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29 décembre 2010 3 29 /12 /décembre /2010 02:41

Most computers have a small battery. In many cases, the battery is soldered directly onto the motherboard, but the battery is usually in some sort of holder so it is easy to replace. Computers are not the only things that have a small battery like this -- camcorders and digital cameras often have them, too (Dell XPS M1210 Batteryhttp://www.hdd-shop.co.uk.

Just about any gadget that keeps track of thetimewill have a battery.

How much you know about batteries and what they do? Test your knowledge with our Batteries Quiz  (Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery)  !

In your computer (as well as other gadgets), the battery powers a chip called theReal Time Clock (RTC)chip. The RTC is essentially a quartz watch that runs all the time, whether or not the computer has power. The battery powers this clock. When the computer boots up, part of the process is to query the RTC to get the correct time and date  (Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery)  .

A little quartz clock like this might run for five to seven years off of a small battery. Then it is time to replace the battery.

This does not explain why your computer would not boot, however. You would expect the computer to boot fine but have an incorrect time and date  (Dell Vostro 1710 Battery)   .

The reason your computer would not boot is because the RTC chip also contains 64 (or more) bytes of random access memory (RAM). The clock uses 10 bytes of this space, leaving 54 bytes for other purposes. The BIOS stores all sorts of information in the CMOS RAM area, like the number of floppy and hard disk drives, the hard disk drive type, etc  (Dell KM958 battery)   .

If the CMOS RAM loses power, the computer may not know anything about the hard disk configuration of your machine, and therefore it cannot boot.

Many more modern computers are not quite so dependent on the CMOS RAM  (Sony VGP-BPS13 battery)    .

They store the settings innon-volatile RAMthat works without any power at all. If the battery goes dead, the clock fails but the computer can still boot using the information in the non-volatile RAM area  (Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery)     .

What is the difference between a normal lead-acid car battery and a deep cycle battery?

People who have recreational vehicles (RVs) and boats are familiar with deep cycle batteries. These batteries are also common in golf carts and large solar power systems (the sun produces power during the day and the batteries store some of the power for use at night)  (Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery)    .

If you have read the article How Emergency Power Systems Work, then you also know that an alternative to gasoline-powered generators is an inverter powered by one or more deep cycle batteries  (Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery)   .

Both car batteries and deep cycle batteries arelead-acidbatteries that use exactly the same chemistry for their operation (see How Batteries Work for more information). The difference is in the way that the batteriesoptimizetheir design  (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery)     :

A car's battery is designed to provide a very large amount of current for a short period of time.This surge of current is needed to turn the engine over during starting. Once the engine starts, the alternator provides all the power that the car needs, so a car battery may go through its entire life without ever being drained more than 20 percent of its total capacity (Sony VGP-BPL9 battery)   .

Used in this way, a car battery can last a number of years. To achieve a large amount of current, a car battery uses thin plates in order to increase its surface area.

A deep cycle battery is designed to provide a steady amount of current over a long period of time (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery)   .

A deep cycle battery can provide a surge when needed, but nothing like the surge a car battery can. A deep cycle battery is also designed to be deeply discharged over and over again (something that would ruin a car battery very quickly). To accomplish this, a deep cycle battery uses thicker plates  (Sony VGP-BPL15 battery)   .

A car battery typically has two ratings:

CCA(Cold Cranking Amps) - The number of amps that the battery can produce at 32 degrees F (0 degrees C) for 30 seconds (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery) .

RC(Reserve Capacity) - The number of minutes that the battery can deliver 25 amps while keeping its voltage above 10.5 volts

Typically, a deep cycle battery will have two or three times the RC of a car battery, but will deliver one-half or three-quarters the CCAs  (Dell Latitude E6400 battery)      .

In addition, a deep cycle battery can withstand several hundred total discharge/recharge cycles, while a car battery is not designed to be totally discharged.

How do the battery testers on battery packages work?

