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William Tyndale

William Tyndale (sometimes spelled TynsdaleTindallTindillTyndall; c. 1492 – 1536) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is remembered for his translation of the Bible into English. HP Pavilion dv7-6001xx Battery

He was influenced by the work of Desiderius Erasmus, who made the Greek New Testament available in Europe, and by Martin Luther.[1]HP Pavilion dv7-6002sa Battery

While a number of partial and complete translations had been made from the seventh century onward, the popularity ofWycliffe's Bible in the 14th century resulted in a ban on the publication of the Bible in English; almost all vernacular Bibles were confiscated and burned. HP Pavilion dv7-6004ea Battery

Tyndale's illegal translation was the first of the new English Bibles of the Reformation, and the first to draw directly from Hebrew and Greek texts, and the first to take advantage of the new medium of the print, which allowed for wide distribution. HP Pavilion dv7-6004tx Battery

This was taken to be a direct challenge to the hegemony of both the Roman Catholic Church and the English church and state. Tyndale also wrote, in 1530, The Practyse of Prelates, opposingHenry VIII's divorce on the grounds that it contravened scriptural law. HP Pavilion dv7-6005sg Battery

In 1535, Tyndale was arrested and jailed in the castle of Vilvoorde outside Brussels for over a year. He was tried for heresy, choked, impaled and burnt on a stake in 1536. The Tyndale Bible, as it was known, continued to play a key role in spreading Reformation ideas across the English-speaking world.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-6005tx Battery

The fifty-four independent scholars who created the King James Version of the Bible in 1611 drew significantly on Tyndale's translations. One estimation suggests the New Testamentin the King James Version is 83% Tyndale's, and the Old Testament 76%.[3]HP Pavilion dv7-6006sg Battery

Tyndale was born 1492, possibly in one of the villages near Dursley, Gloucestershire.[4] Within his immediate family, the Tyndales were also known at that period as Hychyns (Hitchins), and it was as William Hychyns that Tyndale was educated at Magdalen College School, HP Pavilion dv7-6007sg Battery

Oxford. Tyndale's family had migrated to Gloucestershire at some point in the fifteenth century – probably as a result of the Wars of the Roses. The family derived from Northumberland via East Anglia. Documentation shows that Tyndale's uncle, HP Pavilion dv7-6008eg Battery

Edward, was receiver to the lands of Lord Berkeley, and gives account of the Tyndale family origins. Edward Smith is recorded in two genealogies[5] as having been the brother of Sir William Tyndale, of Deane, Northumberland, and Hockwald, Norfolk, HP Pavilion dv7-6008sg Battery

who was knighted at the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales to Katherine of Aragon. Tyndale's family was therefore derived from Baron Adam de Tyndale, a tenant-in-chief of Henry I (and whose family history is related i Tyndall). William Tyndale's niece was Margaret Tyndale who married Rowland Taylor "The Martyr".HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg Battery


Tyndale began a Bachelor of Arts degree at Magdalen Hall (later Cambridge University) of Oxford University in 1506 and received his B.A. in 1512; the same year becoming a subdeacon. He was made Master of Arts in July 1515 and was held to be a man of virtuous disposition, HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx Battery

leading an unblemished life.[6] The MA allowed him to start studying theology, but the official course did not include the study of scripture. He was a gifted linguist, over the years becoming fluent in French, Greek, Hebrew, German, Italian, HP Pavilion dv7-6012eg Battery

Latin, and Spanish, in addition to his native English.[7] Between 1517 and 1521, he went to the University of Cambridge. Erasmus was the leading teacher of Greek there from August 1511 to January 1512, but during Tyndale's time at the university Erasmus was away.[8] According to Monyahan, Tyndale may have met Thomas Bilney and John Frith whilst there.[9]HP Pavilion dv7-6012sg Battery

Tyndale became chaplain to the house of Sir John Walsh at Little Sodbury and tutor to his children in about 1521. His opinions proved controversial to fellow clergymen, and around 1522 he was called before John Bell, the Chancellor of the Diocese of Worcester, though no formal charges were laid.[10]HP Pavilion dv7-6012tx Battery

Soon afterwards, Tyndale determined to translate the Bible into English, convinced that the way to God was through His word and that scripture should be available even to common people. John Foxe describes an argument with a "learned" but "blasphemous" clergyman, HP Pavilion dv7-6013eg Battery

 who had asserted to Tyndale that, "We had better be without God's laws than the Pope's." Swelling with emotion, Tyndale responded: "I defy the Pope, and all his laws; and if God spares my life, ere many years, I will cause the boy that driveth the plow to know more of the Scriptures than thou dost!"[11][12]HP Pavilion dv7-6013tx Battery


Tyndale left for London in 1523 to seek permission to translate the Bible into English. He requested help from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, a well-known classicist who had praised Erasmus after working together with him on a Greek New Testament. HP Pavilion dv7-6014tx Battery

The bishop, however, had little regard for Tyndale's scholarly credentials; like many highly-placed churchmen, he was suspicious of Tyndale's theology and was uncomfortable with the idea of the Bible in the vernacular. HP Pavilion dv7-6015eg Battery

The Church at this time did not support any English translation of scripture. Tunstall told Tyndale he had no room for him in his household.[13] Tyndale preached and studied "at his book" in London for some time, relying on the help of a cloth merchant, Humphrey Monmouth. During this time he lectured widely, including at St Dunstan-in-the-West. HP Pavilion dv7-6015sg Battery



He then left England and landed on the continent, perhaps at Hamburg, in the spring of the year 1524, possibly travelling on to Wittenberg. This seems likely given that the name "Guillelmus Daltici ex Anglia“ (a Latin pseudonym for "William Tyndale from England") HP Pavilion dv7-6025eg Battery

was entered at that time in the matriculation registers of the University Wittenberg.[14] At this time, possibly in Wittenberg, he began translating the New Testament, completing it in 1525, with assistance from Observant friar William Roy. HP Pavilion dv7-6055ef Battery


