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24 juin 2013 1 24 /06 /juin /2013 09:33

Zimbabwe (/zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ/ zim-BAHB-way), officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located insouthern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. The capital is Harare.  Packard Bell NEW90 laptop keyboard

Zimbabwe achieved de juresovereignty from the United Kingdom in April 1980, following 14 years as an unrecognised state under the conservativewhite minority government of Rhodesia, which unilaterally declared independence in 1965. FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

Zimbabwe has 16 official languages.[3] English, Shona and Ndebele are the most widely spoken languages. The present territory was first demarcated by Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company, becoming a self-governing colony as Southern Rhodesia in 1923. President Robert Mugabe is head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces;Morgan Tsvangirai is the serving Prime Minister. Packard Bell Easynote TM81 laptop keyboard

Renowned as a champion for the anti-colonial cause,[9] Mugabe is also viewed as an authoritarian[10][11] responsible for Zimbabwe's mediocre human rights record[12] and substantial economic decline.[13] He has held power since internationally recognised independence in 1980: as head of government since 1980 and head of state since 1987.[9] SONY VAIO VGN-N21Z laptop keyboard

The name "Zimbabwe" is based on a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. There are two theories on the origin of the word. Various sources hold that the word is derived from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "large houses of stone" (dzimba = plural of imba, "house"; mabwe = plural of bwe, "stone").SONY VAIO VGN-NW25E/B laptop keyboard

 [14][15][16] The Karanga-speaking Shona people are found around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" is a contracted form of dzimba-hwe which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona, and is usually applied to chiefs' houses or graves.[17] SONY VAIO VGN-NW200 laptop keyboard

Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia (1923), Rhodesia (1965), and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979). The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference was in 1960, when it was coined by the black nationalist Michael Mawema,[18] whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially use the name in 1961.[19] ACER Extensa 2600 laptop keyboard

The term Rhodesia—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of white colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations.[18]According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, and the names Machobana and Monomotapa were proposed before his suggestion, Zimbabwe, prevailed.[20] SONY VAIO VGN-CS21Z/Q laptop keyboard

A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south ofBulawayo.[19]

It was initially not clear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland"[19]—but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement.[18] SONY 147996611 laptop keyboard

In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that the name was mentioned by Mawema during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and that was that".[18] The name was subsequently used by the black nationalist factions during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War. The most major of these were the Zimbabwe African National Union (led by Robert Mugabe from 1975),  Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

and the Zimbabwe African People's Union, led by Joshua Nkomo from its founding in the early 1960s.

Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in southern Africa, lying between latitudes 15° and 23°S, and longitudes 25° and 34°E. Most of the country is elevated in the central plateau (high veld) stretching from the southwest to the northwest at altitudes between 1,200 and 1,600 m. The country's east is mountainous withMount Nyangani as the highest point at 2,592 m. About 20% of the country consists of the low veld under 900m. HP Pavilion dm1-1002tu laptop keyboard

Victoria Falls, one of the world's biggest and most spectacular waterfalls, is located in the country's northwest as part of the Zambezi river. The country has a tropical climate with a rainy season usually from late October to March. The climate is moderated by the altitude. Zimbabwe is faced with recurring droughts; and severe storms are rare.[21] SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

Large parts of Zimbabwe were covered by forests with an abundant wildlife. Poverty, population growth and lack of fuel have led to extensive deforestation, which, along with poaching, has reduced the wildlife. Deforestation and woodland degradation are a major concern[22] and have led to erosion and land degradation which diminish the amount of fertile soil. Zimbabwe is a country that relies mostly on hydroelectric power. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Zimbabwe had once relied heavily on electricity from Mozambique and other neighbouring countries, but due to the accumulation of debt Mozambique has cut off power supply to Zimbabwe. This has caused ZESA, Zimbabwe's main electricity supplier, to begin excessive load shedding all over Zimbabwe with some urban areas only having electricity three days a week. SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

Thus the amount of deforestation has increased as the population in urban areas has also started using firewood for fuel whereas before it was mainly the rural population due to lack of electricity in the rural areas. Despite all this, Zimbabwe's climate, along with Malta's, has been ranked highly on the index for the best climate to live in by some prestigious organisations

Proto-Shona speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands. DELL 0RT129 laptop keyboard

The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning in ca. the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwein the 11th century. This was the precursor to the more impressive Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwe, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

near Masvingo, and other smaller sites. The main archaeological site is a unique dry stone architecture.

