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Walter Raleigh Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known for certain of his early life, though he spent some time in Ireland, in Killua Castle, Clonmellon, County Westmeath, taking part in the suppression of rebellions and participating in the Siege of Smerwick. Later he became a landlord of properties confiscated from the native Irish. HP Pavilion dv5-1211ea Laptop Keyboard He rose rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I, and was knighted in 1585. He was involved in the early English colonisation of Virginia under a royal patent. In 1591 he secretly marriedElizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London. After his release, they retired to his estate at Sherborne, Dorset. HP G62-b25SA Laptop Keyboard In 1594 Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z Laptop Keyboard this time for allegedly being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, who was not favourably disposed toward him. In 1616 he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. This was unsuccessful and men under his command ransacked a Spanish outpost. He returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, was arrested and executed in 1618. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard Little is known about Raleigh's birth. Some historians believe Raleigh was born on January 22, 1552, although the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography currently favours a date of 1554.[2] He grew up in the house of Hayes Barton,[3] a farmhouse in the village of East Budleigh, not far from Budleigh Salterton, in Devon, England. He was the youngest of five sons born to Catherine Champernowne in two successive marriages. SONY VAIO VGN-FS485B Laptop Keyboard His half brothers, John Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert, Adrian Gilbert, and full brother Carew Raleigh were also prominent during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Catherine Champernowne was a niece of Kat Ashley, Elizabeth's governess, who introduced the young men at court.[4]Lenovo 3000 N100 0768 Laptop Keyboard Raleigh's family was highly Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near-escapes during the reign of the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England. In the most notable of these, Raleigh's father had to hide in a tower to avoid execution. As a result, during his childhood, Raleigh developed a hatred of Roman Catholicism and proved himself quick to express it after the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England came to the throne in 1558. HP Pavilion dv6-3113st Laptop Keyboard In 1568 or 1572, Raleigh was registered as an undergraduate at Oriel College, Oxford but does not seem to have taken up residence. In 1575, he was registered at the Middle Temple. At his trial in 1603, he stated that he had never studied law. His life between these two dates is uncertain but in his History of the World Raleigh claimed to be an eye-witness at theBattle of Moncontour (3 October 1569) in France.[5] In 1575 or 1576 Raleigh returned to England.[6]SAMSUNG Q330-JA02 Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Between 1579 and 1583, Raleigh took part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions. He was present at the siege of Smerwick. Upon the seizure and distribution of land following the attainders arising from the rebellion, Raleigh received 40,000 acres (160 km2), including the coastal walled towns of Youghaland Lismore. This made him one of the principal landowners in Munster, but he enjoyed limited success in inducing English tenants to settle on his estates. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard During his seventeen years as an Irish landlord, frequently domiciling at Killua Castle, Clonmellon, county Westmeath, Raleigh made the town of Youghal his occasional home. He was mayor there from 1588 to 1589. He is credited with having planted the first potatoes in Ireland[citation needed], but it is far more likely that the plant arrived in Ireland through trade with the Spanish. His town mansion, Myrtle Grove, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard is assumed to be the setting for the story that his servant doused him with a bucket of water after seeing clouds of smoke coming from Raleigh's pipe, in the belief he had been set alight. But this story is also told of other places associated with Raleigh: the Virginia Ash inn in Henstridge near Sherborne, Sherborne Castle, and South Wraxall Manor in Wiltshire, home of Raleigh's friend, Sir Walter Long. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5111 Laptop Keyboard Amongst Raleigh's acquaintances in Munster was another Englishman who had been granted land there, the poet Edmund Spenser. In the 1590s, he and Raleigh travelled together from Ireland to the court at London, where Spenser presented part of his allegorical poem, the Faerie Queene, to Elizabeth I. ACER Aspire 5336 Laptop Keyboard Raleigh's management of his Irish estates ran into difficulties, which contributed to a decline in his fortunes. In 1602, he sold the lands to Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, who subsequently prospered under kings James I and Charles I. Following Raleigh's death, members of his family approached Boyle for compensation on the ground that Raleigh had struck an improvident bargain. SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard Raleigh's plan in 1584 for colonisation in the "Colony and Dominion of Virginia" in North America ended in failure at Roanoke Island, but paved the way for subsequent colonies.[7] His voyages were funded primarily by himself and his friends, and never provided the steady stream of revenue necessary to start and maintain a colony in America. (Subsequent colonisation attempts in the early 17th century were made under the joint-stock Virginia Company, which was able to collect the capital necessary to create successful colonies.)  SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard In 1587, Raleigh attempted a second expedition, again establishing a settlement on Roanoke Island. This time, a more diverse group of settlers was sent, including some entire families, under the governance of John White. After a short while in America, White was recalled to England to find more supplies for the colony. He was unable to return the following year as planned, however, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard because the Queen had ordered that all vessels remain at port for potential use against the Spanish Armada. The threat of the Armada was only partially responsible for delaying White's return until 1590. After England's victory over the Spanish fleet in 1588, the ships were given permission to sail. Unfortunately for the colonists at Roanoke, the small fleet made an excursion toward CubaSONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard . They tried to capture the treasure-laden Spanish merchant ships reported to proliferate in those waters at that time. White is said to have objected to this unplanned foray, but was helpless to dissuade the crews. They had been told by the experienced Portuguese pilot hired by Raleigh to navigate the voyage of enormous riches to be had. It was not until 1590, 3 years after White left, that the supply vessel arrived at the colony – only to find that all colonists had disappeared. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard The only clue to their fate was the word "CROATOAN" and letters "CRO" carved into other tree trunks. White had arranged with the settlers that if they should relocate, the name of their destination be carved into a tree or corner-post. This suggested the possibilities that they had relocated to Croatoan Island (now Hatteras Island). But a hurricane prevented John White from investigating the island for survivors. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Other speculation includes their having starved, or been swept away or lost at sea during the stormy weather of 1588. No further attempts at contact were recorded for some years. Whatever the fate of the settlers, the settlement is now remembered as the "Lost Colony of Roanoke Island".HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard

1580s

In December 1581, Raleigh returned to England from Ireland to despatches as his company had been disbanded. He took part in Court life and became a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I. Various colourful stories are told about him at this period, but they are likely apocryphal.[8][9] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 1585 Raleigh was knighted and was appointed warden of the stannaries, that is of the mines of Cornwall and Devon, Lord Lieutenant of Cornwall, and vice-admiral of the two counties. Both in 1585 and 1586, he sat in parliament as member forDevonshire.[10]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Raleigh commissioned the shipbuilder R. Chapman, of Deptford to build a ship for him. Originally called Ark, it became Ark Raleigh, following the convention at the time by which the ship bore the name of its owner. The Crown, in the form of Queen Elizabeth I, purchased the ship from Raleigh in January 1587, for the sum of £5,000 (£941,340 as of 2012),[11] (This took the form of a reduction in the sum Sir Walter owed the queen: he received Exchequer tallies, but no money). As a result, the ship was renamed Ark Royal.[12]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1592, Raleigh was given many rewards by the Queen, including Durham House in the Strand and the estate of Sherborne, Dorset. He was appointed Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard. However, he had not been given any of the great offices of state. In the Armada year of 1588, Raleigh was appointed Vice Admiral of Devon, looking after the coastal defences and military levies.  SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard In 1591, Raleigh was secretly married to Elizabeth "Bess" Throckmorton (or Throgmorton). She was one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, eleven years his junior, and was pregnant at the time. She gave birth to a son, believed to be named Damerei, who was given to a wet nurse at Durham House, but died in October 1592 of plague. Bess resumed her duties to the queen. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The following year, the unauthorised marriage was discovered and the Queen ordered Raleigh imprisoned and Bess dismissed from court. Both were imprisoned in the Tower of London in June 1592. He was released from prison in August 1592 to divide the spoils from the captured Spanish ship Madre de Dios (Mother of God). Bess was released in December.  HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard It would be several years before Raleigh returned to favour. The couple remained devoted to each other. During Raleigh's absences, Bess proved a capable manager of the family's fortunes and reputation. They had two more sons, Walter (known as Wat) and Carew. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Raleigh was elected a burgess of Mitchell, Cornwall, in the parliament of 1593.[2] He retired to his estate at Sherborne where he built a new house, completed in 1594, known then as Sherborne Lodge. Since extended, it is now known as Sherborne (new) Castle. He made friends with the local gentry, such as Sir Ralph Horsey of Clifton Maybank and Charles Thynne ofLongleat.  ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard During this period at a dinner party at Horsey's, there was a heated discussion about religion. The argument later gave rise to charges of atheism against Raleigh. He was elected to Parliament, speaking on religious and naval matters.  ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 1594, he came into possession of a Spanish account of a great golden city at the headwaters of the Caroní River. A year later he explored what is now Guyana and eastern Venezuela in search of Manoa, the legendary city. Once back in England, he published The Discovery of Guiana[13] (1596) an account of his voyage which made exaggerated claims as to what had been discovered. HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard The book can be seen as a contribution to the El Dorado legend. Although Venezuela has gold deposits, there is no evidence Raleigh found any mines. He is sometimes said to have discovered Angel Falls, but these claims are considered far-fetched.[14]HP 365485-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1596 Raleigh took part in the capture of Cádiz, where he was wounded. He was also the second-in-command of the Islands Voyageto the Azores in 1597. In 1597, he was chosen member of parliament for Dorset, and, in 1601, for Cornwall.[10] He was unique in the Elizabethan period in sitting for three counties.[2]HP HDX18T-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard From 1600 to 1603, as Governor of the Channel Island of Jersey, Raleigh modernised its defences. This included construction of a new fort protecting the approaches to Saint Helier, Fort Isabella Bellissima, or Elizabeth CastleASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard

Trial and imprisonment

Royal favour with Queen Elizabeth had been restored by this time but did not last. The Queen died in 1603, and Raleigh was arrested at Exeter Inn, Ashburton, Devon and imprisoned in theTower of London on 19 July. On 17 November, Raleigh was tried in the converted Great Hall ofWinchester Castle for treason, due to alleged involvement in the Main Plot against King James. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard Raleigh conducted his defence with great skill. The chief evidence against Raleigh was the signed and sworn confession ofHenry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham. Raleigh frequently requested that Cobham be called in to testify so that he might recant, "[Let] my accuser come face to face, and be deposed. Were the case but for a small copyhold, you would have witnesses or good proof to lead the jury to a verdict; HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop Keyboard and I am here for my life!" Raleigh essentially was objecting that the evidence against him was "hearsay"; but the tribunal refused to allow Cobham to testify and be cross examined (1 Criminal Trials 400, 400–511, 1850). Although hearsay was frowned upon under the common law, Raleigh was tried under civil law, which allowed hearsay. King James spared his life, despite a guilty verdict. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard He remained in the Tower until 1616. While imprisoned, he wrote many treatises and the first volume of The Historie of the World (London, 1628)[15] about the ancient history of Greece and Rome. His son Carew was conceived and born (1604) while Raleigh was imprisoned in the Tower. DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard In 1616, Raleigh was released to conduct a second expedition to Venezuela in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, Raleigh's men, under the command ofLawrence Keymis, attacked the Spanish outpost of Santo Tomé de Guayana (San Tomé) on the Orinoco River. In the initial attack on the settlement, Raleigh's son Walter was killed by a bullet. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard On Raleigh's return to England, the outraged Count Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, successfully demanded that King James reinstate Raleigh's death sentence. Raleigh was brought to London from Plymouth, by Sir Lewis Stukeley, and passed up numerous opportunities to make an effective escape.[16][17]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard Raleigh was beheaded in the Old Palace Yard at the Palace of Westminster on 29 October 1618. "Let us dispatch", he said to his executioner. "At this hour my ague comes upon me. I would not have my enemies think I quaked from fear." After he was allowed to see the axe that would behead him, he mused: "This is a sharp Medicine, but it is a Physician for all diseases and miseries." According to many biographers – Raleigh Trevelyan in his book Sir Walter Raleigh (2002) for instance – Sir Walter's final words (as he lay ready for the axe to fall) were: "Strike, man, strike!"[18]DELL PK130BB1A01 Laptop Keyboard Having been one of the people to popularise tobacco smoking in England, he left a small tobacco box, found in his cell shortly after his execution. Engraved upon the box was a Latin inscription: Comes meus fuit illo miserrimo tempo (It was my companion at that most miserable time).[19]HP Pavilion dv6-3110se Laptop Keyboard Raleigh's head was embalmed and presented to his wife. His body was to be buried in the local church in Beddington, Surrey, the home of Lady Raleigh, but was finally laid to rest in St. Margaret's, Westminster, where his tomb may still be visited today.[20] "The Lords", she wrote, "have given me his dead body, though they have denied me his life. God hold me in my wits."[21] HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard It has been said that Lady Raleigh kept her husband's head in a velvet bag until her death.[22] After his wife's death 29 years later, Raleigh's head was returned to his tomb and interred at St. Margaret's Church.[23]HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Although Raleigh's popularity had waned considerably since his Elizabethan heyday, his execution was seen by many, both at the time and since, as unnecessary and unjust. Any involvement in the Main Plot appears to have been limited to a meeting with Lord Cobham.[24] One of the judges at his trial later said: "The justice of England has never been so degraded and injured as by the condemnation of the honourable Sir Walter Raleigh."[25]HP 540 Laptop Keyboard Legacy The state capital of North Carolina and its second largest city was named Raleigh in 1792 for Sir Walter, sponsor of the Roanoke Colony. In the city a bronze statue, which has been moved around different locations within the city, was made in honor of the city's namesake. The "Lost Colony" is commemorated at the Fort Raleigh National Historic Site on Roanoke Island, North Carolina. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard Raleigh's poetry is written in the relatively straightforward, unornamented mode known as the plain style. C. S. Lewisconsidered Raleigh one of the era's "silver poets", a group of writers who resisted the Italian Renaissance influence of dense classical reference and elaborate poetic devices. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In poems such as "What is Our Life" and "The Lie", Raleigh expresses a contemptus mundi (contempt of the world) attitude more characteristic of the Middle Ages than of the dawning era of humanistic optimism. But, his lesser-known long poem "The Ocean to Cynthia" combines this vein with the more elaborate conceits associated with his contemporaries Edmund Spenser and John Donne, expressing a melancholy sense of history. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard A minor poem of Raleigh's captures the atmosphere of the court at the time of Queen Elizabeth I. His response to Christopher Marlowe's "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" was "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd". "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" was written in 1592, while Raleigh's "The Nymph's Reply to The Shepherd" was written four years later. Both were written in the style of traditional pastoral poetry. They follow the same structure of six four-line stanzas employing a rhyme scheme of AABB. HP 633183-001 Laptop Keyboardlady-in-waiting is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a queen, a princess, or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman from a family highly thought of in good society, but was of lower rank than the woman whom she attended. Although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, she was considered more of a companion than a servant to her mistress. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Lady-in-waiting is often a generic term for women whose relative rank, title and official functions varied, although such distinctions were also often honorary. A royal woman may or may not be free to select her ladies, and even when she has such freedom her choices have historically been constrained by the sovereign, her parents, her husband or the sovereign's ministers as, for example, in the so-called Bedchamber crisis. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard The duties of ladies-in-waiting varied from court to court, but functions historically discharged by ladies-in-waiting included proficiency in the etiquette, languages, and dances prevalent at court; secretarial tasks; reading to and writing correspondence on behalf of her mistress; embroidery, painting, horse riding, music making and participation in other queenly pastimes; wardrobe care; supervision of servants; keeping her mistress abreast of activities and personages at court, and discreetly relaying messages upon command.  HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard Britain Female relatives were often appointed on the presumption that they could be trusted as confidantes to the queen; Lady Margaret Lee was a Lady of the Privy Chamber to Queen Anne Boleyn, just as Lady Elizabeth Seymour-Cromwell was to Queen Jane Seymour. The duties of ladies-in-waiting at the Tudor court were to act as royal companions, DELL Inspiron N4110 Laptop Keyboard and to accompany the Queen wherever she went. Tudor queens often had wide personal latitude in selection of their ladies-in-waiting. Usually ladies-in-waiting came from families that were highly thought of in good society; the nobility, court officials, knights and military officers, or trusted provincial supporters of the dynasty. SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard In the current Royal Household of the United Kingdom the term Lady-in-Waiting is used to describe a woman attending a female member of the Royal Family other than the Queen Regnant or Queen Consort. An attendant upon one of the latter is styled Lady of the Bedchamber or Woman of the Bedchamber, and the senior lady-in-waiting is the Mistress of the Robes. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170P Laptop Keyboard The Women are in regular attendance, but the Mistress of the Robes and the Ladies of the Bedchamber are normally required only for ceremonial occasions. There were formerly three offices, including Maids of Honour whose service entitled them to the style of The Honourablefor life.[1]TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands has a total of seven Hofdames. They accompany the Queen and the other female members of the Royal House during visits and receptions at the Royal Court. The monarch pays for their expenses, but they do not receive any salary. Not all of these ladies are members of the Dutch aristocracy, but each has a "notable" husband. Excellent social behavior and discretion is the most important recommendation for becoming a Hofdame.  SONY 147859811 Laptop Keyboard In 2012 theHofdames were Ietje van Karnebeek-van Lede, Lieke Gaarlandt-van Voorst van Beest, Julie Jeekel-Thate, Miente Boellaard-Stheeman, Jonkvrouwe Reina de Blocq van Scheltinga, Elizabeth Baroness van Wassenaer-Mersmans and Bibi Baroness van Zuylen van Nijevelt-Jonkvrouwe den Beer Poortugael.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard The Grootmeesteres (Grandmistress) is the highest-ranking lady at the Royal Court. Since 1984 the position has been held by Martine van Loon-Labouchere, descendant of the famous banker family, a former diplomat and the widow of Jonkheer Maurits van Loon of the famous Amsterdam canal estate. After their voluntary retirement, Hofdames are appointed to the honorary Royal Household. The honorary Royal Household still distinguishes between Dames du Palais and Hofdames, but the category Dames du Palais is slated for discontinuation. DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard In Cambodia, the term "ladies-in-waiting" refers to high ranking female servants who served food and drink, fanned and massaged, and sometimes provided sexual services to the King. Conventionally, these women could work their way up from maids to ladies-in-waiting, concubines, or even queen consort. However, the six favorite court ladies of King Sisowath of Cambodia were probably initially drawn from the ranks of classical royal dancers of the lower class. He was noted for having the most classical dancers as concubines. HP 365485-001 Laptop Keyboard The imperial celestial dancer, Apsara, was one of these. This practice of drawing from the ranks of royal dancers began in the Golden Age of the Khmer Kingdom. Srey Snom (Khmer: ស្រីស្នំ) is the Cambodian term used to describe the Khmer "lady-in-waiting".DELL Studio 15 Laptop Keyboard Gungnyeo (literally "palace women") is a Korean term referring to women who wait upon the King and other royalty in traditional Korean society. It is short forgungjung yeogwan, which translates as "a lady officer of the royal court". Gungnyeo includes sanggung (palace matron) and nain (assistant court ladies), FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard both of whom hold rank as officers. The term is also used more broadly to encompass women in a lower class without a rank, such as musuri (lowest maids in charge of odd chores), gaksimi, sonnim, uinyeo (female physicians), as well as nain and sanggung. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard El Dorado (pronounced: [el doˈɾaðo], English /ˌɛl dəˈrɑːdoʊ/; Spanish for "the golden one") is the name of a Muisca tribal chief who covered himself with gold dust and, as an initiation rite, dove into a highland lake[citation needed]. Later it became the name of a legendary "Lost City of Gold", which fascinated explorers since the days of the Spanish Conquistadors. No evidence for its existence has been found. HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard Imagined as a place, El Dorado became a kingdom, an empire, and the city of this legendary golden king. In pursuit of the legend, Francisco Orellana and Gonzalo Pizarro departed from Quito in 1541 in a famous and disastrous expedition towards the Amazon Basin, as a result of which Orellana became the first person known to navigate the Amazon River all the way to its mouth. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard The original narrative is to be found in the rambling chronicle, El Carnero, of Juan Rodriguez Freyle. According to Freyle, the king or chief priest of the Muisca was said to be ritually covered with gold dust at a religious festival held in Lake Guatavita, near present-day Bogotá Colombia. In 1638 Juan Rodriguez Troxell wrote this account, addressed to the cacique or governor of Guatavita: SONY VAIO VGN-AW31S Laptop Keyboard The ceremony took place on the appointment of a new ruler. Before taking office, he spent some time secluded in a cave, without women, forbidden to eat salt, or to go out during daylight. The first journey he had to make was to go to the great lagoon of Guatavita, to make offerings and sacrifices to the demon which they worshipped as their god and lord. During the ceremony which took place at the lagoon, DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard they made a raft of rushes, embellishing and decorating it with the most attractive things they had. They put on it four lighted braziers in which they burned much moque, which is the incense of these natives, and also resin and many other perfumes. The lagoon was large and deep, so that a ship with high sides could sail on it, all loaded with an infinity of men and women dressed in fine plumes, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard golden plaques and crowns.... As soon as those on the raft began to burn incense, they also lit braziers on the shore, so that the smoke hid the light of day. At this time they stripped the heir to his skin, and anointed him with a sticky earth on which they placed gold dust so that he was completely covered with this metal. They placed him on the raft ... and at his feet they placed a great heap of gold and emeralds for him to offer to his god. In the raft with him went four principal subject chiefs, decked in plumes, crowns, bracelets, pendants and ear rings all of gold. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard They, too, were naked, and each one carried his offering .... when the raft reached the centre of the lagoon, they raised a banner as a signal for silence. The gilded Indian then ... [threw] out all the pile of gold into the middle of the lake, and the chiefs who had accompanied him did the same on their own accounts. ... After this they lowered the flag, which had remained up during the whole time of offering, HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard and, as the raft moved towards the shore, the shouting began again, with pipes, flutes, and large teams of singers and dancers. With this ceremony the new ruler was received, and was recognized as lord and king. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard The Muisca towns and their treasures quickly fell to the conquistadores. Taking stock of their newly won territory, the Spaniards realized that — in spite of the quantity of gold in the hands of the Indians — there were no golden cities, nor even rich mines, since the Muiscas obtained all their gold in trade. But at the same time, the Spanish began to hear stories of El Dorado from captured Indians, and of the rites which used to take place at the lagoon of Guatavita. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Expeditions

