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23 septembre 2012 7 23 /09 /septembre /2012 05:37

Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university located in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. HP G42-415DX Keyboard

Incorporated as the "Collegiate School", the institution traces its roots to 17th-century clergymen who sought to establish a college to train clergy and political leaders for the colony. In 1718, the College was renamed "Yale College" to honor a gift from Elihu Yale, a governor of the British East India Company. In 1861, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences became the first U.S. school to award the PhD.[7] TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Keyboard

Yale became a founding member of the Association of American Universitiesin 1900. Yale College was transformed, beginning in the 1930s, through the establishment of residential colleges: 12 now exist and two more are planned. Yale employs over 1,100 faculty to teach and advise about 5,300 undergraduate and 6,100 graduate and professional students. Almost all tenured professors teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually.[8][9]ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Keyboard

The University's assets include an endowment valued at $19.4 billion as of 2011,[10] the second-largest of any academic institution in the world. Yale's system of more than two dozen libraries holds 12.5 million volumes.[11] 49 Nobel Laureateshave been affiliated with the University as students, faculty, and staff. Yale has produced many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, and several foreign heads of state. Yale Law School is particularly well-regarded and the most selective law school in the United States.[12]HP 550 Keyboard

Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, in an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregationalist ministers: Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, James Noyes, HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard

James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb and Timothy Woodbridge, all of whom were alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's first library.[13] The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders".SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Keyboard

Originally called the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson,[14] inKillingworth (now Clinton). The school moved to Saybrook, and then Wethersfield. In 1718 the college moved to New Haven, Connecticut. HP Envy 15 Keyboard

Meanwhile, a rift was forming at Harvard between its sixth president Increase Mather and the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as increasingly liberal, ecclesiastically lax, and overly broad in Church polity. The feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not.[15]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Keyboard

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In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted a successful businessman in Wales named Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in India as a representative of the East India Company, DELL Inspiron 500m Keyboard

donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time. Yale also donated 417 books and a portrait of King George I. Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to Yale College in gratitude to its benefactor, and to increase the chances that he would give the college another large donation or bequest. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard

Elihu Yale was away in India when the news of the school's name change reached his home in Wrexham, Wales, a trip from which he never returned. While he did ultimately leave his fortunes to the "Collegiate School within His Majesties Colony of Connecticot",[citation needed] the institution was never able to successfully lay claim to it. DELL Inspiron 1750 Keyboard

Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the period—the Great Awakeningand the Enlightenment—thanks to the religious and scientific interests of presidentsThomas Clap and Ezra Stiles. They were both instrumental in developing the scientific curriculum at Yale, while dealing with wars, student tumults, graffiti, "irrelevance" of curricula, desperate need for endowment, and fights with the Connecticut legislature.[16]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Keyboard

Serious American students of theology and divinity, particularly in New England, regardedHebrew as a classical language, along with Greek and Latin, and essential for study of theOld Testament in the original words. The Reverend Ezra Stiles, president of the College from 1778 to 1795, brought with him his interest in the Hebrew language as a vehicle for studying ancient Biblical texts in their original language (as was common in other schools), HP Mini 110-1006tu Keyboard

requiring all freshmen to study Hebrew (in contrast to Harvard, where only upperclassmen were required to study the language) and is responsible for the Hebrew phrase אורים ותמים (Urim and Thummim) on the Yale seal. Stiles' greatest challenge occurred in July 1779 when hostile British forces occupied New Haven and threatened to raze the College. ACER Aspire 7520 Keyboard

Fortunately, Yale graduate Edmund Fanning, Secretary to the British General in command of the occupation, interceded and the College was saved. Fanning later was granted an honorary degree LL.D., at 1803,[17] for his efforts.

The Directed Studies program was founded for 125 first-year students as an interdisciplinary course encompassing great works of Western thought. ACER TravelMate 242LC Keyboard

Students

As the only college in Connecticut, Yale educated the sons of the elite.[18] Offenses for which students were punished included cardplaying, tavern-going, destruction of college property, and acts of disobedience to college authorities. During the period, Harvard was distinctive for the stability and maturity of its tutor corps, while Yale had youth and zeal on its side.[19]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Keyboard

The emphasis on classics gave rise to a number of private student societies, open only by invitation, which arose primarily as forums for discussions of modern scholarship, literature and politics. The first such organizations were debating societies: Crotonia in 1738, Linonia in 1753, and Brothers in Unity in 1768.[20]ACER Aspire 7336 Keyboard

The Yale Report of 1828 was a dogmatic defense of the Latin and Greek curriculum against critics who wanted more courses in modern languages, mathematics, and science. Unlike higher education in Europe, there was no national curriculum for colleges and universities in the United States. In the competition for students and financial support, HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Keyboard

college leaders strove to keep current with demands for innovation. At the same time, they realized that a significant portion of their students and prospective students demanded a classical background. The Yale report meant the classics would not be abandoned. At the same time, all institutions experimented with changes in the curriculum, often resulting in a dual track. FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Keyboard

In the decentralized environment of higher education in the United States, balancing change with tradition was a common challenge because no one could afford to be completely modern or completely classical.[21] At the same time a group of professors at Yale and New Haven Congregationalist ministers articulated a conservative response to the changes brought about by the Victorian culture. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Keyboard

They concentrated on developing a whole man possessed of religious values sufficiently strong to resist temptations from within, yet flexible enough to adjust to the 'isms' (professionalism, materialism, individualism, and consumerism) tempting him from without.[22] Perhaps the most well-remembered[citation needed] teacher was William Graham Sumner, professor from 1872 to 1909. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Keyboard