The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory and copper for cloth and glass.[23] SONY VAIO VGN-FS830 laptop keyboard

From about 1300 until 1600, Mapungubwe was eclipsed by the Kingdom of Zimbabwe. This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe. From c. 1450–1760, Zimbabwe gave way to the Kingdom of Mutapa. SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

This Shona state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today, and parts of central Mozambique. It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa," and was renowned for its stategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal. Eventually, however, the Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.[23]  HP Pavilion dv5-1235et laptop keyboard

As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior, a new Shona state emerged, known as the Rozwi Empire. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozvi (which means "destroyers") expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau by force of arms. They continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard

Around 1821, the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled from King Shaka and created his own clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaal, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. WhenDutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal in 1836, they drove the tribe even further northward. By 1838, SONY Vaio PCG-K315S Laptop Keyboard

the Rozwi Empire, along with the other petty Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom.[9]

After losing their remaining South African lands in 1840, Mzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabeleland, establishing Bulawayo as their capital. DELL M711P Laptop Keyboard

Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraals, similar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions. Mzilikazi died in 1868 and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son,Lobengula. DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard

In the 1880s, white colonists arrived with Cecil Rhodes's British South Africa Company (BSAC).[24] In 1888, Rhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples.[25] He presented this concession to persuade the government of the United Kingdom to grant a royal charter to the company over Matabeleland, and its subject states such asMashonaland as well.[26] SONY VAIO VGN-CR Laptop Keyboard

Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the Pioneer Column, a group of Europeans protected by well-armed British South Africa Police (BSAP) through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury (now Harare), and thereby establish company rule over the area. In 1893 and 1894, with the help of their new Maxim guns, the BSAP would go on to defeat the Ndebele in the First Matabele War. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyika, then known as "Zambesia".[26]

In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties,[26] mass settlement was encouraged, with the British maintaining control over labour as well as precious metals and other mineral resources.[27] SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F laptop keyboard

In 1895 the BSAC adopted the name "Rhodesia" for the territory, in honour of Rhodes. In 1898 "Southern Rhodesia" became the official denotation for the region south of the Zambezi,[28] which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately and later termedNorthern Rhodesia (now Zambia). SONY VAIO VGN-CR32L laptop keyboard

Shortly after Rhodes' disastrous Jameson Raid on the South African Republic, the Ndebele rebelled against their white rulers, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo. The Second Matabele War lasted until 1897, when Mlimo was murdered. Shona agitators also staged unsuccessful revolts (known as Chimurenga) against company rule during 1896 and 1897.[29] Following these failed insurrections, the Ndebele and Shona groups were finally subdued by the Rhodes administration, which organised the land with a disproportionate bias favouring Europeans, thus displacing many indigenous peoples.  SONY VAIO VGN-FS215Z laptop keyboard

Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British colony in October 1923, subsequent to a 1922 referendum. Rhodesians served on behalf of the United Kingdom during World War II, mainly in the East African Campaign against Axis forces in Italian East Africa. Proportional to the white population, Southern Rhodesia contributed more per capita to both the First and Second World Wars than any other part of the Empire, including Britain itself.[30] TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard

In 1953, in the face of African opposition,[31] Britain consolidated the two Rhodesias with Nyasaland (Malawi) in the ill-fated Central African Federation, which was essentially dominated by Southern Rhodesia. Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union in 1963, forming three separate divisions. While multiracial democracy was finally introduced to Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, however, Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority rule. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5277 laptop keyboard