The little disposable battery testers that you see on batteries or battery packages are a great example ofcombined technologies-- several existing technologies have been combined in a completely new way  (HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery)  !

Battery testers depend on two special types of ink:thermochromicandconductiveinks. Thermochromic ink changes color depending on its temperature. Conductive ink can conduct electricity. By applying layers of these special inks along with a layer of normal ink using a fairly normal printing press  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ Battery)   ,

it is possible to create an extremely inexpensive printed design that changes depending on the amount of electricity it receives.

There are two types of thermochromic ink: liquid crystal and leucodye. Liquid crystal based thermochromic ink is sensitive to very small changes in temperature, but it is fairly difficult to manufacture  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ18 Battery) .

This makes it perfect for use in items like thermometers where you need the sensitivity, but troublesome in an item that needs to be inexpensive and in which a large, abrupt change in temperature will occur. Leucodyes are specially formulated substances that change from a specific color  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ180E Battery)    ,

like blue, to a clear state when subjected to a temperature change of about 5 degrees F or more. Thermochromic inks can be formulated to change color at specific temperatures. For battery testers, the desired temperature is usually around 100-120 degrees F  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ220E Battery)    .

To create a battery tester, you start with a layer of conductive ink that gets progressively narrower as you move across the tester from "good" to "bad." In the picture above the tester has 3 bars. In other testers the ink is wedge-shaped. The narrowest point indicates the weakest charge; the widest area indicates a full charge  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ340E Battery)  .

When current passes through the thin layer of conductive ink, resistance in the ink creates heat. A small amount of current can generate enough heat to affect the smallest area of thermochromic ink; but, as the area widens, more current is needed to change colors  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ430E Battery)     .

On top of the conductive ink is a layer of normal ink that conveys the design. In most battery testers, this is some type of "fuel gauge" graphic or text that indicates that a battery is good. The design can be anything, since the normal ink layer does not affect the way the conductive and thermochromic layers interact  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ460E Battery)      .

Finally, there is the thermochromic layer. In the photo of the battery tester above, the thermochromic layer is black when cool. By touching a battery to the conductive ink on the back of the paper, a connection between the positive and negative terminals is created  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ480E Battery)   .

As a current is generated, the thermochromic ink will turn clear. This reveals the design that is printed in normal ink. If there is enough current, most or all of the thermochromic ink will heat to the temperature needed to become translucent.

One question you might have right now is, "Doesn't the battery tester drain some of the battery's energy?" The answer is, "yes, but not enough to matter." If you tested the battery every 5 minutes it might be a problem, but most people don't do that  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ4000 Battery)  .

One type of battery tester available now has the tester right on the battery. You press two small dots indicated on the battery to test it. These points complete a circuit between the battery and the tester, and electricity flows through the conductive ink in the same way as in the tester discussed above (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery)     .

the different ways to store energy besides using rechargeable batteries

Human beings have been looking for a good way to store energy for a long time. One of the major things that has been holding up electric cars is battery technology -- when you compare batteries to gasoline, the differences are huge  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31B Battery)     .

For example, a typical electric car might carry 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of lead-acid batteries. Those batteries take several hours to recharge, and might give the car a 100-mile (160-km) range. Two or 3 gallons of gasoline give the same range, weigh less than 30 pounds (13 kg), and you can pump that much gasoline in about a minute  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery)        .

Quiz Corner

How much you know about batteries and what they do? Test your knowledge with our Batteries Quiz!

Here is a list of other technologies that people commonly use to store energy. Some of these work in an electric car, while others are better for stationary applications  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery)  :

One of the oldest techniques people have used is thefalling weight. You lift the weight to store the energy in it and then let the weight fall to extract the energy. Many grandfather clocks and cuckoo clocks use this technique. By running the string attached to the weights through a gear train, you can use a heavy weight and let it fall over a long period of time   (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ31Z Battery) .

(See How Pendulum Clocks Work.) This approach doesn't work very well in an electric car, but it has worked well in clocks for hundreds of years  (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery)  .

