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The history of draining and development of the Everglades dates back to the 19th century. During the Second Seminole Warbeginning in 1836, the United States military's mission was to seek out Seminole people in the Everglades and capture or kill them. Those missions gave the military the opportunity to map land that seemed to frustrate and confound them at every turn.French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

A national push for expansion and progress toward the latter part of the 19th century stimulated interest in draining theEverglades for agricultural use. According to historians, "From the middle of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century, the United States went through a period in which wetland removal was not questioned. Indeed, it was considered the proper thing to do."[1] French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

A pattern of political and financial motivation, and a lack of understanding of the geography and ecology of the Everglades have plagued the history of drainage projects. The Everglades are a part of a massive watershed that originates near Orlando and drains into Lake Okeechobee, a vast and shallow lake. SONY VAIO PCG-81111V battery

As the lake exceeds its capacity in the wet season, the water forms a flat and very wide river, about 100 miles (160 km) long and 60 miles (97 km) wide. As the land from Lake Okeechobee slopes gradually to Florida Bay, water flows at a rate of half a mile (0.8 km) a day. Before human activity in the Everglades, the system comprised the lower third of the Florida peninsula. SONY VAIO PCG-81211V battery

The first attempt to drain the region was made by real estate developerHamilton Disston in 1881. Disston's sponsored canals were unsuccessful, but the land he purchased for them stimulated economic and population growth that attracted railway developer Henry Flagler. Flagler built a railroad along the east coast of Florida and eventually to Key West; towns grew and farmland was cultivated along the rail line. SONY VAIO PCG-51111V battery

During his 1904 campaign to be elected governor, Napoleon Bonaparte Broward promised to drain the Everglades, and his later projects were more effective than Disston's. Broward's promises sparked a land boom facilitated by blatant errors in an engineer's report, pressure from real estate developers, and the burgeoning tourist industry throughout south Florida. SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery

The increased population brought hunters who went unchecked and had a devastating impact on the numbers of wading birds (hunted for their plumes), alligators, and other Everglades animals.

Severe hurricanes in 1926 and 1928 caused catastrophic damage and flooding from Lake Okeechobee that prompted the Army Corps of Engineers to build a dike around the lake. SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery

Further floods in 1947 prompted an unprecedented construction of canals throughout southern Florida. Following another population boom after World War II, and the creation of the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, the Everglades was divided into sections separated by canals and water control devices that delivered water to agricultural and newly developed urban areas. SONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery

However, in the late 1960s, following a proposal to construct a massiveairport next to Everglades National Park, national attention turned from developing the land to restoring the Everglades.

American involvement in the Everglades began during the Second Seminole War (1836–42), a costly and very unpopular conflict.SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery

The United States spent between $30 million and $40 million and lost between 1,500 and 3,000 lives.

The U.S. military drove the Seminoles into the Everglades and were charged with the task of finding them, defeating them, and moving them to Oklahoma Indian territory. Almost 4,000 Seminoles were killed in the war or were removed.[2][3] SONY PCG-7134M battery

The U.S. military was completely unprepared for the conditions they found in the Everglades. They tore their clothes on sawgrass, ruined their boots on the uneven limestone floor, and were plagued by mosquitoes. Soldiers' legs, feet, and arms were cut open on the sawgrass and gangrene infection set in, taking many lives and limbs. Many died of mosquito-borne illness. SONY PCG-7131M battery

After slogging through mud, one private died in his tracks of exhaustion in 1842.[3] General Thomas Jesup admitted the military was overwhelmed by the terrain when he wrote to the Secretary of War in 1838, trying to dissuade him from prolonging the war.[3]

Opinion about the value of Florida to the Union was mixed: some thought it a useless land of swamps and horrible animals, while others thought it a gift from God for national prosperity.[4] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery

In 1838 comments in The Army and Navy Chronicle supported future development of southern Florida:

The] climate [is] most delightful; but, from want of actual observation, [it] could not speak so confidently of the soil, although, from the appearance of the surrounding vegetation, a portion of it, at least, must be rich. Whenever the aborigines shall be forced from their fastnesses, as eventually they must be, Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery

the enterprising spirit of our countrymen will very soon discover the sections best adapted to cultivation, and the now barren or unproductive everglades will be made to blossom like a garden. It is the general impression that these everglades are uninhabitable during the summer months, by reason of their being overflowed by the abundant rains of the season; Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery

but if it should prove that these inundations are caused or increased by obstructions to the natural courses of the rivers, as outlets to the numerous lakes, American industry will remove these obstructions.

