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of the population are Christians. It has one of the largest percentage of Seventh-day Adventist per head in the world, about 1 in 18 Zambians.[31] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 laptop keyboard

Other religious bodies include The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. Approximately 1% of the population are Muslims with most living in urban areas.[32] There is also a small Jewish community, composed mostly ofAshkenazis. Notable Jewish Zambians include Simon Zukas, retired Minister,  HP Envy 15-1050nr laptop keyboard

MP and a member of Forum for Democracy and Development and earlier on the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) and United National Independence Party. Additionally, the economist Stanley Fischer, currently the governor of the Bank of Israel and formerly Deputy managing director of theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) was born and partially raised in Zambia's Jewish community. TOSHIBA A000014900 laptop keyboard

The Baha'i population of Zambia is over 160,000,[33] or 1.5% of the population. The William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation[34] run by the Baha'i community is particularly active in areas such as literacy and primary health care.  TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6843 Laptop Keyboard

78%[36] and urban rates of 53%.[37] Zambia ranked 117th out of 128 countries on the 2007 Global Competitiveness Index, which looks at factors that affect economic growth.[38] Social indicators continue to decline, TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

particularly in measurements of life expectancy at birth (about 40.9 years) and maternal mortality (830 per 100,000 pregnancies).[39] The country's rate of economic growth cannot support rapid population growth or the strain which HIV/AIDS-related issues place on the economy.  DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

Zambia fell into poverty after international copper prices declined in the 1970s. The socialist regime made up for falling revenue with several abortive attempts at International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programmes (SAPs). The policy of not trading through the main supply route and line of rail to the sea - the territory controlled as Rhodesia (from 1965 to 1979)now known as Zimbabwe - cost the economy greatly. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

After the Kaunda regime, (from 1991) successive governments began limited reforms. The economy stagnated until the late 1990s. In 2007 Zambia recorded its ninth consecutive year of economic growth. Inflation was 8.9%, down from 30% in 2000.[40] HP G62-244CA Laptop Keyboard

Zambia is still dealing with economic reform issues such as the size of the public sector and improving Zambia's social sector delivery systems.[40] Economic regulations and red tape are extensive, and corruption is widespread. Zambia's total foreign debt exceeded $6 billion when the country qualified for Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative (HIPC) debt relief in 2000, contingent upon meeting certain performance criteria. Initially, Zambia hoped to reach the HIPC completion point, and benefit from substantial debt forgiveness, in late 2003. HP AEAX8U00010 Laptop Keyboard

In January 2003, the Zambian government informed the International Monetary Fund and World Bank that it wished to renegotiate some of the agreed performance criteria calling for privatisation of the Zambia National Commercial Bank and the national telephone and electricity utilities. Although agreements were reached on these issues, subsequent overspending on civil service wages delayed Zambia's final HIPC debt forgiveness from late 2003 to early 2005, HP Pavilion dv4-1242tx Laptop Keyboard

at the earliest. In an effort to reach HIPC completion in 2004, the government drafted an austerity budget for 2004, freezing civil service salaries and increasing a number of taxes. The tax hike and public sector wage freeze prohibited salary increases and new hires. This sparked a nationwide strike in February 2004.[41] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper mining industry. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000 metric tons in 1998, after a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, low copper prices, and uncertainty over privatisation. In 2002, following privatisation of the industry, copper production rebounded to 337,000 metric tons. Improvements in the world copper market have magnified the effect of this volume increase on revenues and foreign exchange earnings. HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Zambian government is pursuing an economic diversification program to reduce the economy's reliance on the copper industry. This initiative seeks to exploit other components of Zambia's rich resource base by promoting agriculture, tourism, gemstone mining, and hydro-power. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

Agriculture plays a very important part in Zambia's economy providing many more jobs than the mining industry. Private local company Zambeef Products Ltd. is the leading agri-business in Zambia with over 4.000 employees, producing row crops (5.000 ha irrigated, 1.500 ha non-irrigated), cattle (Zambeef),  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

pork (Master Pork), chicken (ZamChick), eggs (ZamChick Egg), dairy products, leather, fish, feedstock (Novatek) and edible oil (Zamanita). Zambeef operates eight abattoirs, four farms and numerous retail stores (also in co-operation with Shoprite) and a fast-food chain (ZamChick Inn) throughout the country. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