Many power plants use the "falling weight" approach in the form ofwater. The water is pumped uphill to a lake at night when the power plant has excess capacity. During high-demand daytime periods, the water runs through a turbine on its way downhill to a lower lake. (See How Hydropower Plants Work  SONY VGP-BPS8 Battery.)

Another way to store energy is in some form ofrepeatable mechanical deformation. This is the idea behind a spring used in a wind-up clock or a rubber band used in a wind-up airplane. You store the energy by bending (deforming) the material in a spring, and the material releases the energy as it returns to its original shape  SONY VGP-BPS13 Battery.

At the scale of a car, this technology has problems because of the weight of the spring, but at smaller scales (like a wristwatch) it works great. See also this page for an interesting example.

Nature has been storing energy for a long time, and if you want to think about it in this way, gasoline is really a form of stored energySONY VGP-BPS13/S Battery.

Plants absorb sunlight and turn it intocarbohydrates(see How Food Works for a discussion of carbohydrates). Over millions of years, these carbohydrates can turn into oil or coal. On a more human time scale, we burn wood (which is a carbohydrate) to release stored energy, or turn corn into alcohol and burn the alcohol  SONY VGP-BPS13A/B Battery.

Another technique that nature uses to store energy isfat, which many of us are familiar with in a personal way. It is interesting to think about a car that somehow eats grass or some other carbohydrate and stores it as fat  SONY VGP-BPS13B/B Battery.

You can take energy and split water into its hydrogen and oxygen atoms usingelectrolysis. By storing the hydrogen and oxygen in tanks, you can later create energy by burning it, or (more efficiently) by running it through afuel cell(see How Fuel Cells Work)  SONY VGP-BPS13A/S Battery.

You can use the energy to spin up aflywheeland then later extract the energy by using the flywheel to run a generator. This patent has lots of information.

You can storeheatdirectly and later convert the heat to another form of energy like electricity  SONY VGP-BPS13AS Battery.

This page discusses some of NASA's experiments in this area.

You can usecompressed airto store energy. Toys like the Air Hog store energy in this way. Compressing gases like nitrogen enough produces liquid nitrogen, and this page talks about how you can use liquid nitrogen to power a car  (Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery)     .

One of the new technologies that may become available in the future involvesantimatter. When you combine normal matter with antimatter, you get energy. You store the energy by creating the antimatter. This page talks about it a bit.

Right now, none of these techniques can hold a candle (another form of stored energy!) to gasoline in the convenience sense (Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery)  .

Fuel cells using methanol look to be the closest competitor right now, and will probably become available to the general public over the next few years.

different ways to store energy besides using rechargeable batteries

Human beings have been looking for a good way to store energy for a long time  (Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery)   .

One of the major things that has been holding up electric cars is battery technology -- when you compare batteries to gasoline, the differences are huge. For example, a typical electric car might carry 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of lead-acid batteries. Those batteries take several hours to recharge, and might give the car a 100-mile (160-km) range  (Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery)  .

Two or 3 gallons of gasoline give the same range, weigh less than 30 pounds (13 kg), and you can pump that much gasoline in about a minute.

Quiz Corner

How much you know about batteries and what they do? Test your knowledge with our Batteries Quiz  (Dell Studio 1450 Battery) !

Here is a list of other technologies that people commonly use to store energy. Some of these work in an electric car, while others are better for stationary applications:

One of the oldest techniques people have used is thefalling weight (Dell Studio 1457 Battery)  .

You lift the weight to store the energy in it and then let the weight fall to extract the energy. Many grandfather clocks and cuckoo clocks use this technique. By running the string attached to the weights through a gear train, you can use a heavy weight and let it fall over a long period of time  (Dell Latitude D610 Battery)   .

(See How Pendulum Clocks Work.) This approach doesn't work very well in an electric car, but it has worked well in clocks for hundreds of years.

Many power plants use the "falling weight" approach in the form ofwater (Toshiba NB100 Battery)   .