He taught in the emerging disciplines of economics and sociology to overflowing classrooms. He bested President Noah Porter, who disliked social science and wanted Yale to lock into its traditions of classical education, 1879–81. Porter objected to Sumner's use of a textbook by Herbert Spencer that espoused agnostic materialism because it might intellectually, morally, and religiously harm students.[23]SONY 147859712 Keyboard

Sports and debate

The Revolutionary War hero Nathan Hale (Yale 1773) was the prototype of the Yale ideal in the early 19th century: a manly yet aristocratic scholar, equally well-versed in knowledge and sports, and a patriot who regretted he had but one life to lose for his country. Western painter Frederic Remington (Yale 1900) was an artist whose heroes gloried in combat and tests of strength in the Wild West. HP 383495-001 Keyboard

The fictional, turn-of-the-20th-century Yale man Frank Merriwell embodied the heroic ideal without racial prejudice, and his fictional successor Frank Stover in the novel Stover at Yale (1911) questioned the business mentality that had become prevalent at the school. Increasingly the students turned to athletic stars as their heroes, especially since winning the big game became the goal of the student body, and the alumni, as well as the team itself.[24]ACER Aspire 2003WLMi Keyboard

Along with Harvard and Princeton, Yale students rejected elite British concepts about 'amateurism' in sports and constructed athletic programs that were uniquely American, such as football.[25] The Harvard–Yale football rivalry began in 1875. HP G61 Keyboard

Between 1892, when Harvard and Yale met in the first intercollegiate debate, and 1909, the year of the first Triangular Debate of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, the rhetoric, symbolism, and metaphors used in athletics were used to frame these early debates. Debates were covered on front pages of college newspapers and emphasized in yearbooks, APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Keyboard

and team members even received the equivalent of athletic letters for their jackets. There even were rallies sending off the debating teams to matches. Yet, the debates never attained the broad appeal that athletics enjoyed. One reason may be that debates do not have a clear winner, as is the case in sports, and that scoring is subjective. In addition, with late 19th-century concerns about the impact of modern life on the human body, athletics offered hope that neither the individual nor the society was coming apart.[26]ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard

In 1909–10, football faced a crisis resulting from the failure of the previous reforms of 1905–06 to solve the problem of serious injuries. There was a mood of alarm and mistrust, and, while the crisis was developing, the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton developed a project to reform the sport and forestall possible radical changes forced by government upon the sport. HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Keyboard

President Arthur Hadley of Yale, A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard, and Woodrow Wilson of Princeton worked to develop moderate changes to reduce injuries. Their attempts, however, were reduced by rebellion against the rules committee and formation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The big three had tried to operate independently of SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Keyboard

Yale expanded gradually, establishing the Yale School of Medicine (1810), Yale Divinity School (1822), Yale Law School (1843), Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1847), the Sheffield Scientific School (1847),[28] and the Yale School of Fine Arts(1869). In 1887, as the college continued to grow under the presidency of Timothy Dwight V, Yale College was renamed Yale University. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Keyboard

The university would later add the Yale School of Music (1894), the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (founded by Gifford Pinchot in 1901), the Yale School of Public Health (1915), the Yale School of Nursing (1923), theYale School of Drama (1955), the Yale Physician Associate Program (1973), and the Yale School of Management (1976). It would also reorganize its relationship with the Sheffield Scientific School. HP Mini 110-1032NR Keyboard

Expansion caused controversy about Yale's new roles. Noah Porter, moral philosopher, was president from 1871 to 1886. During an age of tremendous expansion in higher education, Porter resisted the rise of the new research university, HP Pavilion dv3-2360ee Keyboard

claiming that an eager embrace of its ideals would corrupt undergraduate education. Many of Porter's contemporaries criticized his administration, and historians since have disparaged his leadership. Levesque argues Porter was not a simple-minded reactionary, uncritically committed to tradition, but a principled and selective conservative.[29] HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Keyboard

He did not endorse everything old or reject everything new; rather, he sought to apply long-established ethical and pedagogical principles to a rapidly changing culture. He may have misunderstood some of the challenges of his time, but he correctly anticipated the enduring tensions that have accompanied the emergence and growth of the modern university. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard

Behavioral sciences

Between 1925 and 1940, philanthropic foundations, especially ones connected with the Rockefellers, contributed about $7 million to support the Yale Institute of Human Relations and the affiliated Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. The money went toward behavioral science research, which was supported by foundation officers who aimed to "improve mankind" under an informal, lHP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Keyboard

oosely defined human engineering effort. The behavioral scientists at Yale, led by President James R. Angell and psychobiologist Robert M. Yerkes, tapped into foundation largesse by crafting research programs aimed to investigate, then suggest, ways to control, sexual and social behavior. For example, Yerkes analyzed chimpanzee sexual behavior in hopes of illuminating the evolutionary underpinnings of human development and providing information that could ameliorate dysfunction. Ultimately, the behavioral-science results disappointed foundation officers, who shifted their human-engineering funds toward biological sciences.[30]ASUS F80C Keyboard

Slack (2003) compares three groups that conducted biological research at Yale during overlapping periods between 1910 and 1970. Yale proved important as a site for this research. The leaders of these groups were Ross Granville Harrison, Grace E. Pickford, and G. Evelyn Hutchinson, and their members included both graduate students and more experienced scientists. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Keyboard

All produced innovative research, including the opening of new subfields in embryology, endocrinology, and ecology, respectively, over a long period of time. Harrison's group is shown to have been a classic research school; Pickford's and Hutchinson's were not. Pickford's group was successful in spite of her lack of departmental or institutional position or power. HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard

Hutchinson and his graduate and postgraduate students were extremely productive, but in diverse areas of ecology rather than one focused area of research or the use of one set of research tools. Hutchinson's example shows that new models for research groups are needed, especially for those that include extensive field research.[31]HP Envy 15 Keyboard

Milton Winternitz led the Yale Medical School as its dean from 1920 to 1935. An innovative, even maverick, leader, he not only kept the school from going under but also turned it into a first-class research institution.[citation needed] Dedicated to the new scientific medicine established in Germany, he was equally fervent about "social medicine" and the study of humans in their culture and environment. He established the "Yale System" of teaching, with few lectures and fewer exams, and strengthened the full-time faculty system; HP 640436-001 Keyboard

he also created the graduate-level Yale School of Nursing and the Psychiatry Department, and built numerous new buildings. Progress toward his plans for an Institute of Human Relations, envisioned as a refuge where social scientists would collaborate with biological scientists in a holistic study of humankind, unfortunately lasted for only a few years before the opposition of resentful anti-Semitic colleagues drove him to resign.[32]SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

Before World War II, most elite university faculties counted among their numbers few, if any, Jews, blacks, women, or other minorities; Yale was no exception. By 1980, this condition had been altered dramatically, as numerous members of those groups held faculty positions.[33]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Keyboard

The American studies program reflected the worldwide anti-Communist ideological struggle. Norman Holmes Pearson, who worked for the Office of Strategic Studies in London during World War II, returned to Yale and headed the new American studies program, in which scholarship quickly became an instrument of promoting liberty. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard

Popular among undergraduates, the program sought to instruct them in the fundamentals of American civilization and thereby instill a sense of nationalism and national purpose.[34] Also during the 1940s and 1950s, Wyoming millionaire William R. Coe made large contributions to the American studies programs at Yale University and at the University of Wyoming. Coe was concerned to celebrate the 'values' of the Western United States in order to meet the "threat of communism."[35]HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard

Women studied at Yale University as early as 1892, in graduate-level programs at the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.[36]

In 1966, Yale began discussions with its sister school Vassar College about merging to foster coeducation at the undergraduate level. Vassar, then all-female, declined the invitation. Both schools introduced coeducation independently in 1969.[37] Amy Solomon was the first woman to register as a Yale undergraduate;[38]she was also the first woman at Yale to join an undergraduate society, St. Anthony Hall. ACER Aspire 7535 Keyboard

A decade into co-education, rampant student assault and harassment by faculty became the impetus for the trailblazing lawsuit Alexander v. Yale. While unsuccessful in the courts, the legal reasoning behind the case changed the landscape of sex discrimination law and resulted in the establishment of Yale's Grievance Board and the Yale Women's Center.[39] In March 2011 a Title IX complaint was filed against Yale.[40]HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Keyboard

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Class

Yale, like other Ivy League schools, instituted policies in the early 20th century designed to increase the proportion of white Protestants of notable families in the student body (see numerus clausus), and was one of the last of the Ivies to eliminate such preferences, beginning with the class of 1970.[41]SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Keyboard

Yale has a complicated relationship with its home city; for example, thousands of students volunteer every year in a myriad of community organizations, but city officials, who decry Yale's exemption from local property taxes, have long pressed the university to do more to help. Under President Levin, Yale has financially supported many of New Haven's efforts to reinvigorate the city. lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Keyboard

Evidence suggests that the town and gown relationships are mutually beneficial. Still, the economic power of the university increased dramatically with its financial success amid a decline in the local economy.[42]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5127 Keyboard

In 2006, Yale and Peking University (PKU) established a Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing, an exchange program allowing Yale students to spend a semester living and studying with PKU honor students.[43]GATEWAY M250 Keyboard

In 2007 outgoing Yale President Rick Levin characterized Yale's institutional priorities: "First, among the nation's finest research universities, Yale is distinctively committed to excellence in undergraduate education. Second, in our graduate and professional schools, as well as in Yale College, we are committed to the education of leaders."[44]HP Mini 110-3100sg Keyboard

The Boston Globe wrote that "if there's one school that can lay claim to educating the nation's top national leaders over the past three decades, it's Yale."[45]Yale alumni were represented on the Democratic or Republican ticket in every U.S. Presidential election between 1972 and 2004. Yale-educated Presidents since the end of the Vietnam War include Gerald Ford, DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, and major-party nominees during this period include John Kerry (2004), Joseph Lieberman (Vice President, 2000), and Sargent Shriver (Vice President, 1972). Other Yale alumni who made serious bids for the Presidency during this period include Hillary Rodham Clinton (2008), Howard Dean (2004), Gary Hart (1984 and 1988), Paul Tsongas (1992), Pat Robertson (1988) and Jerry Brown (1976, 1980, 1992). HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Keyboard

Several explanations have been offered for Yale’s representation in national elections since the end of the Vietnam War. Various sources note the spirit of campus activism that has existed at Yale since the 1960s, and the intellectual influence of Reverend William Sloane Coffin on many of the future candidates.[46]TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1CN Keyboard

Yale President Richard Levin attributes the run to Yale’s focus on creating "a laboratory for future leaders," an institutional priority that began during the tenure of Yale Presidents Alfred Whitney Griswold and Kingman Brewster.[46] Richard H. Brodhead, former dean of Yale College and now president of Duke University, stated: HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Keyboard