In 2003, exports of nonmetals increased by 25% and accounted for 38% of all export earnings, previously 35%. The Zambian government has recently been granting licenses to international resource companies to prospect for minerals such as nickel, tin, copper and uranium.[42] It is hoped that nickel will take over from copper as the country's top metallic export. In 2009, Zambia has been badly hit by the world economic crisis.[43] HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Zambia is co-hosting the UNWTO 2013 General Assembly from 24 to 29 August 2013 and is using the event to show its suitability for tourism and the Meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions industry. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

Zambia officially has extensive social protection targeted at low-capacity households, including social assistance (protection) and social insurance programmes (prevention), and programmes to improve economic productivity (promotion). However, these programmes face immense challenges and the actual coverage is very low and, in some cases, actually declining.[45] Some analysts describe the programmes' coverage as patchy and transitory and not especially coherent or logical.[45] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

Public works, such as PUSH, and cash transfers are the main instruments used to protect consumption among low-capacity households by providing (1) seasonal safety nets to address cyclical poverty and vulnerability at times of need by offering employment and (2) community assets that are beneficial for productive activities.[45]  TOSHIBA Satellite L300-13R laptop keyboard

In practice, however, the programme prioritises food transfers to areas affected by natural disasters where vulnerability is acute and infrastructure development has remained a secondary objective.[45] NGOs also have implemented short-term public works programmes implemented by NGOs, such as CARE's agricultural inputs-for-assets (AICA) programme.[45] HP Pavilion DV7-2043cl laptop keyboard

Social insurance initiatives, such as micro-insurance, health insurance and other contributory schemes exist, but these are very limited in their membership. Formal sector workers are protected by well-resourced pension, sickness and disability benefits, but most low-capacity households, especially in rural areas, work outside the formal sector.[45] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-218EM laptop keyboard

The emphasis on protection of the expense of prevention and promotion means that households move out of poverty only very slowly because they are unable to invest in activities that have greater returns. They remain highly at risk of sliding back into poverty and applying negative coping strategies.[45] A balance between protection, prevention and promotion, however can only be achieved through more and consistent resources.[45] Further improvements might also includeHP AEAX8U00010 laptop keyboard

Both government and private schools exist in Zambia. The private school system began largely as a result of Christian mission efforts during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Education is provided at two levels: basic education (years 1 to 9), and upper secondary (years 10 to 12). Some schools provide a "basic" education covering years 1 to 9, as year 9 is considered to be a decent level of education for the majority of children. Compaq Presario CQ71-412SZ laptop keyboard

However, tuition is only free up to year 7, and UNESCO estimated that 80% of children of primary school age in 2002 were enrolled.[47] In 2003, the adult literacy rate was estimated to be 80.6% (86.8% male and 74.8% female).[48] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5366 laptop keyboard

Educational opportunities beyond secondary school are limited in Zambia. After secondary school, most students study at the various colleges, around the country. There are three main universities: the University of Zambia (UNZA), Compaq Presario CQ42-231AX laptop keyboard

Mulungushi University (MU) and the Copperbelt University (CBU). Normally they all select students on the basis of ability; competition for places is intense. The introduction of fees in the late 1990s has made university level education inaccessible for some, although the government does provide state bursaries.  HP Pavilion dv4-1145go laptop keyboard

Copperbelt University opened in the late 1980s, taking over most of the former Zambia Institute of Technology site in Kitwe. Other centres of education include the Public Administration College (NIPA), the Northern Technical College (NORTEC), SONY VGN-FE780G laptop keyboard

the National Resources Development College (NRDC), the Evelyn Hone College, and Northrise University. There are also several teacher training colleges offering two-year training programmes, whilst missionary hospitals around the country offer internationally acceptable training for nurses. Several Christian schools offer seminary-level training. FUJITSU Siemens M1010 laptop keyboard