The water is pumped uphill to a lake at night when the power plant has excess capacity. During high-demand daytime periods, the water runs through a turbine on its way downhill to a lower lake. (See How Hydropower Plants Work.)

Another way to store energy is in some form ofrepeatable mechanical deformation(Toshiba Satellite M65 battery)      .

This is the idea behind a spring used in a wind-up clock or a rubber band used in a wind-up airplane. You store the energy by bending (deforming) the material in a spring, and the material releases the energy as it returns to its original shape. At the scale of a car, this technology has problems because of the weight of the spring, but at smaller scales (like a wristwatch) it works great  (Toshiba Satellite M60 battery) .

See also this page for an interesting example.

Nature has been storing energy for a long time, and if you want to think about it in this way, gasoline is really a form of stored energy. Plants absorb sunlight and turn it intocarbohydrates(see How Food Works for a discussion of carbohydrates) (Dell Latitude D830 Battery) .

Over millions of years, these carbohydrates can turn into oil or coal. On a more human time scale, we burn wood (which is a carbohydrate) to release stored energy, or turn corn into alcohol and burn the alcohol.

Another technique that nature uses to store energy isfat, which many of us are familiar with in a personal way  (Dell Latitude D620 Battery) .

It is interesting to think about a car that somehow eats grass or some other carbohydrate and stores it as fat!

You can take energy and split water into its hydrogen and oxygen atoms usingelectrolysis. By storing the hydrogen and oxygen in tanks, you can later create energy by burning it, or (more efficiently) by running it through afuel cell(see How Fuel Cells Work) (Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery)   .

You can use the energy to spin up aflywheeland then later extract the energy by using the flywheel to run a generator. This patent has lots of information.

You can storeheatdirectly and later convert the heat to another form of energy like electricity  (Sony VGN-FW11S Battery)  .

This page discusses some of NASA's experiments in this area.

You can usecompressed airto store energy. Toys like the Air Hog store energy in this way. Compressing gases like nitrogen enough produces liquid nitrogen, and this page talks about how you can use liquid nitrogen to power a car   (Sony VGN-FW11M Battery)  .

One of the new technologies that may become available in the future involvesantimatter. When you combine normal matter with antimatter, you get energy. You store the energy by creating the antimatter. This page talks about it a bit.

Right now, none of these techniques can hold a candle (another form of stored energy!) to gasoline in the convenience sense  (Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery)  .

Fuel cells using methanol look to be the closest competitor right now, and will probably become available to the general public over the next few years.

With the rise in portable devices such as laptops, cell phones, MP3 players and cordless power tools, the need for rechargeable batteries has grown substantially in recent years  (Dell Latitude E5400 Battery)    .

The concept of the rechargeable battery has been around since 1859, when French physicist Gaston Plante invented thelead acid cell, which would later become the world's first rechargeable battery. That same chemistry is still used in today's car battery (Dell Latitude E4200 Battery)     .

The basic idea behind the rechargeable battery is simple: when electrical energy is applied to the battery, the electron flow from negative to positive that occurs during discharge is reversed and power is restored (Dell Vostro A840 Battery)   .

This requires an adapter in the case of devices with built-in batteries or for standard nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride batteries, the most common multi-use rechargeable batteries used today in your remote control, flashlight or digital camera  (Dell Inspiron 300M Battery)      .

Car batteries are one of the oldest kinds of rechargeable batteries and in fact, the electric car predates its gas-powered cousin. In a standard car, there is a single lead-acid SLI battery that supplies power to the starter, lights and ignition system. The battery charger in this case is the alternator, a clever device that converts gasoline power to electrical energy and distributes it where needed  (Dell Studio 1737 battery)  .

In electric and hybrid cars, traction batteries are used to power the vehicle down the road. Traction batteries come in many varieties, from lead acid, to nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride and lithium ion.

