reactionary bourgeoisie we succeed in executing... the better."[96]Sony VGN-CR520 Battery

Sony VGN-CR520D Battery

As a result of this letter, historian Orlando Figes estimates that perhaps 8,000 priests and laymen were executed.[97]And the crushing of the revolts in Kronstadt and Tambov in 1921 resulted in tens of thousands of executions.[98]Sony VGN-CR520DJ Battery

 

Civil War

Main article: Russian Civil War

In 1917, as an anti-imperialist, Lenin said that oppressed peoples had the unconditional right to secede from the Russian Empire; however, at end of the Civil War, the USSR annexed Armenia, Sony VGN-CR520DL Battery

Georgia, and Azerbaijan, because the White Movement used them as attack bases.[99]Lenin pragmatically defended the annexations as geopolitical protection against capitalist imperial depredations.[100]Sony VGN-CR520DN Battery

 

To maintain the war-isolated cities, keep the armies fed, and to avoid economic collapse, the Bolshevik government established war communism, via prodrazvyorstka, food requisitioning from the peasantry, for little payment, which peasants resisted with reduced harvests. Sony VGN-CR520DP Battery

The Bolsheviks blamed the kulaks' withholding grain to increase profits; but statistics indicate most such business occurred in the black market economy.[101][102]Sony VGN-CR520DR Battery

Nonetheless, the prodrazvyorstka resulted in armed confrontations which the Cheka and Red Army suppressed with shooting hostages, poison gas, and labour-camp deportation; yet Lenin increased the requisitioning.[92][103][104]Sony VGN-CR520DT Battery

 

The six-year long White–Red civil war, the war communism, the famine of 1921, which killed an estimated 5 million, and foreign military intervention reduced much of Russia to ruin, Sony VGN-CR520DW Battery

and provoked rebellion against the Bolsheviks, the greatest being the Tambov rebellion (1919–21). After the March 1921 left-wing Kronstadt Rebellion mutiny, Lenin replaced war communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP), Sony VGN-CR520E Battery

and successfully rebuilt industry and agriculture. The NEP was his pragmatic recognition of the political and economic realities, despite being a tactical, ideological retreat from the socialist ideal; later, the doctrinaire Joseph Stalin reversed the NEP in consolidating his control of the Communist Party and the USSR. Sony VGN-CR520EJ Battery

Sony VGN-CR520EL Battery

 

Lenin and World Revolution

As stated in his Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism Lenin's revolutionary project embraced not just Russia but the world. To implement world revolution the Third or Communist International was convened in Russia in 1919, to replace the discredited Second International.[105]Sony VGN-CR520EN Battery

Sony VGN-CR520EP Battery

Lenin dominated the first, second (1920) and third (1921) Congresses of the International and hoped to use the organisation as an agency of international socialist revolution.[106]Sony VGN-CR520ER Battery

After the failure of revolutionary ambitions in Poland, in the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–21, and after various revolutions in Germany and Eastern Europe in 1919 had been crushed, Lenin, increasingly, saw that anti-colonial struggles in the Third World would be the foci of the revolutionary struggle. In 1923 Lenin said: Sony VGN-CR520ET Battery

Sony VGN-CR520EW Battery

 

The outcome of the struggle will be determined by the fact that Russia, India, China, etc,. account for the overwhelming majority of the population of the globe. Sony VGN-CR525 Battery

And during the last few years it is this majority that has been drawn into the struggle for emancipation with extraordinary rapidity, so that in this respect there cannot be the slightest doubt what the final outcome of the world struggle will be. In this sense the complete victory of socialism is fully and absolutely assured.[107]Sony VGN-CR525E Battery

 

Lenin praised Chinese socialist revolutionary leader Dr. Sun Yatsen and his Kuomintang party for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Dr. Sun, his attempts on social reformation and congratulated him for fighting foreign Imperialism.[108][109][110]Sony VGN-CR525EB Battery

Dr. Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congratulations on the revolution in Russia.[111]The Kuomintang was a nationalist revolutionary party, which had been supported by the Soviet Union. It was organised on Leninism.[112]Sony VGN-CR540 Battery

 

After Lenin's death in 1924, world revolution was soon rejected by his successor Joseph Stalin in favour of Socialism in One Country which contributed to the split with Leon Trotsky. Sony VGN-CR540E Battery

 

The mental strains of leading a revolution, governing, and fighting a civil war aggravated the physical debilitation consequent to the wounds from the attempted assassinations; Lenin retained a bullet in his neck, until a German surgeon removed it on 24 April 1922.[113]Sony VGN-CR540EJ Battery

