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The Battle of Bladensburg took place during the War of 1812. The defeat of the American forces there allowed the British to capture and burn the public buildings of Washington, D.C. It has been called "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to American arms".Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

For the first two years of the War of 1812, the British had been preoccupied with the war against Napoleon Bonaparte on the continent of Europe. Although the Royal Navy controlled Chesapeake Bay from early 1813 onwards, lack of troops restricted them to mounting comparatively small-scale raids, the largest of which was the Battle of Craney Island, which involved 2,000 troops from the British Army and the Royal Marines. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E420S Keyboard

By April 1814, Napoleon had been defeated and was exiled to the island of Elba. Large numbers of British troops were free to be sent to North America. Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost, the Governor General of Canada and commander in chief in North America, planned for a dual invasion of the United States. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E425 Keyboard

He personally led one invasion into the state of New York from Canada, headed for Lake Champlain. Meanwhile, a brigade under Major General Robert Ross, consisting entirely of veterans from the army of the Duke of Wellington, was transported to Chesapeake Bay to "effect a diversion on the coasts of the United States of America in favor [sic] of the army employed in the defence of Upper and Lower Canada".[4] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge S420 Keyboard

Although Ross commanded the troops, the point of attack was to be decided by Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, the commander in chief of the Royal Navy's North American Station. Cochrane concentrated four ships of the line, twenty frigates and sloops of war and twenty transports carrying Ross's troops at Tangier Island.[5] HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

Cochrane's energetic second in command, Rear Admiral George Cockburn, was in favour of a quick attack on Washington, although Ross was not so eager. His troops had been confined aboard their transports for nearly three months, he lacked cavalry, artillery and transport, and he was wary of the American Chesapeake Bay Flotilla lurking in thePatuxent River.[6] HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The first objective was to capture or destroy the American flotilla, and Ross's orders were to stay near the shipping and not to risk an attack on the American capital.[citation needed]

In Washington, the U.S. Secretary of War, John Armstrong, did not believe the British would attack the strategically unimportant city of Washington. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

He believed that the likely target would be the militarily more important city of Baltimore. Armstrong was only half right; the British would eventually launch attacks against both Baltimore and Washington.

Cochrane dispatched two forces to make diversions. The frigate HMS Menelaus and some small craft threatened a raid on Baltimore, while two frigates and some bomb ketches and a rocket vessel ascended the Potomac River, an expedition that resulted in the successful Raid on Alexandria. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

His main body proceeded into the Patuxent. Ross's troops landed at Benedict on 19 August, and began marching upstream the following day, while Cockburn proceeded up the river with ships' boats and small craft. By 21 August, Ross had reached Nottingham, and Commodore Joshua Barney was forced to destroy the gunboats and other sailing craft of the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla the next day, and retreat overland towards Washington. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

From Nottingham, Ross continued up the Patuxent to Upper Marlboro, from where he could threaten to advance on either Washington or Baltimore, confusing the Americans. He might have taken the capital almost unopposed had he advanced on 23 August, but instead he rested his men and organised his force. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

On the night of 23–24 August, at the urging of Rear Admiral Cockburn and British Army officers under his own command, Ross decided to risk an attack on Washington. He had four infantry battalions, a battalion of Royal Marines, a force of about 200 Corps of Colonial Marines comprising locally recruited black refugees from slavery, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

arocket detachment from the Royal Marines battalion, 50 Royal Sappers and Miners, 100 gunners from the Navy and 275 sailors to carry supplies. His force totaled 4,370 men, with one 6-pounder gun, two 3-pounder guns and sixty frames for launching Congreve rockets.[7] Rear Admiral Cockburn accompanied his force. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Ross had a choice of two routes by which he could advance: from the south via Woodyard or from the east via Bladensburg. The former route would involve finding a way across an unfordable part of the Eastern Branch of the Potomac (now called the Anacostia River) if the Americans destroyed the bridge on the route. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

In the morning of 24 August, Ross made a feint on the southern route, before suddenly swerving northwards towards Bladensburg.

On 2 July 1814, the United States Army had designated the area around Washington and Baltimore as the Tenth Military District.SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

Its commander was Brigadier General William H. Winder, who had practiced law in Baltimore before being commissioned as a Colonel in 1812 and who had been recently exchanged after being captured at the Battle of Stoney Creek in July 1813.