The recharging rate has improved substantially over the years and is broken down into three categories  (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery)   :

Slow: 14-16 hours

Quick: 3-6 hours

Fast: Less than one hour

The rate of charge is determined by how much electrical current is allowed into the battery by the charger  (Dell RM791 battery)  .

Some batteries can handle higher voltage in a shorter amount of time without overheating, while others need a lesser voltage applied over a longer period of time. The quicker the rate of charge, the more chance there is of over charging, which can ruin a battery's chance of holding its charge  (Dell XPS M1530 battery) .

The key in avoiding an over charge is the ability to dissipate the charging current once maximum power has been reached. Most chargers have built-in voltage regulators do this, allowing you to safely leave your cell phone or computer plugged in overnight.

The speed and effectiveness of the charge depends largely on the quality of the charger itself  (Dell XPS M2010 battery)  .

Chargers vary in performance based on the price tag and like most products you get what you pay for. Chargers are generally designed for specific cell chemistries, although neweruniversal chargershave sensors built in that identify the cell type and react appropriately     (Acer Aspire One battery)     .

There are alsosmart chargersthat use a microprocessor to monitor temperature, voltage andstate of charge, which is the percentage of power available compared to its full capacity.

One common problem in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries is something known as thememory effect (Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery)       .

This is when the battery is continually recharged before it has discharged more than 50 percent of its power, causing it to essentially forget that it could fully discharge to begin with. Memory effect is caused by the formation of hard-to-dissolve cadmium crystals deep within the battery     (SONY VGN-FZ210CE Battery)    .

Cadmium crystals are an unavoidable by-product of discharge; the trick is to keep them small enough to be reformed as cadmium during the charging process. When a battery is not fully discharged, the crystals deep within the battery are not affected by the influx of electrical current, so they are not reformed as cadmium and can grow into the troublesome larger cadmium crystals  (Dell Precision M70 Battery)  .

The battery will still function normally, but is maxed out at 50 percent. The memory effect can be avoided by fully cycling the battery once every two to three weeks by allowing it to discharge completely, and then fully recharge.

It's important to remember that no battery, rechargeable or otherwise, will last forever   (Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery)  .

All batteries suffer from aging cells and the longer they are used, the less capacity they ultimately will have. Rechargeable batteries are still a great way to save money and reduce waste     (Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery)      .

New Battery Technology Helps Stimulate Nerves

ScienceDaily (Oct. 4, 2005) — MADISON -- With the help of new silicon-based compounds, scientists -- and patients -- are getting a significant new charge out of the tiny lithium batteries used in implantable devices to help treat nervous system and other disorders (Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery)      .

The lithium battery is the workhorse in implantable devices -- stimulators used to jump start the heart and help the central nervous system make critical connections in, for example, Parkinson's and epilepsy patients     (Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery)   .

Designed to be extraordinarily reliable and work continuously for years, the tiny batteries that power implantables are indispensable in everything from pacemakers to the electronic stimulators that help restore function in the brains of Parkinson's patients  (Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery)      .

But lithium batteries don't last forever and new surgery to maintain many devices seeded into the body is required, as it is to replace batteries and devices at the end of their lives     (Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery)    .

Moreover, a new generation of tiny electrical devices to stimulate the nervous system, treat incontinence and overcome muscular impairment is coming on line as scientists and engineers continue to shrink the components that make up the devices  (Sony Vaio PCG-5G2L Battery)    .

Central to that ability, according to University of Wisconsin-Madison Professor Emeritus of chemistry Robert West, is new lithium battery technology, technology capable of making batteries smaller, last longer and, soon, accept a charge from outside the body without the need for surgery  Sony Vaio PCG-5G3L Battery.

Using organosilicon compounds, West and his UW-Madison colleagues have developed a new generation of rechargeable lithium ion batteries whose lifetimes are more than twice as long as the batteries now used in the tiny medical devices  Sony Vaio PCG-5J1L Battery.

