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William Booth William Booth (10 April 1829 – 20 August 1912) was a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation Army and became its first General (1878–1912). The Christian movement with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865 has spread from London, England to many parts of the world and is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid. SONY KFRMBA152A Laptop Keyboard William Booth was born in Sneinton, Nottingham, England, the only son of four surviving children born to Samuel Booth andMary Moss.[1] Booth's father was wealthy by the standards of the time, but during his childhood, as a result of bad investments, the family descended into poverty and his father became an alcoholic. In 1842, Samuel Booth, who by then was bankrupt, could no longer afford his son's school fees, and 13-year-old William Booth was apprenticed to a pawnbroker. Samuel Booth died later that same year.[2]ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard Two years into his apprenticeship Booth was converted to Methodism.[3] He then read extensively and trained himself in writing and in speech, becoming a Methodist lay preacher. Booth was encouraged to be an evangelist primarily through his best friend, Will Sansom. Sansom and Booth both began in the 1840s to preach to the poor and the sinners of Nottingham,  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard and Booth would probably have remained as Sansom's partner in his new Mission ministry, as Sansom titled it, had Sansom not died of tuberculosis, in 1848.[4] When his apprenticeship ended in 1848, Booth spent a year looking in vain for more suitable work than pawnbroking, which he disliked and considered ungodly.[5] In 1849, Booth reluctantly left his family and moved to London, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard where he found work and lodging in a pawnbroker's shop. Booth tried to continue lay preaching in London, but the small amount of preaching work that came his way frustrated him, and so he resigned as a lay preacher and took to open-air evangelising in the streets and on Kennington Common. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard In 1851, Booth joined the Reformers (Methodist Reform Church), and on 10 April 1852, his 23rd birthday, he left pawnbroking and became a full-time preacher at their headquarters at Binfield Chapel in Clapham. William styled his preaching after therevivalist American James Caughey, who had made frequent visits to England and preached at Booth's favourite church, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Broad StreetChapel. Just over a month after he started full-time preaching, on 15 May 1852, William Booth became formally engaged to Catherine Mumford. In November 1853, Booth was invited to become the Reformers' minister at Spalding, in Lincolnshire. Booth married Catherine Mumford on 16 June 1855 at Stockwell Green Congregational Church in London. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard Their wedding was very simple, as they wanted to use their time and money for his ministry. Even on their honeymoon Booth was asked to speak at meetings. Though Booth became a prominent Methodist evangelist, he was unhappy that the annual conference of the denomination kept assigning him to a pastorate, the duties of which he had to neglect to respond to the frequent requests that he do evangelistic campaigns. At the Liverpool conference in 1861, after having spent three years at Gateshead, his request to be freed for evangelism full-time was refused yet again, and Booth resigned from the ministry of the Methodist New Connexion.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Soon he was barred from campaigning in Methodist congregations, so he became an independent evangelist. His doctrine remained much the same, though; he preached that eternal punishment was the fate of those who do not believe the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the necessity of repentance from sin, and the promise ofholiness. SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard He taught that this belief would manifest itself in a life of love for God and mankind. Eventually, the Booths' children became involved in the ministry. William then became the leader of the salvation army. DELL Latitude 131L Laptop Keyboard In 1865 Booth was in the East End of London, preaching to crowds of people in the streets. Outside The Blind Beggar public house some missioners heard him speaking and were so impressed by his preaching that they invited him to lead a series of meetings they were holding in a large tent. SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard The tent was set up on an old Quaker burial ground on Mile End Waste in Whitechapel. The first of these meetings was held on 2 July 1865. To the poor and destitute of London's East End, Booth brought the good news of Jesus Christ and his love for all.[6]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Booth soon realised he had found his destiny, and later in 1865 he and his wife Catherine opened 'The Christian Revival Society' in theEast End of London, where they held meetings every evening and on Sundays, to share the repentance that salvation can bring through accepting Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior to the poorest and most needy, including alcoholics, criminals and prostitutes. The Christian Revival Society was later renamed The Christian Mission. Lenovo ThinkPad T410s-2912 Laptop Keyboard Slowly The Christian Mission began to grow but the work was difficult and Booth would "stumble home night after night haggard with fatigue, often his clothes were torn and bloody bandages swathed his head where a stone had struck", wrote his wife. Evening meetings were held in an old warehouse where urchins threw stones and fireworks through the window. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Outposts were eventually established and in time attracted converts, yet the results were discouraging. The Christian Mission was just one of about 500 charitable and religious groups trying to help the poor and needy in London's East End.[6]HP G61-405SL Laptop Keyboard Booth and his fellow brethren in Christ practised what they preached and performed self-sacrificing Christian and social work, such as opening “Food for the Million” shops (soup kitchens), not caring if they were scoffed at or derided for their work. HP G62-b20SA Laptop Keyboard HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Salvation Army

