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Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (Washington UniversityWash. U., or WUSTL) is a private research universitylocated in suburban St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Founded in 1853, and named for George Washington, the university has students and faculty from all fifty U.S. states and more than 110 countries.[8]  HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Twenty-two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Washington University, nine having done the major part of their pioneering research at the university.[9]Washington University's undergraduate program is ranked fourteenth in the nation and seventh in admissions selectivity byU.S. News and World Report.[10][11]  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The university is ranked 30th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities.[12] In 2006, the university received $434 million in federal research funds, ranking seventh among private universities receiving federal research and development support, and in the top four in funding from the National Institutes of Health.[13]ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard Washington University is made up of seven graduate and undergraduate schools that encompass a broad range of academic fields.[14] Officially incorporated as "The Washington University," the university is occasionally referred to as "WUSTL," an acronym derived from its initials. More commonly, however, students refer to the university as "Wash. U." To prevent confusion over its location, the Board of Trustees added the phrase "in St. Louis" in 1976. ACER Aspire 7535 Laptop Keyboard Early history (1853–1901) Washington University was conceived by seventeen St. Louis business, political, and religious leaders concerned by the lack of institutions of higher learning in the Midwest. Missouri State Senator Wayman Crow and Unitarian minister William Greenleaf Eliot, grandfather of the poet T.S. Eliot, led the effort. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard The university's first chancellor was Joseph Gibson Hoyt. Crow secured the university charter from the Missouri General Assembly in 1853, and Eliot was named President of the Board of Trustees. Early on, Eliot solicited support from members of the local business community, including John O'Fallon, but Eliot failed to secure a permanent endowment. Washington University is unusual among major American universities in not having had a prior financial endowment. The institution had no backing of a religious organization, single wealthy patron, or earmarked government support. HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard During the three years following its inception, the university bore three different names. The board first approved "Eliot Seminary," but William Eliot was uncomfortable with naming a university after himself and objected to the establishment of a seminary, which would implicitly be charged with teaching a religious faith. He favored a nonsectarian university.[16] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1854, the Board of Trustees changed the name to "Washington Institute" in honor of George Washington. Naming the University after the nation's first president, only seven years before the American Civil War and during a time of bitter national division, was no coincidence. During this time of conflict, Americans universally admired George Washington as the father of the United States and a symbol of national unity. TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard The Board of Trustees believed that the university should be a force of unity in a strongly divided Missouri. In 1856, the University amended its name to "Washington University." The university amended its name once more in 1976, when the Board of Trustees voted to add the suffix "in St. Louis" to distinguish the university from the nearly two dozen other universities bearing Washington's name.[15]HP 508112-001 Laptop Keyboard Although chartered as a university, for many years Washington University functioned primarily as a night school located on 17th Street and Washington Avenue in the heart of downtown St. Louis. Owing to limited financial resources, HP 580030-001 Laptop Keyboard Washington University initially used public buildings. Classes began on October 22, 1854, at the Benton School building. At first the university paid for the evening classes, but as their popularity grew, their funding was transferred to the St. Louis Public Schools.[17] Eventually the board secured funds for the construction of Academic Hall and a half dozen other buildings. Later the university divided into three departments: the Manual Training School, Smith Academy, and the Mary Institute.  TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard In 1867, the university opened the first private nonsectarian law school west of the Mississippi River. By 1882, Washington University had expanded to numerous departments, which were housed in various buildings across St. Louis. Medical classes were first held at Washington University in 1891 after the St. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Louis Medical College decided to affiliate with the University, establishing the School of Medicine. During the 1890s, Robert Sommers Brookings, the president of the Board of Trustees, undertook the tasks of reorganizing the university's finances, putting them onto a sound foundation, and buying land for a new campus. SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard Washington University spent its first half century in downtown St. Louis bounded by Washington Ave., Lucas Place, and Locust Street. By the 1890s, owing to the dramatic expansion of the Manual School and a new benefactor in Robert Brookings, the University began to move west. The University Board of Directors began a process to find suitable ground and hired the landscape architecture firm Olmsted, DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard Olmsted & Eliot of Boston. A committee of Robert S. Brookings, Henry Ware Eliot, and William Huse found a site of 103 acres (41.7 ha) just beyond Forest Park, located west of the city limits in St. Louis County. The elevation of the land was thought to resemble the Acropolis and inspired the nickname of "Hilltop" campus, renamed the Danforth campus in 2006 to honor former chancellor William H. Danforth. TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard In 1899, the university opened a national design contest for the new campus. The renowned Philadelphia firm Cope & Stewardson won unanimously with its plan for a row of Collegiate Gothic quadrangles inspired by Oxford and Cambridge Universities.[18] The chief architect was James P. Jamieson. The cornerstone of the first building, Busch Hall, was laid on October 20, 1900. HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard The construction of Brookings Hall, Ridgley, and Cupples began shortly thereafter. The school delayed occupying these buildings until 1905 to accommodate the 1904 World's Fair and Olympics. The delay allowed the university to construct ten buildings instead of the seven originally planned. This original cluster of buildings set a precedent for the development of the Danforth Campus; Cope & Stewardson’s original plan and its choice of building materials have, with few exceptions, guided the construction and expansion of the Danforth Campus to the present day.