The military penetration of southern Florida offered the opportunity to map a poorly understood part of the country. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery

As late as 1823, official reports doubted the existence of a large inland lake, until the military met the Seminoles at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee in 1837.[6] To avenge repeated surprise attacks on himself and ammunition stores, Colonel William Harney led an expedition into the Everglades in 1840, to hunt for a chief named Chekika. With Harney were 90 soldiers in 16 canoes. Sony VAIO PCG-5N1M battery

One soldier's account of the trip in theSt. Augustine News was the first printed description of the Everglades available to the general public. The anonymous writer described the hunt for Chekika and the terrain they were crossing: "No country that I have ever heard of bears any resemblance to it; it seems like a vast sea filled with grass and green trees, and expressly intended as a retreat for the rascally Indian, from which the white man would never seek to drive them".[7] Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery

The final blame for the military stalemate was determined to lie not in military preparation, supplies, leadership, or superior tactics by the Seminoles, but in Florida's impenetrable terrain. An army surgeon wrote: "It is in fact a most hideous region to live in, a perfect paradise for Indians, alligators, serpents, frogs, and every other kind of loathsome reptile."[8] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery

The land seemed to inspire extreme reactions of wonder or hatred. In 1870, an author described the mangrove forests as a "waste of nature's grandest exhibition to have these carnivals of splendid vegetation occurring in isolated places where it is but seldom they are seen."[9] A band of hunters, naturalists, and collectors ventured through in 1885, taking along with them the 17-year-old grandson of an early resident of Miami. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery

The landscape unnerved the young man shortly after he entered the Shark River: "The place looked wild and lonely. About three o'clock it seemed to get on Henry's nerves and we saw him crying, he would not tell us why, he was just plain scared."[10]

In 1897, an explorer named Hugh Willoughby spent eight days canoeing with a party from the mouth of the Harney River to the Miami River. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery

He wrote about his observations and sent them back to the New Orleans Times-Democrat. Willoughby described the water as healthy and wholesome, with numerous springs, and 10,000 alligators "more or less" in Lake Okeechobee. The party encountered thousands of birds near the Shark River, "killing hundreds, but they continued to return".[11] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery

Willoughby pointed out that much of the rest of the country had been mapped and explored except for this part of Florida, writing, "(w)e have a tract of land one hundred and thirty miles long and seventy miles wide that is as much unknown to the white man as the heart of Africa."

As early as 1837, a visitor to the Everglades suggested the value of the land without the water: Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery

Could it be drained by deepening the natural outlets? Would it not open to cultivation immense tracts of rich vegetable soil? Could the waterpower, obtained by draining, be improved to any useful purpose? Would such draining render the country unhealthy? ... Many queries like these passed through our minds. They can only be solved by a thorough examination of the whole country.Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/R Battery

Could the waters be lowered ten feet, it would probably drain six hundred thousand acres; should this prove to be a rich soil, as would seem probable, what a field it would open for tropical productions! What facilities for commerce![3]

Territorial representative David Levy proposed a resolution that was passed in Congress in 1842: "that the Secretary of War be directed to place before this House such information as can be obtained in relation to the practicability and probable expense of draining the everglades of Florida."[3] Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery

From this directive Secretary of the Treasury Robert J. Walker requested Thomas Buckingham Smith from St. Augustine to consult those with experience in the Everglades on the feasibility of draining them, saying that he had been told two or three canals to the Gulf of Mexico would be sufficient. Smith asked officers who had served in the Seminole Wars to respond, and many favored the idea, promoting the land as a future agricultural asset to the South.Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery

A few disagreed, such as Captain John Sprague, who wrote he "never supposed the country would excite an inquiry, other than as a hiding place for Indians, and had it occurred to me that so great an undertaking, one so utterly impracticable, as draining the Ever Glades was to be discussed, I should not have destroyed the scratch of pen upon a subject so fruitful, Sony PCG-61211M battery

and which cannot be understood but by those who have waded the water belly deep and examined carefully the western coast by land and by water."[3]