The name The Salvation Army developed from an incident in May 1878. William Booth was dictating a letter to his secretary George Scott Railton and said, "We are a volunteer army." Bramwell Boothheard his father and said, "Volunteer, I'm no volunteer, I'm a regular!" Railton was instructed to cross out the word "volunteer" and substitute the word "salvation".[7] TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard The Salvation Army was modelled after the military, with its own flag (or colours) and its own music, often with Christian words to popular and folkloric tunes sung in the pubs. Booth and the other soldiers in "God's Army" would wear the Army's own uniform, 'putting on the armour,' for meetings and ministry work. He became the "General" and his other ministers were given appropriate ranks as "officers". Other members became "soldiers".HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard Though the early years were lean ones, with the need of money to help the needy an ever growing issue, Booth and The Salvation Army persevered. In the early 1880s, operations were extended to other countries, notably the United States, France, Switzerland, Sweden and others, including to most of the countries of the British Empire: Australia, Canada, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Jamaica, etc. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Often the beginnings in other countries occurred through "salvationist" activities by non-officers who had emigrated. With some initial success they would contact London to 'send officers.' In other cases, like in Argentina, a non-salvationist told Booth that there were thousands of British people there who needed salvation. Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard The four officers sent in 1890 found that those British were scattered all over the pampas. But the missionaries started ministry in Spanish and the work spread throughout the country – initially following the rail-road development, since the British in charge of building the rail-roads were usually sympathetic to the movement. HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard During his lifetime, William Booth established Army work in 58 countries and colonies, travelling extensively and holding, "salvation meetings." Booth regularly published a magazine and was the author of a number of books; he also composed several songs. His book In Darkest England and the Way Out not only became a best-seller after its 1890 release, it set the foundation for the Army's modern social welfare schemes. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard It compared what was considered "civilised" England with "Darkest Africa" – a land then considered poor and backward. What Booth suggested was that much of London and greater England after the Industrial Revolution was not better off in the quality of life than those in the underdeveloped world. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard He proposed a strategy to apply the Christian Gospel and work ethic to the problems. The book speaks of abolishing vice and poverty by establishing homes for the homeless, farmcommunities where the urban poor can be trained in agriculture, training centres for prospective emigrants, homes for fallen women and released prisoners, SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard aid for the poor, and help for drunkards. He also lays down schemes for poor men’s lawyers, banks, clinics, industrial schools and even a seaside resort. He says that if the state fails to meet its social obligations it will be the task of each Christian to step into the breach. However, Booth was not departing from his spiritual convictions to set-up a socialist or communist society or sub-class, supported by people forced to finance his plans; Booth's ultimate aim was to get people "saved." HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Booth asserts in his introduction, I have no intention to depart in the smallest degree from the main principles on which I have acted in the past. My only hope for the permanent deliverance of mankind from misery, either in this world or the next, IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard is the regeneration or remaking of the individual by the power of the Holy Ghost through Jesus Christ. But in providing for the relief of temporal misery I reckon that I am only making it easy where it is now difficult, and possible where it is now all but impossible, for men and women to find their way to the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard It was asserted in some circles that In Darkest England was actually written by the crusading journalist, W.T. Stead, who, in his own words, acted as a "literary hack" for the General when Mrs. Booth lay dying. However, this assumption was swiftly dismissed by Stead some years later, declaring that, "The idea of Darkest England.. was the General's own. My part, of which I had no wish to speak.. was strictly subordinate throughout.[8] IBM 42T3737 Laptop Keyboard In Darkest England and the Way Out was reprinted several times and lately in 2006. During its early years The Salvation Army faced a great deal of opposition, especially from those in the alcohol-selling industry who were concerned that the activities of Booth and his followers would persuade the poorer classes to stop drinking. One group opposed to Booth and The Salvation Army was the Skeleton Army, HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard a diffuse group, particularly in Southern England, that opposed and disrupted The Salvation Army's marches against alcohol from the early 1880s until about 1892. Clashes between the two groups lead to the deaths of several Salvationists and injuries to many others. During 1882 alone 662 Salvation Army soldiers were assaulted: 251 of them were women and 23 of them were under fifteen years of age.[9]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Other accusations centred around the fact that Booth appointed his own children to posts for which others were better qualified, leading to claims that The Salvation Army was a Booth family-business. For example, he appointed his daughter Emma Booth as the Principal of the Officers' Training Home, The Salvation Army's first training school for women when she was just 19. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Others believed that Booth was creating a dynasty, as was suggested by the fact that he insisted that his sons-in-law added 'Booth' to their own names (see Frederick Booth-Tucker and Arthur Booth-Clibborn).[10] This was further borne out when Booth appointed his son, Bramwell Booth, as his successor as General in his will. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard The press was often hostile to Booth and The Salvation Army as well because their methods and message were widely misinterpreted. The Army's motto ‘Blood & Fire’, which had deep theological meaning representing the saving ‘blood of Jesus’ and the sanctifying ‘fire of the Holy Spirit’, was erroneously thought to mean the blood of sinners and the fire of hell. There was also suspicion about the Army's motives, with Booth often portrayed as a charlatan only out to make money.[11]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The Church of England was at first also extremely hostile to the activities of Booth and The Salvation Army. The philanthropist, politician and evangelist Lord Shaftesbury even went so far as to describe Booth as the "Anti-Christ". One of the main complaints against Booth was his "elevation of women to man's status".[12]HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard Many found him dictatorial and hard to work with. Some of his own children denounced him as their leader and turned their backs on The Salvation Army, including his daughter Kate Booth and his sonsHerbert and Ballington Booth, the latter founding a separate organisation, the Volunteers of America with himself as 'General'. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard The evangelist Rodney "Gipsy" Smith left him because of his rigidity and D.L. Moody would not support him because he felt there was a threat to the local Church. But no one could deny his compassion for the sufferings of his fellow man.[13]HP G62-b50SA Laptop Keyboard