The nonprofit organisation Mobility International in association with the Children in Need Network has begun a campaign to remove barriers between disabled Zambians and access to education, seeking to change public opinion as well as policy in Zambia create equal access to education for the disabled community.[49] SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E laptop keyboard

Zambia faces a generalised HIV epidemic, with an estimated prevalence rate of 13.5% among adults (ages 15–49) in 2009.[50] However, HIV incidence in Zambia has declined by more than 25% from 2001 to 2010, an indication that the epidemic appears to be declining.[51] TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

In 2010, public expenditure on health was 3.4% of GDP, among the lowest in southern Africa.[52] Infant mortality was at 102 per 1,000 in 2005. As of 2011, the life expectancy in Zambia was 43 years, up from 37 in previous years.[53]  SONY VAIO VGN-N110G laptop keyboard

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zambia is 470. This is compared with 602.9 in 2008 and 594.2 in 1990. The under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 145 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 25.  LENOVO 25-011427 laptop keyboard

The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal death. In Zambia the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 5 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 38. [54] DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

The culture of Zambia is mainly indigenous Bantu culture mixed with European influences. Prior to the establishment of modern Zambia, the natives lived in independent tribes, each with their own ways of life. One of the results of the colonial era was the growth of urbanisation. Different ethnic groups started living together in towns and cities, influencing each other as well as adopting a lot of the European culture. SONY VAIO VGN-CR Laptop Keyboard

The original cultures have largely survived in the rural areas. In the urban setting there is a continuous integration and evolution of these cultures to produce what is now called "Zambian culture".SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard

Traditional culture is very visible through colourful annual Zambian traditional ceremonies. Some of the more prominent are: Kuomboka and Kathanga (Western Province), Mutomboko (Luapula Province), Ncwala(Eastern Province), Lwiindi and Shimunenga (Southern Province), Lunda Lubanza (North Western), Likumbi Lyamize (North Western), Chibwela Kumushi (Central Province), Ukusefya Pa Ng’wena (Northern Province). SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

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Popular traditional arts are mainly in pottery, basketry (such as Tonga baskets), stools, fabrics, mats, wooden carvings, ivory carvings, wire craft and copper crafts. Most Zambian traditional music is based on drums (and other percussion instruments) with a lot of singing and dancing. In the urban areas foreign genres of music are popular, in particular Congolese rumba, African-American music and Jamaican reggae. SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

Several psychedelic rock artists emerged in the 1970s to create a genre known as Zam-rock, including WITCH, Musi-O-Tunya, Rikki Ililonga, Amanaz, the Peace, Chrissy Zebby Tembo, Blackfoot, and the Ngozi Family.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

The Zambian staple diet is based on maize. It is normally eaten as a thick porridge, called nshima (Nyanja Word), prepared from maize flour, commonly known as mealie meal. This may be eaten with a variety of vegetables, beans, meat, fish or sour milk depending on geographical location/origin. SONY VAIO VGN-AR670 laptop keyboard

country ever to have entered an Olympic games as one country, and left it as another. Zambia took part in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 laptop keyboard

Football is the most popular sport in Zambia, and the Zambia national football team has had its triumphant moments in football history. At the Seoul Olympics of 1988, the national team defeated the Italian national team by a score of 4–0.Kalusha Bwalya,  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

Zambia's most celebrated football player and one of Africa's greatest football players in history had a hat trick in that match. However, to this day, many pundits say the greatest team Zambia has ever assembled was the one that perished on 28 April 1993 in a plane crash at Libreville, Gabon. Despite this,  HP Pavilion dv6-2110sm laptop keyboard

in 1996, Zambia was ranked 15th on the official FIFA World Football Team rankings, the highest attained by any southern African team. In 2012 Zambia won the African Cup of Nations for the first time after losing in the final twice. They beat Côte d'Ivoire 8–7 in a penalty shoot-out in the final, which was played in Libreville, just a few miles away from the plane crash 19 years previously.[55]  IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard

Rugby union, boxing and cricket are also popular sports in Zambia. Notably, at one point in the early 2000s, the Australia and South Africa national rugby teams were captained by players born in the same Lusaka hospital, George Gregan and Corné Krige. Zambia boasts having the highest rugby poles in the world, located atLuanshya Sports Complex in Luanshya.[citation needed] Rugby union in Zambia is a minor but growing sport. IBM Thinkpad Z60t laptop keyboard

They are currently ranked 73rd by the IRB and have 3,650 registered players and three formally organised clubs.[56] Zambia used to play cricket as part of Rhodesia. Zambia has also strangely provided a shintyinternational, Zambian-born Eddie Tembo representing Scotland in the compromise rules Shinty/Hurling game against Ireland in 2008.[57] IBM Thinkpad Z61m laptop keyboard

In 2011, Zambia was due to host the tenth All-Africa Games, for which three stadiums were to be built in Lusaka, Ndola, and Livingstone.[58] The Lusaka stadium would have a capacity of 70,000 spectators while the other two stadiums would hold 50,000 people each. The government was encouraging the private sector to get involved in the construction of the sports facilities because of a shortage of public funds for the project. HP Pavilion DV6-1130ei laptop keyboard

Zambia has since revoked its bid to host the 2011 All-Africa Games, citing a lack of funds. Hence, Mozambique took Zambia's place as host. HP G62-b88SS laptop keyboard

Zambia also produced the first African American African (Madalitso Muthiya) to play in the United States Golf Open, one of the four major golf tournaments.

Africa is named for the Afri people who settled in the area of current-day Tunisia. The Africa Province of the Roman Empirespanned the Mediterranean coast of what is now Libya, Tunisia and Algeria. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

The parts of North Africa north of the Sahara were well known in antiquity. Prior to the 2nd century BC, however, Greek geographers were unaware that the land mass then known as Libyaexpanded south of the Sahara, assuming that the desert bounded on the outer Ocean. Indeed,  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Alexander the Great, according toPlutarchus' Lives, considered sailing from the mouths of the Indus back to Macedonia passing south of Africa as a shortcut compared to the land route. Even Eratosthenes around 200 BC still assumed an extent of the landmass no further south than the Horn of Africa. It was only in Ptolemy's world map (2nd century AD) that the realization that the southward extent of Africa was not in fact known at the time was made explicit. HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard

As for early exploration of Sub-Saharan Africa, the ancient Greek historian Herodotus [1] describes how the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II sent out an expedition manned by Phoenician sailors about 600 BC which in three years circumnavigated Africa. They sailed south, rounded the Cape heading west, made their way north to the Mediterranean and then returned home. He states that they paused each year to sow and harvest grain. SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

They reported that as they sailed around the southern end of the continent they had the sun to their north, which Herodotus found unbelievable. The Egyptologist Alan Lloyd suggests that the Greeks at this time understood that anyone going south far enough and then turning west would have the sun on their right but found it unbelievable that Africa reached so far south. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

He suggests that "It is extremely unlikely that an Egyptian king would, or could, have acted as Necho is depicted as doing" and that the story might have been triggered by the failure of Sataspes attempt to circumnavigate Africa under Xerxes the Great.[2] SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

Carthage itself conducted exploration of West Africa. Donald Harden [3] describes the journey of Hanno the Navigator which Harden dates to c. 425 BC and even quotes in translation the surviving Greek account (about two pages long) of this expedition. There is some uncertainty as to how far precisely Hanno reached, "Some taking Hanno to the Cameroons, or even Gabon, while others say he stopped at Sierre Leone.".[4] DELL 0RT129 laptop keyboard

In 146 BC the Romans had conquered the African coasts, part of Numidia and Mauretania and started to explore that land. It was later subdivided into Mauretania Tingitana, Mauretania Caesariensis, Numidia, and Africa Proconsularis also known as Vetus or Africa Nova. They remained a part of Roman Empire until the 5th century AD. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

With the expansion of Islam in the Middle Ages, North Africa was culturally cut off from non-Muslim Europe. The Islamic Empire created a barrier between Europe and the rest of the world, with European traders paying heavy tributes to obtain prized commodities like West African gold, East Asian spices and silk. The Italian republics of Venice and Genoa, among others, specialized in this trade. SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard

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