[18]TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard By 1915, construction of a new medical complex was completed on Kingshighway in what is now St. Louis’s Central West End. Three years later, Washington University admitted its first women medical students.[19]TOSHIBA NB200 Laptop Keyboard In 1922, a young physics professor, Arthur Holly Compton, conducted a series of experiments in the basement of Eads Hall that demonstrated the "particle" concept of electromagnetic radiation. Compton’s discovery, known as the “Compton Effect,” earned him the Nobel Prize in physics in 1927.  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard During World War II, as part of the Manhattan Project, a cyclotron at Washington University was used to produce small quantities of the newly discovered element plutonium via neutron bombardment of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. The plutonium produced there in 1942 was shipped to the Metallurgical Laboratory Compton had established at the University of Chicago where Glenn Seaborg's team used it for extraction, purification, and characterization studies of the exotic substance. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard After working for many years at the University of Chicago, Arthur Holly Compton returned to St. Louis in 1946 to serve as Washington University's ninth chancellor. Compton reestablished the Washington University football team, making the declaration that athletics were to be henceforth played on a "strictly amateur" basis with no athletic scholarships. Under Compton’s leadership, enrollment at the University grew dramatically, fueled primarily by World War II veterans' use of their GI Bill benefits.[20]SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard In 1947, Gerty Cori, a professor at the School of Medicine, became the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Professors Carl and Gerty Cori became Washington University's fifth and sixth Nobel laureates for their discovery of how glycogen is broken down and resynthesized in the body. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The process of desegregation at Washington University began in 1947 with the School of Medicine and the School of Social Work.[21] During the mid and late 1940s, the University was the target of critical editorials in the local African American press, HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard letter-writing campaigns by churches and the local Urban League, and legal briefs by the NAACP intended to strip its tax-exempt status. In spring 1949, a Washington University student group, the Student Committee for the Admission of Negroes (SCAN), began campaigning for full racial integration. In May 1952, the Board of Trustees passed a resolution desegregating the school's undergraduate divisions.[22]Compaq Presario CQ62-112TU Laptop Keyboard During the latter half of the 20th century, Washington University transitioned from a strong regional university to a national research institution. In 1957, planning began for the construction of the “South 40,” a complex of modern residential halls. With the additional on-campus housing, Washington University, which had been predominately a “streetcar college” of commuter students, began to attract a more national pool of applicants.[23] By 1964, over two-thirds of incoming students came from outside the St. Louis area.[24]HP Mini 110-3101tu Laptop Keyboard In 1971, the Board of Trustees appointed Chancellor William Henry Danforth, who guided the university through the social and financial crises of the 1970s and strengthened the university’s often strained relationship with the St. Louis community. During his 24-year chancellorship, Danforth significantly improved the School of Medicine, established 70 new faculty chairs, secured a $1.72 billion endowment, and tripled the amount of student scholarships.[25] ACER TravelMate 2490 Series Laptop Keyboard In 1995, Mark S. Wrighton, former Provost at MIT, was elected the university’s 14th chancellor. During Chancellor Wrighton's tenure undergraduate applications to Washington University have more than doubled. Since 1995, the University has added more than 190 endowed professorships, revamped its Arts & Sciences curriculum, and completed more than 30 new buildings.[26]Packard Bell PEW91 Laptop Keyboard The growth of Washington University’s reputation has coincided with a series of record-breaking fund-raising efforts during the last three decades. From 1983 to 1987, the “Alliance for Washington University” campaign raised $630.5 million, which was then the most successful fund-raising effort in national history.[27] From 1998 to 2004, the “Campaign for Washington University” raised $1.55 billion, which has been applied to additional scholarships, professorships, and research initiatives.[28]Packard Bell Easynote TM80 Laptop Keyboard Washington University has been selected by the Commission on Presidential Debates to host more presidential and vice presidential debates than any other institution in history.[29] The University has been selected to host a presidential or vice presidential debate in every United States presidential election since 1992. United States presidential election debates were held at the Washington University Athletic Complex in 1992, 2000, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard and 2004. A presidential debate was planned to occur in 1996, but owing to scheduling difficulties between the candidates, the debate was canceled.[30]The university hosted the only 2008 vice presidential debate, between Republican Sarah Palin and Democrat Joe Biden, on October 2, 2008, also at the Washington University Athletic Complex. IBM Thinkpad T61P Laptop Keyboard Although Chancellor Wrighton had noted after the 2004 debate that it would be "improbable" that the University will host another debate and was not eager to commit to the possibility,[31] he subsequently changed his view and the University submitted a bid for the 2008 debates. "These one-of-a-kind events are great experiences for our students, they contribute to a national understanding of important issues, and they allow us to help bring national and international attention to the St. Louis region as one of America's great metropolitan areas," said Wrighton.[32]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Washington University's undergraduate program is ranked 14th in the nation, and 7th in admissions selectivity, in the 2012U.S. News & World Report National Universities ranking.[10][41] Additionally, 19 undergraduate disciplines are ranked among the top 10 programs in the country.[42] In 2011, Washington University received a record 28,823 applications for a freshman class of 1,500.[43] ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard More than 90% of incoming freshmen were ranked in the top 10% of their high school classes. In 2006, the University ranked fourth overall and second among private universities in the number of enrolled National Merit Scholar freshmen, according to the National Merit Scholar Corp.'s annual report.[44] In 2008, Washington University was ranked number one for quality of life according to the Princeton Review, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard among other top rankings. In addition, the Olin Business School's undergraduate program is among the top 8 in the country.[45] The Olin Business School's undergraduate program is also among the country's most competitive, admitting only 14% of applicants in 2007 and ranking No. 1 in SAT scores with an average composite of 1463 M+CR according to BusinessWeek.