In 1525, publication of the work by Peter Quentell, in Cologne, was interrupted by impact of anti-Lutheranism. It was not until 1526 that a full edition of the New Testament was produced by the printer Peter Schoeffer in Worms, a free imperial city then in the process of adopting Lutheranism.[15] More copies were soon printed in Antwerp. HP Pavilion dv7-6055sf Battery

The book was smuggled into England andScotland, and was condemned in October 1526 by Tunstall, who issued warnings to booksellers and had copies burned in public.[16]Marius notes that the "spectacle of the scriptures being put to the torch" "provoked controversy even amongst the faithful."[16]HP Pavilion dv7-6065ef Battery

Cardinal Wolsey condemned Tyndale as a heretic, being first mentioned in open court as a heretic in January 1529.[17]HP Pavilion dv7-6065sf Battery

From an entry in George Spalatin's Diary, on 11 August 1526, it seems that Tyndale remained at Worms about a year. A mystery hangs over the period between his departure from Worms and his final settlement at Antwerp. HP Pavilion dv7-6070sf Battery

The colophon to Tyndale's translation of Genesis and the title pages of several pamphlets from this time are purported to have been printed by Hans Luftat Marburg. A clear link is, however, questionable. Hans Luft, the printer of Luther's books, never had a printing press atMarburg.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv7-6081eg Battery

Around 1529, it is possible that Tyndale went into hiding in Hamburg, carrying on his work. He revised his New Testament and began translating the Old Testament and writing various treatises. HP Pavilion dv7-6090sf Battery

In 1530, he wrote The Practyse of Prelates, opposing Henry VIII's planned divorce from Catherine of Aragon, in favour of Anne Boleyn, on the grounds that it was unscriptural and was a plot by Cardinal Wolsey to get Henry entangled in the papal courts of Pope Clement VII.[18] HP Pavilion dv7-6097ef Battery

The king's wrath was aimed at Tyndale: Henry asked the Emperor Charles V to have the writer apprehended and returned to England under the terms of the Treaty of Cambrai, however, the Emperor responded that formal evidence was required before extradition.[19] HP Business Notebook 2400 Battery

Tyndale made his case in An Answer unto Sir Thomas More's Dialogue. In 1532, Thomas More published a six-volume Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, in which he alleged Tyndale was a traitor and a heretic.[20][21]HP Business Notebook 2510p Battery


Eventually, Tyndale was betrayed by Henry Phillips to the imperial authorities,[22] seized in Antwerp in 1535 and held in the castle of Vilvoorde near Brussels.[23] He was tried on a charge of heresy in 1536 and condemned to death, HP Pavilion dv7-6081eg Battery

despite Thomas Cromwell's intercession on his behalf. Tyndale "was strangled to death while tied at the stake, and then his dead body was burned".[24] Tyndale's final words, spoken "at the stake with a fervent zeal, and a loud voice", were reported as "Lord! Open the King of England's eyes."[25] HP Pavilion dv7-6090sf Battery

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The traditional date of commemoration is 6 October, but records of Tyndale's imprisonment suggest the actual date of his execution might have been some weeks earlier.[26] Foxe gives 6 October as the date of commemoration (left-hand date column), but gives no date of death (right-hand date column).[23]HP Business Notebook 2400 Battery

Within four years, at the same king's behest, four English translations of the Bible were published in England,[27] including Henry's official Great Bible. All were based on Tyndale's work. HP Business Notebook 2510p Battery

The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church did not approve of some of the words and phrases introduced by Tyndale, such as "overseer", where the it would have understood as "bishop," "elder" for "priest," and "love" rather than "charity." HP Business Notebook 4200 Battery

Tyndale, citing Erasmus, contended that the Greek New Testament did not support the traditional Roman Catholic readings. More controversially, Tyndale translated the Greek "ekklesia," (literally "called out ones"[38]) as "congregation" rather than "Church."[39] HP Business Notebook 7400 Battery

It has been asserted this translation choice "was a direct threat to the Church's ancient—but so Tyndale here made clear, non-scriptural—claim to be the body of Christ on earth. To change these words was to strip the Church hierarchy of its pretensions to be Christ's terrestrial representative, and to award this honour to individual worshipers who made up each congregation."[39]HP Business Notebook 8200 Battery

Contention from Roman Catholics came not only from real or perceived errors in translation but also a fear of the erosion of their social power if Christians could read the bible in their own language. "The Pope's dogma is bloody," HP Business Notebook 8400 Battery

Tyndale wrote in his Obedience of a Christian Man.[40] Thomas More commented that searching for errors in the Tyndale Bible was similar to searching for water in the sea, and charged Tyndale's translation of Obedience of a Christian Man with having about a thousand falsely translated errors. HP Business Notebook 8710p Battery

Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London declared that there were upwards of 2,000 errors in Tyndale's Bible. Tunstall in 1523 had denied Tyndale the permission required under the Constitutions of Oxford (1409), which were still in force, to translate the Bible into English. HP Business Notebook 9400 Battery

In response to allegations of inaccuracies in his translation in the New Testament, Tyndale in the Prologue to his 1525 translation wrote that he never intentionally altered or misrepresented any of the Bible in his translation, but that he had sought to "interpret the sense of the scripture and the meaning of the spirit."[39]HP Business Notebook NC2400 Battery

While translating, Tyndale followed Erasmus' (1522) Greek edition of the New Testament. In his Preface to his 1534 New Testament ("WT unto the Reader"), he not only goes into some detail about the Greek tenses but also points out that there is often a Hebrew idiom underlying the Greek. HP Business Notebook NC4200 Battery

The Tyndale Society adduces much further evidence to show that his translations were made directly from the original Hebrew and Greek sources he had at his disposal. HP Business Notebook NC8200 Battery

For example, the Prolegomena in Mombert's William Tyndale's Five Books of Moses show that Tyndale's Pentateuch is a translation of the Hebrew original. His translation also drew on Latin Vulgate and Luther's 1521 September Testament.[39]HP Business Notebook NC4400 Battery

Of the first (1526) edition of Tyndale's New Testament, only three copies survive. The only complete copy is part of the Bible Collection of Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. The copy of the British Library is almost complete, lacking only the title page and list of contents. Another rarity of Tyndale's is the Pentateuch of which only nine remain. HP Business Notebook NC8230 Battery

