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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS, Hon. RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British Conservative politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II. HP Business Notebook 4200 Battery

Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940–45 and 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States. HP Business Notebook 7400 Battery

Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jenny Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Sudan, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns. HP Business Notebook 8200 Battery

At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government. During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign, HP Business Notebook 8400 Battery

which he had sponsored, caused his departure from government.[neutrality is disputed] He then briefly resumed active army service on theWestern Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government as Minister of Munitions, HP Business Notebook 8710p Battery

Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Air. After the War, Churchill served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Conservative (Baldwin) government of 1924–29HP Business Notebook NC2400 Battery

controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to thegold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Also controversial were Churchill's opposition to increased home rule for India and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII. HP Business Notebook 9400 Battery

Out of office and politically "in the wilderness" during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. On the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. HP Business Notebook NC4200 Battery

Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender, or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, HP Business Notebook NC4400 Battery

especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone in its active opposition to Hitler. Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. HP Business Notebook NC8200 Battery

After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. In 1951, he again became Prime Minister, before retiring in 1955. Upon his death, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history.[1] Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential persons in British history. HP Business Notebook NC8230 Battery

Born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family,[2] Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father, used the surname "Churchill" in public life.[3] His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, HP Business Notebook NC8430 Battery

1st Duke of Marlborough. Winston's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician; and his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome. Winston was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.[4]HP Business Notebook NX4800 Battery

From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy and employed Churchill's father as his private secretary. Churchill's brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland. HP Business Notebook NX7400 Battery

It has been claimed that the young Winston first developed his fascination with military matters from watching the many parades pass by the Vice Regal Lodge (now Áras an Uachtaráin, the official residence of the President of Ireland).[5][6]HP Business Notebook NX8200 Battery

Churchill's earliest exposure to education occurred in Dublin, where a governess tried teaching him reading, writing, and arithmetic (his first reading book was called 'Reading Without Tears'). With limited contact with his parents, Churchill became very close to his nanny, 'Mrs' Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he called 'Old Woom'. She served as his confidante, nurse, and mother substitute.[7] The two spent many happy hours playing in the Phoenix Park.[8][9]HP Business Notebook NX8220 Battery

Independent and rebellious by nature, Churchill generally had a poor academic record in school, for which he was punished.[10] He was educated at three independent schools: St. George's School, Ascot, Berkshire; Brunswick School in Hove, HP Business Notebook NX8420 Battery

near Brighton (the school has since been renamed Stoke Brunswick School and relocated to Ashurst Wood in West Sussex); and at Harrow School from 17 April 1888. Within weeks of his arrival at Harrow, Churchill had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps.[11] HP Business Notebook NX9420 Battery

Due to his poor record, this seemingly justified his father’s decision to enter him into an army career. It was only at the third attempt that he managed to pass the entrance examination to the Royal Military College, but, once there, he applied himself seriously and passed out (graduated) 20th in a class of 130.[10]HP Business Notebook NX9500 Battery

He passed an unhappy and sadly neglected childhood, redeemed only by the affection of Mrs Everest, his devoted nurse.[10] Churchill was rarely visited by his mother, and wrote letters begging her either to come to the school or to allow him to come home. HP Business Notebook TC4200 Battery

His relationship with his father was distant; he once remarked that they barely spoke to one another.[12] His father died on 24 January 1895, aged 45, leaving Churchill with the conviction that he too would die young and so should be quick about making his mark on the world.[13]HP Business Notebook TC4400 Battery

SPEECH IMPEDIMENT

Many authors writing in the 1920s and 1930s, before sound recording became common, mentioned Churchill's stutter in terms such as 'severe' or 'agonising' and Churchill described himself as having a "speech impediment" which he worked to overcome. HP Business NX9100 Battery

His dentures were specially designed to aid his speech (Demosthenes' pebbles).[14] After many years of public speeches carefully prepared to not only inspire, but also to avoid hesitations, he could finally state, "My impediment is no hindrance".[15]HP Business NX9600 Battery

The Churchill Centre, however, flatly denies the claim that Churchill stuttered, while confirming that he did have difficulty pronouncing the letter S and spoke with a lisp[16] as did his father.[17]HP NC6110 Battery

MARRIAGE AND CHILDREN

Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of theEarl of Crewe and Crewe's wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery and Hannah Rothschild).[18]HP NC6120 Battery