Nevertheless, Smith returned a report to the Secretary of the Treasury asking for $500,000 to do the job.[13] The report is the first published study on the topic of the Everglades, and concluded with the statement: Sony PCG-71213M battery

The Ever Glades are now suitable only for the haunt of noxious vermin or the resort of pestilent reptiles. The statesman whose exertions shall cause the millions of acres they contain, now worse than worthless, to teem with the products of agricultural industry; that man who thus adds to the resources of his country ... will merit a high place in public favor, not only with his own generation, but with posterity. He will have created a State![3] Sony PCG-71311M battery

Smith suggested cutting through the rim of the Everglades (known today as the Atlantic Coastal Ridge), connecting the heads of rivers to the coastline so that 4 feet (1.2 m) of water would be drained from the area. The result, Smith hoped, would yield farmland suitable for corn, sugar, rice, cotton, and tobacco.[14]

In 1850 Congress passed a law that gave several states wetlands within their state boundaries. Sony PCG-71212M battery

The Swamp and Overflowed Lands Act ensured that the state would be responsible for funding the attempts at developing wetlands into farmlands.[14] Florida quickly formed a committee to consolidate grants to pay for such attempts, though attention and funds were diverted owing to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Not until after 1877 did attention return to the Everglades. Sony PCG-71313M battery

After the Civil War, an agency named the Internal Improvement Fund (IIF), charged with using grant money to improve Florida's infrastructure through canals, rail lines, and roads, was eager to be rid of the debt incurred by the Civil War. IIF trustees found aPennsylvania real estate developer named Hamilton Disston who was interested in implementing plans to drain the land for agriculture. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

Disston was persuaded to buy 4,000,000 acres (16,000 km2) of land for $1 million in 1881.[15] The New York Times declared it the largest purchase of land ever by any individual.[16] Disston began building canals near St. Cloud to lower the basin of the Caloosahatchee andKissimmee Rivers. His workers and engineers faced conditions similar to those of the soldiers during the Seminole Wars; Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

it was harrowing, backbreaking labor in dangerous conditions. The canals seemed at first to work in lowering the water levels in the wetlands surrounding the rivers. Another dredged waterway between the Gulf of Mexico and Lake Okeechobee was built, opening the region to steamboattraffic.[17]

Disston's engineers focused on Lake Okeechobee as well. Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

As one colleague put it, "Okeechobee is the point to attack"; the canals were to be "equal or greater than the inflow from the Kissimmee valley, which is the source of all the evil."[18] Disston sponsored the digging of a canal 11 miles (18 km) long from Lake Okeechobee towards Miami, but it was abandoned when the rock proved denser than the engineers had expected. Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

Though the canals lowered the groundwater, their capacity was inadequate for the wet season. A report that evaluated the failure of the project concluded: "The reduction of the waters is simply a question of sufficient capacity in the canals which may be dug for their relief".[19]

Though Disston's canals did not drain, his purchase primed the economy of Florida. Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

It made news and attracted tourists and land buyers alike. Within four years property values doubled, and the population increased significantly.[15] One newcomer was the inventor Thomas Edison, who bought a home inFort Myers.[20] Disston opened real estate offices throughout the United States and Europe, and sold tracts of land for $5 an acre, establishing towns on the west coast and in central Florida. English tourists in particular were targeted and responded in large numbers.[21] Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

Florida passed its first water laws to "build drains, ditches, or water courses upon petition of two or more landowners" in 1893.

Due to Disston's purchase, the IIF was able to sponsor railroad projects, and the opportunity presented itself when oil tycoon Henry Flagler became enchanted with St. Augustine during a vacation. He built the opulent Ponce de León Hotel in St.Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery

Augustine in 1888, and began buying land and building rail lines along the east coast of Florida, first from Jacksonville to Daytona, then as far south as Palm Beach in 1893. Flagler's establishment of "the Styx", a settlement for hotel and rail line workers across the river from the barrier island containing Palm Beach, became West Palm Beach.[23] Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery

Along the way he built resort hotels, transforming territorial outposts into tourist destinations and the land bordering the rail lines into citrus farms.[24]