The translators of the Revised Standard Version in the 1940s noted that Tyndale's translation inspired the great translations that followed, including the Great Bible of 1539, the Geneva Bible of 1560, the Bishops' Bible of 1568, theDouay-Rheims Bible of 1582–1609, HP Business Notebook NC8430 Battery

and the King James Version of 1611, of which the RSV translators noted: "It [the KJV] kept felicitous phrases and apt expressions, from whatever source, which had stood the test of public usage. It owed most, especially in the New Testament, to Tyndale". HP Business Notebook NX4800 Battery

Many scholars today believe that such is the case. Moynahan writes: "A complete analysis of the Authorised Version, known down the generations as "the AV" or "the King James" was made in 1998. HP Business Notebook NX7400 Battery

It shows that Tyndale's words account for 84% of the New Testament and for 75.8% of the Old Testament books that he translated.[41] Joan Bridgman makes the comment in the Contemporary Review that, HP Business Notebook NX8200 Battery

"He [Tyndale] is the mainly unrecognised translator of the most influential book in the world. Although the Authorised King James Version is ostensibly the production of a learned committee of churchmen, it is mostly cribbed from Tyndale with some reworking of his translation."[42]HP Business Notebook NX8220 Battery

Many of the great English versions since then have drawn inspiration from Tyndale, such as the Revised Standard Version, the New American Standard Bible, and the English Standard Version. Even the paraphrases like the Living Bible have been inspired by the same desire to make the Bible understandable to Tyndale's proverbial ploughboy.[43][44]HP Business Notebook NX8420 Battery

George Steiner in his book on translation After Babel refers to "the influence of the genius of Tyndale, the greatest of English Bible translators..." [After Babel p. 366]. He has also appeared as a character in two plays dealing with the King James Bible, Howard Brenton's Anne Boleyn (2010) and David Edgar's Written on the Heart (2011). HP Business Notebook NX9420 Battery


A memorial to Tyndale stands in Vilvoorde, where he was executed. It was erected in 1913 by Friends of the Trinitarian Bible Society of London and the Belgian Bible Society[45] There is also a small William Tyndale Museum in the town, attached to the Protestant church.[46]HP Business Notebook NX9500 Battery

A bronze statue by Sir Joseph Boehm commemorating the life and work of Tyndale was erected in Victoria Embankment Gardens on the Thames Embankment, London in 1884. It shows his right hand on an open Bible, which is itself resting on an early printing press. HP Business Notebook TC4200 Battery

  The Tyndale Monument was built in 1866 on a hill above his supposed birthplace, North Nibley, Gloucestershire.

A number of colleges, schools and study centres have been named in his honour, including Tyndale House (Cambridge), HP Business Notebook TC4400 Battery

 Tyndale University College and Seminary(Toronto), the Tyndale-Carey Graduate School affiliated to the Bible College of New Zealand, William Tyndale College (Farmington Hills, Michigan), HP Business NX9100 Battery

and Tyndale Theological Seminary (Shreveport, Louisiana, and Fort Worth, Texas), as well as the independent Tyndale Theological Seminary[47] in Badhoevedorp, near Amsterdam, The Netherlands. HP Business NX9600 Battery

By tradition Tyndale's death is commemorated on 6 October.[48] There are commemorations on this date in the church calendars of members of the Anglican Communion, initially as one of the "days of optional devotion" in the American Book of Common Prayer (1979),[49]HP NC6110 Battery

 and a "black-letter day" in the Church of England's Alternative Service Book.[50] The Common Worship that came into use in the Church of England in 2000 provides a collect proper to 6 October, beginning with the words: HP NC6120 Battery

In 1937 the first film about the life of William Tindale was made.[51] The second film God's Outlaw: The Story of William Tyndale was released in 1986. HP NC6140 Battery

A cartoon film about his life with the title Torchlighters: The William Tyndale Story was released ca. 2005. In the film Stephen's Test of Faith (1998) is a long scene with Tyndale, how he translated the Bible and how he is put to death.[52]HP NX5100 Battery

Around 2006, a documentary film William Tyndale: Man with a Mission was published. This documentary included an interview with David Daniell. Another known documentary is the film William Tyndale: His Life, His Legacy. HP NX6110 Battery

The U.S. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) broadcast in the Secrets of the Dead documentary series the 2007 documentary "Battle for the Bible" (55 minutes) that features Tyndale's story and legacy and includes historical context. HP NX6120 Battery

This is an abbreviated and revised version of the 2-hour Channel 4 documentary "The Bible Revolution", presented by Rod Liddle. It details the roles of historically significant English Reformers John Wycliffe, William Tyndale, and Thomas Cranmer. The PBS version uses Liev Schreiber as narrator, and replaces some British footage with that more relevant to American audiences. HP NX6125 Battery

  Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist,cosmologist, and author. His key scientific works to date have included providing, HP Omnibook 4100 Battery

with Roger Penrose,theorems regarding gravitational singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes as Bekenstein–Hawking radiation). HP Omnibook 6000 Battery

He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and in 2009 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. HP Omnibook XE Battery

Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009. Subsequently, he became research director at the university's Centre for Theoretical Cosmology. HP Omnibook XE2 Battery

Hawking has a motor neurone disease related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that has progressed over the years. He is now almost completely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device. He has been married twice and has three children. HP Omnibook XE3 Battery

Hawking has achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. HP Omnibook XT1000 Battery

Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 to Frank Hawking, a research biologist, and Isobel Hawking.[1] He has two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward.[2] Although Hawking's parents were living in North London, he was born in Oxford as his parents felt it was safer to stay in Oxford for the later stages of the pregnancy. (London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe).[3]HP Omnibook XT1500 Battery

When his father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research[1] in 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, HP Pavilion DV1000 Battery

Hertfordshire.[3] Hawking attended St Albans High School for Girls from 1950 to 1953 (At that time, boys could attend the girls' school until the age of 10).[2]and then from the age of 11, he attended St Albans School, where he was a good, but not exceptional, student.[3]HP Pavilion DV2000 Battery