 In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Susan Jeune, Baroness St Helier. Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance.[19] He proposed to Clementine during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana.[20]HP NC6140 Battery

On 12 September 1908, they were married in St. Margaret's, Westminster. The church was packed; theBishop of St Asaph conducted the service.[21] The couple spent their honeymoon at Highgrove Housein Eastcote.[22] In March 1909, the couple moved to a house at 33 Eccleston Square. HP NX5100 Battery

Their first child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny.[23] On 28 May 1911, their second child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square.[24]HP NX6110 Battery

Their third child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Winston had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to "stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city" after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.[25]HP NX6120 Battery

Clementine gave birth to her fourth child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, four days after the official end of the First World War.[26] In the early days of August 1921, the Churchills' children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent named Mlle Rose. HP NX6125 Battery

 Clementine, meanwhile, travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold, but was reported to have recovered from the illness. HP Omnibook 4100 Battery

As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Following advice from a landlady, Rose sent for Clementine. However the illness turned fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.[27]HP Omnibook 6000 Battery

On 15 September 1922, the Churchills' last child, Mary, was born. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be Winston's home until his death in 1965.[28][29]HP Omnibook XE Battery

Military service

After Churchill left Harrow in 1893, he applied to attend the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He tried three times before passing the entrance exam; he applied for cavalry rather than infantry because the grade requirement was lower and did not require him to learn mathematics, which he disliked. He graduated eighth out of a class of 150 in December 1894,[30] HP Omnibook XE2 Battery

and although he could now have transferred to an infantry regiment as his father had wished, chose to remain with the cavalry and was commissioned as a Cornet (Second Lieutenant) in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars on 20 February 1895.[11] In 1941, he received the honour of being appointed Colonel of the Hussars. HP Omnibook XE3 Battery

Churchill's pay as a second lieutenant in the 4th Hussars was £300 annually. However, he believed that he needed at least a further £500 (equivalent to £25,000 in 2001 terms) to support a style of life equal to that of other officers of the regiment. His mother provided an allowance of £400 per year, but this was repeatedly overspent. According to biographer Roy Jenkins, HP Omnibook XT1000 Battery

this is one reason he took an interest in war correspondence.[31] He did not intend to follow a conventional career of promotion through army ranks, but rather to seek out all possible chances of military action, using his mother's and family influence in high society to arrange postings to active campaigns. HP Omnibook XT1500 Battery

His writings brought him to the attention of the public, and earned him significant additional income. He acted as a war correspondent for several London newspapers[32] and wrote his own books about the campaigns. HP Pavilion DV1000 Battery

CUBA

In 1895, Churchill travelled to Cuba to observe the Spanish fight the Cuban guerrillas; he had obtained a commission to write about the conflict from the Daily Graphic. He came under fire on his twenty-first birthday,[11]HP Pavilion DV2000 Battery

 the first of about 50 times during his life, and the Spanish awarded him his first medal.[33]:17 Churchill had fond memories of Cuba as a "...large, rich, beautiful island..."[34] While there, he soon acquired a taste for Havana cigars, which he would smoke for the rest of his life. HP Pavilion DV2100 Battery

While in New York, he stayed at the home of Bourke Cockran, an admirer of his mother. Bourke was an established American politician, and a member of the House of Representatives. He greatly influenced Churchill, both in his approach to oratory and politics, and encouraging a love of America.[35]HP Pavilion DV2100 Battery

He soon received word that his nanny, Mrs Everest, was dying; he then returned to England and stayed with her for a week until she died. He wrote in his journal, "She was my favourite friend." In My Early Life he wrote: "She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived."[36]HP Pavilion DV2200 Battery

INDIA

In early October 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, British India. He was considered one of the best polo players in his regiment and led his team to many prestigious tournament victories.[37]HP Pavilion DV2300 Battery

In 1897, Churchill attempted to travel to both report and, if necessary, fight in the Greco-Turkish War, but this conflict effectively ended before he could arrive. Later, while preparing for a leave in England, he heard that three brigades of theBritish Army were going to fight against a Pashtun tribe in the North West Frontier of India and he asked his superior officer if he could join the fight.[38] He fought under the command of General Jeffery, who was the commander of the second brigade operating in Malakand, in the Frontier region of British India. Jeffery sent him with fifteen scouts to explore the Mamund Valley; HP Pavilion DV2400 Battery

while on reconnaissance, they encountered an enemy tribe, dismounted from their horses and opened fire. After an hour of shooting, their reinforcements, the 35th Sikhs arrived, and the fire gradually ceased and the brigade and the Sikhs marched on. HP Pavilion DV2500 Battery