Later years

Opinion of The Salvation Army and William Booth eventually changed to that of favour. In his later years, he was received in audience by kings, emperors and presidents, who were among his ardent admirers. Even the mass media began to use his title of 'General' with reverence. HP G62-a26SA Laptop Keyboard In 1899, Booth suffered from blindness in both eyes, but with a short rest, was able to recover his sight. In 1904 he took part in a 'motorcade' when he was driven around Great Britain, ASUS Z91E Laptop Keyboard stopping off in cities, towns and villages to preach to the assembled crowds from inside his open-top car. In 1906 Booth was made a Freeman of the City of London, and was granted an honorary degree from the University of Oxford. In 1902 he was invited to attend the coronation of King Edward VII. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard His last visit to the United States was made in 1907, and in 1909 he embarked on a six month motor tour of the United Kingdom. During this tour he discovered he was blind in his right eye and the sight in his left eye was dimmed by cataracts. HP Pavilion DV3550el Laptop Keyboard The rest of the tour had to be cancelled. On 21 August 1909 a surgeon at Guy's Hospital removed his right eye. Despite this setback, in 1910 Booth campaigned in Holland, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. On his return to England he embarked on his seventh and last motor tour. SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard William Booth was 83 years old when he died (or was Promoted to Glory) at his home in Hadley Wood, London. At the three day lying in state at Clapton Congress Hall 150,000 people filed past his casket. On 27 August 1912 Booth's funeral service was held at London’sOlympia where 40,000 people attended, including Queen Mary, who sat almost unrecognised far to the rear of the great hall. DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard The following day Booth's funeral procession set out from International Headquarters. As it moved off 10,000 uniformed Salvationists fell in behind. Forty Salvation Army bands played the ‘Dead March’ from Handel’s Saul as the vast procession set off. He was buried with his wife Catherine Booth in the main London burial ground for 19th century non-conformist ministers and tutors, the non-denominational Abney Park Cemetery in Stoke Newington.[14]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard In Booth's honour, Vachel Lindsay wrote the poem, "General William Booth Enters Into Heaven".[15] Charles Ives, who had been Evangeline Booth's neighbour, set the poem to music. In 1990 a diesel locomotive in the British Rail fleet was named 'The William Booth'.[16]HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard The William Booth rose, developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, was named in his honour.[17] The William Booth Memorial Training College in Denmark Hill, London, the College for Officer Training of The Salvation Army in the United Kingdom, is named after him,[18] as is the William Booth Primary School in his native Nottingham and William Booth Lane in central Birmingham. Also the William Booth memorial statue in Whitechapel, London.  HP Probook 4320s Laptop Keyboard Samuel Booth (1775–1842), the father of William Booth, was born in Belper, Amber Valley, Derbyshire, England. He was tall and often wore clothes that made him look like a Quaker; knee-breeches, drab-cloth suits, and cut-away coats. He marriedSarah Lockitt in 1797. At that time, he was a nail-maker. HP G71-442NR Laptop Keyboard The industrial revolution made his job redundant, therefore he tried to set up some building companies and became an architect. This provided him with sufficient funds to buy a house atColston Bassett. Samuel and Sarah had a son named William, but he was not the William Booth who founded The Salvation Army. Sarah died in 1819 and William died five years later. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7135 Laptop Keyboard When Samuel Booth went to Ashby-de-la-Zouch to drink the water in hopes that it would cure his rheumatism, he met Mary Moss. He proposed, but she declined. He soon renewed his proposal and pursued her until she agreed, although he was sixteen years her senior. They married and had five children: Henry, Ann, William, Emma, and Mary. Henry died at the age of three SONY 91160363 Laptop Keyboard This William became the founder of The Salvation Army. Emma was an invalid from birth and she died without ever marrying at the age of forty. Mary eventually became Mary Newell, and she lived until she was 69. TOSHIBA Satellite 2805-s201 Laptop Keyboard As Samuel was forced into bankruptcy by successive trade recessions, he moved to Nottingham. William was eventually to say of him: "My father was a Grab, a Get. He had been born in poverty. He determined to grow rich; and he did. He grew very rich, because he lived without God and simply worked for money; and when he lost it all, his heart broke with it, and he died miserably." Compaq Presario CQ57-314 Laptop Keyboard Samuel Booth was not a religious man, and although he had little interest in his children, he insisted that they attend church regularly. Samuel began to lose more money and he was forced to move into a house on Sneinton Road in a poorer neighbourhood, but he eventually moved back to Nottingham. It was there that he died. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard He was baptised on his deathbed, after which he committed his wife and children to God. Those who surrounded him, including his son William, sang Rock of Ages as he died. Catherine Booth (17 January 1829 – 4 October 1890) was the wife of the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. Because of her influence in the formation of The Salvation Army she was known as the 'Army Mother'. HP Pavilion G7-1085NR Laptop Keyboard She was born as Catherine Mumford in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England, the daughter of John Mumford and Sarah Milward. Her father was a coach builder. Her family later moved to Boston, Lincolnshire, and later lived in Brixton, London. From an early age, Catherine was a serious and sensitive girl. She had a strongChristian upbringing and was said to have read the Bible through eight times before the age of 12.  HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard At age 14, she was seriously ill and spent a great deal of time in bed. She kept herself busy, however, and was especially concerned about the problems of alcohol. She wrote articles for a temperance magazine, which encouraged people not to drink. Catherine was a member of the local Band of Hope and a supporter of the nationalTemperance Society. She met William Booth, a Methodist minister, when he came to preach at her church in 1852. They soon fell in love and became engaged. During their three year engagement, Catherine constantly wrote letters of encouragement to William as he performed the tiring work of a preacher. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard They were married on 16 June 1855 at Stockwell Green Congregational Church in London. Their wedding was very simple, as they wanted to use their time and money for his ministry. Even on their honeymoon, William was asked to speak at meetings. Together they accepted this challenge. Catherine began to be more active in the work of the church at Brighouse. Though she was extremely nervous, she enjoyed working with young people and found the courage to speak in children's meetings.  HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard At that time, it was unheard of for women to speak in adult meetings. She was convinced that women had an equal right to speak, however, and when the opportunity was given for public testimony at Gateshead, she went forward. It was the beginning of a tremendous ministry, as people were greatly challenged by her preaching. She also spoke to people in their homes, especially to alcoholics, whom she helped to make a new start in life. Often she held cottage meetings for converts. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard The Booths had eight children: Bramwell Booth, Ballington Booth, Kate Booth, Emma Booth, Herbert Booth, Marie Booth,Evangeline Booth and Lucy Booth, and were dedicated to giving them a firm Christian knowledge. Two of their offspring, Bramwell and Evangeline, later became Generals of The Salvation Army. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard They began the work of The Christian Mission in 1865. William preached to the poor and ragged and Catherine spoke to the wealthy, gaining support for their financially demanding ministry. She eventually began to hold her own campaigns. HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard When the name was changed in 1878 to The Salvation Army and William Booth became known as the General, Catherine became known as the Mother of the Army. She was behind many of the changes in the new organization, designing the flag and bonnets for the ladies, and contributed to the Army's ideas on many important issues and matters of belief. HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard Catherine Booth died at age 61 in Clacton-on-Sea at Crossley house; subsequently the house was donated to people with learning disabilities, and provided many summer holidays, until being sold to property developers in 2005. The Booths had rented a small villa in sight of the sea that she loved, and on 4 October 1890 she died in her husband's arms with her family around her. She is interred with her husband in Abney Park Cemetery, London. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard It is believed the term “breadline,” entered the popular lexicon in the 1880s. It was during those years that a noteworthy bakery in New York City’s Greenwich Village, “Fleischmann Model Viennese Bakery,” instituted a policy of distributing unsold baked goods to the poor at the end of their business day.[1]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The concept of soup kitchens hit the mainstream of United States consciousness during the Great Depression. One soup kitchen in Chicago was even sponsored by American mobster Al Capone in an effort to clean up his image.[2] Inventor Benjamin Thompson, contemporary to the Founding Fathers of the United States, is said to have invented the soup kitchen.[3]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard A 1985 pilot study found that 95% of homeless men served by a soup kitchen had vitamin deficiencies.[4] This shows the need for emphasis on selecting menu ingredients containing appropriate vitamins, including vitamin C and B9.[dated info]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry V (11 August 1086[1] – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with the final phase of the greatInvestiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, he surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard He was a son of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha of Savoy. His maternal grandparents were Otto of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa. On 6 January 1099, his father Henry IV had him crowned King of Germany at Aachen in place of his older brother, the rebelConrad.[2] He took an oath to take no part in the business of the Empire during his father's lifetime, but was induced by his father's enemies to revolt in 1104, securing a dispensation from the oath by Pope Paschal II,[3] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard and some of the princes did homage to him at Mainz in January 1105. Despite the initial setbacks of the rebels, Henry IV was forced to abdicate and died soon after.[4] Order was soon restored in Germany, the citizens of Cologne were punished with a fine, and an expedition against Robert II, Count of Flanders, brought this rebel to his knees.[5]TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard In 1107, Henry undertook a campaign to restore Borivoi II in Bohemia, which was only partially successful. Henry summonedSvatopluk the Lion, who had captured Duke Borivoi.[6] Borivoi was released at the emperor's command and made godfather to Svatopluk's new son. Nevertheless, on Svatopluk's return to Bohemia, he assumed the throne. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard In 1108, Henry went to war withColoman of Hungary on behalf of Prince Álmos. An attack by Boleslaus III of Poland and Borivoi on Svatopluk forced Henry to give up his campaign. Instead, he invaded Poland to compel them to renew their accustomed tribute, but was defeated at theBattles of Głogów and the Hundsfeld.[7] In 1110, he succeeded in securing the dukedom of Bohemia for Ladislaus I.  TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard

First Italian expedition

The main interest of Henry's reign was the settling of the controversy over lay investiture, which had caused a serious dispute during the previous reign. The papal party who had supported Henry in his resistance to his father hoped he would assent to the papal decrees, which had been renewed by Paschal II at the synod of Guastalla in 1106. SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Laptop Keyboard The king, however, continued to invest the bishops, but wished the pope to hold a council in Germany to settle the question. After some hesitation, Paschal preferred France to Germany, and, after holding a council at Troyes,[8] renewed his prohibition of lay investiture. The matter slumbered until 1110, when, negotiations between king and pope having failed, Paschal renewed his decrees and Henry invaded Italy with a large army. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard The strength of his forces helped him to secure general recognition in Lombardy, where archbishop Grossolano was intended to crown him with the Iron Crown of Lombardy,[9][10] and at Sutri he concluded an arrangement with Paschal by which he renounced the rite of investiture in return for a promise of coronation, and the restoration to the Empire of all Christendom, TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1MC Laptop Keyboard which had been in the hands of the German state and church since the time of Charlemagne.[11] It was a treaty impossible to execute, and Henry, whose consent to it is said to have been conditional on its acceptance by the princes and bishops of Germany, probably foresaw that it would occasion a breach between the German clergy and the pope. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Having entered Rome and sworn the usual oaths, the king presented himself at St Peter's Basilica on 12 February 1111 for his coronation and the ratification of the treaty. The words commanding the clergy to restore the fiefs of the crown to Henry were read amid a tumult of indignation, whereupon the pope refused to crown the king, who in return declined to hand over his renunciation of the right of investiture.[12] LENOVO Ideapad U550 Laptop Keyboard Paschal, along with sixteen cardinals, were seized by Henry's soldiers[13] and, in the general disorder which followed, an attempt to liberate the pontiff was thwarted in a struggle during which the king himself was wounded. A Norman army sent by Prince Robert I of Capua to rescue the papists was turned back by the imperialist count of Tusculum, Ptolemy I of Tusculum. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard

Return to Germany

Henry left Rome carrying the pope with him; and Paschal's failure to obtain assistance drew from him a confirmation of the king's right of investiture and a promise to crown him emperor.[14] The coronation ceremony accordingly took place on 13 April, after which the emperor returned to Germany, where he sought to strengthen his power by granting privileges to the inhabitants of the region of the upper Rhine.[15]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard In 1112, Lothair of Supplinburg, Duke of Saxony, rose in arms against Henry, but was easily quelled. In 1113, however, a quarrel over the succession to the counties of Weimar and Orlamünde gave occasion for a fresh outbreak on the part of Lothair, whose troops were defeated at the Battle of Warnstadt,[16] though the duke was later pardoned. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard Having been married at Mainz on 7 January 1114 to Matilda, the daughter of Henry I of England, the emperor was confronted with a further rising, initiated by the citizens of Cologne, who were soon joined by the Saxons and others.[17]SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard  HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard Initially, Henry took the fortified town of Dütz, which lay across the Rhine from Cologne. His control of Dütz allowed him to cut Cologne off from all river trade and transportation. At this point, the citizens of Cologne assembled a large force, including bowmen, and crossed the river, formed their ranks and prepared to meet Henry's army.[18]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard The Cologne bowmen were able to break the armor of Henry's soldiers; it was summer, the weather was sultry, and the soldiers had removed their armor to find relief from the heat. Henry subsequently withdrew. He turned south, and sacked Bonn and Jülich; on his return to Duetz, he was met by Archbishop Frederick, Duke Gottfried of Lorraine, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Henry of Zutphen, and Count Theodoric of Aar, Count Gerhard of Julich, Lambert of Mulenarke, and Eberhard of Gandernol, who put up a stout resistance in which the latter was killed, and Theodoric, Gerhard and Lambert were taken prisoner. Lenovo 45N2141 Laptop Keyboard When Frederick, Count of Westphalia arrived with his brother, also named Henry, and their substantial force, the emperor withdrew, barely escaping capture.[19]Finally, in October 1114, the two armies met on the plain at AndernachSONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard . After an initial skirmish in which Duke Henry of Lorraine was forced to withdraw, the citizen army and the emperor's force of Swabians, Bavarians, and Franconians clashed. The young men of Cologne, including many journeymen and apprentices, created a fearful din of noise, slashing at all who came near them. Theodric threw his force into the fight, and the emperor's army was forced back.[20] ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard Henry failed to take Cologne, and Lothair of Supplinburg defeated his forces at the Battle of Welfesholz (11 February 1115).[21] Eventually, complications in Italy compelled him to leave Germany to the care of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia, and his brother Conrad, afterwards the German king Conrad III. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