The winter of 1894–1895 produced a bitter frost that killed citrus trees as far south as Palm Beach. Miami resident Julia Tuttle sent Flagler a pristine orange blossom and an invitation to visit Miami, to persuade him to build the railroad farther south. Sony VAIO PCG-GRS100 battery

Although he had earlier turned her down several times, Flagler finally agreed, and by 1896 the rail line had been extended to Biscayne Bay.[25] Three months after the first train arrived, the residents of Miami, 512 in all, voted to incorporate the town. Flagler publicized Miami as a "Magic City" throughout the United States and it became a prime destination for the extremely wealthy after the Royal Palm Hotel was opened. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery

Despite the sale of 4,000,000 acres (16,000 km2) to Disston and the skyrocketing price of land, by the turn of the 20th century the IIF was bankrupt due to mismanagement.[27] Legal battles ensued between the State of Florida and the railroad owners about who owned the rights to sell reclaimed land in the Everglades. In 1904 gubernatorial campaigning, the strongest candidate, Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery

Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, made draining the Everglades a major plank. He called the future of south Florida the "Empire of the Everglades" and compared its potential to that of Holland and Egypt: "It would indeed be a commentary on the intelligence and energy of the State of Florida to confess that so simple an engineering feat as the drainage of a body of land above the sea was above their power", he wrote to voters.[28] Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

Soon after his election, he fulfilled his promise to "drain that abominable pestilence-ridden swamp"[29] and pushed the Florida legislature to form a group of commissioners to oversee reclamation of flooded lands. They began by taxing counties that would be affected by the drainage attempts, at 5 cents an acre, and formed the Everglades Drainage District in 1907.[3] SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

Broward asked James O. Wright—an engineer on loan to the State of Florida from the USDA's Bureau of Drainage Investigations—to draw up plans for drainage in 1906. Two dredges were built by 1908, but had cut only 6 miles (9.7 km) of canals. The project quickly ran out of money, so Broward sold real estate developer Richard J. Bolles a million dollars worth of land in the Everglades, 500,000 acres (2,000 km2), SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

before the engineer's report had been submitted.[30] Abstracts from Wright's report were given to the IIF stating that eight canals would be enough to drain 1,850,000 acres (7,500 km2) at a cost of a dollar an acre.[31] The abstracts were released to real estate developers who used them in their advertisements, and Wright and the USDA were pressed by the real estate industry to publicize the report as quickly as possible.[31] HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

Wright's supervisor noted errors in the report, as well as undue enthusiasm for draining, and delayed its release in 1910. Different unofficial versions of the report circulated—some that had been altered by real estate interests—and a version hastily put together by Senator Duncan U. Fletchercalled U.S. Senate Document 89 included early unrevised statements, causing a frenzy of speculation. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

Wright's initial report concluded that drainage would not be difficult. Building canals would be more cost effective than constructing a dike around Lake Okeechobee. The soil would be fertile after drainage, the climate would not be adversely affected, and the enormous lake would be able to irrigate farmland in the dry season.[1] Wright based his conclusions on 15 years of weather data since the recording of precipitation began in the 1890s. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

His calculations concentrated on the towns of Jupiter and Kissimmee. Since weather data had not been recorded for any area within the Everglades, none was included in the report. Furthermore, the heaviest year of rain on record, Wright assumed, was atypical, and he urged that canals should not be constructed to bear that amount of water due to the expense. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Wright's calculations for what canals should be able to hold were off by 55 percent.[32] His most fundamental mistake, however, was designing the canals for a maximum rainfall of 4 inches (10 cm) of water a day, based on flawed data for July and August rainfall, despite available data that indicated torrential downpours of 10 inches (25 cm) and 12 inches (30 cm) had occurred in 24-hour periods.[1]  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

Though a few voices expressed skepticism of the report's conclusions—notably Frank Stoneman, the editor of the Miami News-Record (the forerunner of The Miami Herald)—the report was hailed as impeccable, coming from a branch of the U.S. government.[33] In 1912 Florida appointed Wright to oversee the drainage, and the real estate industry energetically misrepresented this mid-level engineer as the world's foremost authority on wetlands drainage, DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

in charge of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.[1] However, the U.S. House of Representativesinvestigated Wright since no report had officially been published despite the money paid for it. Wright eventually retired when it was discovered that his colleagues disagreed with his conclusions and refused to approve the report's publication. One testified at the hearings:  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