Winder could theoretically call upon 15,000 militia in total, but he actually had only 120 Dragoons and 300 other Regulars, and 1,500 poorly trained and equipped militia at his immediate disposal.[8] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

On 20 August, Winder ordered his force to advance south to the vicinity of Long Old Fields and Woodyard, off modern Route 5, to confront the British at Upper Marlboro. There was a brief clash with Ross's leading troops on 22 August, and Winder ordered a hasty retreat to the Long Old Fields.[7] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Though Winder rode with the force directly challenging the British, he realized that Bladensburg was the key to the defense of Washington. Bladensburg commanded the roads to Baltimore and Annapolis, along which reinforcements were already moving towards the capital. It also lay on one of the only two routes available to the British for an advance on Washington— the preferable route, as it happened, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

because the Eastern Branch was easily forded there. On 20 August, Winder had ordered Brigadier General Tobias Stansbury to move from Baltimore to Bladensburg[9] and "take the best position in advance of Bladensburg ... and should he be attacked, to resist as long as possible".[10]

On 22 August, Stansbury deployed his force on top of Lowndes Hill, just to the east of Bladensburg. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The road from Annapolis ran across the hill, and the road from Upper Marlboro ran to its right and rear. The roads to Washington, Georgetown, and Baltimore intersected behind it. From this position, Stansbury dominated the approaches available to the British while controlling all lines of communication. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

At 2:30 a.m. on 23 August, Stansbury received a message from Winder, announcing that he had withdrawn across the Eastern Branch and that he intended to fire the lower bridge. Surprised, Stansbury was seized by an irrational fear that his right flank would be turned. Rather than further strengthen an already commanding position, DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

he immediately decamped and marched his exhausted troops back across Bladensburg bridge, which he did not burn, to a brickyard 1.5 miles (2.4 km) miles further on. In doing so, he had thrown away almost every tactical advantage available to him.

Winder had at least 1,000 regulars from the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

and some 7,000 militia and volunteers from the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia at his disposal. Official reports of American strength range from 5,000 to 9.000 men. Winder's official report to the Secretary of Warstated that he was able "By the most active and harassing movement of the troops to interpose before the enemy at Bladensburg about 5,000."[11] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Ross, the British commander, estimated the American force in front of him at between 8,000 and 9,000 men with 300-400 cavalry. From the various contemporary sources, the forces gathered for the defense of Washington most likely numbered about 7,170, of which some 6,370 were at Bladensburg.

Stansbury's force consisted of the 1st (Ragan's), 2nd (Schutz's), and 5th (Sterrett's) regiments of Maryland Militia, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

three companies of volunteer riflemen commanded by Major Thomas Pinckney and two companies of Baltimore artillery, with six guns. Ragan's and Schutz's regiments were hastily-drafted amalgamations of companies, without uniforms. Sterrett's 5th Maryland Regiment was a "Dandy" regiment of uniformed volunteers.[9] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Stansbury had chosen a defensible position, but not the best position, on the western side of the Eastern Branch of the Potomac, opposite the town of Bladensburg. The Baltimore artillery were posted in an earthwork which had been hastily constructed by Colonel Decius Wadsworth (the United States Army's Commissary General of Ordnance) to the north of the bridge.[12] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The earthwork was intended for larger weapons, and the field guns had a restricted field of fire through its embrasures. They could not prevent the bridge from being seized with oblique fire. The three Maryland Militia infantry regiments were posted in line to the south of the earthwork, too far away to protect the guns and exposed to British fire. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Both Winder and Secretary of State James Monroe later tinkered with Stansbury's dispositions. Monroe moved companies and detachments about without correcting the major faults of his position, while Winder moved the three militia regiments into even more exposed positions further behind the Baltimore artillery's redoubt, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

although Monroe reinforced them with a militia artillery company under Captain Benjamin Burch.[13]