Inspired by his mathematics teacher, Hawking originally wanted to study the subject at university. However, Hawking's father wanted him to apply to University College, Oxford, where his father had attended. As University College did not have a mathematics fellow at that time, HP Pavilion DV2100 Battery

applications were not accepted from students who wished to study that discipline. Hawking therefore applied to read natural sciences with an emphasis in Physics. He was accepted and gained a scholarship.[3] While at Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, HP Pavilion DV2200 Battery

helped relieve his immense boredom at the university.[4] His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said "It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it. ... his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries".[3]HP Pavilion DV2300 Battery


Hawking's unimpressive study habits resulted in a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary.[3] HP Pavilion DV2400 Battery

Berman said of the oral examination: "And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves".[3] After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford in 1962, he left for graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge.[3]HP Pavilion DV2500 Battery


Although Hawking started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as soon as he arrived at Cambridge and did not distinguish himself in his first two years at Cambridge, he returned to working on his PhD after the disease had stabilised and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis William Sciama.[5]HP Pavilion DV2600 Battery


When Hawking began his graduate studies in the 1960s, there was much debate in the physics community about the opposing theories of the creation of the universe: big bang, and steady state.[5] Hawking and his Cambridge friend and colleague,Roger Penrose, HP Pavilion DV2700 Battery

showed in 1970 that if the universe obeys general relativity and if the universe fits any of the Friedmann models, then the universe must have begun as a singularity.[6] This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity.[7]HP Pavilion DV4 Battery


Hawking's work with Brandon Carter, Werner Israel and D. Robinson, strongly supported John Wheeler's no-hair theorem – that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.[8] HP Pavilion DV4T Battery

With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics.[9] In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles, known today as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and evaporate.[6]HP Pavilion DV5 Battery


Hawking was elected one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal Society in 1974,[10] and in the same year he accepted the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to work with his friend, Kip Thorne, who was a faculty member there.[11] He continues to have ties with Caltech, spending a month each year there since 1992.[12]HP Pavilion DV5T Battery

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The mid to late 1970s were a period of growing fame and success for Hawking, his work was now much talked about, he was appearing in popular television documentaries and in 1979 he was made the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, HP Pavilion DV4000 Battery

a post he held for 30 years until his retirement in 2009.[13][14] Hawking's inaugural lecture as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics had the title "Is the end in sight for Theoretical Physics" and promoted the idea that supergravity would help resolve many of the outstanding problems physicists were studying. [14]HP Pavilion DV5000 Battery

In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which the universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the North Pole: one cannot travel north of the North Pole, as there is no boundary.[15]HP Pavilion DV6100 Battery

 While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed universe, discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a universe which is not closed.[16]HP Pavilion DV6300 Battery

Along with Thomas Hertog at CERN, in 2006 Hawking proposed a theory of "top-down cosmology", which says that the universe had no unique initial state, and therefore it is inappropriate for physicists to attempt to formulate a theory that predicts the universe's current configuration from one particular initial state.[17] HP Pavilion DV6500t Battery

Top-down cosmology posits that in some sense, the present "selects" the past from a superposition of many possible histories. In doing so, the theory suggests a possible resolution of the fine-tuning question.[18]HP Pavilion DV8000 Battery



In 1997 Hawking made a public scientific wager with Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech concerning the black hole information paradox.[19] Thorne and Hawking argued that since general relativity made it impossible for black holes to radiate, and lose information, HP Pavilion DV8002ea Battery

the mass-energy and information carried by Hawking Radiation must be "new", and must not originate from inside the black hole event horizon. Since this contradicted the idea under quantum mechanics of microcausality, quantum mechanics would need to be rewritten. HP Pavilion DV9000 Battery

Preskill argued the opposite, that since quantum mechanics suggests that the information emitted by a black hole relates to information that fell in at an earlier time, the view of black holes given by general relativity must be modified in some way.[20] The winner of the bet was to receive an encyclopedia of the loser's choice, from which information may be accessed.[19]HP Pavilion DV9100 Battery


In 2004, Hawking announced that he was conceding the bet, and that he now believed that black hole horizons should fluctuateand leak information, in doing so providing Preskill with a copy of Total Baseball.[19] Comparing the useless information obtainable from a black hole to "burning an encyclopedia", Hawking commented, "I gave John an encyclopedia of baseball, but maybe I should just have given him the ashes".[19]HP Pavilion DV9500 Battery



On 19 December 2007, a statue of Hawking by artist Ian Walters was unveiled at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, University of Cambridge.[21] The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador, El Salvador, HP Pavilion DV9600 Battery

is named in honour of Stephen Hawking, citing his scientific distinction and perseverance in dealing with adversity.[22] The Stephen Hawking Building in Cambridge opened on 17 April 2007. The building belongs to Gonville and Caius College and is used as an undergraduate accommodation and conference facility.[23]HP Pavilion N3200 Battery

Hawking has stated that, having been diagnosed with ALS during an early stage of his graduate work, he did not see much point in obtaining a doctorate if he were to die soon after. Hawking later said that the real turning point was his 1965 marriage to Jane Wilde, HP Pavilion N5100 Battery

a language student.[29] Jane cared for him until 1990 when the couple separated.[1] They had three children: Robert, Lucy, and Timothy.[1] Hawking married his personal care assistant, Elaine Mason, in 1995; [1] the couple divorced In October 2006[30] HP Pavilion N5200 Battery

amid claims by former nurses that she had abused him.[31] In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars, detailing the marriage and its breakdown; in 2010 she published a revised version, Travelling to Infinity, My Life with Stephen.[32]HP Pavilion N5250 Battery

Hawking supports the children's charity SOS Children's Villages UK[33] and has stated that his view on how to live life is to "seek the greatest value of our action".[34] He strongly opposed the Iraq War, calling it "a war crime" and "based on two lies" at a demonstration in Trafalgar Square, where he participated in a public reading of the names of Iraqi war victims.[35][36]HP Pavilion N5290 Battery

