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use of armed force — in the event of a breach of the peace or act of aggression. As with all Assembly resolutions,  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

two-thirds of UN Members 'present and voting' must approve any such recommendation before it can be formally adopted by the Assembly. Emergency special sessions have been convened under this procedure on ten occasions. The two most recent, in 1982 and 1997 through 2003 respectively, have both been on the status of the territories occupied [4] by the State of Israel. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

On 21 March 2005, Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report, In Larger Freedom, that criticized the General Assembly for focusing so much on consensus that it was passing watered-down resolutions reflecting "the lowest common denominator of widely different opinions." He also criticized the Assembly for trying to address too broad an agenda, instead of focusing on "the major substantive issues of the day, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

such as international migration and the long-debated comprehensive convention on terrorism". Annan recommended streamlining the General Assembly's agenda, committee structure, and procedures; SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

strengthening the role and authority of its president; enhancing the role of civil society; and establishing a mechanism to review the decisions of its committees, in order to minimize unfunded mandates and micromanagement of the United Nations Secretariat. Annan reminded UN members of their responsibility to implement reforms, if they expect to realize improvements in UN effectiveness.[20] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5366 Laptop Keyboard

The reform proposals were not taken up by the United Nations World Summit in September 2005. Instead, the Summit solely affirmed the central position of the General Assembly as the chief deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations, as well as the role of the Assembly in the process of standard-setting and the codification of international law. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

The Summit also called for strengthening the relationship between the General Assembly and the other principal organs to ensure better coordination on topical issues that required coordinated action by the United Nations, Compaq Presario CQ71-412SZ laptop keyboard

in accordance with their respective mandates.[citation needed]

A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations People's Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually could allow for direct election of UN parliament members by citizens all over the world. HP AEAX8U00010 laptop keyboard

In the General Debate of the 65th General Assembly, Jorge Valero, representing Venezuela, said "The United Nations has exhausted its model and it is not simply a matter of proceeding with reform, the twenty-first century demands deep changes that are only possible with a rebuilding of this organisation." TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5366 laptop keyboard

He pointed to the futility of resolutions concerning the Cuban embargo and the Middle East conflict as reasons for the UN model having failed. Venezuela also called for the suspension of veto rights because it was a "remnant of the Second World War [it] is incompatible with the principle of sovereign equality of States."[21] Compaq Presario CQ42-231AX laptop keyboard

The chapter on the UN General Assembly appears in the Charter before the chapters on the other five principal organs (UN Security Council, UN Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, and UN Secretariat).  HP Pavilion dv4-1145go laptop keyboard

This reflects the UN's founders' view of the General Assembly as the "first" branch of the UN, in much the same way that the placement of the provisions related to the US Congress in Article I of the United States Constitutionbefore those dealing with the US President and US Supreme Court reflects the Philadelphia Convention's view of Congress as the "first branch" of the US government.[1] SONY VGN-FE780G laptop keyboard

Both the US Congress and the UN General Assembly hold the "power of the purse" in regard to their respective organizations. No doubt, the General Assembly also appears first because most decisions (except those dealing with security matters) mentioned later in the Charter require General Assembly assent, and the General Assembly appoints: FUJITSU Siemens M1010 laptop keyboard

Article 10 gives the General Assembly (UNGA) power to "discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter" and to make recommendations on those subjects. This, along with the Article 15 provision requiring the Security Council (UNSC) and other organs to issue reports of their activities to the General Assembly, SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E laptop keyboard

essentially puts the General Assembly in the role of overseer over the other UN bodies (there is no reciprocal provision by which the Security Council or other bodies make recommendations as to the powers and functions of the General Assembly). Article 11 tasks the UNGA with considering "principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments" and making recommendations on the same to the UNSC, TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

which under Chapter V has the responsibility of making more detailed plans in reference to disarmament. The UNGA is prohibited by Article 12 from making recommendations on matters currently being dealt with by the UNSC, unless requested to do so by the Council. However, this has not always prevented the General Assembly from attempting to deal with threats to international peace and security, in cases where the UNSC was deadlocked, by using the framework of the Uniting for Peace resolution (A/RES/377 A).  SONY VAIO VGN-N110G laptop keyboard