Behind Stansbury's troops and to his right were a brigade of militia under Brigadier General Walter Smith of the District of Columbia militia, which had marched up from Long Old Fields to the south.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Although Smith's brigade was strongly posted behind a creek, Smith had not conferred with Stansbury before deploying his brigade, so there was a gap of a mile between them, and Smith's men could not support Stansbury. Also, if Stansbury was overcome, Smith's left flank would be open to attack. A battalion under Lieutenant Colonel Kramer lined the creek. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Joshua Barney's men, with two 18-pounder guns and three 12-pounder guns drawn from the Washington Navy Yard, were posted astride the Washington turnpike. To Barney's left was the 1st Regiment of "District" Militia, a militia artillery company under Major George Peter with six 6-pounder guns and a provisional battalion of regulars under Lieutenant Colonel William Scott. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

The 2nd District Militia and some companies of Maryland militia were posted behind Peter and Scott.[14]

To Smith's right rear in turn was a column under Colonel William Beall, which had just arrived from Annapolis. A regiment of Virginia Militia under Colonel George Minor was delayed by administrative confusion and arrived on the field only as the battle ended.[15] HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stansbury's troops were tired from two days' constant alarms and redeployments, and Smith's and Beall's men were equally exhausted from having force-marched to the battlefield through a hot and humid summer day, with many diversions and unnecessary panics.

Around noon on 24 August, Ross's army reached Bladensburg. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stansbury's tactical errors quickly became apparent. Had he held Lowndes Hill, Stansbury could have made the British approach a costly one (although this would involve fighting with the East Branch at his back, which would not improve his men's morale and might be disastrous in the case of a hasty retreat).[12] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Had he held the brick structures of Bladensburg, which were ready-made mini-fortresses, he might have embroiled Ross's troops in bloody street fighting. Because the bridge had not been burned, it had to be defended. Stansbury's infantry and artillery were posted too far from the river's edge to contest a crossing effectively. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British advance was led by Colonel William Thornton's 85th Light Infantry and the three light companies of the other line battalions. Although the Baltimore artillery stopped Thornton's first rush across the bridge, they had solid shot only, which was of little use against scattered skirmishers.[16] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Pinckney's riflemen, posted to protect the American guns, were driven back and as Thornton's men closed in, the Baltimore artillerymen retreated with five of their cannon, being forced to spike and abandon another.

The British 1/44th Regiment had meanwhile forded the East Branch above the bridge. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As they prepared to envelop the American left, Winder led a counter-attack against Thornton by Sterrett's 5th Maryland militia, joined by other detachments.[17] As the 5th Maryland exchanged fire with British infantry in cover on three sides, Schutz's and Ragan's drafted militia regiments broke and fled under a barrage of Congreve rockets. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Winder issued confused orders for three of Captain Burch's guns to fall back rather than cover Sterrett's retreat, and the 5th Maryland and the rest of Stansbury's brigade fled the field.

The British pressed on and were engaged by Smith's brigade and Barney's and Peters's guns. Thornton's light brigade made several frontal attacks over the creek, but were repulsed three times by artillery fire, and were counter-attacked by Barney's detachment.[18] HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Thornton was badly wounded and his light infantry were driven back with heavy casualties. However, as the 1/44th threatened Smith's open left flank, Winder ordered Smith to retreat also.[19]

Smith's brigade fell back in good order, but Winder's orders to retreat apparently did not reach Barney, SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and his situation worsened when the civilian drivers of the carts carrying his reserve ammunition joined the general rout,[20] leaving the Marine gun crews with less than three rounds of canister, round shot and charges in their caissons. Barney's 300 Flotilla men and 103 Marines nevertheless held off the British frontal attacks. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Eventually, as the British 1/4th and 1/44th Regiments enveloped their left flank, Barney ordered his men to retreat to avoid capture.[21] Barney himself was badly wounded with a musket ball in the thigh. Beall's troops were also driven from the hill they held, after an ineffectual resistance.HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Winder had not given any instructions before the battle in the case of a retreat and as the American militia left the battlefield, he issued contradictory orders to halt and reform, or fall back on the Capitol where Secretary of War John Armstrong, Jr. hoped vainly to make a stand, using the federal buildings as strongpoints, or retreat through Georgetown to Tenleytown. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Most of the militia simply fled the field with no destination in mind, or deserted the ranks to see to the safety of their families.

