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xample of a cease-fire violation to bring such a large force concentration into the area. In late 2009, Morocco do military maneuvers on Umm Dreiga, in the exclusion zone, violating the cease-fire. Both parties have been accused of such violations by the UN, but to date there has been no serious hostile action from either side since 1991.  ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard

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Annual demonstrations against the Moroccan Wall are staged in the region by Sahrawis and international activists from Spain, Italy, and other mainly European countries. These actions are closely monitored by the UN.[76][not in citation given]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Aside from its rich fishing waters, Western Sahara has few natural resources and lacks sufficient rainfall and fresh water resources for most agricultural activities. The territory has some phosphate deposits but their small quantities prevent further exploitation from being economically viable.[77] HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

 [clarification needed] There is speculation that there may be off-shore oil and natural gas fields, but the debate persists as to whether these resources can be profitably exploited, and if this would be legally permitted due to the Non-Self-Governing status of Western Sahara (see below).

Western Sahara's economy is based almost entirely on fishing, which employs two thirds of its work force.[77] Some phosphate mining and to a lesser extent agriculture and tourism also contribute to the territory's economy. ACER Aspire 3623WXMi laptop keyboard

All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the Moroccan government.(as its defacto southern province) The government has encouraged citizens to relocate to the territory by giving subsidies and price controls on basic goods. These heavy subsidies have created a state-dominated economy in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara.

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 [77] Supporting life in a territory with scarce fresh water resources is extremely costly. For example, the entire drinking water for the city of Laayoune comes from desalinization facilities and costs 3 US dollars per cubic meter but is sold at the national price of 0.0275 US dollars; the difference is paid for by the government of Morocco.[77] SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

Fuel is sold at half the price, and basic goods are heavily subsidized;[77] businesses operating in the territory do not pay taxes.[77] All of this is done to keep the balance of Western Sahara's finances.[77] The territory is otherwise thought to be economically unviable and unable to support its population without the Moroccan subsidies.[78] SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

The cable concluded that the territory is unlikely to ever be of any economic benefit for Morocco even if offshore oil fields were to be discovered and exploited.[77]

Due to the disputed nature of Moroccan sovereignty over the territory, the application of international accords to Western Sahara is highly ambiguous. Political leadership of trade agreement signatories such as the United States (US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement) and Norway (European Free Trade Association trade accord) have made statements as to these agreements' non-applicability—although practical policy application is ambiguous.[79][80][81]  HP 576835-001 laptop keyboard

After reasonably exploitable oil fields were located in Mauritania, speculation intensified on the possibility of major oil resources being located off the coast of Western Sahara. Despite the fact that findings remain inconclusive, both Morocco and the Polisario have signed deals with oil and gas exploration companies. US and French companies (notably Total and Kerr-McGee) began prospecting on behalf of the Moroccan Office National de Recherches et d’Exploitations Petrolières (ONAREP).[82] TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

In 2002, Hans Corell, Under-Secretary General of the United Nations and head of its Office of Legal Affairs issued a legal opinion on the matter.[82] The opinion was rendered following an analysis of relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, the United Nations General Assembly resolutions, the case law of the International Court of Justice and the practice of sovereign states.[82]  DELL AEGM7U00110 laptop keyboard

It concluded that while the existing exploration contracts for the area were not illegal, "if further exploration and exploitation activities were to proceed in disregard of the interests and wishes of the people of Western Sahara, they would be in violation of the principles of international law."[82] SONY VAIO VGN-SR220J/H laptop keyboard

  After pressures from corporate ethics-groups, Total S.A. pulled out in late 2004.[83]

In May 2006 the remaining company Kerr-McGee also left following sales of numerous share holders like the National Norwegian Oil Fund, due to continued pressure from NGOs and corporate groups.[84]  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

The European Union fishing agreements with Morocco include Western Sahara.

In a previously confidential legal opinion (published in February 2010, although it was forwarded in July 2009), the European Parliament’s Legal Service opined that fishing by European vessels under a current EU – Morocco fishing agreement covering the Western Sahara’s waters is in violation of international law.[85] DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

Similarly, the exploitation of phosphate mines in Bou Craa has led to charges of international law violations and divestment from several European states.[86]

The indigenous population of Western Sahara is known as Sahrawis. These are Hassaniya-speaking tribes of mixed Arab–Berberheritage, effectively continuations of the tribal groupings of Hassaniya speaking Moorish tribes extending south into Mauritania and north into Morocco as well as east into Algeria. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

The Sahrawis are traditionally nomadic bedouins, and can be found in all surrounding countries. War and conflict has led to major population displacement.