Article 13 tasks the General Assembly with initiating studies and making recommendations for "promoting international co-operation in the political field and encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification."  LENOVO 25-011427 laptop keyboard

This provides a clue as to the founders' hopes that the UN as formulated by the original Charter would be a first step toward a much more comprehensive framework of international law, whose development would be coordinated by the General Assembly. Article 16 grants the UNGA limited power over the trusteeship system. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard

Central Hall was erected to mark the centenary of John Wesley's death. It was built in 1905-11 on the site of the Royal Aquarium, Music Hall and Imperial Theatre, an entertainment complex that operated with varying success from 1876 to 1903.[3]  HP Envy 15-1050nr laptop keyboard

Central Hall was funded between 1898 and 1908 by the "Wesleyan Methodist Twentieth Century Fund" (or the "Million Guinea Fund", as it became more commonly known), whose aim was to raise one million guineas from one million Methodists. The fund closed in 1904 having raised 1,024,501 guineas (£1,075,727).[4] Central Hall was to act not only as a church, but to be of "great service for conferences on religious, educational, scientific, philanthropic and social questions".TOSHIBA A000014900 laptop keyboard

Central Hall hosted the first meeting of the United Nations General Assembly in 1946.[1][3]In return for the use of the hall, the Assembly voted to fund the repainting of the walls of the church in a light blue – the paint is still there, albeit marginally cracked and peeling. At the time it was being used by the UN General Assembly, the congregation relocated to the Coliseum Theatre.[1] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard

It has been regularly used for political rallies—famous speakers have included Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Winston Churchill.[4] In September 1972 the Conservative Monday Club held a much publicised and packed "Halt Immigration Now!" public meeting in the main hall, addressed by several prominent speakers including Members of Parliament Ronald Bell, Q.C., John Biggs-Davison,Harold Soref, and John Stokes.[5][6] and continued their use of the building until 1991 when they held two Seminars there.[7]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

In 1968 it hosted the first public performance of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat[4]in a concert that also included his father (organist William Lloyd Webber who was Musical Director at Central Hall), his brother (cellist Julian Lloyd Webber) and pianist John Lill.  HP Pavilion dv6-2110sm laptop keyboard

The Football World Cup trophy was on display at Central Hall in early 1966 in preparation for the tournament being held in England that summer. However, it was stolen from the hall on 20 March 1966. It was recovered seven days later in South London but the thief was never caught. England went on to win the trophy four months later.[8]  IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard

It is frequently used for public enquiries, including those into the Ladbroke Grove rail crash, the sinking of the Marchioness pleasure boat, and the Bloody Sunday incident in Northern Ireland.[4]

In 2005 Central Hall controversially applied for a license to sell alcohol in its cafe and conference venues. IBM Thinkpad Z60t laptop keyboard

As the Methodist Church has traditionally promotedabstinence and usually forbids consumption of alcohol on church premises, many Methodists argued that the application was in defiance of Church rules and a written objection was compiled.[9] IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard

Central Hall was designed by Edwin Alfred Rickards, of the firm Lanchester, Stewart and Rickards.[3] This company also designed the City Hall building in Cathays Park, Cardiff, with which it shares many similarities. HP Pavilion DV6-1130ei laptop keyboard

Although clad in an elaborate baroque style, to contrast with Westminster Abbey, it is an early example of the use of a reinforced concrete frame for a building in Britain.[11] The interior was similarly planned on aPiranesian scale, although the execution was rather more economical. HP G62-b88SS laptop keyboard

The original 1904 design included two small towers on the main (east) façade, facing Westminster Abbey. These were never built, supposedly because of an outcry that they would reduce the dominance of Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers at Westminster Abbey in views from St. James's Park. The hall was eventually finished in 1911.

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The vast scale of the self-supporting ferro-concrete structure reflects the original intention that Central Hall was intended to be "an open-air meeting place with a roof on".