Hundreds of tribesmen then ambushed them and opened fire, forcing them to retreat. As they were retreating four men were carrying an injured officer but the fierceness of the fight forced them to leave him behind. The man who was left behind was slashed to death before Churchill's eyes; afterwards he wrote of the killer, HP Pavilion DV2600 Battery

"I forgot everything else at this moment except a desire to kill this man."[39] However the Sikhs' numbers were being depleted so the next commanding officer told Churchill to get the rest of the men and boys to safety. HP Pavilion DV2700 Battery

Before he left he asked for a note so he would not be charged with desertion.[40] He received the note, quickly signed, and headed up the hill and alerted the other brigade, whereupon they then engaged the army. The fighting in the region dragged on for another two weeks before the dead could be recovered. He wrote in his journal: "Whether it was worth it I cannot tell."[39][41] HP Pavilion DV4 Battery

An account of the Siege of Malakand was published in December 1900 as The Story of the Malakand Field Force. He received £600 for his account. During the campaign, he also wrote articles for the newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph.[42] His account of the battle was one of his first published stories, for which he received £5 per column from The Daily Telegraph.[43]HP Pavilion DV4T Battery

SUDAN AND OLDHAM

Churchill was transferred to Egypt in 1898. He visited Luxor before joining an attachment of the 21st Lancers serving in the Sudanunder the command of General Herbert Kitchener. During this time he encountered two military officers with whom he would work during the First World War: Douglas Haig, then a captain and David Beatty, HP Pavilion DV5 Battery

then a gunboat lieutenant.[44] While in the Sudan, he participated in what has been described as the last meaningful British cavalry charge, at the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.[45] He also worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. HP Pavilion DV5T Battery

By October 1898, he had returned to Britain and begun his two-volume work; The River War, an account of the reconquest of the Sudan which was published the following year. Churchill resigned from the British Army effective from 5 May 1899. HP Pavilion DV7T Battery

Main article: Oldham by-election, 1899

He soon had his first opportunity to begin a Parliamentary career, when he was invited by Robert Ascroft to be the secondConservative Party candidate in Ascroft's Oldham constituency. Ascroft's sudden death caused a double by-election and Churchill was one of the candidates. In the midst of a national trend against the Conservatives, both seats were lost; however Churchill impressed by his vigorous campaigning. HP Pavilion DV4000 Battery

SOUTH AFRICA

Having failed at Oldham, Churchill looked about for some other opportunity to advance his career. On 12 October 1899, the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics broke out and he obtained a commission to act as war correspondent for the Morning Post with a salary of £250 per month. He rushed to sail on the same ship as the newly appointed British commander, HP Pavilion DV5000 Battery

Sir Redvers Buller. After some weeks in exposed areas he accompanied a scouting expedition in an armoured train, leading to his capture and imprisonment in a POW camp in Pretoria (converted school building for Pretoria High School for Girls). His actions during the ambush of the train led to speculation that he would be awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy, but this did not occur.[11]HP Pavilion DV6100 Battery

He escaped from the prison camp and travelled almost 300 miles (480 km) to Portuguese Lourenço Marques in Delagoa Bay, with the assistance of an English mine manager.[46] His escape made him a minor national hero for a time in Britain, though instead of returning home, HP Pavilion DV6300 Battery

he rejoined General Buller's army on its march to relieve the British at the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.[47] This time, although continuing as a war correspondent, he gained a commission in the South African Light Horse. HP Pavilion DV6500t Battery

He was among the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. He and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.[48]HP Pavilion DV8000 Battery

In 1900, Churchill returned to England on the RMS Dunottar Castle, the same ship on which he set sail for South Africa eight months earlier.[50] He there published London to Ladysmith and a second volume of Boer war experiences, Ian Hamilton's March. HP Pavilion DV8002ea Battery

Churchill stood again for parliament in Oldham in the general election of 1900 and won (his Conservative colleague, Crisp, was defeated) in the contest for two seats.[51][52] After the 1900 general election he embarked on a speaking tour of Britain, followed by tours of the United States and Canada, earning in excess of £5,000.[53]HP Pavilion DV9000 Battery