With Zambian independence, Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front (RF) dropped the designation "Southern" in 1964 and issued aUnilateral Declaration of Independence (commonly abbreviated to "UDI") from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, intent on effectively repudiating the recently adopted British policy of "no independence before majority rule". It was the first such course taken by a British colony since the American declarationof 1776, which Smith and others indeed claimed provided a suitable precedent to their own actions.[30] TOSHIBA Satellite L300D-242 laptop keyboard

After UDI, the British government petitioned the United Nations for sanctions against Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with the Smith government in 1966 and 1968. In December 1966, the organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state.[32] These sanctions were expanded again in 1968.[32]  TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S89041 laptop keyboard

The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force. Aguerilla war subsequently ensued when Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), supported actively by neighbouring African nations, initiated guerilla operations against the white government. HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard

Ian Smith's formation of a republic in 1970 was recognised only by South Africa,[33][34] then governed under apartheid.[35][36]Meanwhile, Rhodesia's internal conflict intensified, eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the militant nationalists.  HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

In March 1978, Smith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, who offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy. As a result of theInternal Settlement, elections were held in April 1979, concluding with the United African National Council (UANC) carrying a majority of parliamentary seats. On 1 June 1979, SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

Muzorewa, the UANC head, became prime minister and the country's name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The internal settlement left control of the police, security forces, civil service andjudiciary in settler hands. It also reserved one-third of the seats in parliament for whites.[37] On 12 June, the United States Senate voted to lift economic pressure on the former Rhodesia. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Following the fifth Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), held in Lusaka, Zambia from 1 to 7 August in 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa, Mugabe, and Nkomo to participate in a constitutional conference at Lancaster House. The purpose of the conference was to discuss and reach an agreement on the terms of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence.[38] ACER Extensa 5635Z laptop keyboard

With Lord Carrington, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were mounted from 10 September to 15 December in 1979, producing a total of 47 plenary sessions.[38] On 21 December 1979, delegations from every major interest represented reached the Lancaster House Agreement, effectively ending the guerilla war.[39] SONY VAIO VGN-FS285H laptop keyboard

Britain's Lord Soames was appointed governor to oversee the disarming of revolutionary fighters, the holding of elections and the granting of independence to an uneasy coalition government with Joshua Nkomo presiding. During the elections of February 1980, Robert Mugabe and his ZANU secured a landslide victory.[40]

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In November 1980 Enos Nkala made some inflammatory remarks directed at Mugabe's party during a rally near Bulawayo. This, unfortunately, was later deemed to have caused the first Entumbane uprising, which resulted in clashes between Nkomo and Mugabe supporters.[41]

In February 1981, there was a second uprising, which swiftly spread to Glenville and also to Connemara in the Midlands. White police reservists and former Rhodesian security troops were deployed to restore order, which they only accomplished after three hundred lives had been lost.[9] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The Matabele unrest led to what has become known as 'Gukurahundi' (Shona: "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains"[42]) or the Matabeleland Massacres, which lasted from 1982 until 1985. Mugabe ordered his North Korean-trained Fifth Brigade to occupy Matabeleland, crushing any resistance to his rule.  HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca laptop keyboard

 It has been estimated that at least 20,000 Matabele were murdered and tens of thousands of others were tortured in military internment camps.[43]The slaughter only ended after Nkomo and Mugabe reached a unity agreement in 1988 that merged their respective parties, creating the Zimbabwe African Union-Patriotic Front.[44][45]  HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Zimbabwean elections in March 1990 resulted in another victory for Mugabe and his party, which claimed 117 of the 120 contested seats. Observers estimated voter turnout at only 54% and found the campaign to be "neither free nor fair".[46][47] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-117TU Laptop Keyboard

During the 1990s, students, trade unionists, and workers often demonstrated to express their growing discontent with increasingly despotic Mugabe rule. Students protested in 1990 against proposals for an increase in government control of universities and again in 1991 and 1992, clashing with law enforcement. The unions also criticised the government during this time. In 1992, national police prevented workers from staging anti-regime demonstrations. Widespread industrial unrest which continued into 1994, HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

however, weakened Zimbabwe's sagging economy. In 1996, civil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues.[48][49] The general health of the civilian population also began to significantly founder. By 1997 an estimated 25% of the population of Zimbabwe had been infected by HIV.[50] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-132TU Laptop Keyboard