"We do give very significant attention to orientation to the community in our admissions, and there is a very strong tradition ofvolunteerism at Yale."[45] Yale historian Gaddis Smith notes "an ethos of organized activity" at Yale during the 20th century that led John Kerry to lead theYale Political Union's Liberal Party, George Pataki the Conservative Party, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard

and Joseph Lieberman to manage the Yale Daily News.[47] Camille Paglia points to a history of networking and elitism: "It has to do with a web of friendships and affiliations built up in school."[48] CNN suggests that George W. Bush benefited from preferential admissions policies for the "son and grandson of alumni", and for a "member of a politically influential family."[49HP G62-100SL Keyboard

] New York Timescorrespondent Elisabeth Bumiller and The Atlantic Monthly correspondent James Fallows credit the culture of community and cooperation that exists between students, faculty, and administration, which downplays self-interest and reinforces commitment to others.[50]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Keyboard

During the 1988 presidential election, George H. W. Bush (Yale '48) derided Michael Dukakis for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique". When challenged on the distinction between Dukakis's Harvard connection and his own Yale background, he said that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Keyboard

I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it" and said Yale did not share Harvard's reputation for "liberalism and elitism".[51][52] In 2004 Howard Dean stated, "In some ways, I consider myself separate from the other three (Yale) candidates of 2004. Yale changed so much between the class of '68 and the class of '71. SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Keyboard

My class was the first class to have women in it; it was the first class to have a significant effort to recruit African Americans. It was an extraordinary time, and in that span of time is the change of an entire generation".[53]TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Keyboard

In 2009, former British Prime Minister Tony Blair picked Yale as one location – the others are Britain's Durham University and Universiti Teknologi Mara – for the Tony Blair Faith Foundation's United States Faith and Globalization Initiative.[54] As of 2009, former Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo is the director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization and teaches an undergraduate seminar, "Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

Debating Globalization".[55] As of 2009, former presidential candidate and DNC chair Howard Dean teaches a residential college seminar, "Understanding Politics and Politicians."[56] HP Mini 110-1115SA Keyboard

Also in 2009, an alliance was formed among Yale,University College London, and both schools’ affiliated hospital complexes to conduct research focused on the direct improvement of patient care—a growing field known as translational medicine. President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but "no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL".[57]TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Keyboard

In July 2012, the Peking University-Yale University Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing ended due to weak participation.[43]

The President and Fellows of Yale College, also known as the Yale Corporation, is the governing board of the University. SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Keyboard

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Yale's president Richard C. Levin is one of the highest paid university presidents in the United States with a 2008 salary of $1.5 million.[58]

The Yale Provost's Office has launched several women into prominent university presidencies. In 1977 Hanna Holborn Gray was appointed acting President of Yale from this position, and went on to become President of the University of Chicago, the first woman to be full president of a major university. TOSHIBA Satellite A505 Keyboard

In 1994 Yale Provost Judith Rodin became the first female president of an Ivy League institution at the University of Pennsylvania. In 2002 Provost Alison Richard became the Vice Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. In 2004, Provost Susan Hockfield became the President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2007 Deputy Provost Kim Bottomly was named President of Wellesley College. HP Pavilion dv4-1104tu Keyboard

In 2008 Provost Andrew Hamilton was confirmed to be the Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxford.[59] Former Dean of Yale College Richard H. Brodhead serves as the President of Duke University. HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Keyboard

Staff and labor unions

Main article: Federation of Hospital and University Employees

Much of Yale University's staff, including most maintenance staff, dining hall employees, and administrative staff, are unionized. Clerical and technical employees are represented by Local 34 of Unite Here and service and maintenance workers by Local 35 of the same international. Together with the Graduate Employees and Students Organization (GESO), ASUS A6M Keyboard

an unrecognized union of graduate employees, Locals 34 and 35 make up the Federation of Hospital and University Employees. Also included in FHUE are the dietary workers at Yale-New Haven Hospital, who are members of 1199 SEIU.[60] In addition to these unions, officers of the Yale University Police Department are members of the Yale Police Benevolent Association, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

which affiliated in 2005 with the Connecticut Organization for Public Safety Employees.[61] Finally, Yale security officers voted to join the International Union of Security, Police and Fire Professionals of America in fall 2010 after the National Labor Relations Board ruled they could not join AFSCME; the Yale administration contested the election.[62]HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Keyboard

Yale has a history of difficult and prolonged labor negotiations, often culminating in strikes.[63] There have been at least eight strikes since 1968, and The New York Times wrote that Yale has a reputation as having the worst record of labor tension of any university in the U.S.[64] Yale's unusually large endowment exacerbates the tension over wages. Moreover, ACER TravelMate 6290 Keyboard

Yale has been accused of failing to treat workers with respect.[65] In a 2003 strike, however, the university claimed that more union employees were working than striking.[66] Professor David Graeber was 'retired' after he came to the defense of a student who was involved in campus labor issues.[67]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Keyboard

Yale's central campus in downtown New Haven covers 260 acres (1.1 km2). An additional 500 acres (2.0 km2) includes the Yale golf course and nature preserves in rural Connecticut and Horse Island.[68]ASUS F6 Keyboard

Yale is noted for its largely Collegiate Gothic campus[69] as well as for several iconic modern buildings commonly discussed in architectural history survey courses: Louis Kahn's Yale Art Gallery[70] and Center for British Art,Eero Saarinen's Ingalls Rink and Ezra Stiles and Morse Colleges, and Paul Rudolph's Art & Architecture Building. Yale also owns and has restored many noteworthy 19th-century mansions along Hillhouse Avenue, which was considered the most beautiful street in America by Charles Dickens when he visited the United States in the 1840s. HP Pavilion tx2500z Keyboard