El Dorado is applied to a legendary story in which precious stones were found in fabulous abundance along with gold coins. The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, and eventually accounts of the previous myth were also combined with those of the legendary city. The resulting El Dorado enticed European explorers for two centuries. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Among the earliest stories was the one told by Diego de Ordaz's lieutenant Martinez, who claimed to have been rescued from shipwreck, conveyed inland, and entertained by "El Dorado" himself (1531). During the Klein-Venedig period in Venezuela (1528 - 1546), agents of the Welser banking family (which had received a concession from Charles I of Spain) launched repeated expeditions into the interior of the country in search of El Dorado. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard In 1540 Gonzalo Pizarro, the younger half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, was made the governor of the provenance of Quito in northern Ecuador. Shortly after taking lead in Quito, Gonzalo learned from many of the natives of a valley far to the east rich in both cinnamon and gold. He banded together 340 soldiers and about 4000 natives in 1541 and led them eastward down the Rio Coca and Rio Napo. FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard Francisco de Orellana, Gonzalo’s nephew, accompanied his uncle on this expedition. Gonzalo quit after many of the soldiers and natives had died from hunger, disease, and periodic attacks by hostile natives. He ordered Orellana to continue downstream, where he eventually made it to the Atlantic Ocean, discovering the Amazon (named Amazon because of a tribe of female warriors that attacked Orellana’s men while on their voyage.) TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard Other expeditions include that of Philipp von Hutten (1541–1545), who led an exploring party from Coro on the coast of Venezuela; and of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, the Governor of El Dorado, who started from Bogotá (1569). HP 536537-001 Laptop Keyboard Sir Walter Raleigh, who resumed the search in 1595, described El Dorado as a city on Lake Parime far up the Orinoco River inGuyana. This city on the lake was marked on English and other maps until its existence was disproved by Alexander von Humboldt during his Latin-America expedition (1799–1804).[1]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Metaphor

In the mythology of the Muisca today, gold (Mnya) represents the energy contained in the trinity of Chiminigagua, which constitutes the creative power of everything that exists. Chiminigagua is, along with Bachué, Cuza, Chibchachum, Bochica, andNemcatacoa, one of the creators of the universe. ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile, the name of El Dorado came to be used metaphorically of any place where wealth could be rapidly acquired. It was given to El Dorado County, California, and to towns and cities in various states. It has also been anglicized to the single word Eldorado. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard In literature, frequent allusion is made to the legend, perhaps the best-known references being those in Milton's Paradise Lost (Book xi. 408-411) and in Voltaire's Candide (chs. 18, 19). "Eldorado" was the title and subject of a four-stanza poem by Edgar Allan Poe. In the 1966 John Wayne film El Dorado, most of Poe's poem is recited by the character nicknamed Mississippi and is lyrics in the film's title song.[2] El Dorado is also referenced in Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness. Within Conrad's work, the Eldorado Exploring Expedition journeys into the jungles of Africa in search of conquest and treasure, only to meet an untimely demise. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-S5151 Laptop Keyboard El Dorado is also sometimes used as a metaphor to represent an ultimate prize or "Holy Grail" that one might spend one's life seeking. It could represent true love, heaven, happiness, or success. It is used sometimes as a figure of speech to represent something much sought after that may not even exist, or, at least, may not ever be found. Such use is evident in Poe's poem "El Dorado".TOSHIBA P205-S6347 Laptop Keyboard In this context, El Dorado bears similarity to other myths such as the Fountain of Youthand Shangri-la. The disillusionment side of the ideal quest metaphor may be represented by Helldorado, a satirical nickname given to Tombstone by a tardy miner who complained that many of his profession had traveled far to find El Dorado, only to wind up washing dishes in restaurants. COMPAQ Presario CQ50-209WM Laptop Keyboard Werner Herzog's film, Aguirre, the Wrath of God, also explores the El Dorado metaphor. The main character, Lope de Aguirre, is historically based, but is actually an amalgam of Aguirre and Francisco de Orellana, mentioned in the historical section, above. ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The south of Ireland (the provinces of Munster and southern Leinster) was dominated, as it had been for over two centuries, by the Old English Butlers ofOrmonde and the FitzGeralds of Desmond, who maintained feudal principalities. Both houses raised their own armed forces and imposed their own law, a mixture of Irish and English customs independent of the English government of Ireland. Beginning in the 1530s, successive English administrations in Ireland tried to expand English control over the entire island (See Tudor conquest of Ireland). Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard By the 1560s, their attention had turned to the south of Ireland and Henry Sidney, as Lord Deputy of Ireland, was charged with establishing the authority of the English government over the independent lordships there. His solution was the formation of "lord presidencies"—provincial military governors who would replace the local lords as military powers and keepers of the peace. SONY VAIO VGN-AR170 Laptop Keyboard The local dynasties saw the presidencies as intrusions into their sphere of influence, and into their traditional violent competition with each other. This had seen the Butlers and FitzGeralds fight a pitched battle against each other at Affane in County Waterford in 1565. This was a blatant defiance of the Elizabethan state's law. Elizabeth I summoned the heads of both houses to London to explain their actions. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard However, the treatment of the dynasties was not even handed.Thomas Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormonde — who was the Queen's cousin — was pardoned, while both Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond (in 1567) and his brother, John of Desmond, widely regarded as the real military leader of the FitzGeralds, (in 1568) were arrested and detained in the Tower of London on Ormonde’s urging.  HP Pavilion G60-230 Laptop Keyboard This decapitated the natural leadership of the Munster Geraldines and left the Desmond Earldom in the hands of a soldier, James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, the "captain general" of the Desmond military. Fitzmaurice had little stake in a new de-militarised order in Munster, which envisaged the abolition of the Irish lords’ private armies. TOSHIBA Satellite L755D-SP5165RM Laptop Keyboard A factor that drew wider support for Fitzmaurice was the prospect of land confiscations, which had been mooted by Sidney and Peter Carew, an English claimant to lands granted to an ancestor just after the Norman conquest of Ireland that were lost soon afterwards. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X41 Tablet Laptop Keyboard This ensured Fitzmaurice the support of important clans, notably MacCarthy Mor, O'Sullivan Beare and O'Keefe and two prominent Butlers –brothers of the Earl. Fitzmaurice himself had lost the land he had held at Kerricurrihy in County Cork, which had been leased instead to English colonists. He was also a devout Catholic, influenced by the counter-reformation, which made him see the Protestant Elizabethan governors as his enemies.  HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard To discourage Sidney from going ahead with the Lord Presidency for Munster and to re-establish Desmond primacy over the Butlers, he planned a rebellion against the English presence in the south and against the Earl of Ormonde. Fitzmaurice however had wider aims than simply the recovery of FitzGerald supremacy within the context of the English Kingdom of Ireland. Before the rebellion, he secretly sent Maurice MacGibbon, Catholic Archbishop of Cashel, to seek military aid from Philip II of Spain. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Fitzmaurice launched his rebellion by attacking the English colony at Kerrycurihy south of Cork city in June 1569 before attacking Cork itself and those native lords who refused to join the rebellion. Fitzmaurice’s force of up to 4,500 men went on to besiege Kilkenny, seat of the Earls of Ormonde in July. In response, Sidney mobilised 600 English troops, who marched south from Dublin and another 400 troops landed by sea in Cork. Thomas Butler,  DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard Earl of Ormonde returned from London, where he had been at court, brought the rebel Butlers out of the rebellion and mobilised Gaelic Irish clans antagonistic to the Geraldines. Together, Ormonde, Sidney and Humphrey Gilbert, HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard appointed as governor of Munster, began devastating the lands of Fitzmaurice's allies. Fitzmaurice's forces broke up, as individual lords had to retire to defend their own territories. Gilbert in particular was notorious for the terror tactics he employed, killing civilians at random and setting up corridors of severed heads at the entrance to his camps. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Sidney forced Fitzmaurice into the mountains of Kerry, from where he launched hit and run attacks on the English and their allies. By 1570, most of Fitzmaurice's allies had submitted to Sidney. The most important, Donal MacCarthy Mor, surrendered in November 1569. Nevertheless, the guerrilla campaign dragged on for three more years. In February 1571, John Perrot was made Lord President of Munster, pHP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard ursuing Fitzmaurice with 700 troops for over a year without success. Fitzmaurice had some victories, capturing an English ship near Kinsale and burning the town of Kilmallock in 1571, for example, but by early 1573, his force was reduced to less than 100 men. Fitzmaurice finally submitted on February 23, 1573, having negotiated a pardon for his life. However in 1574, he again became landless and in 1575 he sailed to France to seek help from the Catholic powers to start another rebellion. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, and his brother John were released from prison to stabilise the situation and to reconstruct their shattered territory. Under a new settlement imposed after the rebellion, known as "composition", the Desmond’s military forces were limited by law to just 20 horsemen; their tenants were made to pay rent to them rather supply military service or to quarter their soldiers. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Perhaps the biggest winner of the first Desmond Rebellion was the Earl of Ormonde, who established himself as loyal to the English Crown and as the most powerful lord in the south of Ireland. Although all of the local chiefs had submitted by the end of the rebellion, the methods used to suppress it provoked lingering resentment, especially among the Irish mercenaries; gall oglaigh or "gallowglass" as the English termed them, who had rallied to Fitzmaurice.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard William Drury, the new Lord President of Munster from 1576, executed around 700 of them in the years after the rebellion. Furthermore, in the aftermath of the rebellion, Gaelic customs such as Brehon Laws, Irish dress, bardic poetry and the maintaining of private armies were again outlawed – things that were highly provocative to traditional Irish society. Fitzmaurice, by contrast, had deliberately emphasised the Gaelic character of the rebellion, SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard wearing the Irish dress, speaking only Irish and referring to himself as the captain (taoiseach) of the Geraldines. Finally, Irish landowners continued to be threatened by the arrival of English colonists.[clarification needed] All of these factors meant that, when Fitzmaurice returned from continental Europe to start a new rebellion, there were plenty of discontented people in Munster waiting to join him.  Lenovo 45N2141 Laptop Keyboard In late 1569 a similar Catholic rebellion, the "Northern Rebellion," broke out in England, but was quickly crushed. This and the Desmond Rebellion caused the Pope to issue "Regnans in Excelsis", excommunicating Elizabeth and depriving her of the allegiance of her Catholic subjects, in early 1570. Elizabeth's regime had previously accepted discreet Roman Catholic worship in private; afterwards it suppressed organised Catholicism more severely. DELL Inspiron N4110 Laptop Keyboard Second Desmond Rebellion The second Desmond rebellion was sparked when James Fitzmaurice FitzGerald launched an invasion of Munster in 1579. During his exile in Europe, he had reinvented himself as a soldier of the counter-reformation, arguing that since the Pope's excommunication of Elizabeth I in 1570 Irish Catholics no longer owed loyalty to a heretic monarch. The Pope granted Fitzmaurice an "indulgence" and supplied him with troops and money. HP Mini 210-1156SA Laptop Keyboard Fitzmaurice landed at Smerwick, near Dingle(modern County Kerry) on July 18, 1579 with a small force of Spanish and Italian troops. He was joined in rebellion on August 1 by John of Desmond, a brother of the Earl, who had a large following among his kinsmen and the disaffected swordsmen of Munster. Other Gaelic clans and Old English families also joined in the rebellion. After Fitzmaurice was killed in a skirmish with the Clanwilliam Burkes on 18 August, John FitzGerald assumed leadership of the rebellion. ACER Aspire 5553G Laptop Keyboard Gerald, the Earl of Desmond, initially resisted the call of the rebels and tried to remain neutral but gave in once the authorities had proclaimed him atraitor. The Earl joined the rebellion by sacking the towns of Youghal (on November 13) and Kinsale, and devastated the country of the English and their allies. However, by the summer of 1580, English troops under William Pelham and locally raised Irish forces under the Earl of Ormonde succeeded in bringing the rebellion under control,  ASUS A3 Laptop Keyboard re-taking the south coast, destroying the lands of the Desmonds and their allies in the process, and killing their tenants. By capturing Carrigafoyle at Easter 1580, the principal Desmond castle at the mouth