TERRITORIAL SERVICE

In 1900, he retired from the regular army and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902.[54] In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[55] HP Pavilion DV9100 Battery

In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers where he remained till retiring in 1924, at the age of fifty.[55]HP Pavilion DV9500 Battery

WESTERN FRONT

Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of the First World War, but was obliged to leave the war cabinet after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli. He attempted to obtain an appointment as a brigade commander, but settled for command of a battalion. HP Pavilion DV9600 Battery

After spending some time as a Major with the 2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers (part of the9th (Scottish) Division), on 1 January 1916. HP Pavilion N3200 Battery

Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. As a commander he continued to exhibit the reckless daring which had been a hallmark of all his military actions, although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many Western Front actions.[56]HP Pavilion N5100 Battery

Lord Deedes opined to a gathering of the Royal Historical Society in 2001 why Churchill went to the front line: "He was with Grenadier Guards, who were dry at battalion headquarters. They very much liked tea and condensed milk, HP Pavilion N5200 Battery

which had no great appeal to Winston, but alcohol was permitted in the front line, in the trenches. So he suggested to the colonel that he really ought to see more of the war and get into the front line. This was highly commended by the colonel, who thought it was a very good thing to do."[57]HP Pavilion N5250 Battery

EARLY YEARS IN PARLIAMENT

Churchill stood again for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election. After winning the seat, he went on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, raising £10,000 for himself (about £800,000 today).[58] In Parliament, he became associated with a faction of the Conservative Party led by Lord Hugh Cecil; the Hughligans. HP Pavilion N5290 Battery

During his first parliamentary session, he opposed the government's military expenditure[59] and Joseph Chamberlain's proposal of extensive tariffs, which were intended to protect Britain's economic dominance. His own constituency effectively deselected him, HP Pavilion N5300 Battery

although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election. After the Whitsun recess in 1904 he crossed the floor to sit as a member of theLiberal Party. As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. When the Liberals took office with Henry Campbell-Bannermanas prime minister, HP Pavilion N5340 Battery

in December 1905, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies dealing mainly with South Africa after the Boer War. From 1903 until 1905, Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a two-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.[60]HP Pavilion N5350 Battery

Following his deselection in the seat of Oldham, Churchill was invited to stand for Manchester North West. He won the seat at the1906 general election with a majority of 1,214 and represented the seat for two years, until 1908.[61] HP Pavilion N5390 Battery

When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.[52] Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; HP Pavilion N5400 Battery

Churchill lost his seat but was soon back as a member for Dundee constituency. As President of the Board of Trade he joined newly appointed ChancellorLloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty, Reginald McKenna's proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navydreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms.[62HP Pavilion N5415 Battery

] In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill setting up the first minimum wages in Britain.[63] In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work.[64] He helped draft the first unemployment pension legislation, the National Insurance Act of 1911.[65] HP Pavilion N5420 Battery

As a supporter of eugenics, he participated in the drafting of the Mental Deficiency Act 1913; however, the Act, in the form eventually passed, rejected his preferred method of sterilisation of the feeble-minded in favour of their confinement in institutions.[66]HP Pavilion N5425 Battery

Churchill also assisted in passing the People's Budget[67] becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition's "Budget Protest League".[68] The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes. HP Pavilion N5430 Battery

After the budget bill was sent to the Commons in 1909 and passed, it went to the House of Lords, where it was vetoed. The Liberals then fought and won two general elections in January and December 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. HP Pavilion N5435 Battery

The budget was then passed following the Parliament Act 1911 for which he also campaigned. In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. His term was controversial after his responses to the Siege of Sidney Street and thedispute at the Cambrian Colliery and the suffragettes. HP Pavilion N5440 Battery

In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot.[62] The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, HP Pavilion N5445 Battery

 allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff but blocked their deployment. On 9 November, The Timescriticised this decision. In spite of this, the rumour persists that Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.[69]HP Pavilion N5455 Battery

In early January 1911, Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street in London. There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism. After an inquest, Arthur Balfour remarked, HP Pavilion N5470 Battery

"he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?"[70] A biographer,Roy Jenkins, suggests that he went simply because "he could not resist going to see the fun himself" and that he did not issue commands.[71] HP Pavilion N5490 Battery