Many of Yale's buildings were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architecture style from 1917 to 1931, financed largely by Edward S. Harkness[71] Stone sculpture built into the walls of the buildings portray contemporary college personalities such as a writer, an athlete, a tea-drinking socialite, and a student who has fallen asleep while reading. Similarly, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Keyboard

the decorative friezes on the buildings depict contemporary scenes such as policemen chasing a robber and arresting a prostitute (on the wall of the Law School), or a student relaxing with a mug of beer and a cigarette. The architect, James Gamble Rogers, faux-aged these buildings by splashing the walls with acid,[72] HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Keyboard

deliberately breaking their leaded glass windows and repairing them in the style of the Middle Ages, and creating niches for decorative statuary but leaving them empty to simulate loss or theft over the ages. In fact, the buildings merely simulate Middle Ages architecture, for though they appear to be constructed of solid stone blocks in the authentic manner, most actually have steel framing as was commonly used in 1930. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S9722 Keyboard

One exception is Harkness Tower, 216 feet (66 m) tall, which was originally a free-standing stone structure. It was reinforced in 1964 to allow the installation of the Yale Memorial Carillon. DELL V100830AS1 Keyboard

Other examples of the Gothic (also called neo-Gothic and collegiate Gothic) style are on Old Campus by such architects as Henry Austin, Charles C. Haight andRussell Sturgis. Several are associated with members of the Vanderbilt family, including Vanderbilt Hall,[73] Phelps Hall,[74] St. Anthony Hall (a commission for member Frederick William Vanderbilt), the Mason, Sloane and Osborn laboratories, dormitories for the Sheffield Scientific School (the engineering and sciences school at Yale until 1956) and elements of Silliman College, the largest residential college.[75]HP 640436-001 Keyboard

The oldest building on campus, Connecticut Hall (built in 1750), is in the Georgian style. Georgian-style buildings erected from 1929 to 1933 include Timothy Dwight College, Pierson College, and Davenport College, except the latter's east, York Street façade, which was constructed in the Gothic style. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard

The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, is one of the largest buildings in the world reserved exclusively for the preservation of rare books and manuscripts.[76] It is located near the center of the University in Hewitt Quadrangle, which is now more commonly referred to as "Beinecke Plaza".HP 605344-001 Keyboard

The library's six-story above-ground tower of book stacks is surrounded by a windowless rectangular building with walls made of translucent Vermont marble, which transmit subdued lighting to the interior and provide protection from direct light, while glowing from within after dark. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Keyboard

The sculptures in the sunken courtyard by Isamu Noguchi are said to represent time (the pyramid), the sun (the circle), and chance (the cube).

Alumnus Eero Saarinen, Finnish-American architect of such notable structures as the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Washington Dulles International Airport main terminal, Bell Labs Holmdel Complex and the CBS Building in Manhattan, designed Ingalls Rink at Yale and the newest residential colleges of Ezra Stiles and Morse. TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Keyboard

These latter were modelled after the medieval Italian hilltown of San Gimignano – a prototype chosen for the town's pedestrian-friendly milieu and fortress-like stone towers. These tower forms at Yale act in counterpoint to the college's many Gothic spires and Georgian cupolas.[77]SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Keyboard

Yale's Office of Sustainability develops and implements sustainability practices at Yale.[78] Yale is committed to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions 10% below 1990 levels by the year 2020. As part of this commitment, the university allocates renewable energy credits to offset some of the energy used by residential colleges.[79] DELL 454RX Keyboard

Eleven campus buildings are candidates for LEED design and certification.[80] Yale Sustainable Food Project initiated the introduction of local, organic vegetables, fruits, and beef to all residential college dining halls.[81] Yale was listed as a Campus Sustainability Leader on the Sustainable Endowments Institute’s College Sustainability Report Card 2008, and received a “B+” grade overall.[82]TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Keyboard

Notable nonresidential campus buildings

Notable nonresidential campus buildings and landmarks include Battell Chapel, Beinecke Rare Book Library, Harkness Tower, Ingalls Rink, Kline Biology Tower, Osborne Memorial Laboratories, Payne Whitney Gymnasium, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Sterling Hall of Medicine, Sterling Law Buildings, Sterling Memorial Library, Woolsey Hall, Yale Center for British Art, Yale University Art Gallery, and Yale Art & Architecture Building. ACER AEZR1R00110 Keyboard

Yale's secret society buildings (some of which are called "tombs") were built both to be private yet unmistakable. A diversity of architectural styles is represented: Berzelius, Donn Barber in an austere cube with classical detailing (erected in 1908 or 1910); Book and Snake, Louis R. Metcalfe in a Greek Ionic style (erected in 1901); Elihu, HP Pavilion tx2532la Keyboard

architect unknown but built in a Colonial style (constructed on an early 17th century foundation although the building is from the 18th century); Mace and Chain, in a late colonial, early Victorian style (built in 1823). Interior moulding is said to have belonged to Benedict Arnold; Manuscript Society, King Lui-Wu with Dan Kniley responsible for landscaping and Josef Albers for the brickwork intaglio mural. Building constructed in a mid-century modern style; Scroll and Key, Richard Morris Hunt in a Moorish- or Islamic-inspired Beaux-Arts style (erected 1869–70); TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Keyboard

Skull and Bones, possibly Alexander Jackson Davis or Henry Austin in an Egypto-Doric style utilizing Brownstone (in 1856 the first wing was completed, in 1903 the second wing, 1911 the Neo-Gothic towers in rear garden were completed); St. Elmo, (former tomb) Kenneth M. Murchison, 1912, designs inspired by Elizabethan manor. Current location, brick colonial; and Wolf's Head, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (erected 1923-4). SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

In addition to the Yale University Police Department, founded in 1894,[83] a variety of safety services are available including blue phones, a safety escort, and a shuttle service.[84]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Keyboard