"It turns out the organosilicon compounds are really good for improving lithium battery technology," says West, whose new battery technology powers a "microstimulater" not much larger than a pencil lead and that can be injected near target nerves to help overcome the faulty nervous system wiring at the heart of Parkinson's, epilepsy and incontinence  Sony Vaio PCG-5K2L Battery.

"The idea is that whenever you have a broken nerve connection, you can supply the electrical impulse to complete the circuit," West explains.

The microstimulator was developed by a consortium including UW-Madison's Organosilicon Research Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Bionics Corp., the Alfred Mann Foundation and Quallion, LLC  Sony Vaio PCG-5J2L Battery.

The device was recognized earlier this year with an "R&D 100 Award" from R&D Magazine.

West's group developed the electrolyte, the electricity-conducting liquid that is the heart of the battery. The new organosilicon compounds developed by the Wisconsin chemists, says West, have numerous advantages over traditional lithium battery chemistry.

"They're very flexible. They don't solidify  Sony Vaio PCG-5K1L Battery.

They're stable, nonflammable, non-toxic and they pose no threat to the environment," says West, an international authority on silicon chemistry. Silicon, the stuff computer chips are made of, is one of the Earth's most abundant elements. Organosilicons are compounds composed of silicon and other natural materials    Sony Vaio PCG-5L1L Battery.

In the context of the lithium battery, West's group has been making and testing "designer silicons" that are specially formulated to conduct electricity in a very compact environment. In the lithium battery, charge is maintained as lithium ions flow between the battery's positive and negative electrodes    Sony Vaio PCG-6S2L Battery.

"The battery requires something the ions can go through easily. We had to tweak the (organosilicon) molecules to get higher conductivity and stability," says West.

A critical advantage of the new battery technology is lifespan  Sony Vaio PCG-6S3L Battery:

"If you're going to implant these things, you want a (battery) lifetime of at least 10 years," says West, whose organosilicon batteries are projected to power the tiny implantable devices for more than 12 years.

In addition to implantable devices for medicine, lithium batteries are used in scores of applications, from spacecraft to iPods  Sony Vaio PCG-6V1L Battery.

Patented through the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, the new organosilicon compound technology is also being developed through a new start-up company, Polyron, Inc. The work to develop the new organosilicon compounds was funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology  Sony Vaio PCG-6W1L Battery,

a federal technology agency that works with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards

Battery Reactions and Chemistry

In any battery, an electrochemical reaction occurs like the ones described on the previous page  Sony Vaio PCG-6W2L Battery.

This reaction moves electrons from one pole to the other. The actual metals and electrolytes used control thevoltageof the battery -- each different reaction has a characteristic voltage. For example, here's what happens in one cell of a car'slead-acid battery Sony Vaio PCG-6W3L Battery:

The cell has one plate made of lead and another plate made of lead dioxide, with a strong sulfuric acid electrolyte in which the plates are immersed.

Lead combines with SO4 (sulfate) to create PbSO4 (lead sulfate), plus one electron  Sony Vaio PCG-7111L Battery.

Lead dioxide, hydrogen ions and SO4 ions, plus electrons from the lead plate, create PbSO4 and water on the lead dioxide plate.

As the battery discharges, both plates build up PbSO4 and water builds up in the acid. The characteristic voltage is about 2 volts per cell, so by combining six cells you get a 12-volt battery  Sony Vaio PCG-7112L Battery.

A lead-acid battery has a nice feature -- the reaction is completelyreversible. If you apply current to the battery at the right voltage, lead and lead dioxide form again on the plates so you can reuse the battery over and over. In a zinc-carbon battery, there is no easy way to reverse the reaction because there is no easy way to get hydrogen gas back into the electrolyteSony Vaio PCG-7113L Battery.

Modern Battery Chemistry
Modern batteries use a variety of chemicals to power their reactions. Typical battery chemistries include:

Zinc-carbon battery- Also known as astandard carbonbattery, zinc-carbon chemistry is used in all inexpensive AA, C and D dry-cell batteries  Sony Vaio PCG-7133L Battery.