Hawking has named his secondary school mathematics teacher Dikran Tahta as an inspiration.[37] He maintains his connection with St Albans School, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series.[38]HP Pavilion N5300 Battery


Hawking has a motor neurone disease that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years. He is now almost completely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device. Hawking's illness has progressed more slowly than typical cases of ALS: survival for more than 10 years after diagnosis is uncommon.[39][40]HP Pavilion N5340 Battery


Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at University of Cambridge; he lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head.[4] The diagnosis of motor neurone disease came when Hawking was 21, HP Pavilion N5350 Battery

shortly before his first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or three years. By 1974, he was unable to feed himself or get out of bed. His speech became slurred so that he could be understood only by people who knew him well. HP Pavilion N5390 Battery

During a visit to CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking contracted pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already limited respiratory capacity. He had an emergency tracheotomy, HP Pavilion N5400 Battery

and as a result lost what remained of his ability to speak.[41] A speech generating devicewas built in Cambridge, using software from an American company, that enabled Hawking to write onto a computer with small movements of his body, and then have a voice synthesiser speak what he typed.[42]HP Pavilion N5415 Battery


The particular voice synthesiser hardware he uses, which has an American English accent, is no longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept the same voice after so many years, Hawking stated that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it even though the synthesiser is both large and fragile by current standards. HP Pavilion N5420 Battery

Although a mid-2009 corporate press release said that he had chosen NeoSpeech's VoiceText speech synthesiser as his new voice,[43] a 30 December 2011 interview with Hawking's technician indicates that Hawking is still using an older synthesiser containing a card "which dates back to the 1980s" and that any upgrade would have to be the same voice, otherwise "it wouldn't be Stephen's voice any more".[44]HP Pavilion N5425 Battery


For lectures and media appearances, Hawking appears to speak fluently through his synthesiser; however when preparing answers his system produces words at a rate of about one per minute.[44] Hawking's setup uses a predictive text entry system, HP Pavilion N5430 Battery

which requires only the first few characters in order to auto-complete the word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry, constructing complete sentences takes time.[44] During a TED Conference talk, it took him seven minutes to provide a brief answer to a question.[45]HP Pavilion N5435 Battery


He describes himself as lucky, despite his disease. Its slow progression has allowed him time to make influential discoveries and has not hindered him from having, in his own words, "a very attractive family".[42]HP Pavilion N5440 Battery



Main article: Stephen Hawking in popular culture

Hawking played himself on a Red Dwarf anniversary special, played a hologram of himself on the episode "Descent" of Star Trek: The Next Generation,[46] and appeared on the Discovery Channel special Alien Planet.[47] He has also played himself in several episodes of The Simpsons and Futurama, HP Pavilion N5445 Battery

and has had an action figure made of his Simpsons likeness.[48] The 2004 BBC4 TV film Hawking dealt with his early life and the onset of his illness. He was portrayed by Benedict Cumberbatch. In 2008, Hawking was the subject of and featured in the documentary series Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe for Channel 4. In September 2008, HP Pavilion N5455 Battery

Hawking presided over the unveiling of the 'Chronophage' (time-eating) Corpus Clock at Corpus Christi College Cambridge.[49] His actual synthesiser voice was used on parts of the Pink Floyd song "Keep Talking", as well as on Turbonegro's "Intro: The Party Zone". On 5 April 2012 he appeared as a guest star in an episode of The Big Bang Theory.[50]HP Pavilion N5470 Battery


Hawking has suggested that space is the Earth's long term hope[51] and has indicated that he is almost certain that alien lifeexists in other parts of the universe, "To my mathematical brain, the numbers alone make thinking about aliens perfectly rational. HP Pavilion N5490 Battery

The real challenge is to work out what aliens might actually be like".[52] He believes alien life not only certainly exists on planets but perhaps even in other places, like within stars or even floating in outer space. He has also warned that a few of these species might be intelligent and threaten Earth.[53] HP Pavilion N6000 Battery

"If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans," he said.[52] He has advocated that, rather than try to establish contact, humans should try to avoid contact with alien life forms.[52] HP Pavilion n6400 Battery

At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA's fiftieth anniversary, Hawking discussed the existence of extraterrestrial life, believing that "primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare".[54]HP Pavilion N6490 Battery

In 2007, Hawking took a zero-gravity flight in a "Vomit Comet" of Zero Gravity Corporation, during which he experienced weightlessness eight times.[55] He became the first quadriplegic to float in zero gravity. The fee is normally US$3,750 for 10 to 15 plunges, but Hawking was not required to pay. Hawking said before the flight saying: HP Pavilion XF100 Battery

Many people have asked me why I am taking this flight. I am doing it for many reasons. First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers. I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space.[56]HP Pavilion XZ100 Battery

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In his early work, Hawking spoke of God in a metaphorical sense, such as in A Brief History of Time: "If we discover a complete theory, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason – for then we should know the mind of God."[57] In the same book he suggested the existence of God was unnecessary to explain the origin of the universe.[58]HP Pavilion ZD7000 Battery

His ex-wife, Jane, has described him as an atheist.[59] Hawking has stated that he is "not religious in the normal sense" and he believes that "the universe is governed by the laws of science. The laws may have been decreed by God, but God does not intervene to break the laws."[60] HP Pavilion ZD7900 Battery

In an interview published in The Guardian newspaper, Hawking regarded the concept of Heaven as a myth, believing that there is "no heaven or afterlife" and that such a notion was a "fairy story for people afraid of the dark."[57][61]HP Pavilion ZE2000 Battery

At Google’s Zeitgeist Conference in 2011, Hawking said that "philosophy is dead." He believes philosophers "have not kept up with modern developments in science" and that scientists "have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge.” HP Pavilion ZT1000 Battery

He said that philosophical problems can be answered by science, particularly new scientific theories which "lead us to a new and very different picture of the universe and our place in it”.[62]HP Pavilion ZT1125 Battery

Hawking's first popular science book, A Brief History of Time, was published on 1 April 1988. It stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.[63] A Brief History of Time was followed by The Universe in a Nutshell (2001). HP Pavilion ZT1130 Battery