In the 1970s and 1980s, poverty and violent crime rose in New Haven, dampening Yale's student and faculty recruiting efforts.[85] Between 1990 and 2006, New Haven's crime rate fell by half, helped by a community policing strategy by the New Haven police and Yale's campus became the safest among the Ivy League and other peer schools.[86] Nonetheless, across the board, the city of New Haven has retained the highest levels of crime of any Ivy League city for more than a decade.[87]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Keyboard

Between 2002 and 2004, Yale reported 14 violent crimes (homicide, aggravated assault, or sex offenses); in comparison, Harvard reported 83 such incidents, Princeton 24, and Stanford 54. The incidence of nonviolent crime (burglary, arson, and motor vehicle theft) was also lower than most of its peer schools. TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Keyboard

In 2004 a national non-profit watchdog group called Security on Campus filed a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education, accusing Yale of under-reporting rape and sexual assaults.[88][89]

For the Class of 2016, Yale accepted 1,975 students out of a record 28,975 total applications, hitting a record-low acceptance rate of 6.8%.[90]HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Keyboard

The university is one of only seven institutions of higher education in the world that is need blind and full-need to all of its applicants, including international students.[91] ACER Aspire 5538 Keyboard

Through its program of need-based financial aid, Yale commits to meet the full demonstrated financial need of all applicants, and more than half of Yale students receive financial assistance. Most financial aid is in the form of grants and scholarships that do not need to be paid back to the university, and the average scholarship for the 2011–2012 school year was $35,400. More than 750 students in Yale College are expected to have $0 parental contribution. DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

Half of all Yale undergraduates are women, more than 30% are minorities, and 8% are international students. Fifty-five percent attended public schools and 45% attended private, religious, or international schools.[92] In addition, Yale College admits a small group of nontraditional students each year, through the Eli Whitney Students Program. DELL Studio 1749 Keyboard

Yale University Library, which holds over 12 million volumes, is the second-largest university collection in the United States.[93]The main library, Sterling Memorial Library, contains about 4 million volumes, and other holdings are dispersed at subject libraries. HP Pavilion dv6-2010ep Keyboard

Rare books are found in a number of Yale collections. The Beinecke Rare Book Library has a large collection of rare books and manuscripts. The Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library includes important historical medical texts, HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Keyboard

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including an impressive collection of rare books, as well as historical medical instruments. The Lewis Walpole Library contains the largest collection of 18th‑century British literary works. The Elizabethan Club, technically a private organization, makes its Elizabethan folios and first editions available to qualified researchers through Yale. DELL Vostro 3700 Keyboard

Yale's museum collections are also of international stature. The Yale University Art Gallery is the country's first university-affiliated art museum. It contains more than 180,000 works, including old masters and important collections of modern art, in the Swartout and Kahn buildings. The latter, Louis Kahn's first large-scale American work (1953), TOSHIBA KFRSBA064A Keyboard

was renovated and reopened in December 2006. The Yale Center for British Art, the largest collection of British art outside of the UK, grew from a gift of Paul Mellon and is housed in another Kahn-designed building. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard

The Peabody Museum of Natural History in New Haven is used by school children and contains research collections in anthropology, archaeology, and the natural environment. The Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments, affiliated with the Yale School of Music, is perhaps the least well-known of Yale's collections, because its hours of opening are restricted. HP Mini 110-1115SA Keyboard

The museums also house the artifacts brought to the United States from Peru by Yale history professor Hiram Bingham in his expedition to Machu Picchu in 1912 – when the removal of such artifacts was legal. Peru would now like to have the items returned; Yale has so far declined.[94] In November 2010, a Yale University representative agreed to return the artifacts to a Peruvian university.[95]DELL XPS 15 L502X Keyboard

behind, in either order or tied, Princeton and Harvard.[103] It was ranked fourth in the 2011 QS World University Rankings and tenth in the 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[104][105] (In 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings.) Yale had featured in the top five for each of the past four years. HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Keyboard

The same ranking also named Yale as the fifth best university in the world for arts and humanities. Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Ranking of World Universities, placed Yale at 11 in 2010. ARWU also ranked Yale 25th in Natural Sciences and Mathematics, 76–100th in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences, 9th in Life and Agriculture Sciences, 21st in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy, and 8th in Social Sciences worldwide.[106]TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Keyboard

The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degreerecipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.[107]APPLE A1278 Keyboard

Yale's English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Keyboard

Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called "Yale School". These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French,J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, ACER Aspire 5810T Keyboard

and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale's history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream ofsouthern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Keyboard

a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale's Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars. SAMSUNG R522 Keyboard

Since summer 2010, Yale has also been host to Yale Publishing Course.

Yale is a medium-sized research university, most of whose students are in the graduate and professional schools. Undergraduates, or Yale College students, come from a variety of ethnic, national, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Of the 2010–2011 freshman class, 10% are non‑U.S. citizens, while 54% went to public high schools.[108] Yale is also an open campus for the gay community.[109][110] HP Mini 210-2006sa Keyboard

Its active LGBT community first received wide publicity in the late 1980s, when Yale obtained a reputation as the "gay Ivy", due largely to a 1987 Wall Street Journal article written by Julie V. Iovine, an alumna and the spouse of a Yale faculty member. During the same year, the University hosted a national conference on gay and lesbian studies and established the Lesbian and Gay Studies Center.[111] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Keyboard

The slogan "One in Four, Maybe More" was coined by the campus gay community. While the community in the 1980s and early 1990s was very activist, today most LGBT events have become part of the general campus social scene.[112] For example, the annual LGBT Co-op Dance attracts straight as well as gay students. HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Keyboard

Residential colleges

Yale has a system of 12 residential colleges, instituted in 1933 through a grant by Yale graduate Edward S. Harkness, who admired the college systems at Oxford and Cambridge. Each college has a Dean, Master, affiliated faculty, and resident Fellows. Each college also features distinctive architecture, secluded courtyards, a commons room, meeting rooms/classrooms, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard

and a dining hall; in addition some have chapels, libraries, squash courts, pool tables, short order dining counters, cafes, or darkrooms. Each college at Yale offers its own seminars, social events, and Master's Teas, and most of them are open to students from other residential colleges. However, Yale remains a unitary university, while Oxford and Cambridge colleges are self-governed charitable institutions in their own right.