Another account said the police had the miscreants – Latvian anarchists wanted for murder – surrounded in a house, but Churchill called in the Scots Guards from theTower of London and, dressed in top hat and astrakhan collar greatcoat, directed operations. HP Pavilion N6000 Battery

The house caught fire and Churchill prevented the fire brigade from dousing the flames so the men inside were burned to death. "I thought it better to let the house burn down rather than spend good British lives in rescuing those ferocious rascals."[72]HP Pavilion N6195 Battery

Churchill's proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Herbert Henry Asquith and women's suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.[73]HP Pavilion n6400 Battery

In 1911, Churchill was transferred to the office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he held into the First World War. He gave impetus to several reform efforts, including development of naval aviation (he undertook flying lessons himself),[74] the construction of new and larger warships, the development of tanks, and the switch from coal to oil in the Royal Navy.[75]HP Pavilion N6490 Battery

FIRST WORLD WAR AND THE POST WAR COALITION

On 5 October 1914, Churchill went to Antwerp, which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. The Royal Marine Brigade was there and at Churchill's urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed. HP Pavilion XF100 Battery

Antwerp fell on 10 October with the loss of 2500 men. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources.[76] It is more likely that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time saved Calais and Dunkirk.[77]HP Pavilion XZ100 Battery

Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from naval research funds.[78] He then headed the Landships Committee which was responsible for creating the first tank corps and, although a decade later development of the battle tank would be seen as a tactical victory, at the time it was seen as misappropriation of funds.[78] HP Pavilion ZD7000 Battery

In 1915, he was one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during the First World War.[79] He took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when Prime Minister Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.[80]HP Pavilion ZD7300 Battery

For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used[81] and, though remaining an MP, HP Pavilion ZD7900 Battery

served for several months on theWestern Front commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, with the rank of lieutenant colonel.[82][83] While in command he personally made 36 forays into no man's land, and his section of the front at Ploegsteert became one of the most active.[83] HP Pavilion ZE2000 Battery

In March 1916, Churchill returned to England after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons.[84] Future prime minister David Lloyd George acidly commented: "You will one day discover that the state of mind revealed in (your) letter is the reason why you do not win trust even where you command admiration. HP Pavilion ZT1000 Battery

In every line of it, national interests are completely overshadowed by your personal concern."[85] In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that "there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years".[86]HP Pavilion ZT1125 Battery

A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".[87]HP Pavilion ZT1130 Battery

 He secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour. HP Pavilion ZT1145 Battery

In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine.He was also instrumental in having para-military forces (Black and Tans & Auxiliaries) intervene in the Anglo-Irish War.[88] HP Pavilion ZT1150 Battery

He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Churchill was involved in the lengthy negotiations of the treaty and to protect British maritime interests, HP Pavilion ZT1155 Battery

he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include three Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh),Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.[89] In 1938, however, under the terms of the Chamberlain-De Valera Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement the bases were returned to the Irish Free State. HP Pavilion ZT1160 Battery

Churchill advocated the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq,[90] Though the British did consider the use of poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, it was not used, as conventional bombing was considered effective.[91]HP Pavilion ZT1170 Battery

In 1923, he acted as a paid consultant for Burmah Oil (now BP plc) to lobby the British government to allow Burmah to have exclusive rights to Persian (Iranian) oil resources, which were successfully granted.[92]HP Pavilion ZT1175 Battery

REJOINING THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY—CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER

In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming October 1922 General Election. HP Pavilion ZT1180 Battery

Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendicectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division that continued to beset the Liberal Party. He came only fourth in the poll for Dundee, losing to the prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee "without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix".[61] HP Pavilion ZT1185 Battery

He stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester, and then as an independent, first without success in a by-election in the Westminster Abbey constituency, and then successfully in the general election of 1924 for Epping. The following year, he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that "anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat."[61][93]HP Pavilion ZT1190 Battery

Churchill was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw Britain's disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike of 1926.[94]HP Pavilion ZT1195 Battery

 His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and the board of the Bank of England. HP Pavilion ZT1200 Battery

This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as 'sound economics' although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.[95]HP Pavilion ZT1210 Battery

Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life. However in discussions at the time with former Chancellor McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting 'dear money' policy was economically bad. HP Pavilion ZT1230 Battery

In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political—a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed.[96] In his speech on the Bill he said "I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality."[97]HP Pavilion ZT1250 Battery