Second Italian expedition

After the departure of Henry from Rome in 1111 a council had declared the privilege of lay investiture, which had been extorted from Paschal, to be invalid.Guido, Archbishop of Vienne excommunicated the emperor,[22] calling upon the pope to ratify this sentence. Paschal, however, refused to take so extreme a step; and the quarrel entered upon a new stage in 1115 when Matilda of Tuscany, died leaving her vast estates to the papacy.[23] HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard Crossing the Alps in 1116, Henry won the support of town and noble by granting privileges to the one and giving presents to the other. But the papist Jordan, Archbishop of Milan, excommunicated him at San Tecla. He took possession of Matilda's lands, and was gladly received in Rome. By this time Paschal had withdrawn his consent to lay investiture[24]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard and the excommunication had been published in Rome; but the pope was compelled to flee from the city. Some of the cardinals withstood the emperor, but by means of bribes he broke down the opposition, and was crowned a second time[25] by Maurice Bourdin, Archbishop of Braga, who was to become Antipope Gregory VIII. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile the defeat at Welfesholz had given heart to Henry's enemies; many of his supporters, especially among the bishops, fell away; the excommunication was published at Cologne, and the pope, with the assistance of the Normans, began to make war.[26] In January 1118, Paschal died and was succeeded by Gelasius II. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The emperor immediately returned from northern Italy to Rome. But as the new pope escaped from the city, Henry, despairing of making a treaty, secured the election of the Antipope Gregory VIII,[27] who was left in possession of Rome when the emperor returned across the Alps that same year. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard       After the second Italian expedition, the opposition in Germany was gradually crushed and a general peace declared atTribur,[28] while the desire for a settlement of the investiture dispute was growing. Negotiations, begun at Würzburg, were continued at Worms, where the new pope, Callistus II,[29] was represented by Cardinal Lambert, Bishop of Ostia. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard In the Concordat of Worms, signed in September 1122, Henry renounced the right of investiture with ring and crozier, recognized the freedom of election of the clergy, and promised to restore all church property.[30] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The pope agreed to allow elections to take place in presence of the imperial envoys, and the investiture with the sceptre to be granted by the emperor as a symbol that the estates of the church were held under the crown. Henry, who had been solemnly excommunicated at Reims by Callistus in October 1119,[31] was received again into the communion of the church, after he had abandoned his nominee, Gregory, to defeat and banishment. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard The emperor's concluding years were occupied with a campaign in Holland, and with a quarrel over the succession to themargraviate of Meissen, two disputes in which his enemies were aided by Lothair of Saxony. In 1124, he led an expedition against Louis VI of France,[32] turned his arms against the citizens of Worms, and on 23 May 1125 at 3:20 pm died at a docking bay Utrecht[33] and was buried at Speyer. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard His heart and bowels are buried at the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht. Having no legitimate children, he left his possessions to his nephew, Frederick II of Swabia,[34] and on his death the line of Franconian, or Salian, emperors became extinct. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Henry and Matilda had no surviving children, though the chronicler Hériman of Tournai mentions a child who died soon after birth. Henry's illegitimate daughter Bertha married Ptolemy II of Tusculum, son of the first Ptolemy, in 1117. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) was King of the Romans (also referred to as King of the Germans[1]) from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. He was the third emperor of theSalian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by theInvestiture Controversy with the Papacy and several civil wars with pretenders to his throne in Italy and Germany. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Henry was only six years old when he succeeded to the throne, and his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent, but in 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of a conspiracy of German nobles led by archbishop Anno II of Cologne. Henry, who was at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat lying in the RhineTOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard it was immediately unmoored and the king jumped into the stream, but was rescued by one of the conspirators and carried to Cologne. Agnes retired to a convent, and the government was placed in the hands of Anno. His first move was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had initially recognized but subsequently left without support. HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, who was called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, and his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years. ACER Aspire 1640 Laptop Keyboard The malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. Eventually, during an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only the ecclesiastical ones.  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard In March 1065, Henry was declared of age. The whole of his future reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, it was a careful balancing act to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1066, one year after his enthroning at the age of fifteen, he expelled Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment, from the Crown Council. Henry also adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had recently invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055. In the same year he assembled an army to fight, at the request of the Pope, the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had already attacked the Normans. Therefore the expedition was halted. TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha.[2] His peroration at a council in Mainz was however rejected by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court, but he was convinced that the Papal opposition aimed only at overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy.  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the national boundaries. He led expeditions against the Luticiand the margrave of a district east of Saxony; and soon afterwards he had to quell the rebellions with Rudolf of Swabia and Berthold of Carinthia. Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of Nordheim, HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king. It was decided that a trial by battle should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Laptop Keyboard he declined to appear. He was thereupon declared deposed in Bavaria, and his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard in his efforts to exact tithes from them; still more formidable was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king. He was the son of one enemy, Henry III, and the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen.  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard

Investiture Controversy

The momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated. Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier, and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert,  HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost.[3] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII, and while Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters in order to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard The tension between Empire and Church culminated in the councils of 1074–1075, which constituted a substantial attempt to undo Henry III's policies. Among other measures, they denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in office; this had dramatic effects in Germany, where bishops were often powerful feudatories who, ASUS Z9100L Laptop Keyboard in this way, were able to free themselves from imperial authority. In addition to restoring all privileges lost by the ecclesiasticals, the council's decision deprived the imperial crown of almost half its lands, with grievous consequences for national unity, especially in peripheral areas like the Kingdom of Italy. HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard Suddenly hostile to Gregory, Henry did not relent from his positions: after his defeat of Otto of Nordheim, he continued to interfere in Italian and German episcopal life, naming bishops at his will and declaring papal provisions illegitimate. In 1075, Gregory excommunicated some members of the Imperial Court and threatened to do the same to Henry himself. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard Furthermore, in a synod held in February of that year, Gregory clearly established the supreme power of the Catholic Church, with the Empire subjected to it. Henry replied with a counter-synod of his own. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The beginning of the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy can be assigned to Christmas night of 1075: Gregory was kidnapped and imprisoned by Cencio I Frangipane, a Roman noble, while officiating at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Later freed by Roman people, Gregory accused Henry of having been behind the attempt. In the same year, the king had defeated a rebellion of Saxons in the First Battle of Langensalza, and was therefore free to accept the challenge. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard At Worms, on 24 January 1076, a synod of bishops and princes summoned by Henry declared Gregory VII deposed. Hildebrand replied by excommunicating the king and all the bishops named by him on 22 February 1076. In October of that year a diet of the German princes in Tribur attempted to find a settlement for the conflict, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard conceding Henry a year to repent from his actions, before the ratification of the excommunication that the pope was to sign in Swabia some months later. Henry did not repent, and, counting on the hostility showed by the Lombard clergy against Gregory, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard decided to move to Italy. He left Speyer in December 1076, spent Christmas of that year in Besançon and, together with his wife and his son, he crossed the Alps with help of the Bishop of Turin and reached Pavia. DELL TR334 Laptop Keyboard Gregory, on his way to the diet of Augsburg, and hearing that Henry was approaching, took refuge in the castle of Canossa (near Reggio Emilia), belonging to Matilda. Henry's troops were nearby. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Henry's intent, however, was apparently to perform the penance required to lift his excommunication and ensure his continued rule. The choice of an Italian location for the act of repentance, instead of Augsburg, was not accidental: it aimed to consolidate the Imperial power in an area partly hostile to the Pope; to lead in person the prosecution of events; TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard and to oppose the pact signed by German feudataries and the Pope in Tribur with the strong German party that had deposed Henry at Worms, through the concrete presence of his army. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard He stood in the snow outside the gates of the castle of Canossa for three days, from 25 January to 27 January 1077, begging the pope to rescind the sentence (popularly portrayed as without shoes, taking no food or shelter, and wearing ahairshirt - see Walk of Canossa). The Pope lifted the excommunication, imposing a vow to comply with certain conditions, which Henry soon violated. SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard

Civil war and recovery

Rudolf of Rheinfelden, a two-time brother-in-law of Henry along with allied German Aristocrats, took advantage of the momentary weakness of the king in what became known as the Great Saxon Revolt by having himself declared antiking by a council of Saxon, Bavarian, and Carinthian princes in March 1077 in Forchheim. Rudolf promised to respect the electoral concept of the monarchy and declared his willingness to submit to the pope. HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard Despite these difficulties, Henry's situation in Germany improved in the following years. When Rudolf was crowned king at Mainz in May 1077 by one of the plotters, Siegfried I, Archbishop of Mainz, the population revolted and forced him, the archbishop, and other nobles to flee to Saxony. Positioned there, Rudolf was geographically and then militarily deprived of his territories by Henry; HP Pavilion G60-118EM Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard he was later stripped of Swabia as well. After the inconclusive battle of Mellrichstadt(7 August 1077) and the defeat of Henry's forces in the Flarchheim (27 January 1080) Gregory flip-flopped to support the revolt and launched a second anathema (excommunication) against Henry in March 1080, thereby supporting the anti-king Rudolph. However, l-keyboard.com/hp-g42-415dx-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard the ample evidence that Gregory's actions were rooted in hate for the Emperor-elect instead of theology had an unfavourable personal impact on the Pope's reputation and authority, leading much of Germany to return to Henry's cause. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard On 14 October 1080 the armies of the two rival kings met at the Weisse Elster River in the battle of Elster,[4][5] in the plain of Leipzig and Henry's forces again suffered a military defeat, but won the battle with a strategic outcome— the anti-king Rudolf of Rheinfelden was mortally wounded and died the next day at nearby Merseburg, and the rebellion against Henry lost much of its momentum. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard Soon after, another anti-king, Hermann of Salm, arose as figurehead in the Great Saxon Revolt cause, but was fought successfully by Frederick I, Duke of Swabia(Frederick of Swabia) — Rudolf's Henry-appointed successor in Swabia who had married Henry's daughter Agnes of Germany. Henry convoked a synod of the highest German clergy in Bamberg and Brixen (June 1080). HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Here Henry had pope Gregory (he'd dubbed "The False Monk") again deposed and replaced by the primate ofRavenna, Guibert (now known as the antipope Clement III, though who was in the right was unclear in the day). HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard Henry entered Pavia and was crowned here as King of Italy, receiving the Iron Crown. He also assigned a series of privileges to the Italian cities who had supported him, and marched against the hated Matilda of Tuscany, declaring her deposed for lese majesty and confiscating her possessions. Then he moved to Rome, which he besieged first in 1081: SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard he was however compelled to retire to Tuscany, where he granted privileges to various cities, and obtained monetary assistance (360,000 gold pieces)[6] from a new ally, the eastern emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, who aimed to thwart the Norman's aims against his empire. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard A second and equally unsuccessful attack on Rome was followed by a war of devastation in northern Italy with the adherents of Matilda; and towards the end of 1082 the king made a third attack on Rome. After a siege of seven months the Leonine City fell into his hands. A treaty was concluded with the Romans, who agreed that the quarrel between king and pope should be decided by a synod, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard and secretly bound themselves to induce Gregory to crown Henry as emperor, or to choose another pope. Gregory, however, shut up in Castel Sant'Angelo, would hear of no compromise; the synod was a failure, as Henry prevented the attendance of many of the pope's supporters; and the king, in pursuance of his treaty with Alexios, marched against the Normans. HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard The Romans soon fell away from their allegiance to the pope; and, recalled to the city, Henry entered Rome in March 1084, after which Gregory was declared deposed and Clement was recognized by the Romans. On 31 March 1084 Henry was crowned emperor by Clement, and received the patrician authority. His next step was to attack the fortresses still in the hands of Gregory.  DELL Inspiron 500m Laptop Keyboard The pope was saved by the advance of Robert Guiscard, duke of Apulia, who left the siege of Durazzo and marched towards Rome: Henry left the city and Gregory could be freed. The latter however died soon later at Salerno (1085), not before a last letter in which he exhorted the whole of Christianity to a crusade against the Emperor. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Emperor spent 1084 in a show of power in Germany, where the reforming instances had still ground due to the predication of Otto of Ostia, advancing up to Magdeburg in Saxony. He also declared the Peace of God in all the Imperial territories to quench any sedition. On 8 March 1088 Otto of Ostia was elected pope as Urban II: with Norman support, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard he excommunicated Henry and Clement III, who was defined "a beast sprung out from the earth to wage war against the Saints of God". He also formed a large coalition against the Holy Roman Empire, HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard including, aside from the Normans, the Rus ofKiev, the Lombard communes of Milan, Cremona, Lodi and Piacenza and Matilda of Canossa, who had remarried to Welf II of Bavaria, therefore creating a concentration of power too formidable to be neglected by the emperor. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1006tu Laptop Keyboard