The angels in the exterior spandrels were designed by Henry Poole RA. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

In this method, elected representatives will be chosen by more or less numerically equivalent blocks of voters. This is not always practical for historical and current political reasons, and sometimes is impractical purely on the basis of logistics, as in regions where travel is difficult and distances are long. The shortened term "rep-by-pop" is used in Britain but is relatively uncommon in U.S. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Historically rep-by-pop is the alternative to rep-by-area. However, in the colonial countries, the geographic realities made a necessity of low-population electoral districts in order to give meaningful representation to remote communities, and only in urban and suburban areas has there been any success with applying rep-by-pop more or less evenly.  TOSHIBA Satellite L300-13R laptop keyboard

In the United States and other democracies, typically the lower house of a bicameral (two-chamber) system is based on population—more or less—while the upper House is based on area. Or, as it might be put in the United Kingdom, on title to land, as was originally the case with the old pre-Reforms House of Lords. In the Senate or the Lords, it does not matter how many people are living in a constituent's jurisdiction, HP Pavilion DV7-2043cl laptop keyboard

it matters that the constituent have the jurisdiction (by election, heredity or appointmentthe US, the UK and Canada respectively).

The principle of rep-by-pop, when brought in and promoted publicly, removed many archaic seats in the British House of Commons although some northern and rural counties necessarily still have variably lower populations than most urban ridings. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-218EM laptop keyboard

 Former British colonies like Canada and Australia also have rural and wilderness areas spanning tens of thousands of square miles, with fewer voters in them than a tiny urban-core riding. In the most extreme case, one riding of the Canadian parliament covers more than 2 million square kilometres, Nunavut, yet has less than one third the average number of voters for a riding, with a population of about 30,000. DELL 0RT129 laptop keyboard

Making the riding larger would be difficult for the elected member, as well as for campaigning and also unfair to remotely rural constituents, whose concerns are radically different from those of the medium-sized towns that typically dominate the electorate in such ridings. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

The American Constitution has built into it a series of compromises between rep-by-pop and rep-by-area: two Senators per state, at least one Representative per state, and representation in the electoral college. In Canada, provinces such as Prince Edward Island have unequal representation in Parliament (in the Commons as well as the Senate) relative to Ontario, SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard

British Columbia, and Alberta, partly for historical reasons, partly because those electoral allotments are constitutionally guaranteed, and partly because governments have simply chosen to under-represent certain voters and over-represent others. In the United States, Baker v. Carr (1962) established the "one-person/one vote" standard, that each individual had to be weighted equally in legislative apportionment. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

In Canada, until recent reforms, there were still many federal and provincial electoral districts in British Columbia and other provinces that had less than a few thousand votes cast, notably Atlin, covering the province's far northwest, with no more than 1,500. The area of the riding was about the size of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia combined,  HP Pavilion dv5-1235et laptop keyboard

and larger than many American states. In practicality, the voters of the tiny communities scattered across the subarctic landscape, less than the population of a city block, had as much electoral clout as two Fraser Valley municipalities totaling up to 60,000 in population. The population imbalance between largely rural areas and overwhelmingly urban areas is one reason why the realities of representation by area still have sway against the ideal of representation by population.

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According to this idea, an elected body should resemble a representative sample of the voters they are meant to represent concerning outward characteristics—a constituency of 50% women and 20% blacks, for example, should have 50% female and 20% black legislators. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

Sometimes voting systems that obtain proportional representation may achieve descriptive representation as well. However this can be guaranteed only to the extent that voting patterns reflect descriptive characteristics of the voters. If a particular trait is not a concern for voters or prospective candidates (for instance, eye color), then, if the system does not introduce other biases, an elected body will resemble a random sampling of the voters instead. DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

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Some [Ulbig 2005] argue that cynicism and distrust towards government of disadvantaged minorities is partly due to not having representatives with similar characteristics. Supporters of this argument point out that as descriptive representation increases, distrust decreases. This can be the basis of laws imposing that half the candidates on a given list be women (for example in France since 2001) or of voluntary measures (Spain's current government has eight women and eight men). SONY VAIO VGN-CR Laptop Keyboard

Opponents of such logic argue that political interests as already addressed by the political system may play a larger role. For example, only 2% of African-Americans supported the Bush administration[citation needed] despite the high-profile Bush nominations of the African Americans Colin Powell andCondoleezza Rice. SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard

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