All of Yale's 2,000 undergraduate courses are open to members of any college. HP 605344-001 Keyboard

The dominant architecture of the residential colleges is Neo-Gothic, in line with the characteristic architecture of the university. Several colleges have other period architecture, such as Georgian and Federal, and the two most recent (Morse and Ezra Stiles) have modernist concrete exteriors. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard

Students are assigned to a residential college in their freshman year. Only two residential colleges (Silliman and Timothy Dwight) house freshmen. The majority of on-campus freshmen live on the "Old Campus", an extensive quadrangle formed by older buildings. Eac

h residential college has its own dining hall, but students are permitted to eat in any residential college dining hall or the large dining facility called "Commons".HP 640436-001 Keyboard

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Residential colleges are named for important figures or places in university history or notable alumni.

In 1998, Yale launched a series of extensive renovations to the older residential buildings, which in many decades of existence had seen only routine maintenance and incremental improvements to plumbing, heating, and electrical and network wiring. Many of these renovations have now been completed, and among other improvements, renovated colleges feature newly built basement facilities including snack bars called "butteries," game rooms, theaters, athletic facilities, fine arts studios, and music practice rooms. ACER Aspire 5742 Keyboard

In June 2008, President Levin announced that the Yale Corporation had authorized the construction of two new residential colleges, scheduled to open in 2013. The additional colleges, to be built in the northern part of the campus, will allow for expanded admission and a reduction of crowding in the existing residential colleges.[127] Designs have been released, and some public controversy has surfaced over Yale's decision to demolish a number of historic buildings on the site, including a recently constructed library, in order to clear it for the $600 million new structures.[128]Dell Inspiron 2500 Keyboard

The university hosts a variety of student journals, magazines, and newspapers. The latter categories include the Yale Daily News, which was first published in 1878, the weekly Yale Herald, published since 1986, and The Yale Record, which was established in 1872 and is America's oldest college humor magazine. Dwight Hall, an independent, HP G61-445SI Keyboard

non-profit community service organization, oversees more than 2,000 Yale undergraduates working on more than 70 community service initiatives in New Haven. The Yale College Council runs several agencies that oversee campus wide activities and student services. The Yale Dramatic Associationand Bulldog Productions cater to the theater and film communities, respectively. In addition, the Yale Drama Coalition serves to coordinate between and provide resources for the various Sudler Fund sponsored theater productions which run each weekend. DELL 3C048 Keyboard

The Yale Political Union is advised by alumni political leaders such as John Kerry and George Pataki. The Yale International Relations Association functions as the umbrella organization for the top-ranked Model UN team. SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Keyboard

The campus also includes several fraternities and sororities. The campus features at least 18 a cappella groups, the most famous of which is The Whiffenpoofs, who are unusual among college singing groups in being made up solely of senior men. HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Keyboard

Yale's secret societies include Skull and Bones, Scroll and Key, Wolf's Head, Book and Snake, Elihu, Berzelius, St. Elmo, Manuscript, and Mace and Chain. The two oldest existing honor societies are the Aurelian (1910) and the Torch Honor Society (1916).[129]HP Pavilion G60-118EM Keyboard

The Elizabethan Club, a social club, has a membership of undergraduates, graduates, faculty and staff with literary or artistic interests. Membership is by invitation. Members and their guests may enter the "Lizzie's" premises for conversation and tea. The club owns first editions of a Shakespeare Folio, several Shakespeare Quartos, a first edition of Milton's Paradise Lost, among other important literary texts. ACER Aspire 5741Z Keyboard

Yale seniors at graduation smash clay pipes underfoot to symbolize passage from their "bright college years".[130] ("Bright College Years," the University's alma mater, was penned in 1881 by Henry Durand, Class of 1881, to the tune of Die Wacht am Rhein.) Yale's student tour guides tell visitors that students consider it good luck to rub the toe of the statue of Theodore Dwight Woolsey on Old Campus. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard

Actual students rarely do so.[131] In the second half of the twentieth centuryBladderball, a campus-wide game played with a large inflatable ball, became a popular tradition but was banned by administration due to safety concerns. In spite of administration opposition, students revived the game in 2009 and 2011, but its future remains uncertain.[132]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Keyboard

Athletics

Yale supports 35 varsity athletic teams that compete in the Ivy League Conference, the Eastern College Athletic Conference, the New England Intercollegiate Sailing Association. Yale athletic teams compete intercollegiately at the NCAA Division I level. Like other members of the Ivy League, Yale does not offer athletic scholarships. TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Keyboard

Yale has numerous athletic facilities, including the Yale Bowl (the nation's first natural "bowl" stadium, and prototype for such stadiums as the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and the Rose Bowl), located at The Walter Camp Field athletic complex, and the Payne Whitney Gymnasium, the second-largest indoor athletic complex in the world.[133] HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Keyboard

October 21, 2000, marked the dedication of Yale's fourth new boathouse in 157 years of collegiate rowing. The Richard Gilder Boathouse is named to honor former Olympic rower Virginia Gilder '79 and her father Richard Gilder '54, who gave $4 million towards the $7.5 million project. Yale also maintains the Gales Ferry site where the heavyweight men's team trains for the Yale-Harvard Boat Race. HP CT1A Keyboard

Yale crew is the oldest collegiate athletic team in America, and won Olympic Games Gold Medal for men's eights in 1924 and 1956. The Yale Corinthian Yacht Club, founded in 1881, is the oldest collegiate sailing club in the world.