[46][47]DELL Latitude D510 Laptop Keyboard  ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard Graduate schools include the School of Medicine, currently ranked 4th in the nation, and the George Warren Brown School of Social Work, currently ranked 1st. The program in occupational therapy at Washington University currently occupies the top spot for the U.S. News and World Report rankings (tied for #1) and the program in physical therapy is ranked 2nd (tied for #2). ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard For the 2011 edition, the School of Law is ranked 18th and the Olin Business School is ranked 20th.[48][49] Additionally, the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design was ranked 4th in the nation by the journal DesignIntelligence in its 2012 edition of "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools." TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard Global rankings include 30th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2010, that assesses the quality of scientific research leading toward a Nobel Prize.[50] In 2010, Washington University ranked 38th in the world according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[51] Washington University has been criticized for aggressively marketing itself in order to increase applications and thereby selectivity, a factor in many ranking systems.[52]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Geography & campus Washington University Medical Center comprises 164 acres (66.4 ha) spread over approximately 12 city blocks, located along the eastern edge of Forest Parkwithin the Central West End neighborhood of St. Louis. The campus is home to the Washington University School of Medicine and its associated teaching hospitals,Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. HP G62-b20ES Laptop Keyboard Louis Children's Hospital. Many of the buildings are connected via a series of skyways and corridors. The School's 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty Physicians & Nurse Practitioners also serve as the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, which are part of BJC HealthCare. Washington University and BJC have taken on many joint venture projects, such as the Center for Advanced Medicine, completed in December 2001. BJC Institute of Health at Washington University is the newest research building with 680,000 square feet (63,000 m2). HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Olin Residence Hall, named for Spencer T. Olin, provides residential services for 200 medical and graduate students.[54] The Medical Campus is accessible via the Central West End MetroLink station, which provides a quick link to the Danforth, North, and West Campuses. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Washington University's North Campus and West Campus principally house administrative functions that are not student focused. North Campus lies in St. Louis City near the Delmar Loop. The University acquired the building and adjacent property in 2004, formerly home to the Angelica Uniform Factory.[55]  HP MP-08K33US6930 Laptop Keyboard Several University administrative departments are located at the North Campus location, including offices for Quadrangle Housing, Accounting and Treasury Services, Parking and Transportation Services, Army ROTC, and Network Technology Services. The North Campus location also provides off-site storage space for thePerforming Arts Department. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard Renovations are still ongoing; recent additions to the North Campus space include a small eatery operated by Bon Appétit Management Company, the University's on-campus food provider, completed during spring semester 2007, as well as the Family Learning Center, operated by Bright Horizons and opened in September 2010. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The West Campus is located about one mile (1.6 km) to the west of the Danforth Campus in Clayton, Missouri, and primarily consists of a three-story formerdepartment store building housing mostly administrative space. The West Campus building was home to the Clayton branch of the Famous-Barr department store until 1990, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard when the University acquired the property and adjacent parking and began a series of renovations.[56] Today, the basement level houses the West Campus Library, the University Archives, the Modern Graphic History Library, SONY VAIO VGN-N21M/W Laptop Keyboard and conference space. The ground level still remains a retail space. The upper floors house consolidated capital gifts, portions of alumni and development, and information systems offices from across the Danforth and Medical School campuses. There is also a music rehearsal room on the second floor. The West Campus is also home to the Center for the Application of Information Technologies (CAIT), which provides IT training services. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Both the North and West Campuses are accessible by the St. Louis MetroLink, which, with the Delmar Loop and Forsyth MetroLink Stations directly adjacent to these campuses, provides easy travel around the St. Louis metropolitan area, including all of Washington University's campuses. HP G61-415SA Laptop Keyboard Tyson Research Center is a 2,000-acre (809 ha) field station located west of St. Louis on the Meramec River. Washington University obtained Tyson as surplus property from the federal government in 1963. It is used by the University as a biological field station and research/education center. In 2010 the Living Learning Center was named one of the first two buildings accredited nationwide as a "living building" under the Living Learning Challenge,[57] opened to serve as a biological research station and classroom for summer students. TOSHIBA Portege R100 Laptop Keyboard For the Fall 2011 semester Arts & Sciences enrolled 942 out of 18,079 applicants (5.2%). Arts & Sciences at Washington University comprises three divisions: the College of Arts & Sciences, the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, and University College in Arts & Sciences. Gary Wihl is Dean of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences. James E. McLeod was the Vice Chancellor for Students and Dean of the College of Arts & Sciences; according to a University news release he died at the University's Barnes-Jewish Hospital on Tuesday, September 6, 2011 ofrenal failure as a result of a two-year-long struggle with cancer. Richard J. Smith is Dean of the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences. ACER NSK-H3S01 Laptop Keyboard Founded as the School of Commerce and Finance in 1917, the Olin Business School was named after entrepreneur John M. Olin in 1988. The school's academic programs include BSBA, MBA, Professional MBA (PMBA), Executive MBA (EMBA), MS in Finance, MS in Supply Chain Management, Master of Accounting, and Doctorate programs, as well as non-degree executive education. In 2002, an Executive MBA program was established in Shanghai, in cooperation with Fudan University. SONY AEGD1U00020 Laptop Keyboard Olin has a network of more than 16,000 alumni worldwide.[59] Over the last several years, the school’s endowment has increased to $213 million (2004) and annual gifts average $12 million per year.[citation needed] Simon Hall was opened in 1986 after a donation from John E. Simon. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate BSBA students take 40–60% of their courses within the business school and are able to formally declare majors in eight areas: accounting, entrepreneurship, finance, healthcare management, marketing, managerial economicsand strategy, organization and human resources, international business, and operations and supply chain management. Graduate students are able to pursue an MBA either full-time or part-time. Students may also take elective courses from other disciplines at Washington University, including law and many other fields. Mahendra R. Gupta is the Dean of the Olin Business School. HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard Architecture offers BS and BA degrees as well as M. Arch and MUD. There is a combined six-year BS and M. Arch degree program as well as joint M. Arch programs with most of the other schools in the University. The Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design was ranked 5th in the nation by the journalDesignIntelligence in its 2008 edition of "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools." TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Art offers the BFA and MFA in Art in the context of a full university environment. Students take courses in the College of Arts & Sciences as well as courses in the College of Art to provide a well rounded background. One third of students in the school pursue a combined study degree program, second major, and/or minors in other undergraduate divisions at Washington University[citation needed]U.S. News & World Report ranked the MFA program 13th in the nation in 2012.[60]DELL Studio 1537 Laptop Keyboard In October 2006 the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum moved into new facilities designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect, and former faculty member, Fumihiko Maki.[61] Carmon Colangelo is the Dean of the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts. Bruce Lindsey is Dean of the College of Architecture and the Graduate School of Architecture & Urban Design. Franklin "Buzz" Spector is the Dean of the College and Graduate School of Art. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ220 Laptop Keyboard Washington University School of Law offers joint-degree programs with the Olin Business School, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Medicine, and the School of Social Work. It also offers an LLM in Intellectual Property and Technology Law, an LLM in Taxation, an LLM in US Law for Foreign Lawyers, a Master of Juridical Studies (MJS), and a Juris Scientiae Doctoris (JSD). The law school offers 3 semesters of courses in the Spring, Summer, and Fall, and requires at least 85 hours of coursework for the JD.  SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard In the 2011 US News & World Report America's Best Graduate Schools, the law school is ranked 18th nationally, out of over 180 law schools.[62] In particular, its Clinical Education Program is currently ranked 4th in the nation.[63] This year, the median score placed the average student in the 96th percentile of test takers.[64] The law school offers afull-time day program, beginning in August, for the J.D. degree. HP Probook 4710S Laptop Keyboard The law school is located in a state-of-the-art building, Anheuser-Busch Hall (opened in 1997). The building combines traditional architecture, a five-story open-stacks library, an integration of indoor and outdoor spaces, and the latest wireless and other technologies. National Jurist ranked Washington University 4th among the "25 Most Wired Law Schools." HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Kent D. Syverud is the Dean of the School of Law. The Washington University School of Medicine is highly regarded as one of the world's leading centers for medical research and training.[65] The School ranks first in the nation in student selectivity.[66] Among its many recent initiatives, The Genome Center at Washington University (directed by Richard K. Wilson) played a leadership role in the Human Genome Project, having contributed 25% of the finished sequence.[67] SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard The School pioneered bedside teaching and led in the transformation of empirical knowledge into scientific medicine. The medical school partners with St. Louis Children's Hospital and Barnes-Jewish Hospital (part of BJC HealthCare), where all physicians are members of the school's faculty. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard Within the medical school, the Program in Physical Therapy is also highly reputable. It is ranked 2nd in the nation for "Best Physical Therapy Schools" according to U.S. News & World Report.[68] The Program offers a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) at both the professional and post-professional levels. In its 60-year history, more than 1,500 students, most of whom are still actively involved in the physical therapy profession, have graduated from the Program[citation needed]. TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard The Program in Occupational Therapy is currently tied for 1st in the nation for "Best Occupational Therapy Schools" according to U.S. News & World Report.[65]The Program offers a Master of Science degree as well as the Occupational Therapy Doctorate (OTD) at the professional and post-professional levels. M. Carolyn Baum, PhD, serves as the program director and was the most recent president of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Dr. Larry J. Shapiro, MD, is the Dean of Washington University School of Medicine. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work (commonly called the Brown School or Brown) is currently ranked first among Master of Social Work (MSW) programs in the United States.[69] Brown also offers a PhD in Social Work in cooperation with the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences and a Master of Public Health.  HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The school was endowed by Bettie Bofinger Brown and named for her husband — George Warren Brown — a St. Louis philanthropist and co-founder of the Brown Shoe Company. The school is housed within Brown and Goldfarb halls. It has a center for Native American research, as well as acclaimed scholars in social security, health, individual development accounts, etc. The school's current dean is Edward F. Lawlor.  SONY VGN-FE41S Laptop Keyboard Virtually all faculty members at Washington University engage in academic research, offering opportunities for both undergraduate and graduate students across the University's 7 schools. Known for its interdisciplinarity and departmental collaboration, most research centers and institutes at Washington University are collaborative efforts between many areas on campus. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Laptop Keyboard More than 60% of undergraduates are involved in faculty research across all areas;[71] it is an institutional priority for undergraduates to be allowed to participate in advanced research, which is rather unique among leading private research universities.[72] According to the Center for Measuring University Performance, it is considered to be one of the top 10 private research universities in the nation.[73] TOSHIBA Satellite Pro A120 Series Laptop Keyboard A dedicated Office of Undergraduate Research is located on the Danforth Campus and serves as a resource to post research opportunities, advise students in finding appropriate positions matching their interests, publish undergraduate research journals, and award research grants to make it financially possible to perform research.