As of July 2004, an estimated 267,405 people (excluding about 160,000 Moroccan military personnel) lived in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara. Many people from parts of Morocco have come to live in the territory, HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

and these latest arrivals are today thought to outnumber the indigenous Western Sahara Sahrawis. The precise size and composition of the population is subject to political controversy.

The Polisario-controlled parts of Western Sahara are barren. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard

This area has a very small population, estimated to be approximately 30,000 in 2008.[34] The population is primarily made up of nomads who engage in herding camels back and forth between the Tindouf area and Mauritania. However, the presence of mines scattered throughout the territory by the Moroccan army makes it a dangerous way of life. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

A 1974 Spanish census claimed there were some 74,000 Sahrawis in the area at the time (in addition to approximately 20,000 Spanish residents), but this number is likely to be on the low side, due to the difficulty in counting a nomad people, even if Sahrawis were by the mid-1970s mostly urbanized. Despite these possible inaccuracies, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

Morocco and the Polisario Front agreed on using the Spanish census as the basis for voter registration when striking a cease-fireagreement in the late 1980s, contingent on the holding of a referendum on independence or integration into Morocco. HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

In December 1999 the United Nations' MINURSO mission announced that it had identified 86,425 eligible voters for the referendum that was supposed to be held under the 1991 Settlement plan and the 1997 Houston accords. By "eligible voter" the UN referred to any Sahrawi over 18 years of age that was part of the Spanish census or could prove his/her descent from someone who was. DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

These 86,425 Sahrawis were dispersed between Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara and the refugee camps in Algeria, with smaller numbers in Mauritania and other places of exile. These numbers cover only Sahrawis 'indigenous' to the Western Sahara during the Spanish colonial period, not the total number of "ethnic" Sahrawis (i.e., members of Sahrawi tribal groupings), who also extend into Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria.  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

The number was highly politically significant due to the expected organization of a referendum on self-determination.

The Polisario has its home base in the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, and declares the number of Sahrawi population in the camps to be approximately 155,000.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Morocco disputes this number, saying it is exaggerated for political reasons and for attracting more foreign aid. The UN uses a number of 90,000 "most vulnerable" refugees as basis for its food aid program. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara are the Sahrawis, a nomadic or Bedouin tribal or ethnic group speaking theHassānīya dialect of Arabic, also spoken in much of Mauritania. They are of mixed Arab-Berber descent, but claim descent from the Beni Hassan, a Yemeni tribe supposed to have migrated across the desert in the 11th century. Lenovo 45N2071 Laptop Keyboard

Physically indistinguishable from the Hassaniya speaking Moors of Mauritania, the Sahrawi people differ from their neighbours partly because of different tribal affiliations (as tribal confederations cut across present modern boundaries) and partly as a consequence of their exposure to Spanish colonial domination. Surrounding territories were generally under French colonial rule.

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Local religious custom ('urf) is, like other Saharan groups, heavily influenced by pre-Islamic Berber and African practices, and differs substantially from urban practices. For example, Sahrawi Islam has traditionally functioned without mosques in the normal sense of the word, in an adaptation to nomadic life. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The originally clan- and tribe-based society underwent a massive social upheaval in 1975, when a part of the population was forced into exile by the Polisario and settled in the refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria, where they remain sequestrated till now. Families were broken up by the dispute.  HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Museum of the Sahrawi people's Liberation Army is located in this refugee camp. This museum is dedicated to the struggle for the independence of the Western Sahara people. It presents weapons, vehicles, and uniforms used, as well as abundant documentation history.

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA/GA) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions.[2] It has also established a wide number of subsidiary organs.[3] DELL Inspiron 9300 laptop keyboard

The General Assembly meets under its president or Secretary-General in regular yearly sessions the main part of which lasts from September to December and resumed part from January until all issues are addressed (which often is just before the next session's start). It can also reconvene for special and emergency special sessions.  SONY 1-417-802-21 Laptop Keyboard

Its composition, functions, powers, voting, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter.