In 1896, Yale and Johns Hopkins played the first known ice hockey game in the United States. Since 2006, the school's ice hockey clubs have played a commemorative game.[134]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Keyboard

For kicks, between 1954 and 1982, residential college teams and student organizations played bladderball.[135]

Yale students claim to have invented Frisbee, by tossing empty Frisbie Pie Company tins.[136][137]

Notable among the songs commonly played and sung at events such as commencement, convocation, alumni gatherings, and athletic games are the alma mater, "Bright College Years", and the Yale fight song, "Down the Field." HP G72-b01SA Keyboard

Two other fight songs, "Bulldog, Bulldog" and "Bingo Eli Yale", written by Cole Porter during his undergraduate days, are still sung at football games. Another fight song sung at games is "Boola Boola". According to “College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology” published in 1998, “Down the Field” ranks as the fourth-greatest fight song of all time.[138]DELL Vostro 3500 Keyboard

Mascot

The school mascot is "Handsome Dan", the known Yale bulldog, and the Yale fight song (written by Cole Porter while he was a student at Yale) contains therefrain, "Bulldog, bulldog, bow wow wow." The school color, since 1894, is Yale Blue.[139] Yale's Handsome Dan is believed to be the first college mascot in America, having been established in 1889.[140]HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Keyboard

Yale athletics are supported by the Yale Precision Marching Band. "Precision" is used here ironically; the band is a scatter-style band that runs wildly between formations rather than actually marching.[141] The band attends every home football game and many away, as well as most hockey and basketball games throughout the winter. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Keyboard

Yale intramural sports are also a significant aspect of student life. Students compete for their respective residential colleges, fostering a friendly rivalry. The year is divided into fall, winter, and spring seasons, each of which includes about ten different sports. About half the sports are coeducational. At the end of the year, the residential college with the most points (not all sports count equally) wins the Tyng Cup. HP G61-450EE Keyboard

Yale has had many financial supporters, but some stand out by the magnitude or timeliness of their contributions. Among those who have made large donations commemorated at the university are: Elihu Yale; Jeremiah Dummer; the Harkness family (Edward, Anna, and William); the Beinecke family (Edwin, Frederick, and Walter); John William Sterling; Payne Whitney; Joseph E. Sheffield, Paul Mellon, Charles B. G. Murphy and William K. Lanman. The Yale Class of 1954, led byRichard Gilder, donated $70 million in commemoration of their 50th reunion.[142]ASUS Z9100L Keyboard

Yale has produced alumni distinguished in their respective fields. Among the best-known are U.S. Presidents William Howard Taft, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush; Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti; Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas; U.S. Secretaries of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; Democratic Presidential nominee John Kerry; authors Sinclair Lewis, Stephen Vincent Benét, and Tom Wolfe; lexicographer Noah Webster; inventors Samuel F. B. Morse and Eli Whitney; HP G42-359TU Keyboard

patriot and "first spy" Nathan Hale; theologian Jonathan Edwards; Academy Award winning actors and directors Paul Newman, Vincent Price, Meryl Streep, Jodie Foster, Frances McDormand, Angela Bassett, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill,Oliver Stone, and Michael Cimino; Head of Rose Bruford College of Theatre and Performance in LondonMichael Earley; ASUS F82Q Keyboard

"Father of American football" Walter Camp; composers Charles Ives and Cole Porter; Peace Corps founder Sargent Shriver; child psychologist Benjamin Spock; sculptor Richard Serra; film criticGene Siskel; television commentators Dick Cavett and Anderson Cooper; pundits William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria; Time Magazine co-founder Henry Luce; President of Mexico Ernesto Zedillo; HP 550 Keyboard

President of the Federal Republic of Germany Karl Carstens; Philippines President José Paciano Laurel; Nobel Laureate in Economics and popular book author Paul Krugman; inventor of the cyclotron and Nobel Laureate in Physics, Ernest Lawrence; director of the Human Genome Project, Francis S. Collins; economist Irving Fischer, "The Father of Monetarism"; HP Mini 110-3118cl Keyboard

mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; Morgan Stanleyfounder Harold Stanley; Boeing CEO James McNerney; FedEx founder Frederick W. Smith; Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller; Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes; Electronic Arts co-founder Bing Gordon; architects Eero Saarinen and Norman Foster. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Keyboard

Yale University, one of the oldest universities in the United States, is a cultural referent as an institution that produces some of the most elite members of society[143] and its grounds, alumni, and students have been prominently portrayed in fiction and U.S. popular culture. For example, Owen Johnson's novel, Stover at Yale, follows the college career of Dink Stover[144] DELL TR334 Keyboard

and Frank Merriwell, the model for all later juvenile sports fiction, plays football, baseball, crew, and track at Yale while solving mysteries and righting wrongs.[145][146] Yale University was also mentioned in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby". Nick Carraway and Tom Buchanan have both graduated from New Haven. The narrator (the former) has written a series of editorials for the Yale News and the following has been "one of the most powerful ends that ever played football at New Haven".SONY 148084122 Keyboard

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