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A collection of essays titled Black Holes and Baby Universes (1993) was also popular. His book, A Briefer History of Time (2005), co-written by Leonard Mlodinow, updated his earlier works to make them accessible to a wider audience. In 2007 Hawking and his daughter, HP Pavilion ZT1150 Battery

Lucy Hawking, published George's Secret Key to the Universe, a children's book focusing on science that Lucy Hawking described as "a bit like Harry Potter but without the magic."[64]HP Pavilion ZT1155 Battery

Edward VIII

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from 20 January to 11 December 1936. HP Pavilion ZT1160 Battery

Before his accession to the throne, Edward was Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay. As a young man, he served in the British Armed Forces during the First World War and undertook several foreign tours on behalf of his father, George V. He was associated with a succession of older, married women but remained unmarried until after his abdication as king. HP Pavilion ZD7300 Battery

Edward became king when his father died in early 1936. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to the American socialite Wallis Simpson, who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. HP Pavilion ZT1170 Battery

The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing that the people would never accept a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands as queen. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as head of the Church of England, HP Pavilion ZT1175 Battery

which opposed the remarriage of divorced people if their former spouses were still alive. Edward knew that the government led by British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have dragged the king into a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. HP Pavilion ZT1180 Battery

Choosing not to end his relationship with Simpson, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother Albert, who chose the regnal name George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward was one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British and Commonwealth history. He was never crowned. HP Pavilion ZT1185 Battery

After his abdication, he was given the title Duke of Windsor. He married Simpson in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France but, HP Pavilion ZT1190 Battery

after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies, he was assigned to the Bahamas as the islands' Governor. After the war, he was never given another official appointment and spent the remainder of his life in retirement in France. HP Pavilion ZT1195 Battery

Edward VIII was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.[1] He was the eldest son of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George V and Queen Mary). HP Pavilion ZT1200 Battery

His father was the son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). His mother was the eldest daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck (Francis and Mary Adelaide). As a great-grandson of the monarch in the male line, Edward was styled His Highness Prince Edward of York at birth. HP Pavilion ZT1210 Battery

He was baptised Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894 by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury.[N 1][2] The names were chosen in honour of Edward's late uncle, HP Pavilion ZT1230 Battery

who was known to his family as "Eddy" or Edward, and his great-grandfather KingChristian IX of Denmark. The name Albert was included at the behest of Queen Victoria, and his last four names – George, Andrew, Patrick and David – came from the Patron Saints of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. He was always known to his family and close friends by his last given name, David. HP Pavilion ZT1250 Battery

Like other upper-class children of the time, Edward and his younger siblings were brought up by nannies rather than directly by their parents. One of his early nannies abused Edward by pinching him before he was due to be presented to his parents. His subsequent crying and wailing would lead the Duke and Duchess to send Edward and the nanny away.[3] The nanny was subsequently discharged. HP Pavilion ZT1260 Battery

Edward's father, though a harsh disciplinarian,[4] was demonstrably affectionate,[5] and his mother displayed a frolicsome side with her children that belied her austere public image. She was amused by the children making tadpoles on toast for their French master,[6] and encouraged them to confide in her.[7]HP Pavilion ZT1290 Battery

At first, Edward was tutored at home by Helen Bricka. When his parents travelled the British Empire for almost nine months following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, young Edward and his siblings stayed in Britain with their grandparents, HP Pavilion ZT1270 Battery

Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII, who showered their grandchildren with affection. Upon his parents' return, Edward was placed under the care of two men, Frederick Finch and Henry Hansell, who virtually brought up Edward and his siblings for their remaining nursery years.[8]HP Pavilion ZT3000 Battery

Edward was kept under the strict tutorship of Hansell until nearly 13; Hansell had wanted Edward to enter school earlier, but his father disagreed. Edward took the examination to enter Osborne Naval College, and began there in 1907.[9] HP Pavilion ZT4000 Battery

Following two years at Osborne College, which he did not enjoy, Edward moved on to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. A course of two years followed by entry into the Royal Navy was planned. When his father ascended the throne on 6 May 1910 following the death of Edward VII, HP Pavilion ZV5000 Battery

Edward automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay and he was created Prince of Wales a month later on his 16th birthday, on 23 June 1910. Preparations began in earnest for his future duties as king. He was withdrawn from his naval course before his formal graduation, HP Pavilion ZV5200 Battery

served as midshipman for three months aboard the battleship Hindustan, then immediately entered Magdalen College, Oxford, for which, in the opinio

n of his biographers, he was underprepared intellectually. He left Oxford after eight terms without any academic qualifications.[10]HP Pavilion ZV6000 Battery

Edward was officially invested as Prince of Wales in a special ceremony at Caernarvon Castle on 13 July 1911.[11] The investiture took place in Wales, at the instigation of the Welsh politician David Lloyd George, Constable of the Castle andChancellor of the Exchequer in the Liberal government.[12] Lloyd George invented a rather fanciful ceremony in the style of a Welsh pageant, and coached Edward to speak a few words in Welsh. HP Pavilion ZX5000 Battery

When the First World War (1914–1918) broke out, Edward had reached the minimum age for active service and was keen to participate.[13] He had joined the Grenadier Guards in June 1914, and although Edward was willing to serve on the front lines,Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener refused to allow it, Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

citing the immense harm that would occur if the heir to the throne were captured by the enemy.[14]

Despite this, Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

Edward witnessed trench warfare first-hand and attempted to visit the front line as often as he could, for which he was awarded the Military Cross in 1916. His role in the war, although limited, made him popular among veterans of the conflict.[15] Edward undertook his first military flight in 1918 and later gained a pilot's licence.[16]Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/P Battery


Throughout the 1920s Edward, as Prince of Wales, represented his father, King George V, at home and abroad on many occasions. He took a particular interest in visiting the poverty stricken areas of the country,[17] and undertook 16 tours to various parts of theEmpire between 1919 and 1935. During a tour of Canada in 1919, Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

he acquired the Bedingfield ranch, near Pekisko, Alberta,[18] and in 1924 he donated the Prince of Wales Trophy to the National Hockey League.[19] His rank, travels, good looks, and unmarried status gained him much public attention, and at the height of his popularity, he was the most photographed celebrity of his time.[20]Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