Although the British had suffered heavier casualties than the Americans (many inflicted by Barney's guns), they had completely routed the defenders. The British casualties were 64 dead and 185 wounded.[1]  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some of the British dead "died without sustaining a scratch. They collapsed from heat exhaustion and the strain of punishing forced marches over the five days since landing at Benedict".[23] Heidler's Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 gives the American loss as "10 or 12 killed, 40 wounded" and "about 100" captured.[1] SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Henry Adams and John S. Williams both give the American casualties as 26 killed and 51 wounded.[24] Joseph A. Whitehorne says that the Americans lost "120 taken prisoner, many of these wounded".[25] Ten cannon and a color[26] were captured by the British.

The hasty and disorganized American retreat led to the battle becoming known as the Bladensburg Races from an 1816 poem.Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The battle was termed "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to American arms" and "the most humiliating episode in American history".[19]The American militia actually fled through the streets of Washington. President James Madison and most of the rest of the federal government had been present at the battle, and had nearly been captured. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They too fled the capital, and scattered through Maryland and Virginia. That same night the British entered Washington unopposed and set fire to many of the government buildings in what became known as the Burning of Washington.

Lieutenant General Prevost had urged Vice Admiral Cochrane to avenge the Raid on Port Dover on the north shore of Lake Erie earlier in the year, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

in which the undefended settlement had been set ablaze by American troops. Cochrane had issued a proclamation that American property was forfeit; only the lives of the civilian inhabitants were to be spared. He had issued a private memorandum to his captains however, which allowed them to levy what was effectively protection money in return for sparing buildings. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In practice, there was little or no looting or wanton destruction of private property by Ross's troops or Cochrane's sailors during the advance and the occupation of Washington. However, when the British later withdrew to their ships in the Patuxent, discipline was less effective (partly because of fatigue) and there was considerable looting by foraging parties and stragglers and deserters.[27] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After Major General Ross was killed at the Battle of North Point on 12 September 1814, his descendants were, by royal warrant dated 25 August 1815, given an augmentation of honour to their armorial bearings and their family name was changed to the victory title Ross-of-Bladensburg in memory of Ross's most famous battle.[28] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lineages of the 5th Maryland Regiment and the Columbian Division are perpetuated by the present-day 175th Infantry (ARNG MD) and the HHD/372nd Military Police Battalion (ARNG DC), respectively, two of only nineteen Army National Guard units with campaign credit for the War of 1812. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lineages of the old 36th and 38th Infantry Regiments are perpetuated by three currently active battalions of the 4th Infantry (1-4 Inf, 2-4 Inf and 3-4 Inf).

The Battle of Baltimore was a combined sea/land battle fought between British and American forces in the War of 1812HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan. American forces repulsed sea and land invasions off the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland, and killed the commander of the invading British forces. The British defeated an American force at North Point,[8] however they made no further progress and later withdrew. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The resistance of Baltimore’s Fort McHenry during bombardment by the Royal Navy inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "Defence of Fort McHenry" which later became the lyrics for "The Star-Spangled Banner," the national anthem of the United States of America. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Tied down in Europe until 1814, the British at first used defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. However, the Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the Southwest, General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. The British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed them to capture and burn Washington, D.C. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

American victories in September 1814 and January 1815 repulsed all three British invasions in New York, Baltimore and New Orleans. With the recent defeat of Napoleon the previous year, thousands of British troops along with many seasoned officers, including Major General Robert Ross, were deployed to America to undertake a major campaign on America's East Coast. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In August, 1814, British forces sailed from the Royal Naval Dockyard in Bermuda to attack the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C.[9] On August 24, the British Army had overrun confused American defenders at the Battle of Bladensburg and marched into Washington, which had been abandoned by the military[10] . HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Afterburning and looting the White House, Capitol, Treasury, War Department and other public buildings and forcing the destruction of the Washington Navy Yard, the British carted public and private possessions back to their ships. President James Madison and the entire government fled the city, and went North, to the town of Brookeville, Maryland. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British also sent a fleet up the Potomac to cut off Washington's water access and threaten the prosperous ports of Alexandria, just downstream of Washington, and Georgetown, just upstream. The mere appearance of the fleet cowed American defenders into fleeing from Fort Warburton without firing a shot, and undefended Alexandria surrendered.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British spent several days looting hundreds of tons of merchandise from city merchants, then turned their attention north to Baltimore, where they hoped to strike a knockout blow against the demoralized Americans. Baltimore was a busy port and was thought by the British to harbor many of the privateerswho were raiding British shipping. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British planned a combined operation, with Ross launching a land attack at North Point, and Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane laying siege to Fort McHenry, which was the point defensive installation in Baltimore Harbor.The British landed a force of 5,000 troops who marched toward Baltimore and first met heavy resistance at the Battle of North Point which was fought about 5 miles (8 km) from the city. ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The city’s defense was under the overall command of Major General Samuel Smith, an officer of the Maryland Militia. He dispatched roughly 3,000 men under the command of General John Stricker to meet the British in a forward engagement. General Stricker was to stall the British invasion force in order to delay the British advance long enough for Major General Smith to complete the defenses in Baltimore.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The land invasion force for the British was led by Ross, and would be killed in the second shift of the American defense by an American sharpshooter whose name has been lost to history. However, Daniel Wells, age 19, and Henry McComas, age 18, of Captain Aisquith's rifle company of the 5th Maryland Militia regiment have been attributed by Baltimore legend to have been responsible for his death,  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which was immediately followed by their own. With Ross's death the British army came under the command of the less competent Colonel Arthur Brooke. However, the British succeeded in driving the American militia back.