of Shannon river, they cut off the Geraldine forces from the rest of the country and prevented a landing of foreign troops into the main Munster ports. It looked as if the rebellion was fizzling out. HP Pavilion dv6-3111sa Laptop Keyboard However, in July 1580, the rebellion spread to Leinster, under the leadership of Gaelic Irish chieftain Fiach MacHugh O'Byrne and the Pale lord Viscount Baltinglass, both motivated by Catholicism and hostility to the English administration. A large English force under the Lord Deputy of Ireland Earl Grey de Wilton was sent to subdue them, only to be ambushed and massacred at the battle of Glenmalure on 25 August, losing over 800 dead. However, the Leinster rebels were unable to capitalise on their victory or to effectively coordinate their strategy with the Munster insurgents. DELL AEUM8U00010 Laptop Keyboard On 10 September 1580, 600 papal troops landed at Smerwick in Kerry to support the rebellion, but were besieged in a fort at Dún an Óir. They surrendered after two days of bombardment and were then massacred. By relentless scorched-earth tactics, the English broke the momentum of the rebellion by mid 1581. By May 1581, most of the minor rebels and FitzGerald allies in Munster and Leinster had accepted Elizabeth I's offer of a general pardon. John of Desmond, in many ways the main leader of the rebellion, was killed north of Cork in early 1582. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard For the Geraldine Earl however there could be no second pardon, and he was pursued by crown forces until the end. From 1581 to 1583, the war dragged on, with his supporters evading capture in the mountains of Kerry. The rebellion was finally ended on 2 November 1583 when the earl was hunted down and killed nearTralee in Kerry by the local clan O'Moriarty. The clan chief, Maurice, received 1000 pounds of silver from the English government for Desmond's head, which was sent to Queen Elizabeth. His body was triumphantly displayed on the walls of Cork. ACER Travelmate 8571 Laptop Keyboard After three years of scorched earth warfare, famine hit Munster. In April 1582, the provost marshal of Munster, Sir Warham St Leger, estimated that 30,000 people had died of famine in the previous six months. Plague broke out in Cork city, DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard where the country people fled to avoid the fighting. People continued to die of famine and plague long after the war had ended, and it is estimated that by 1589 one third of the province's population had died. Grey was recalled byElizabeth I for his excessive brutality. Two famous accounts tell us of the devastation of Munster after the Desmond rebellion. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard

Background

Boyle was born at Canterbury 3 October 1566, the second son of Roger Boyle (d. 24 March 1576 at Preston, near Faversham in Kent), a descendant of an ancient landed Herefordshire family, and of Joan (born 15 October 1529 at Canterbury - died 20 March 1586), daughter of John Naylor, who were married in Canterbury on 16 October 1564. Both are interred in an Alabaster tomb in the upper end of the Chancel of the parish church of Preston.[1] HP 536537-001 Laptop Keyboard DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard Young Boyle went to The King's School, Canterbury, at the same time as Christopher Marlowe. University education began at Bennet (Corpus Christi) College, Cambridge, England, in 1583.[2] After this he studied law at the Middle Temple in London and became a clerk to Sir Roger Manwood, Kt., who was then the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard Before completing his studies, Boyle decided "to gain learning, knowledge, and experience abroad in the world"[3] and left London for a new start in Ireland. He arrived in Dublin on 23 June 1588 with just over £27 (£5,287 as of 2012),[4]as well as a gold bracelet worth £10 (£1,958 as of 2012),[4], and a diamond ring (given to him by his mother at her death and which he wore all his life), besides some fine clothing, and his "rapier and dagger".[3]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In 1590 he obtained the appointment of deputy Escheator to John Crofton, the Escheator-General. On 6 November 1595, he married Joan Apsley, the daughter and co-heiress of William Apsley of Limerick, one of the council to the first President of the province of Munster.[3] This marriage brought Boyle an estate of £500 a year (£73,435 as of 2012),[4] which he continued to receive until at least 1632. DELL Inspiron 510m Laptop Keyboard Joan died at Moyallow on 14 December 1599 during childbirth (the son was still-born). Both were buried in Buttevant church, county Cork. It is said by his detractors that unlike many of his other close relatives whom he took great care to commemorate, he took no trouble to have Joan commemorated after her death, leading to the conviction among some that his (in every sense) monumental commemorative endeavours were entirely practical (in terms of securing his personal objectives) rather than sentimental (her connections being of no direct use to him after her death). Boyle by this time ha

d been the object of the attacks of Sir Henry Wallop, HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard Treasurer at War, Sir Robert Gardiner, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Sir Robert Dillon, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Sir Richard Bingham, Chief Commissioner of Connaught, a demonstration, said Boyle, of their envy of his success and increasing prosperity.,[5]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Boyle was arrested on charges of fraud and collusion with the Spanish (essentially accusations of covert papist infiltration, a treasonable offence for an official in Queen Elizabeth I's Protestant civil service) in his office. He was thrown into prison (at least once by Sir William FitzWilliam in about 1592) several times during this episode. He was about to leave for England to justify himself to Queen Elizabeth, when there was a rebellion in Munster in October 1598, SAMSUNG Q330-JS0C Laptop Keyboard and "all my lands were wasted"[3] which once again returned him to poverty. The Nine Years War arrived in Munster with Irish rebels from Ulster, who were joined by locals who had lost land to English settlers. Boyle was forced to flee to Cork for safety. This turn of events left him obliged to return to London and his chambers at The Temple. At this point he was almost immediately taken into the service ofRobert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. ASUS F6 Laptop Keyboard Henry Wallop then renewed his prosecution of Boyle. Boyle was summoned to appear at the Court of Star Chamber. In the proceedings, Boyle's adversaries seem to have failed to substantiate their accusations. Boyle had somehow managed to secure the attendance of Queen Elizabeth I herself at the proceedings, and he successfully exposed some misconduct on the part of his adversaries. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Elizabeth famously said: "By God's death, these are but inventions against the young man" and she also said he was "a man fit to be employed by ourselves". He was immediately appointed clerk of the council of Munster by Elizabeth I in 1600. In December 1601, Boyle brought to Elizabeth the news of the victory nearKinsale.  