The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry. Already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil, as basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, HP Pavilion ZT1260 Battery

the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to 10% in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners, rather than the mine owners' position.[98] Baldwin, with Churchill's support proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission prepared a further report. HP Pavilion ZT1270 Battery

That Commission solved nothing and the miners' dispute led to the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners. Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette, and, during the dispute, he argued that "either the country will break the General Strike, HP Pavilion ZT1290 Battery

or the General Strike will break the country" and claimed that the fascism of Benito Mussolini had "rendered a service to the whole world," showing, as it had, "a way to combat subversive forces"—that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution. At one point, Churchill went as far as to call Mussolini the "Roman genius... the greatest lawgiver among men."[99]HP Pavilion ZT3000 Battery

Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Churchill's budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets,[100] and as paring the Armed Forces too heavily.[101]HP Pavilion ZT4000 Battery

POLITICAL ISOLATION

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next two years, Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule and by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, HP Pavilion ZV5000 Battery

financiers and people whose characters were seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed theNational Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was at the low point in his career, in a period known as "the wilderness years".[102]HP Pavilion ZV5200 Battery

He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after the Second World War),[102] HP Pavilion ZV6000 Battery

Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. He was one of the best paid writers of his time.[102] HP Pavilion ZX5000 Battery

His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Election and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays "Thoughts and Adventures") involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic 'sub parliament'.[103]HP Pavilion ZX5200 Battery

Indian independence

Churchill opposed Mohandas Gandhi's peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1930s, arguing that the Round Table Conference "was a frightful prospect".[104] Later reports indicate that Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on a hunger strike.[105]During the first half of the 1930s, Churchill was outspoken in his opposition to granting Dominion status to India. Sony VPCB11V9E/B Battery

He was a founder of the India Defence League, a group dedicated to the preservation of British power in India. Churchill brooked no moderation. "The truth is," he declared in 1930, "that Gandhi-ism and everything it stands for will have to be grappled with and crushed."[106]Sony VPCB11X9E/B Battery

 In speeches and press articles in this period he forecast widespread unemployment in Britain and civil strife in India should independence be granted.[107] The Viceroy Lord Irwin, who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government, Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government's policy that India should be granted Dominion Status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference. Sony VPCF11C5E Battery

At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association specially convened so Churchill could explain his position he said, "It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace... to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor."[108] He called the Indian National Congress leaders "Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism".[109]Sony vaio VPCF11M1E/H battery

Two incidents damaged Churchill's reputation greatly within the Conservative Party in this period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. Sony vaio VPCF12F4E/H battery

In a secure Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by an independent Conservative. The independent was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Sony vaio VPCF12M1E/H battery

 Although arranged before the by-election was set,[110] Churchill's speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the press baron's campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin's position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won, and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Sony vaio VPCF12S1E/B battery

The second issue was a claim by Churchill that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill, and in doing so had breached Parliamentary privilege. Sony vaio VPCF12Z1E/BI battery

He had the matter referred to the House of CommonsPrivilege Committee which after investigations, in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.[111] The report was debated on 13 June. Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division. Sony vaio VPCF13E4E battery

Churchill permanently broke with Stanley Baldwin over Indian independence and never again held any office while Baldwin was prime minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930).[112] Sony vaio VPCF13E8E/H battery

Another source of controversy about Churchill's attitude towards Indian affairs arises over what some historians term the Indian 'nationalist approach' to the Bengal famine of 1943, which has sought to place significant blame on Churchill's wartime government for the excessive mortality of up to three million people.[113][114][115] Sony vaio VPCF13J0E/H battery

While some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level,[116] Arthur Herman, author of Churchill and Gandhi, contends, 'The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India's main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short... Sony vaio VPCF13L8E/H battery

 [though] it is true that Churchill opposed diverting food supplies and transports from other theatres to India to cover the shortfall: this was wartime.'[117] In response to an urgent request by the Secretary of State for India, Leo Amery, and Viceroy of India, Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/B battery

 Wavell, to release food stocks for India, Churchill responded with a telegram to Wavell asking, if food was so scarce, "why Gandhihadn't died yet."[118] In July 1940, newly in office, he welcomed reports of the emerging conflict between the Muslim League and the Indian Congress, hoping "it would be bitter and bloody".[106]Sony vaio VPCF13M1E/H battery