Rodgers Bastion, also known as Sheppard's Bastion, located on Hampstead Hill (now part of Patterson Park),  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

was the centerpiece of a 3-mile-wide earthworks from the outer harbor in Canton, north to Belair Road, dug to defend the eastern approach to Baltimore against the British. The redoubt was assembled and commanded by U.S. Navy Commodore John Rodgers, with General Smith in command of the overall line.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At dawn on September 13, 1814, the day after the Battle of North Point, some 4,300 British troops advanced north on North Point Road, then west along the Philadelphia Road (now Maryland Route 7) toward Baltimore, forcing the U.S. troops to retreat to the main defensive line around the city. British commander Col. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Arthur Brooke established his new headquarters at the Sterret House on Surrey Farm (today called Armistead Gardens), about two miles east-northeast of Hampstead Hill.

When the British began probing actions on Baltimore's inner defenses, the American line was defended by 100 cannon and more than 10,000 regular troops, HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including two shadowing infantry regiments commanded by general officers Stricker and Winder as well as a few thousand local militia and irregulars. The defenses were far stronger than the British anticipated. The U.S. defenders at Fort McHenry successfully stopped British naval forces but a few ships were still able to provide artillery support.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Once the British had taken the outer defences, the inner defences became the priority. The British infantry had not anticipated how well defended they would be so the first attack was a failure; however, Brooke's forces did manage to outflank and overrun American positions to the right. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After a discussion with lower ranking officers, Brooke decided that the British should bombard the fort instead of risk a frontal assault and, at 3 AM on September 14, 1814, ordered the British troops to return to the ships.

At Fort McHenry, some 1,000 soldiers under the command of Major George Armistead awaited the British naval bombardment.HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Their defense was augmented by the sinking of a line of American merchant ships at the adjacent entrance to Baltimore Harbor in order to further thwart the passage of British ships.

The attack began on September 13, as the British fleet of some nineteen ships began pounding the fort with Congreve rockets (from rocket vessel HMS ErebusCompaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

andmortar shells (from bomb vessels TerrorVolcanoMeteorDevastation, and Aetna). After an initial exchange of fire, the British fleet withdrew to just beyond the range of Fort McHenry’s cannons and continued to bombard the American redoubts for the next 27 hours. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although 1,500 to 1,800 cannonballs were launched at the fort, damage was light due to recent fortification that had been completed prior to the battle.

After nightfall, Cochrane ordered a landing to be made by small boats to the shore just west of the fort, away from the harbor opening on which the fort’s defense was concentrated.  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He hoped that the landing party might slip past Fort McHenry and draw Smith’s army away from the main British land assault on the city’s eastern border. This gave the British a good diversion for half an hour, allowing them to fire again and again. On the morning of September 14, the 30 ft × 42 ft (9.1 m × 12.8 m) oversized American flag, Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which had been made a few months before by local flagmaker Mary Pickersgill and her 13-year-old daughter, was raised over Fort McHenry (replacing the tattered storm flag which had flown during battle). It was responded to by a small encampment of British rifleman on the right flank, who fired a round each at the sky and taunted the Americans just before they too returned to the shore line. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Originally, historians said the oversized Star Spangled Banner Flag was raised to taunt the British. However, that is not the case. The oversized flag was used every morning for reveille, as was the case on the morning of September 14.