HP Pavilion dm1-1010el Laptop Keyboard In October 1602, Boyle was again sent over by Sir George Carew, the president of Munster, on Irish affairs. He was knighted at St Mary's Abbey, near Dublin, by Carew on 25 July 1603. It was also on this day that he married his second wife, Catherine, daughter of Sir Jeffrey Fenton, Principal Secretary of State, andPrivy Councillor, in Ireland.[6]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard He became a privy councillor for Munster in 1606, and in 1613 became a privy councillor for the whole of Ireland. He claimed to have built the town of Bandon, but in fact the town was planned and built by Henry Beecher, John Archdeacon and William Newce.[7] The land on which Bandon was built was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Phane Beecher in 1586 and inherited by his eldest son Henry, who sold it to Boyle in November 1618.[8] In Bandon he founded iron-smelting and linen-weaving industries and brought in English settlers, many from Bristol. ACER NSK-H3V1D Laptop Keyboard He was returned as a Member of Parliament for Lismore (at a Parliament held in the Castle of Dublin) on 18 May 1614. He ascended to the Irish Peerage as Lord Boyle, Baron of Youghal, 6 September 1616,  HP 550 Laptop Keyboard and was created Earl of Cork and Viscount Dungarvan, 26 October 1620. On 26 October 1629 he was appointed as a Lord Justice, and on 9 November 1631 he became the Lord Treasurer of Ireland. Although he was not a Peer in the English Parliament, it is nonetheless recorded that he was "by writ called into the Upper House by His Majesty’s great grace", and he then took up the honoured position of an "assistant sitting on the inside of the Woolsack." TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The town of Clonakilty [1] was formally founded in 1613 by Richard Boyle when he received a charter from King James I. Oliver Cromwell is reported to have said of Richard Boyle 'If there had been an Earl of Cork in every province it would have been impossible for the Irish to have raised a rebellion.'HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Boyle bought Sir Walter Raleigh's estates of 42,000 acres (170 km2) for £1,500 (£232,180 as of 2012),[4] in the counties of Cork (including Lismore Castle),Waterford, and Tipperary and Youghal in 1602. He made these purchases on the insistence of Sir George Carew. Order on the Boyle estates was maintained by 13 castles which were garrisoned by retainers. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard It is a mistake to see Boyle's 'empire' as merely being exclusively confined to the development of the 'Raleigh estates': for instance, his acquisition of the entirety of the town of Bandon was not completed until 1625. Other towns which also form part of Boyle's municipal development legacy (which records employment of over 4,000 people during his lifetime) include Midleton,Castlemartyr, Charleville and Doneraile.  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Richard Boyle had a substantial residence at Youghal, known today as "The College", close to the Collegiate Church of St Mary Youghal. Boyle occupied the office of Sheriff from 1625 to 1626. By 1636 Cork had opted to live in the West country to see out the rest of his days. Cork purchased from Lord Castlehaven for £5,000 the manor of Stalbridge in Dorset,  HP Pavilion DV6-1038ca Laptop Keyboard which became his English seat an in 1637 he laid out a further £20,000 for Temple Coombe Manor Close by in Somerset. Cork at the insistence of the Howards also Bought Annery House near Bideford in 1640 for £5000. The Earl was most delighted with Annery House and the living which came with the estate; he was also delighted that he could easily travel to Youghal from Bideford. Annery House was left to Francis Boyle, ACER Aspire 5610Z Laptop Keyboard 1st Viscount Shannon on his father's death in 1643. Cork had also been left the manor of Saltcombe (Salcombe) in Devon by his friend Thomas Stafford the iligitamate son of George Carew, 1st Earl of Totnes. Saltcombe, along with Halberton Manor was also left to Francis Boyle, Viscount Shannon and his wife Elizabeth Killigrew. HP G42t-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Boyle's adversaries

The Great Earl's most famous enemy was Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford. Strafford arrived in Ireland in 1633 as Lord Deputy, and at first successfully deprived Boyle of much of his privilege and income. Boyle patiently husbanded forces in opposition to Strafford’s Irish program and this successful political manoeuvering by Boyle was an important factor in Strafford’s demise. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard An illuminating example of the humiliations to which Wentworth subjected Boyle, was the instance where he forced Boyle to remove his wife’s tomb from the choir in St Patrick’s at Dublin. Archbishop William Laud delighted in Wentworth's attacks on Boyle and wrote: "No physic better than a vomit if it be given in time, and therefore you have taken a very judicious course to administer one so early to my Lord of Cork. I hope it will do him good“. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Laud and Wentworth shared, with King Charles I, the same fate as many others who at some time in his life, found reasons to conspire against Boyle: an early demise, with Boyle showing his customary astuteness by putting on a convincing show of politically appropriate response at every crucial juncture. HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard Boyle made an entry concerning Wentworth in his diary: “A most cursed man to all Ireland and to me in particular.” It seems Boyle was someone whom you betrayed at your peril, no matter how safe your position might have seemed to be. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard At Wentworth's trial, Boyle was a key witness, but he did not take any other direct part in the prosecution itself. Unsurprisingly, he was in full support of the condemnation of Wentworth and wholeheartedly approved of his execution, making a grim entry in his diary " he had his head struck off on Tower Hill, as he well deserved ".Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard From his children, Boyle expected obedience, although as an affectionate father he was more forgiving of opposition from them than from political enemies. Lady Mary, " my unruly daughter " angered her father by refusing to marry the Earl of Clanbrassil, and again by marrying the Earl of Warwick without his consent; but they were soon reconciled and he furnished a generous dowry. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard、 Boyle died in 1643, having been chased off his lands in the Irish Rebellion of 1641. His sons, however, recovered the family estates after the suppression of the rebellion. Boyle's theopolitical philosophy has been described as 'providentialist' when contrasted with its counterpart which prevailed to the north in Ulster at the time, which, is more typically characterised as Presbyterian. HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr Laptop Keyboard Notice how such a comparison of these two standpoints is neither exclusively religious nor secular, a factor which perhaps offers some small insight as to how Boyle managed to achieve what seems to us now the extraordinary feat of gaining strong favour at various times with the leaders on either side of the English Civil war.  ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

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