Among his comrades, Lenin was notable for working almost ceaselessly, fourteen to sixteen hours daily, occupied with minor, major, and routine matters. About the man at his life's end, Volkogonov said: Sony VGN-CR540EL Battery

 

Lenin was involved in the challenges of delivering fuel into Ivanovo-Vosnesensk... the provision of clothing for miners, he was solving the question of dynamo construction, drafted doz

ens of routine documents, orders, trade agreements, Sony VGN-CR540EN Battery

was engaged in the allocation of rations, edited books and pamphlets at the request of his comrades, held hearings on the applications of peat, assisted in improving the workings at the "Novii Lessner" factory, Sony VGN-CR540EP Battery

clarified in correspondence with the engineer P. A. Kozmin the feasibility of using wind turbines for the electrification of villages... all the while serving as an adviser to party functionaries almost continuously.[114]Sony VGN-CR540ER Battery

 

When already sick, Lenin remembered that, since 1917, he had only rested twice: once, whilst hiding from the Kerensky Provisional Government (when he wrote The State and Revolution), and whilst recovering from Fanya Kaplan's failed assassination.[115]Sony VGN-CR540ET Battery

Sony VGN-CR540EW Battery

In March 1922, when physicians examined him, they found evidence of neither nervous nor organic pathology, but, given his fatigue and the headaches he suffered, they prescribed rest. Sony VGN-CR590 Battery

Upon returning to St. Petersburg in May 1922, Lenin suffered the first of three strokes, which left him unable to speak for weeks, and severely hampered motion in his right side; by June, he had substantially recovered. By August he resumed limited duties, Sony VGN-CR590C Battery

delivering three long speeches in November. In December 1922, he suffered the second stroke that partly paralyzed his right side, he then withdrew from active politics. In March 1923, he suffered the third stroke that rendered him mute and bed-ridden until his death. Sony VGN-CR590CE Battery

 

After the first stroke, Lenin dictated government papers to Nadezhda; among them was Lenin's Testament (changing the structure of the soviets), partly inspired by the 1922 Georgian Affair (Russian cultural assimilation of constituent USSR republics[citation needed]), Sony VGN-CR590CN Battery

and it criticised high-rank Communists, including Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin, and Leon Trotsky. About the Communist Party's General Secretary (since 1922), Joseph Stalin, Lenin reported that the "unlimited authority" Sony VGN-CR590E Battery

concentrated in him was unacceptable, and suggested that "comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post." His phrasing, "Сталин слишком груб", implies "personal rudeness, unnecessary roughness, lack of finesse", flaws "intolerable in a Secretary-General".Sony VGN-CR590EAB Battery

 

At Lenin's death, Nadezhda mailed his testament to the central committee, to be read aloud to the 13th Party Congress in May 1924. However, to remain in power, the ruling troika—Stalin, Kamenev, Zinoviev—suppressed Lenin's Testament; it was not published until 1925, Sony VGN-CR590EAL Battery

in the United States, by the American intellectual Max Eastman. In that year, Trotsky published an article minimising the importance of Lenin's Testament, saying that Lenin's notes should not be perceived as a will, that it had been neither concealed, nor violated;[116]yet he did invoke it in later anti-Stalin polemics.[117][118]Sony VGN-CR590EAP Battery

 

Lenin died at 18.50 hrs, Moscow time, on 21 January 1924, aged 53, at his estate at Gorki settlement (later renamed Gorki Leninskiye). In the four days that the Bolshevik Leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin lay in state, Sony VGN-CR590EAR Battery

more than 900,000 mourners viewed his body in the Hall of Columns; among the statesmen who expressed condolences to Russia (the USSR) was Chinese premier Sun Yat-sen, who said: Sony VGN-CR590EAT Battery

 

Through the ages of world history, thousands of leaders and scholars appeared who spoke eloquent words, but these remained words. You, Lenin, were an exception. Sony VGN-CR590EAW Battery

You not only spoke and taught us, but translated your words into deeds. You created a new country. You showed us the road of joint struggle... You, great man that you are, will live on in the memories of the oppressed people through the centuries.[119]Sony VGN-CR590EBB Battery

 

Winston Churchill, who encouraged British intervention against the Russian Revolution, in league with the White Movement, to destroy the Bolsheviks and Bolshevism, said: Sony VGN-CR590EBL Battery

 

He alone could have found the way back to the causeway... The Russian people were left floundering in the bog. Their worst misfortune was his birth... their next worst his death.[120]Sony VGN-CR590EBN Battery