[74]Packard Bell Easynote TK87 Laptop Keyboard During fiscal 2007, $537.5 million was received in total research support, including $444 million in federal obligations. The University has over 150 National Institutes of Health funded inventions, with many of them licensed to private companies. Governmental agencies and non-profit foundations such as the NIH, United States Department of Defense, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard National Science Foundation, and NASA provide the majority of research grant funding, with Washington University being one of the top recipients in NIH grants from year-to-year. Nearly 80% of NIH grants to institutions in the state of Missouri went to Washington University alone in 2007.[75] Washington University and its Medical School play a large part in the Human Genome Project, where it contributes approximately 25% of the finished sequence.[76] The Genome Sequencing Center has decoded the genome of many animals, plants, and cellular organisms, including the platypus, chimpanzee, cat, and corn.[77]Packard Bell NEW95 Laptop Keyboard NASA hosts its Planetary Data System Geosciences Node on the campus of Washington University. Professors, students, and researchers have been very involved with many unmanned missions to Mars. Professor Ray Arvidson has been co-investigator of the Phoenix Rover robotic arm and chair of the Mars Exploration Rover landing site group.[78]DELL Inspiron N5030 Laptop Keyboard Washington University professor Joseph Lowenstein, with the assistance of several undergraduate students, has been involved in editing, annotating, making a digital archive of the first publication of poet Edmund Spencer's collective works in 100 years. A large grant from the National Endowment for the Humanitieshas been given to support this ambitious project centralized at Washington University with support from other colleges in the United States.[79]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5168 Laptop Keyboard Washington University has over 200 undergraduate student organizations on campus.[80] Most are funded by the Washington University Student Union, which has a $2 million plus annual budget that is completely student controlled and is one of the largest student government budgets in the country. Known as SU for short, Compaq Presario CQ57-218 Laptop Keyboard Student Union sponsors large-scale campus programs including WILD (a semesterly concert in the quad), free copies of the New York Times, USA Today, and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch through The Collegiate Readership Program; it contributes to the Assembly Series, a weekly lecture series produced by the University; it also funds the campus television station,  Packard Bell Easynote TK37 Laptop Keyboard WUTV and the radio station, KWUR. KWUR was named best radio station in St. Louis of 2003 by the Riverfront Times despite the fact that its signal reaches only a few blocks beyond the boundaries of the campus.[81] There are 12 fraternities and 7 sororities. The Congress of the South 40 (CS40) is a Residential Life and Events Programming Board, which operates outside of the SU sphere. CS40's funding comes from the Housing Activities Fee of each student living on the South 40. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard Many of these organizations and other campus life amenities are housed in the $43 million Danforth University Center on the Danforth Campus, also dedicated in honor of the Danforth family.[82] The building opened on August 11, 2008 and earned LEED Gold certification for its environmentally friendly design.[83]COMPAQ Presario V3621AU Laptop Keyboard Washington University has a large number of student-run musical groups on campus, including 12 official a cappella groups. The Pikers, an all-male group, is the oldest such group on campus. The Greenleafs, an all-female group is the oldest (and only) female group on campus. The Mosaic Whispers, founded in 1991, is the oldest co-ed group on campus. HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard They have produced 9 albums and have appeared on a number of compilation albums, including Ben Folds' Ben Folds Presents: University A Cappella! The Amateurs,[84] who also appeared on this album, is another co-ed a cappella group on campus, founded in 1991. They have recorded seven albums and toured extensively. After Dark[85IBM Lenovo ThinkPad R51 1833 Laptop Keyboard ] is a co-ed a cappella group founded in 2001. It has released three albums and has won several Contemporary A Capella Recording (CARA) awards. In 2008 the group performed on MSNBC during coverage of the vice presidential debate with specially written songs about Joe Biden and Sarah Palin.[86]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard The campus newspaper is Student Life. The paper is published twice a week under the auspices of Washington University Student Media, Inc., an independent non-for-profit organization incorporated in 1999. The paper was first founded in 1878, making it one of the oldest student newspapers in the country. HP 413554-001 Laptop Keyboard Washington University is number one on the Princeton Review’s “Best College Dorms” list for 2013. Over 50% of undergraduate students live on campus.[87] Most of the residence halls on campus are located on the South 40, named because of its adjacent location on the south side of the Danforth Campus and its size of 40 acres (160,000 m2). It is the location of all the freshman dorms as well as several upperclassman dorms, which are set up in the traditional residential college system. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard All of the dorms are co-ed. The South 40 is organized as a pedestrian-friendly environment wherein residences surround a central recreational lawn known as the Swamp. Wohl Student Center, the Habif Health and Wellness Center (Student Health Services), the Residential Life Office, University PoliceHeadquarters, various student-owned businesses (e.g. the laundry service, Wash U Wash), and the baseball, softball, and intramural fields are also located on the South 40. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Another group of residences, known as the Village, is located in the northwest corner of Danforth Campus. Only open to upperclassmen and January Scholars, the North Side consists of Millbrook Apartments, The Village, Village East on-campus apartments, and all fraternity houses except the Zeta Beta Tau house, which is off campus and located just northwest of the South 40. Sororities at Washington University do not have houses by their own accord. HP Pavilion DV3510nr Laptop Keyboard The Village is a group of residences where students who have similar interests or academic goals apply as small groups of 4 to 24, known as BLOCs, to live together in clustered suites along with non-BLOCs. Like the South 40, the residences around the Village also surround a recreational lawn. Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard Washington University supports four major student-run media outlets. The university's student newspaper, Student Life, is available for students. KWUR (90.3 FM) serves as the students' official radio station; the station also attracts an audience in the immediately surrounding community due to its eclectic and free-form musical programming. WUTV is the university's closed-circuit television channel. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard The university's main student-run political publication is the Washington University Political Review (nicknamed "WUPR"), a self-described "multipartisan" monthly magazine. Washington University undergraduates publish two literary and art journals, The Eliot Review and Spires Intercollegiate Arts and Literary Magazine. A variety of other publications also serve the university community, ranging from in-house academic journals to glossy alumni magazines to WUnderground, campus' student-run satirical newspaper.  HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Washington University's sports teams are called the Bears. They participate in the University Athletic Association and the NCAA Division III. The Bears have won 19 NCAA Division III Championships— one in women's cross country (2011), one in men's tennis (2008), two in men's basketball (2008, 2009), five in women's basketball (1998–2001, 2010),[88] and ten in women's volleyball (1989, 1991–1996, 2003, 2007, 2009)[89] HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard – and 144 UAA titles in 15 different sports.[90] The Athletic Department is headed by John Schael who has served as director of athletics since 1978. The 2000 Division III Central Region winner of the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics/Continental Airlines Athletics Director of the Year award,[91] Schael has helped orchestrate the Bears athletics transformation into one of the top departments in Division III.[91]FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard Washington University also has an extensive club sports program, with teams ranging from men's volleyball[92] to women's Ultimate Frisbee. Funding for club sports comes from the Student Union budget, as each club is deemed a campus group. Washington University is home of Francis Field, site of the 1904 Summer Olympics. Francis Field is also home of the Washington University football, soccer, and track and field teams. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), commonly known as the Shanghai Ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally.[1] The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually. Since 2009, the rankings have been published by the Shanghai Ranking Consultancy.[2]ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard The ranking, backed by the Chinese government, was designed "to provide a global benchmark" against the various universities in China so they "could assess their progress."[3] The aim of the AWRU is for Chinese universities to "catch up" on "hard scientific research".[3]FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard The ranking is regarded to be one of the three most influential and widely observed international university rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[4][5][6] It is said that its consistent and objective methodology is praised when compared with other rankings.[7] However, it has also been criticized for its heavy focus on the natural sciences over the social sciences or humanities, and over the quality of instruction.[4][5]HP 640892-001 Laptop Keyboard As the first multi-indicator ranking of global universities, ARWU has attracted a great deal of attention from universities, governments and media. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most widely used annual ranking of the world's research universities."[9] In 2010, theChronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities".[10]HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard One of the factors in the significant influence of ARWU is that its methodology is said to look globally sound and transparent. EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31st Dec 2003: "The universities were carefully evaluated using several indicators of research performance."[11] Chancellor of Oxford University, Prof. Chris Patten, SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard said "the methodology looks fairly solid ... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." Vice-Chancellor ofAustralian National University, Prof. Ian Chubb, said "The SJTU rankings were reported quickly and widely around the world… (and they) offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard Margison (2007) also commented the ARWU ranking that one of the strengths of "the academically rigorous and globally inclusive Jiao Tong approach" is "constantly tuning its rankings and invites open collaboration in that."[12] Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's "consistency, clarity of purpose, and transparency" as significant strengths.[13]ACER 9J.N9482.11B Laptop Keyboard The ARWU ranking and its content have been widely cited and applied as a starting point for identifying national strengths and weaknesses as well as facilitating reform and setting new initiatives. Bill Destler (2008), the president of the Rochester Institute of Technology, draw reference to the ARWU ranking to analyze the comparative advantages the Western Europe and US have in terms of intellectual talent and creativity in his publication in the journal Nature.[14] HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard European commissioner of Education, Jan Figel, pointed out in an interview in 2007 that "if you look at the Shanghai index, we are the strongest continent in terms of numbers and potential but we are also shifting into a secondary position in terms of quality and attractiveness. If we don't act we will see an uptake or overtake by Chinese or Indian universities."[15]HP G42-415DX Keyboard Also, Enserink (2007) referred to ARWU and argued in a paper published in Science that "France's poor showing in the Shanghai ranking ... helped trigger a national debate about higher education that resulted in a new law... giving universities more freedom."[16] The world leading think tank Rand Corporation used the ARWU ranking as evidence in their consultancy paper to the European Institute of Innovation and Technology.[17]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Keyboard In two subsequent research papers[18][19] published by Academic Leadership (2009), then in an article [20] published by the Times Higher Education (2009), Paul Z. Jambor of Korea University established the connection between any unfavorable image/reputation universities may develop (and/or their association, by country, to those universities linked to the wrongdoing) to a halt in their climb or even to a drop in their THE – QS World University Rankings. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Keyboard This is because 40% and 10% of THE – QS World Methodology is based on Academic Peer Review and Employer Review respectively. In essence, any unfavorable image developed by a group of universities, associated by country, tends to harm their collective rankings. For this reason, universities worldwide should seriously consider adhering to internationally accepted standards so that they do not run the risk of sliding in the ranks on the international front. Consequently, a number of critics consider this aspect of THE – QS World University Rankings unfair and even biased.[21]HP 550 Keyboard HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard The new Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE-Reuters), published since 2010 is based on a revised Methodology.[22] In the Methodology of the THE-Reuters World University Rankigs, the 'Papers per research and academic staff' {at 4.5%} and the 'Citation impact (normalised average citation per paper)' {at 32.5%} SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard indicators make it evident that a university's ranking heavily relies on the number and quality of research papers written by its faculty. With 95% of research papers written in English,[23] the relationship between English language use and a university's subsequent ranking thus becomes ever more clear. Jambor highlights the connection between actual English use and university rankings in a pair of research papers[24][25] respectively published by the US Department of Education: ERIC and Academic Leadership. HP Envy 15 Keyboard