His attitudes towards many of the Empire's subjects and various foreign peoples, both during his time as Prince of Wales and later as Duke of Windsor, were little commented upon at the time but have soured his reputation subsequently.[21]HP Pavilion ZX5200 Battery

 He said of Indigenous Australians, "they are the most revolting form of living creatures I've ever seen!! They are the lowest known form of human beings & are the nearest thing to monkeys."[22]


Edward's compulsive womanising and reckless behaviour during the 1920s and 1930s worried Prime Minister Baldwin, King George V, and those close to the prince. Alan Lascelles, Edward's private secretary for eight years during this period, Sony VPCB11V9E/B Battery

believed that "for some hereditary or physiological reason his normal mental development stopped dead when he reached adolescence".[23] George V was disappointed by Edward's failure to settle down in life, disgusted by his affairs with married women, and was reluctant to see him inherit the Crown. "After I am dead," George said, "the boy will ruin himself in 12 months."[24]Sony VPCB11X9E/B Battery


In 1929, Time magazine reported that Edward teased his new sister-in-law, Elizabeth, the wife of his younger brother Albert, by calling her "Queen Elizabeth". The magazine asked if "she did not sometimes wonder how much truth there is in the story that he once said he would renounce his rights upon the death of George V – which would make her nickname come true".[25] Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

Edward grew older and remained unmarried, but his brother and sister-in-law had two children, including Princess Elizabeth. George V favoured his son Albert ("Bertie"), and granddaughter Elizabeth ("Lilibet"), and told a courtier, "I pray to God that my eldest son [Edward] will never marry and have children, and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne."[26]Sony VPCF11C5E Battery

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In 1930, George V gave Edward a home, Fort Belvedere, in Windsor Great Park.[27] There, Edward had relationships with a series of married women including textile heiress Freda Dudley Ward, and Lady Furness, the American wife of a British peer, Sony vaio VPCF11M1E/H battery

who introduced the prince to her friend and fellow American Wallis Simpson. Simpson had divorced her first husband in 1927, and her second husband,Ernest Simpson, was a British-American businessman. Wallis Simpson and the Prince of Wales, Sony vaio VPCF12F4E/H battery

it is generally accepted, became lovers while Lady Furness travelled abroad, though Edward adamantly insisted to his father that he was not intimate with her and that it was not appropriate to describe her as his mistress.[28] Sony vaio VPCF12M1E/H battery

Edward's relationship with Simpson further weakened his poor relationship with his father. Although King George V and Queen Mary met Simpson at Buckingham Palace in 1935,[29] they later refused to receive her.[30]Sony vaio VPCF12S1E/B battery

Edward's affair with an American divorcee led to such grave concern that the couple were followed by members of the Metropolitan Police Special Branch, who examined in secret the nature of their relationship. An undated report detailed a visit by the couple to an antique shop, Sony vaio VPCF12Z1E/BI battery

where the proprietor later noted "that the lady seemed to have POW [Prince of Wales] completely under her thumb."[31] The prospect of having an American divorcee with a questionable past having such sway over the heir apparent led to anxiety among government and establishment figures. Sony vaio VPCF13E4E battery


King George V died on 20 January 1936, and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. The next day, he broke royal protocol by watching the proclamation of his own accession from a window in the company of the then still-married Simpson.[32]Edward became the first monarch of the British Empire to fly in an aircraft when he flew from Sandringham to London for hisAccession Council.[33]Sony vaio VPCF13E8E/H battery

Edward caused unease in government circles with actions that were interpreted as interference in political matters. His comment during a tour of depressed villages in South Wales that "something must be done"[33] for the unemployed coal miners was seen as directly critical of the Government, though it has never been clear whether Edward had anything in particular in mind. Sony vaio VPCF13J0E/H battery

Government ministers were reluctant to send confidential documents and state papers to Fort Belvedere because it was clear that Edward was paying little attention to them and because of the perceived danger that Simpson and other house guests might see them.[34]Sony vaio VPCF13L8E/H battery

Edward's unorthodox approach to his role also extended to the currency which bore his image. He broke with the tradition that on coinage each successive monarch faced in the opposite direction to his or her predecessor. Edward insisted that he face left (as his father had done),[35] Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/B battery

to show the parting in his hair.[36] Only a handful of test coins were struck before the abdication, and when George VI succeeded to the throne he also faced left, to maintain the tradition by suggesting that had any coins been minted featuring Edward's portrait, they would have shown him facing right.[37]Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/H battery

On 16 July 1936, an Irish fraudster called Jerome Bannigan, alias George Andrew McMahon, produced a loaded revolver as Edward rode on horseback at Constitution Hill, near Buckingham Palace. Police spotted the gun and pounced on him; he was quickly arrested. Sony vaio VPCF13S1E/B battery

At Bannigan's trial, he alleged that "a foreign power" had approached him to kill Edward, that he had informed MI5 of the plan, and that he was merely seeing the plan through to help MI5 catch the real culprits. The court rejected the claims and sent him to jail for a year for "intent to alarm".[38] Sony vaio VPCF13S8E/B battery

It is now thought that Bannigan had indeed been in contact with MI5 but the veracity of the remainder of his claims remains open.[39]Sony vaio VPCF13S8E battery

In August and September, Edward and Simpson cruised the Eastern Mediterranean on the steam yacht Nahlin. By October it was becoming clear that the new king planned to marry Simpson, especially when divorce proceedings between the Simpsons were brought at IpswichCrown Court.[40]Sony vaio VPCF13V5002B battery

 Preparations for all contingencies were made, including the prospect of the coronation of King Edward and Queen Wallis. Because of the religious implications of any marriage, plans were made to hold a secular coronation ceremony not in the traditional religious location, Westminster Abbey, but in the Banqueting House in Whitehall.[41]Sony vaio VPCF13Z1E/B battery