Economic difficulties and hyperinflation (1999–2008)

Land issues, which the liberation movement had promised to solve, re-emerged as the main issue for the ruling party around 1997. Despite majority rule and the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the 1980s, white Zimbabweans continued to hold about 70% of the most arable land.[51]Robert Mugabe began to forcibly redistribute this land to his associates in 2000. The legality and constitutionality of the process has regularly been challenged in the Zimbabwean High and Supreme Courts. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard

While it is widely acknowledged that the land upheaval brought about much destruction, joblessness, hunger, and political violence, some 58,000 independent black farmers have since experienced limited success in reviving the gutted cash crop sectors through efforts on a smaller scale. Advocates of the ruling party have used this pretext to indicate that some measure of racial equality was achieved despite chaotic circumstances, claiming that black citizens must "come first" in Zimbabwe.[52] SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard

Mandatory confiscation of white farmland was affected by continuous droughts, as well as a serious lacking in inputs and finance, leading to a sharp decline in agricultural exports, which was traditionally the country's leading export-producing sector.[53] As a result, Zimbabwe experienced a severe hard-currency shortage that led to hyperinflation and chronic shortages in imported fuel and consumer goods. ACER Aspire 5810T-8929 Laptop Keyboard

Charged with committing numerous human rights abuses and running the economy of his own nation into the ground, Mugabe found himself beset with a wide range of sanctions[54][55][56] imposed by the US government and European Union against his person and Zimbabwe at large.

In 2002, the nation was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations due to the reckless farm seizures and blatant election tampering.[57] The following year, Zimbabwean officials voluntarily terminated its Commonwealth membership.[58] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Following fraudulent elections in 2005, the government initiated "Operation Murambatsvina", an effort to crack down on illegal markets and slums emerging in towns and cities. This action has been widely condemned by opposition and international figures, who attest to the fact that it has left a substantial section of urban poor homeless.[59] The Zimbabwean government has described the operation as an attempt to provide decent housing to the population, although authorities have yet to properly substantiate their claims.[60]  HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Laptop Keyboard

Zimbabwe's economic and food crisis, described by some observers as the country's worst humanitarian crisis since independence, has been attributed in varying degrees to the government's price controls and farm confiscations, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and a drought affecting the entire region.[61] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

Life expectancy at birth for males in Zimbabwe dramatically declined since 1990 from 60 to 42 years, among the lowest in the world. The amount of time a Zimbabwean citizen was expected to live in good health from birth was 39 years in 2010.[62] Concurrently, the infant mortality rate has climbed from 53 to 81 deaths per 1,000 live births in the same period. As of 2009, 1.2 million Zimbabweans live with HIV.[63]

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The three major candidates were Robert Mugabe, Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC-T), andSimba Makoni, an independent. The results of this election were withheld for two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the MDC had achieved a majority of one seat in the lower house of parliament. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard

In late 2008, problems in Zimbabwe reached crisis proportions in the areas of living standards, public health (with a major cholera outbreak in December) and various basic affairs.[64] Mugabe's mining of diamonds at Marangein Chiadzwa became the subject of international attention as the World Diamond Council called for a clampdown on smuggling[65] and illegal miners were reported killed by the military.[66] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

2008–present

In September 2008, a power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime minister. Due to ministerial differences between their respective political parties, the agreement was not fully implemented until 13 February 2009. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

In November 2010, the IMF described the Zimbabwean economy as "completing its second year of buoyant economic growth after a decade of economic decline", briefly citing "strengthening policies" and "favorable shocks" as main reasons for the economic growth.[67] By December, however, Mugabe was threatening to completely expropriate remaining privately owned companies in Zimbabwe unless "western sanctions" HP Mini 1001TU Laptop Keyboard

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