Brooke had been instructed not to attack the American positions around Baltimore unless he was certain that there were less than 2000 men in the fort. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Because of his orders, Brooke had to withdraw from his positions and returned to the fleet which would set sail for New Orleans.

An American lawyer and poet, Francis Scott Key, was on a mercy mission for the release of Dr. William Beanes, a prisoner of the British. Key showed the British letters from wounded British officers praising the care they received from Dr. Beanes. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British agreed to release Beanes, but Key and Beanes were forced to stay with the British until the attack on Baltimore was over. Key watched the proceedings from a truce ship in the Patapsco River. On the morning of the 14th, Key saw the American flag waving above Fort McHenry. Inspired, he began jotting down verses on the back of a letter he was carrying. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He composed the words to the tune of an old British drinking song, "To Anacreon in Heaven". When Key reached Baltimore, his poem was printed on pamphlets by the Baltimore American. His poem was originally called "Defence of Fort M'Henry". The song eventually became known as "The Star-Spangled Banner". Congress made it the national anthem in 1931. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Colonel Brooke’s troops withdrew, and Admiral Cochrane’s fleet sailed off to regroup before his next assault on the United States, the Battle of New Orleans. Armistead was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel. Much weakened by the arduous preparations for the battle, he died at age 38, only three years after the battle. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Three active battalions of the Regular Army (1-4 Inf, 2-4 Inf and 3-4 Inf) perpetuate the lineages of the old 36th and 38th Infantry Regiments, both of which were at Fort McHenry during the bombardment. The lineage of the 5th Maryland Infantry Regiment, which played a major role in the Battle of North Point, is perpetuated by the Maryland National Guard's 175th Infantry Regiment.HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.[5][6] American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army, under General Edward Pakenham, intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.[ HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Treaty of Ghent, having been signed on December 24, 1814, was ratified by thePrince Regent on December 30, 1814, and the United States Senate on February 16, 1815. Hostilities continued until late February when official dispatches announcing the peace reached the combatants in Louisiana, finally putting an end to the war.[10][11] Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Battle of New Orleans is widely regarded as the greatest American land victory of the war.

By December 12, 1814, a large British fleet under the command of Sir Alexander Cochrane with more than 8,000 soldiers and sailors aboard, had anchored in theGulf of Mexico to the east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne.[13] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer[14] set out to attack Catesby's force. Lockyer's men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a smallcarronade. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Lockyer captured Catesby's vessels in a brief engagement known as theBattle of Lake Borgne. Seventeen British sailors were killed and 77 wounded,[15]while 6 Americans were killed, 35 wounded, and 86 captured.[15] The wounded included both Catesby and Lockyer. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands ofBritish soldiers, under the command of General John Keane,  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

were rowed to Pea Island, about 30 miles (48 km) east of New Orleans, where they established a garrison.

On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of theMississippi River, 9 miles (14 km) south of New Orleans.[16] HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, which was undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to encamp at Lacoste's Plantation[17] and wait for the arrival of reinforcements.[18] During the afternoon of December 23, after he had learned of the position of the British encampment, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Andrew Jackson reportedly said, "By the Eternal they shall not sleep on our soil."[19] This intelligence had been provided by Colonel Thomas Hinds' Squadron of Light Dragoons, a militia unit from the Mississippi Territory.[20][21] That evening, attacking from the north, Jackson led 2,131[22] men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

who were resting in their camp. Then Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the city. The Americans suffered 24 killed, 115 wounded, and 74 missing,[23] while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, and 64 missing.[24] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Historian Robert Quimby says, "the British certainly did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position".[25] However, Quimby goes on to say, "It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans. The British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The unexpected and severe attack made Keane even more cautious...he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth".[26] As a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a heavily fortified earthwork.[27] On Christmas Day, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force on December 28 against the American earthworks protecting the advance to New Orleans. That evening, General Pakenham met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation, angry with the position that the army had been placed in. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route but was overruled by Admiral Cochrane who insisted that his boats were providing everything that could be needed.[28] Admiral Cochrane believed that the British Army would destroy a ramshackle American army and allegedly said that if the Army would not do so his sailors would. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Whatever Pakenham's thoughts on the matter, the meeting settled the method and place of the attack.[29] On December 28, groups of British troops made probing attacks against the American earthworks.