On 16 November 1936, Edward invited British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin to Buckingham Palace and expressed his desire to marry Wallis Simpson when she became free to re-marry. Baldwin informed him that his subjects would deem the marriage morally unacceptable, Sony vaio VPCF13Z8E/BI battery

largely because remarriage after divorce was opposed by the Church of England, and the people would not tolerate Wallis as queen.[42] As king, Edward held the role of Supreme Governor of the Church of England, and the clergy expected him to support the Church's teachings. Sony vaio VPCF21Z1E battery

Edward proposed an alternative solution of a morganatic marriage, in which he would remain king but Wallis would not become queen. She would enjoy some lesser title instead, and any children they might have would not inherit the throne. Sony vaio VPCF21Z1E/BI battery

This too was rejected by the British Cabinet[43] as well as other Dominion governments,[44] whose views were sought pursuant to the Statute of Westminster 1931, which provided in part that "any alteration in the law touching the Succession to the Throne or the Royal Style and Titles shall hereafter require the assent as well of the Parliaments of all the Dominions as of the Parliament of the United Kingdom."[45]Sony vaio VPCF22J1E battery

 The Prime Ministers of Australia, Canada and South Africa made clear their opposition to the king marrying a divorcee;[46]Sony vaio VPCF22M1E battery

 the Irishprime minister expressed indifference and detachment, while the Prime Minister of New Zealand, having never heard of Simpson before, vacillated in disbelief.[47] Faced with this opposition, Edward at first responded that there were "not many people in Australia" and their opinion did not matter.[48]Sony vaio VPCF22L1E battery

Edward informed Baldwin that he would abdicate if he could not marry Simpson. Baldwin then presented Edward with three choices: give up the idea of marriage; Sony vaio VPCF22S1E battery

marry against his ministers' wishes; or abdicate.[49] It was clear that Edward was not prepared to give up Simpson, and he knew that if he married against the advice of his ministers, he would cause the government to resign, prompting a constitutional crisis.[50] He chose to abdicate.[51]Sony vaio VPCF22S8E battery

Edward duly signed the instruments[N 2] of abdication at Fort Belvedere on 10 December 1936 in the presence of his three surviving brothers, the Dukes of York,Gloucester and Kent (the youngest brother, Prince John, had died in 1919).[52]Sony vaio VPCF23A9E battery

 The next day, the last act of his reign was the royal assent to His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936. As required by the Statute of Westminster, all the Dominions consented to the abdication,[53] though the Irish Free State did not pass the External Relations Act, which included the abdication in its schedule, until 12 December. Sony vaio VPCF23M1E battery

On the night of 11 December 1936, Edward, now reverted to the style of a prince, made a broadcast to the nation and the Empire, explaining his decision to abdicate. He famously said, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as king as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love."[54]Sony vaio VPCF23Q1E battery

After the broadcast, Edward departed the United Kingdom for Austria, though he was unable to join Simpson until her divorce became absolute, several months later.[55] His brother, Prince Albert, Duke of York, succeeded to the throne as George VI. George's elder daughter, Princess Elizabeth, became first in the line of succession, as heiress presumptive.Sony vaio VPCF23S1E battery

Duke of Windsor

On 12 December 1936, at the accession meeting of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, George VI announced he was to make his brother "His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor".[56] He wanted this to be the first act of his reign, Sony vaio VPCF23S1E battery

although the formal documents were not signed until 8 March the following year. During the interim, Edward was universally known as the Duke of Windsor. George VI's decision to create Edward a royal duke ensured that he could neither stand for election to the House of Commons nor speak on political subjects in the House of Lords.[57]Sony vaio VPCF24M1E battery

Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 re-conferred the "title, style, or attribute of Royal Highness" upon the Duke of Windsor, but specifically stated that "his wife and descendants, if any, shall not hold said title or attribute". Sony vaio VPCF24Q1E battery

Some British ministers advised that the reconfirmation was unnecessary since Edward had retained the style automatically, and further that Simpson would automatically obtain the rank of wife of a prince with the style Her Royal Highness; others maintained that he had lost all royal rank and should no longer carry any royal title or style as an abdicated king, and be referred to simply as "Mr. Edward Windsor".Sony VPCCA2S1E Battery

On 14 April 1937, Attorney General Sir Donald Somervell submitted to Home Secretary Sir John Simon a memorandum summarising the views of Lord AdvocateT. M. Cooper, Parliamentary Counsel Sir Granville Ram, and himself:Sony VPCCA2S1E/D.G4 Battery

We incline to the view that on his abdication the Duke of Windsor could not have claimed the right to be described as a Royal Highness. In other words, no reasonable objection could have been taken if the King had decided that his exclusion from the lineal succession excluded him from the right to this title as conferred by the existing Letters Patent.Sony VPCCA2S1E/L Battery

The question however has to be considered on the basis of the fact that, for reasons which are readily understandable, he with the express approval of His Majesty enjoys this title and has been referred to as a Royal Highness on a formal occasion and in formal documents.Sony VPCCA2S1E/R Battery

 In the light of precedent it seems clear that the wife of a Royal Highness enjoys the same title unless some appropriate express step can be and is taken to deprive her of it. Sony VPCCA3S1E Battery

We came to the conclusion that the wife could not claim this right on any legal basis. The right to use this style or title, in our view, is within the prerogative of His Majesty and he has the power to regulate it by Letters Patent generally or in particular circumstances.[58]Sony VPCCB2S1E Battery

The Duke of Windsor married Simpson, who had changed her name by deed poll to Wallis Warfield, in a private ceremony on 3 June 1937, at Château de Candé, near Tours, France. When the Church of England refused to sanction the union, a County Durhamclergyman, Sony VPCCB2S1E/B Battery

the Reverend Robert Anderson Jardine (Vicar of St Paul's, Darlington), offered to perform the ceremony, and the Duke accepted. The new king, George VI, forbade members of the Royal Family to attend[59] Sony VPCCB2S1E/W Battery

– Edward had particularly wanted his brothers the Dukes of Gloucester and Kent and his second cousin Louis Mountbatten to be there – and this continued for many years to rankle with the Duke and Duchess of Windsor.[60Sony VPCCB3S1E Battery

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