German rearmament and conflicts in Europe and Asia

Beginning in 1932, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany's rearmament.[119] He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[120]Sony vaio VPCF13S1E/B battery

 However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[121] Churchill's attitude toward the fascist dictators was ambiguous. In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria "I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state.... On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. Sony vaio VPCF13S8E battery

On the other the chaos of China, four or five provinces of which are being tortured under Communist rule".[122] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a Communist front, and Franco's army as the "Anti-red movement".[123] He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up until 1937 to praise Benito Mussolini.[124]Sony vaio VPCF13S8E/B battery

Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Churchill said "I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism".[125] In a 1935 essay titled "Hitler and his Choice", which was republished in his 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Sony vaio VPCF13V5002B battery

Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred and cruelty, might yet "go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong to the forefront of the European family circle."[126] Sony vaio VPCF13Z1E/B battery

Churchill's first major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his second, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. //www.orderbattery.co.uk/sony-vaio-vpcf13z8e-bi-battery.html">Sony vaio VPCF13Z8E/BI battery

These three topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of The Focus, which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking "the defence of freedom and peace".[127] The Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936. Sony vaio VPCF21Z1E battery

Churchill was holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, and returned to a divided Britain. The Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.[128] Sony vaio VPCF21Z1E/BI battery

Churchill's speech on 9 March was measured, and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip.[129] Sony vaio VPCF22J1E battery

Alan Taylorcalled this "an appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul".[130] In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives who shared his concern to see Baldwin, Sony vaio VPCF22L1E battery

Chamberlain and Halifax. He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote, "If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action".[131] As it was the meeting achieved little, Baldwin arguing that the Government was doing all it could, given the anti-war feeling of the electorate.[citation needed]Sony vaio VPCF22M1E battery

On 12 November Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate, after giving some specific instances of Germany's war preparedness, he said "The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the prime minister to make up his mind. Sony vaio VPCF22S1E battery

So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat."[citation needed]Sony vaio VPCF22S8E battery

R. R. James called this one of Churchill's most brilliant speeches in this period, Baldwin's reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[132]Sony vaio VPCF23A9E battery

Abdication crisis

Main article: Edward VIII abdication crisis

In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson's existing marriage as a 'safeguard'.[133] Sony vaio VPCF23M1E battery

In November, he declined Lord Salisbury's invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal leader Archibald Sinclair met with Baldwin, Sony vaio VPCF23Q1E battery

were told officially of the King's intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry's advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill's reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.[134]Sony vaio VPCF23S1E battery

The Abdication crisis became public, coming to a head in the first fortnight of December 1936. At this time Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Sony vaio VPCF23S1E battery

Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks he made a declaration 'on the spur of the moment' asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.[135] Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King's proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King's solicitor about it. Sony vaio VPCF24M1E battery

On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision.[136] On 7 December he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members he left.[137]Sony vaio VPCF24Q1E battery

Churchill's reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King's Party.[138] Others likeHarold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Churchill's support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[139] Sony VPCCA2S1E Battery

Churchill himself later wrote "I was myself smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was ended."[140] Historians are divided about Churchill's motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A J P Taylor see it as being an attempt to 'overthrow the government of feeble men'.[141] Others such as Rhode James see Churchill's motives as entirely honourable and disinterested, that he felt deeply for the King.[142]Sony VPCCA2S1E/D.G4 Battery

RETURN FROM EXILE

Churchill later sought to portray himself as (to some extent) an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had a small following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s he was given privileged information by some elements within the Government, particularly by disaffected civil servants in the War Ministry. Sony VPCCA2S1E/L Battery

The "Churchill group" in the later half of the decade consisted only of himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy.[143] Churchill continued to be consulted on many matters by the Government or seen as an alternative leader.[144]Sony VPCCA2S1E/R Battery

Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Churchill's neighbour, Major Desmond Morton with Ramsay MacDonald's approval, Sony VPCCA3S1E Battery

gave Churchill information on German air power.[145] From 1930 onwards Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton as Secretary of State for Air, and with Baldwin's approval, in 1934 gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information. Sony VPCCB2S1E Battery

Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay.[146] Sony VPCCB2S1E/W Battery

Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Adolf Hitler[147] and in a speech to the House of Commons, he bluntly and prophetically stated, "You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour, and you will have war."[148]Sony VPCCB2S1E/B Battery