College and university rankings often stimulate controversy (see Criticism of college and university rankings (North America) and Criticism of college and university rankings (2007 United States)) and the ARWU is no exception. A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng.[26]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Keyboard HP G62-361TX Keyboard In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyze how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Their main conclusions are that the criteria used are not relevant; that the aggregation methodology has a number of major problems; and that insufficient attention has been paid to fundamental choices of criteria.[27]DELL Inspiron 500m Keyboard The ARWU researchers themselves, N.C Liu and Y Cheng,[28] think that the quality of universities cannot be precisely measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial. They suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood clearly before reporting or using the results. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard Others have pointed out, the ARWU is known for "relying solely on research indicators", and "the ranking is heavily weighted toward institutions whose faculty or alumni have won Nobel Prizes": it does not measure "the quality of teaching or the quality of humanities."[5][29]DELL Inspiron 1750 Keyboard Ioannides et al. suggested that (in common with all ranking systems they reviewed), the ranking lacked construct validity modest concordance between the Shanghai and Times rankings. They highlighted measurement precision, and transparent methodology as important issues.[30] Like the Times Higher Education's rankings, the ARWU has been criticized by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour[ing] Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions".[31]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Keyboard Aarhus University was founded on September 11, 1928 as Universitetsundervisningen i Jylland ("University Studies in Jutland") with a budget of 33,000 Dkr and an enrollment of 64 students, which rose to 78 during the first semester. The university was founded as a response to the increasing number of students at University of Copenhagen after World War I. Classrooms were rented from the Technical College and the teaching corps consisted of one professor of philosophy and four associate professors of Danish, English, German, and French. HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard Along with Universitets-Samvirket ("The University Association") which consisted of representatives of Aarhus' businesses, organisations, and institutions, the municipality of Aarhus had fought since 1921 to have Denmark's next university located in the city.[8][9]ACER Aspire 7520 Keyboard In 1929, the municipality of Aarhus gave the university an undulating site.[9] The design of the university buildings and 12 ha campus area was assigned to architects C.F. Møller, Kay Fisker and Povl Stegmann who won the architectural competition in 1931. The first buildings housed the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Anatomy and were opened on September 11, 1933, html">ACER TravelMate 242LC Keyboard the same year the name Aarhus University was first used. The construction of the buildings was funded solely by donations which totaled 935,000 Dkr and the buildings covered an area of 4,190m2.[10] One of the most generous contributors was De Forenede Teglværker i Aarhus ("The United Tilworks of Aarhus") led by director K. Nymark. Forenede Teglværker decided to donate 1 million yellow bricks and tiles worth c. 50,000 Dkr and later decided to extend the donation to all bricks needed to construct the building.[11]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Keyboard The inauguration was celebrated in a tent on campus and attended by King Christian X, Queen Alexandrine, their son Crown Prince Frederick and Prime Minister Stauning together with 1000 other invited guests.[12] On 23 April 1934, Aarhus University was given permission to hold examinations by the king and on 10 October 1935, Professor Dr. ACER Aspire 7336 Keyboard phil. Ernst Frandsen was appointed the first rector of the university.[13] Since 1939, C. F. Møller Architects has been responsible for building activities of the university which today has a floor area of 246,000m2 in the University Park alone and a series of buildings outside the Park with a total floor area of 59,000m2.[8]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Keyboard


From 1928, Aarhus University offered courses in languages and philosophy, but the students were unable to finish their studies without going to the University of Copenhagen for their final examinations. By request of the Ministry of Education, the Teachers' Association made a draft of how to conduct the final examinations in the humanistic subjects in Aarhus and in the draft, the Association proposed that the faculty was named the Faculty of Humanities by analogy with the corresponding faculties in Uppsala, FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Keyboard Lund, and Turku. After negotiations between the faculties in Aarhus and Copenhagen, the King declared on 8 May 1935 that the final university examinations could be held at the Faculty of Philosophy in Copenhagen as well as at the Faculty of Humanities in Aarhus. This was the first final examinations Aarhus University was allowed to hold, but on 24 July 1936 the king granted the Faculty of Humanities the right to hold examinations for the magister degree and in 1940 for the PhD.[8][14]HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Keyboard Aarhus University had offered courses in basic medical subjects from 1933 and on 10 October 1935 the Faculty of Medicine was formally established.[15] The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine in Aarhus was met with some opposition from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Copenhagen. The professors thought that the state should not establish a new Faculty until the shortcomings of the old one had been solved. In the end, the professors agreed to sign a recommendation for the new Faculty as long as improvements to the old one were not delayed.[16] ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Keyboard By 1953, the Faculty of Medicine had been fully built, complete with lectures, professorship chairs, final exams, research facilities and the hospitals of Aarhus had been expanded to meet the demands of clinical training.[17]In 1992, the Faculty of Medicine merged with the dental school and changed its name to Faculty of Health Sciences.[8]SONY 147859712 Keyboard The university established its Faculty of Economics and Law in 1936, but when it offered courses in political science and in psychology (1959 and 1968, respectively), the faculty changed its name to the Faculty of Social Sciences.[8] The faculty had to be funded solely on private donations and once the university demonstrated it had the needed financial means, HP 383495-001 Keyboard the Minister of Education recommended the Finance Committee to approve the establishment of the faculty on 27 January 1936 since the state did not have to grant financial support. The Committee approved and by declaration of the king on 5 November 1937, the faculty could hold examinations in economics and law.[18]ACER Aspire 2003WLMi Keyboard Courses had been offered in theology since 1932 at the Faculty of Humanities, but in 1942 the Faculty of Theology was formally established.