Three days after his death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honour, so remaining until 1991, when the USSR dissolved, yet the administrative area remains "Leningrad Oblast". Sony VGN-CR590EBP Battery

In the early 1920s, the Russian cosmism movement proved so popular that Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov proposed to cryonically preserve Lenin for future resurrection, yet, despite buying the requisite equipment, that was not done.[121]Sony VGN-CR590EBR Battery

Instead, the body of V. I. Lenin was embalmed and permanently exhibited in the Lenin Mausoleum, in Moscow, on 27 January 1924. Sony VGN-CR590EBT Battery

 

Despite the official diagnosis of death from stroke consequences, the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov reported that Lenin died of neurosyphilis, according to a publication by V. Lerner and colleagues in the European Journal of Neurology in 2004. Sony VGN-CR590EBW Battery

The authors also note that "It is possible that future DNA technology applied to Lenin's preserved brain material could ultimately establish or disprove neurosyphilis as the primary cause of Lenin's death."[122]Sony VGN-CR590EDR Battery

 

In January 2011, United Russia party created a website «goodbyelenin.ru» with voting on a question whether Lenin's body should be buried.[123][124]Sony VGN-CR590EEB Battery

 

Lenin's outward appearance was distinguished by simplicity and strength. He was below the middle height, with the plebeian features of the Slavonic type of face, brightened by piercing eyes; and his powerful forehead and still more powerful head gave him a marked distinction.[125]Sony VGN-CR590N Battery

 

According to most reports, in his personal life Lenin was a modest and unassuming man. He liked children and cats and his enthusiasms included bicycling, amateur photography, chess, skating, swimming, hunting, music and hiking.[126]Sony VGN-CR590NA Battery

When in exile in Switzerland, Lenin, accompanied by his wife Krupskaya, developed a considerable passion for mountain walking in the Swiss peaks.[127]Lenin's personal life is documented in detail in his wife's book Memories of Lenin.[128]Sony VGN-CR590NAG Battery

 

Soviet censorship of Lenin

After Lenin's death, the USSR selectively censored his writings, to establish the dogma of the infallibility of Lenin, Stalin (his successor), and the Central Committee;[131]Sony VGN-CR590NBB Battery

thus, the Soviet fifth edition (55 vols., 1958–65) of Lenin's œuvre deleted the Lenin–Stalin contradictions, and all that is unfavourable to the founder of the USSR.[132]Sony VGN-CR590NBP Battery

The historians Richard Pipes and David Brandenberger published a documentary collection of letters and telegrams excluded from the Soviet fifth edition.[133]They proposed them as proof that the Soviet fifth edition is incomplete. Sony VGN-CR590NCB Battery

 

When Lenin died on January 21, 1924, near Moscow, he was acclaimed as "the greatest genius of mankind" and "the leader and teacher of the peoples of the whole world".[10]Sony VGN-CR590NCR Battery

Historian J. Arch Getty has remarked that "Lenin deserves a lot of credit for the notion that the meek can inherit the earth, that there can be a political movement based on social justice and equality".[12]Sony VGN-FZ11E Battery

Time Magazinealso named Lenin one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century,[134]and one of their top 25 political icons of all time; remarking that "for decades, Sony VGN-FZ11L Battery

Marxist-Leninist rebellions shook the world while Lenin's embalmed corpse lay in repose in the Red Square".[135]Following the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, reverence for Lenin declined among the post-Soviet generations, yet he remains an important historical figure for the Soviet-era generations.[136]Sony VGN-FZ11M Battery

According to the article in Encyclopædia Britannica written by Professor of Northern Illinois University Albert Resis[137]: Sony VGN-FZ11S Battery

If the Bolshevik Revolution is-as some people have called it-the most significant political event of the 20th century, then Lenin must for good or ill be considered the century's most significant political leader. Sony VGN-FZ11Z Battery

Not only in the scholarly circles of the former Soviet Union, but even among many non-Communist scholars, he has been regarded as both the greatest revolutionary leader and revolutionary statesman in history, as well as the greatest revolutionary thinker since Marx

Sony VGN-FZ130E/B Battery

Sony VGN-FZ130E Battery

Sony VGN-FZ130EB Battery

Sony VGN-FZ140E/B Battery

Sony VGN-FZ140E Battery

Sony VGN-FZ140EB Battery

Sony VGN-FZ140N/B Battery

Sony VGN-FZ140N Battery

Sony VGN-FZ140QE Battery

Sony VGN-FZ145E Battery

Sony VGN-FZ15 Series Battery

 

Partager cet article

Repost 0
Published by batterys
commenter cet article

commentaires