The electrodes are zinc and carbon, with an acidic paste between them that serves as the electrolyte.

Alkaline battery- Alkaline chemistry is used in common Duracell and Energizer batteries, the electrodes are zinc and manganese-oxide, with an alkaline electrolyte    Sony Vaio PCG-7Z1L Battery.

Lithium-iodide battery- Lithium-iodide chemistry is used in pacemakers and hearing aides because of their long life.

Lead-acid battery- Lead-acid chemistry is used in automobiles, the electrodes are made of lead and lead-oxide with a strong acidic electrolyte (rechargeable)    Sony Vaio PCG-7Z2L Battery.

Nickel-cadmium battery- The electrodes are nickel-hydroxide and cadmium, with potassium-hydroxide as the electrolyte (rechargeable).

Nickel-metal hydride battery- This battery is rapidly replacing nickel-cadmium because it does not suffer from the memory effect that nickel-cadmiums do (rechargeable)      Sony Vaio PCG-8Y1L Battery.

Lithium-ion battery- With a very good power-to-weight ratio, this is often found in high-end laptop computers and cell phones (rechargeable).

Zinc-air battery- This battery is lightweight and rechargeable    Sony Vaio PCG-8Y2L Battery.

Zinc-mercury oxide battery- This is often used in hearing-aids.

Silver-zinc battery- This is used in aeronautical applications because the power-to-weight ratio is good  Sony Vaio PCG-8Z1L Battery.

As you can see, several of these batteries are rechargeable. What makes a battery rechargeable? In the next section, we'll check out how rechargeable batteries work.

How to store a laptop battery properly to save it from an early death        Sony Vaio PCG-8Z2L Battery

In the last two parts of this series, I covered the factors of temperature and charging. While the high temperatures inside modern laptops are probably the worst enemy of a Li-ion battery, frequent discharge/charge cycles will negatively influence a battery’s life. If your laptop is a desktop replacement, then you probably only need the battery every now and then  Sony VAIO PCG-5G2L Battery.

It can be quite frustrating if you want to use your laptop for the first time after a year without AC, only to realize that your batteries are already dead even though you never really used them. However, if you remove the battery from the laptop and store it accurately, there is a good chance that it will be in good condition when you need it next time  Sony VAIO PCG-5G3L Battery.

Don’t store a battery that is almost empty.Stored batteries continue losing energy, albeit at a much slower pace. If the stored battery is totally discharged, it could be destroyed  Sony VAIO PCG-5J1L Battery.

Don’t store a fully charged battery.Fully charged batteries deteriorate faster than half-charged batteries. Most articles I’ve read recommended storing laptop batteries with a 40–60% charge  Sony VAIO PCG-5K2L Battery.

Store the battery at a low temperature.I usually put it in the fridge. It keeps my battery fresh and crisp. Check out this table at Wikipedia. 0°C (32°F) seems to be the best storage temperature. I wouldn’t put the battery in the freezer even though Li-ion batteries only freeze at approximately ?40°C  Sony VAIO PCG-5J2L Battery.

Store the battery in a dry place.A moist environment will accelerate discharging the battery  Sony VAIO PCG-5K1L Battery

Universal Laptop Battery Buying Tips

Most people own more than one laptop unit and of different brands. Owning a universal laptop battery seems to be the most convenient way to have when you travel as it allows you to use it with any laptop computer unit when your power supply is running out  Sony VAIO PCG-5L1L Battery.

It is true that taking care of your laptop battery is a priority as your mobile computer will be useless with a defective battery on it. There is a need to ensure that it works properly in order not to hamper your convenient usage of your notebook. Proper care of your laptop requires its storage in moderate temperature which is neither too cold not too hot  Sony VAIO PCG-6S2L Battery.

Your laptop battery will be short of power once it is cold and it will not discharge fast when it is hot. You need to frequently charge your battery to ensure it to be fully functioning well.

Going for a universal battery for laptops allows it to work on different models, brand, and units  Sony VAIO PCG-6S3L Battery.