[9] Already on 22 June 1928, Reverend Balslev of Aarhus had proposed that Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus (not yet university) taught basic courses in theology. Though the proposal was greeted by the management, HP G61 Keyboard the Faculty of Theology in Copenhagen pointed out that it would take 3 full-time teachers of the New Testament, Old Testament and ecclesiastical history, respectively as well as education in Latin, Greek and Hebrew by the Faculty of Humanities. At this time, Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus did not have the financial means to meet these criteria so the case was shelved for the time being. In April, 1931 the case reopened, this time by Bishop Skat Hoffmeyer who proposed free teaching in the required subjects. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Keyboard The management asked the faculty in Copenhagen if this was acceptable, but because the teaching was free, the faculty saw it as tutoring rather than actual teaching and they neither approved or disproved of such an approach though they did not see it as actual university teaching. The municipality of Aarhus did not aid with funds and the management deemed a ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard request of the state to be futile so they decided to disregard getting the teaching approved and start it anyway under the supervision of Skat Hoffmeyer. On 5 September 1932 Reverend Asmund held the first lecture in theology. This private education in theology continued until the university could hire its own professors in 1938, and in 1942 Aarhus University could at long last establish the Faculty of Theology.[8][19]HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Keyboard In 1938, the university management acknowledged it was time to consider an expansion because of lack of space and the overcrowding of the auditoriums. The solution was not an administration building, as this was not to be built until 1964. Instead a new main building was planned, containing both the different subject areas as well as the administration. The building was to be organized according to a principle of institutes so that teaching and research took place in certain rooms with their own library and study for the professor.[20]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Keyboard The construction of the building took place during the German occupation of Denmark (1940–45) during World War II, which affected the process in more than one way. No state funds had been involved in the construction of the first university building and a second building for physiology, biochemistry, and a high voltage laboratory, TOSHIBA NB200-10J Keyboard but because the Nazis were against civil use of material and working force, the state contributed to the building. In 1943, the Gestapo,Sicherheitsdienst, Geheime Feldpolizei and Abwehr set up their regional headquarters in the five student halls of residence on campus. Fearing that the same would happen to the new main building, its completion was delayed. C.F. Møller later wrote that for once there was plenty of time to work on the details of the building, like patterned brickwork, acoustic screens and furniture.[21][22]HP Mini 110-1032NR Keyboard The presence of the Gestapo in Aarhus led to multiple arrests of Danish resistance fighters and the resistance movement soon realized they needed outside assistance. On 15 October, the leader of the illegal Danish underground army in Jutland, Niels Bennike, sent the following telegram to London:[22]HP Pavilion dv3-2360ee Keyboard Undergrunden i Jyland ved at blive revet op af Gestapo. Vigtigere at få ødelagt arkiver og bevare vore folk end at bevare arkiver og få ødelagt vore folk. Jeg beder indtrængende om, at kollegium 4 og 5, gentager 4 og 5, må blive ødelagt ved luftangreb. Det er de to vestligste, gentager vestligste, bygninger i universitetskomplekset. Haster, gentager haster. HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Keyboard ("Underground in Jutland getting torn up by the Gestapo. More important to get the archives destroyed and save our people than getting our people destroyed and save the archives. I implore that residence hall 4 and 5, repeat 4 and 5, be destroyed by air strike. They are the two farthest to the west, repeat farthest to the west, buildings of the university complex. Urgent, repeat urgent.") SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard On October 31, 1944, the Royal Air Force bombed the Gestapo's headquarters in residence halls 4 and 5, also killing ten civilian workers. 2 Group Bomber Commandcarried out the bombing by using 25 Mosquito planes. The air strike on the University of Aarhus took place in a heavily populated area and the campus was surrounded by three hospitals. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Keyboard To avoid civilian casualties, the RAF prepared with a model of the campus, shooting at residence halls 4 and 5 with chalk bags. The architect C. F. Møller was in the main building during the air strike but survived and was later dug free from the rubble. The reconstructed main building opened on September 11, 1946.[20][21][23]ASUS F80C Keyboard

Recent history

Aarhus University was an independent institution until 1970 and Universitets-Samvirket and the city council had representatives in the management. Hereafter, the university became a state-run institution under the first University Act. Under the next University Act (1992), people outside the university were once again represented in the administration and under 2003 Act, all Danish universities are governed by a university board. This board appoints rector, deans and heads of departments instead of the students. It commenced in January 2004 for the first time and in August 2005 it appointed a rector.[8][9]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Keyboard The campus master plan competition was won in 1931 by the collaborative scheme of Danish architects – Kay Fisker, C.F. Møller, and Poul Stegmann in collaboration with landscape architect C.Th. Sørensen. The design includes a wide variety of buildings over a large space, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard but each building is composed of the same yellow brick and roofing tile, giving the whole campus a unified look. Construction commenced in 1932 and has continued into the 21st century. The original main building was one of the first Danish functionalist public buildings and has been included in the Ministry of Culture's canon of Danish architecture; HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard it is acknowledged as one of the twelve most meaningful architectural works in the cultural history of Denmark. C.F. Møller and his company have continued as architects of the campus ever since.[24] The main buildings of the university are placed in and around a beautiful hilly landscape, The University Park, which has been expanded throughout the years. In a harmonic interplay with the hilly park, the yellow buildings form a beautiful campus, which has received international recognitions. HP Envy 15 Keyboard Aarhus University also has a small campus in Copenhagen, where the university's programmes in education and pedagogic are taught.[25] In the city of Herning there is also a small campus where a few of the university's business, engineering and technology programmes are taught, the AU Herning division.[26]HP 640436-001 Keyboard SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Keyboard

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