First term as prime minister

"WINSTON IS BACK"

After the outbreak of the Second World War on 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany, Churchill was appointedFirst Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the War Cabinet, as he had been during the first part of the First World War. When they were informed, the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: "Winston is back".[149][150] Sony VPCCB3S1E Battery

In this job, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called "Phoney War", when the only noticeable action was at sea. Churchill advocated the pre-emptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron-ore port of Narvik and the iron mines in Kiruna, Sweden, early in the war. However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the operation was delayed until the successful German invasion of Norway. Sony VPCCB3S1E/B Battery

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. Sony VPCCB3S1E/W Battery

The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of prime minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Sony VPCCB4Z1E Battery

Although the prime minister does not traditionally advise the King on the former's successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Sony VPCCB4Z1E/B Battery

Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as a constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be prime minister. Churchill's first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[151]Sony VPCCB4Z1E/W Battery

Churchill had been among the first to recognise the growing threat of Hitler long before the outset of the Second World War, and his warnings had gone largely unheeded. Although there was an element of British public and political sentiment favouring negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, among them the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with Hitler's Germany.[152] Sony VPCCB4Z1E/W.G4 Battery

His use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.[153]Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his "finest hour" speech to the House of Commons on 18 June 1940, Sony vaio VPCY11S1E battery

"I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."[154] By refusing an armistice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942–45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe. Sony vaio VPCY11S1E/S battery

In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence. Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/L battery

He immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production. It was Beaverbrook's business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war.[155]Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/G battery

Winston Churchill walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral, 1941

Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first speech as prime minister was the famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat". He followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words: Sony vaio VPCY21S1E/SI battery

... we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.[156]Sony vaio VPCY22Z5008B battery

The other:

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour'.[157]Sony vaio VPCYA1V9E/B battery

At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", which engendered the enduring nickname The Few for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.[158] Sony vaio VPCYB1S1E/S battery

He first spoke these famous words upon his exit from No. 11 Group's underground bunker at RAF Uxbridge, now known as the Battle of Britain Bunker on 16 August 1940. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor's Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Churchill stated: Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.[159]

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead. Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

"Rhetorical power", wrote Churchill, "is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated." Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, prime minister of Australia and himself a gifted phrase-maker, said of Churchill during the Second World War: "His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way."[160] Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

Another associate wrote: "He is... the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas.... And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery."[161]Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES

Churchill's good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes.[162] It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Sony vaio VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Put simply, Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; Dell Inspiron M5030 battery

and so Lend-lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill's first thought in anticipation of US help was,  Sony VGN-FW31ZJ battery

"We have won the war!"[163] On 26 December 1941, Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, "What kind of people do they think we are?"[164] Churchill initiated theSpecial Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of Economic Warfare,  Sony VGN-FZ38 battery

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which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog".

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Churchill's health was fragile, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia. Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[165]Sony VGN-CS11S/P battery

Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries. These were discussed as early as 1943. At the Second Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax battery

signed a toned-down version of the originalMorgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender "into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character."[166] Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by Harry S. Truman,  HP 500028-142 battery

Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at Potsdam. Churchill's strong relationship with Harry Truman was also of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, "the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most."[167]Sony vaio VPCYB35JC battery

RELATIONS WITH THE SOVIET UNION

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-Communist, famously stated "If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons," regarding his policy toward Stalin.[168] Soon, British supplies and tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union.[169] HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax battery

A meeting of Allied powers held in Casablanca, Morocco, 14–23 January 1943, produced what was to be known as the “Casablanca Declaration.” In attendance were Churchill, HP Pavilion g6 battery

Franklin Roosevelt and Charles de Gaulle. Joseph Stalin had bowed out, citing the need for his presence in the Soviet Union to attend to the Stalingrad crisis. It was in Casablanca that it was announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than “unconditional surrender” from the Axis powers. HP 513130-321 battery

The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. HP WD549AA battery

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It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivateMikołajczyk, who was prime minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin's wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.  HP NBP6A175 battery

As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions."[170][171]  HP Pavilion dv3-2028tx battery

However the resulting expulsions of Germans were carried out in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, the death of over 2.1 million. Churchill opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences.[172]Sony VGP-BPS10 battery

During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what.[173]  Sony VGN-CR290 battery

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The most significant of these meetings was held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed. HP Pavilion dv9000 Laptop Battery

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