When the British troops withdrew, the Americans began construction of artillery batteries to protect the earthworks, which were then christened Line Jackson. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Americans installed eight batteries, which included one 32-pound gun, three 24-pounders, one 18-pounder, three 12-pounders, three 6-pounders, and a 6-inch (150 mm) howitzer. Jackson also sent a detachment of men to the west bank of the Mississippi to man two 24-pounders and two 12-pounders from the grounded warship USS LouisianaHP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Jackson's force was outnumbered by the attacking British forces. Jackson's army of 4,732 men comprised 968 US Army regulars,[30] 58 US Marines, 106 seamen of the US Naval battalion, 1,060 Louisiana Militia and volunteers (including 462 free people of color), 1,352 Tennessee Militia, 986 Kentucky Militia, 150 Mississippi Militia and 52 Choctaw warriors. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Additionally, Jackson had the support of warships in the Mississippi River, including the USSLouisiana, the USS Carolina and the Enterprise, along with the pirate Jean Lafitte and his Baratarians.

The main British army arrived on New Year's Day, and attacked the earthworks using their artillery. An exchange of artillery fire began that lasted for three hours. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Several of the American guns were destroyed or knocked out, including the 32-pounder, a 24-pounder, and a 12-pounder, and some damage was done to the earthworks. The British guns ran out of ammunition, which led Pakenham to cancel the attack. Unknown at the moment to Pakenham, HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the Americans on the left of Line Jackson near the swamp had broken and run from the position. Pakenham decided to wait for his entire force of over 8,000 men to assemble before launching his attack.

In the early morning of January 8, Pakenham ordered a two-pronged assault against Jackson's position. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Colonel William Thornton (of the 85th Regiment) was to cross the Mississippi during the night with his 780-strong brigade, move rapidly upriver and storm the batteries commanded by Commodore Daniel Patterson on the flank of the main American entrenchments and then open an enfilading fire on Jackson's line with howitzers and rockets.[32] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Then, the main attack, directly against the earthworks manned by the vast majority of American troops,[33] would be launched in two columns (along the river led by Keane and along the swamp line led by Major General Samuel Gibbs). The brigade commanded by Major General John Lambert was held in reserve. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Preparations for the attack had floundered early, as a canal being dug by Cochrane's sailors collapsed and the dam made to divert the flow of the river into the canal failed, leaving the sailors to drag the boats of Col. Thornton's west bank assault force through deep mud and left the force starting off just before daybreak 12 hours late.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The attack began under darkness and a heavy fog, but as the British neared the main enemy line the fog lifted, exposing them to withering artillery fire. Lt-Col. Thomas Mullins, the British commander of the 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot, had forgotten the laddersand fascines needed to cross a canal and scale the earthworks, and confusion evolved in the dark and fog as the British tried to close the gap.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Most of the senior officers were killed or wounded, including General Gibbs, killed leading the main attack column on the right comprising the 4th, 21st, 44th and 5th West India Regiments, and Colonel Rennie leading a detachment of light companies of the 7th, 43rd, and 93rd on the left by the river. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Possibly because of Thornton's delay in crossing the river and the withering artillery fire that might hit them from across the river, the 93rd Highlanders were ordered to leave Keane's assault column advancing along the river and move across the open field to join the main force on the right of the field. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Keane fell wounded as he crossed the field with the 93rd. Rennie's men managed to attack and overrun an American advance redoubt next to the river, but without reinforcements they could neither hold the position nor successfully storm the main American line behind. Within minutes, the American 7th Infantry arrived,  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

moved forward, and fired upon the British in the captured redoubt: within half an hour, Rennie and most of his men were dead. In the main attack on the right, the British infantrymen either flung themselves to the ground, huddled in the canal, or were mowed down by a combination of musket fire and grapeshot from the Americans. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A handful made it to the top of the parapet on the right but were either killed or captured. The 95th Rifles had advanced in open skirmish order ahead of the main assault force and were concealed in the ditch below the parapet, unable to advance further without support.

The two large main assaults on the American position were repulsed. ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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