Internecine wars and death

In 1088 Hermann of Salm died and Egbert II, Margrave of Meissen, a long-time enemy of the Emperor's, proclaimed himself the antiking's successor. Henry had him condemned by a Saxon diet and then a national one at Quedlinburg and Regensburgrespectively, ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard but was defeated by Egbert when a relief army came to the margrave's rescue during the siege of Gleichen. Egbert was murdered two years later (1090) and his ineffectual insurrection and royal pretensions fell apart. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard Henry then launched his third punitive expedition in Italy. After some initial success against the lands of Canossa, his defeat in 1092 caused the rebellion of the Lombard communes. The insurrection extended when Matilda managed to turn against him his elder son, Conrad, who was crowned King of Italy at Monza in 1093.  ACER TravelMate 242LC Laptop Keyboard The Emperor therefore found himself cut off from Germany. He could return there only in 1097: in Germany his power was still at its height. Matilda of Canossa had secretly transferred her property to the Church in 1089, before her marriage to Welf II of Bavaria (1072–1120). In 1095, a furious Welf left her and, together with his father, switched his allegiance to Henry IV, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard possibly in exchange for a promise of succeeding his father as duke of Bavaria. Henry reacted by deposing Conrad at the diet of Mainz in April 1098, and designating his younger son Henry (future Henry V) as successor, under the oath sworn that he would never follow his brother's example. ACER Aspire 7336 Laptop Keyboard The situation in the Empire remained chaotic, worsened by the further excommunication against Henry launched by the new pope Paschal II, a follower of Gregory VII's reformation ideals elected in the August of 1099. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard But this time the Emperor, meeting with some success in his efforts to restore order, could afford to ignore the papal ban. A successful campaign in Flanders was followed in 1103 by a diet at Mainz, HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard where serious efforts were made to restore peace, and Henry IV himself promised to go on crusade. But this plan was shattered by the revolt of his son Henry in 1104, who, encouraged by the adherents of the pope, declared he owed no allegiance to an excommunicated father. Saxony and Thuringia were soon in arms, the bishops held mainly to the younger Henry, FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard while the Emperor was supported by the towns. A desultory warfare was unfavourable, however, to the Emperor, who was taken as prisoner at an alleged reconciliation meeting at Koblenz. At a diet held in Mainz in December, Henry IV was forced to resign his crown, being subsequently imprisoned in the castle ofBöckelheim. Here he was also obliged to say that he had unjustly persecuted Gregory VII and to have illegally named Clement III as anti-pope. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard When these conditions became known in Germany, a strong dissent movement spread. In 1106 the loyal party set up a large army to fight Henry V and Paschal. Henry IV managed to escape to Cologne from his jail, finding considerable support in the lower Rhineland. He also entered into negotiations with England, France, and Denmark. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard Henry was also able to defeat his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, on 2 March 1106. However, he died soon afterwards after nine days of illness, while he was the guest of his friend Othbert, Bishop of Liège, at the age of 56. SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard His body was buried by the bishop of Liège with suitable ceremony, but by command of the papal legate it was unearthed, taken to Speyer and placed in the unconsecrated chapel of Saint Afra that was built on the side of the Imperial Cathedral. After being released from the sentence of excommunication, the remains were buried inSpeyer cathedral in August 1111. HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard Henry IV in later life displayed much diplomatic ability. His abasement at Canossa can be regarded as a move of policy to weaken the pope's position at the cost of a personal humiliation to himself. He was always regarded as a friend of the lower orders, was capable of generosity and gratitude, and showed considerable military skill and great chivalry.  ACER Aspire 2003WLMi Laptop Keyboard HP G61 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

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