There are varieties of choices available in most computer shops and online stores. But do know what type of universal battery to buy for your laptop?

One issue with laptop batteries is the danger of explosion    Sony VAIO PCG-6V1L Battery.

It may rarely happen but it does happen and anyone could be at risk when using poor quality battery for their laptops. Take note that lithium ion laptop batteries, which are commonly used in the market could explode owing to its cobalt oxide content.

Consideration may be directed also by choosing a laptop that is smaller in size such as ultra portable or light weight laptops  Sony VAIO PCG-6W1L Battery.

They have smaller LCD and it uses less power. It has a hard drive that runs only about 4200 rpm which uses less power than those than run at 5400 rpm. This makes your laptop battery drain less quickly    Sony VAIO PCG-6W2L Battery.

Universal batteries for laptop use are available in different types according to the size of your laptop. A friend bought a nickel metal laptop battery which is suitable for her small size notebook. I want to buy one myself however I was advised it is not suitable for my laptop which is 16 inches    Sony VAIO PCG-6W3L Battery.

The most suitable one is the ED369 battery which is best for laptops that are 13 inches or more in size and when one uses a lot of external devices that requires more battery power. This battery provides 2 to 3 hours of power supply in normal conditions. Simply plug it into the AC adapter of the laptop and it is ready to use    Sony VAIO PCG-7111L Battery.

When buying a battery for your laptop always consider the size of your computer and the average consumption of power. You can choose from variable output voltage. Voltage of 16 and 19 v DC are enough to supply most laptops  Sony VAIO PCG-7112L Battery.

How to Keep Your Laptop Battery in Good Working Condition

Most laptop batteries just don't last as long as they should because the rightful owner doesn't take the necessary steps to keep it operating properly  Sony VAIO PCG-7113L Battery.

Just a few normal maintenance of the laptop battery can certainly make a big difference in how long your battery will last both in short term life span and long term as well. Here are a few tips on how to take care of your battery to ensure you get the absolute most out of it  Sony VAIO PCG-7133L Battery.

The first point to consider is the fact that you should never use or store your battery in very extreme conditions. For instance, never leave your laptop in the trunk of your car when it is either freezing out or in the middle of a hot summer day. You shouldn't even leave it in your car period    Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1L Battery.

Make sure it is only used in room temperature conditions and also away from humid and wet conditions like those that exist in a steamy shower or bathroom.

If you are in the market for a laptop that only has a long lasting battery, consider buying one that is smaller and lighter in weight  Sony VAIO PCG-7Z2L Battery.

These ultra thin or compact laptops generally will last longer than their bigger and bulkier counterparts.

Be aware as well that you can always adjust the power settings in your control panel to make the battery last longer  Sony VAIO PCG-8Y1L Battery.

You will of course be somewhat limited in the functions that your computer can process and it will also operate at a much lower speed than normal.

There is an easy way to clean your battery so that it doesn't develop any rust or debris  Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2L Battery.

Simply take a cotton swab or Q-tip with a dab of rubbing alcohol and gently wipe off all of the connectors. Make sure to completely dry the battery before you ever attempt putting it back in the computer.

Every few weeks you want to make sure to drain your battery completely and then let it charge up all the way  Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1L Battery.

This is just a natural process that your battery needs to go through in order to maintain its long battery lifespan.

If all else fails and your laptops battery just isn't lasting as long as it should, it may then be time to think about just buying a new battery    Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2L Battery.

I always do a search online to find a suitable battery for my laptop. Ordering from the manufacturer itself will ensure that you do in fact get the right battery that will work properly in your laptop. If you end up getting the wrong battery, it could ultimately damage or completely ruin your laptop      WD passport essential (500GB/640GB).

So always be careful and know what you are buying before you spend any money.

For even more great information about Replacement Laptop Batteries, visit Wade's new Laptop Power Adapters website. Learn about how to find the right batteries and adapters to fit your specific laptop     WD passport essential (250GB/320GB) .

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