The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

Voting in the General Assembly on important questions – recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion of members; budgetary matters – is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by majority vote. Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard

Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration.[4] The one state, one vote power structure theoretically allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote.[5] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the North-South dialogue – the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries. These issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership. In 1945, the UN had 51 members. FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Laptop Keyboard

It now has 193, of which more than two-thirds aredeveloping countries. Because of their numbers, developing countries are often able to determine the agenda of the Assembly (using coordinating groups like the G77), the character of its debates, and the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations(apart from budgetary measures), pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950 (resolution 377 (V)), the Assembly may also take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly can consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security.[6] LENOVO 25-011427 Laptop Keyboard

Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have initially been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months, however additional work loads have extended these sessions to last on through just short of the next session. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

The routinely scheduled portions of the sessions are normally scheduled to commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day," as per the UN Rules of Procedure.[8] The last two of these Regular sessions were routinely scheduled to recess exactly three months afterwards[9] in early December, but were resumed in January and extended on until just before the beginning of the following sessions.[10] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

The General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are generally statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues. The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such as the United Nations budget. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

General Assembly Resolutions are generally non-binding on member states, but carry considerable political weight, and are legally binding towards the operations of the General Assembly. The General Assembly can also refer an issue to the Security Council to put in place a binding resolution. HP Envy 15-1015tx Laptop Keyboard

The General Assembly also approves the budget of the United Nations, and decides how much money each member state must pay to run the organization.[11]

The Charter of the United Nations gives responsibility for approving the budget to the General Assembly (Chapter IV, Article 17) and for preparing the budget to the Secretary-General, as “chief administrative officer” (Chapter XV, Article 97). TOSHIBA A000014900 Laptop Keyboard

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The Charter also addresses the non-payment of assessed contributions (Chapter IV, Article 19). The planning, programming, budgeting, monitoring and evaluation cycle of the United Nations has evolved over the years; major resolutions on the process include General Assembly resolutions: 41/213 of 19 December 1986, 42/211 of 21 December 1987, and 45/248 of 21 December 1990.[12] HP Pavilion dv6-2108sa laptop keyboard

The budget covers the costs of United Nations programmes in areas such as political affairs, international justice and law, international cooperation for development, public information, human rights and humanitarian affairs. TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5607 laptop keyboard

The main source of funds for the regular budget is the contributions of member states. The scale of assessments is based is the capacity of countries to pay. This is determined by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors, including their per capita incomes. SAMSUNG R20 laptop keyboard

In addition to the regular budget, member states are assessed for the costs of the international tribunals and, in accordance with a modified version of the basic scale, for the costs of peacekeeping operations. [13] SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

The General Assembly votes in elections for the ten non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council; the most recent such election was in October 2012. These elections take place every year, and member states serve two year terms, with five replaced each year. The candidates are selected by their regional groups.  TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6843 Laptop Keyboard

The General Assembly also elects members of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It also elects members of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and some members of the United Nations Trusteeship Council.  DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

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The General Assembly appoints the Secretary-General of the United Nations on recommendation of the Security Council, and adopts rules governing the administration of the Secretariat. Along with the Security Council, the General Assembly elects Judges for the International Court of Justice inThe Hague.[14] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

Special sessions may be convened at the request of the United Nations Security Council, or a majority of UN members, or, if the majority concurs, of a single member. A special session was held on October 1995 at the head of government level to commemorate the UN's 50th anniversary. Another special session was held in September 2000 to celebrate the millennium; it put forward the Millennium Development Goals. HP G62-244CA Laptop Keyboard

A further special session (2005 World Summit) was held in September 2005 to commemorate the UN's 60th anniversary; it assessed progress on the Millennium Development Goals, and discussed Kofi Annan'sIn Larger Freedom proposals. HP AEAX8U00010 Laptop Keyboard

At the first Special Session of the UN General Assembly held in 1947, Osvaldo Aranha, then president of the Special Session, began a tradition that has remained until today whereby the first speaker at this major international forum is always aBrazilian.[15] HP Pavilion dv4-1242tx Laptop Keyboard

If the Security Council fails to act to maintain international peace and security due to a disagreement between its permanent members, the General Assembly has the power to convene an emergency special session and act to ensure peace and security under United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The General Assembly may take action on maintaining international peace and security if the United Nations Security Councilis unable, usually due to disagreement among the permanent members, to exercise its primary responsibility. If not in session at the time, the General Assembly may meet in emergency special session[16] HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard

within 24 hours of the request. Such emergency special sessions are to be called if requested by the UN Security Council on the vote of any seven members, or by a majority of the Members of the United Nations. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

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