"I regard Mr. Wright as absolutely and completely incompetent for any engineering work".[34]

Governor Broward ran for the U.S. Senate in 1908 but lost. Broward and his predecessor, William Jennings, were paid by Richard Bolles to tour the state to promote drainage. Broward was elected to the Senate in 1910, but died before he could take office. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

He was eulogized across Florida for his leadership and progressive inspiration. Rapidly growing Fort Lauderdale paid him tribute by naming Broward County after him (the town's original plan had been to name it Everglades County). Land in the Everglades was being sold for $15 an acre a month after Broward died.[35] Meanwhile, Henry Flagler continued to build railway stations at towns as soon as the populations warranted them. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

News of the Panama Canal inspired him to connect his rail line to the closest deep water port. Biscayne Bay was too shallow, so Flagler sent railway scouts to explore the possibility of building the line through to the tip of mainland Florida. The scouts reported that not enough land was present to build through the Everglades, so Flagler instead changed the plan to build to Key West in 1912. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

Real estate companies continued to advertise and sell land along newly dug canals. In April 1912—the end of the dry season—reporters from all over the U.S. were given a tour of what had recently been drained, and they returned to their papers and raved about the progress.[36] Land developers sold 20,000 lots in a few months. But as news about the Wright report continued to be negative, land values plummeted, and sales decreased. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Developers were sued and arrested for mail fraud when people who had spent their life savings to buy land arrived in south Florida expecting to find a dry parcel of land to build upon and instead found it completely underwater.[37] Advertisements promised land that would yield crops in eight weeks, but for many it took at least as long just to clear.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Some burned off the sawgrass or other vegetation only to discover that the underlying peat continued to burn. Animals and tractors used for plowing got mired in the muck and were useless. When the muck dried, it turned to a fine black powder and created dust storms.[38] Settlers encountered rodents, skinks, and biting insects, and faced dangers from mosquitoes, poisonous snakes and alligators.  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Though at first crops sprouted quickly and lushly, they just as quickly wilted and died, seemingly without reason.[39] It was discovered later that the peat and muck lacked copper and other trace elements. The USDA released a pamphlet in 1915 that declared land along the New River Canal would be too costly to keep drained and fertilized; people in Ft. Lauderdale responded by collecting all of the pamphlets and burning them.[40] SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

With the increasing population in towns near the Everglades came hunting opportunities. Even decades earlier, Harriet Beecher Stowe had been horrified at the hunting by visitors, and she wrote the first conservation publication for Florida in 1877: "[t]he decks of boats are crowded with men, whose only feeling amid our magnificent forests, seems to be a wild desire to shoot something and who fire at every living thing on shore."[41]  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Otters and raccoons were the most widely hunted for their skins. Otter pelts could fetch between $8 and $15 each. Raccoons, more plentiful, only warranted 75 cents each in 1915. Hunting often went unchecked; on one trip, a Lake Okeechobee hunter killed 250 alligators and 172 otters.

Wading birds were a particular target. Their feathers were used in women's hats from the late 19th century until the 1920s. HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

In 1886, five million birds were estimated to have been killed for their feathers.[43] They were usually shot in the spring, when their feathers were colored for mating and nesting. Aigrettes, as the plumes were called in the millinery business, sold in 1915 for $32 an ounce, also the price of gold.[42] Millinery was a $17-million-a-year industry[44] HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

that motivated plume harvesters to lie in wait at the nests of egretsand other large birds during the nesting season, shoot the parents with small-bore rifles, and leave the chicks to starve.[42] Many hunters refused to participate after watching the gruesome results of a plume hunt.[42][45] Still, plumes from Everglades wading birds could be found in Havana, New York City, London, and Paris. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

A dealer in New York paid at least 60 hunters to provide him with "almost anything that wore feathers, but particularly the Herons, Spoonbills, and showy birds". Hunters could collect plumes from a hundred birds on a good day.[46]

Plume harvesting became a dangerous business. The Audubon Society became concerned with the amount of hunting being done in rookeries in the mangrove forests. ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

In 1902, they hired a warden, Guy Bradley, to watch the rookeries around Cuthbert Lake. Bradley had lived inFlamingo within the Everglades, and was murdered in 1905 by one of his neighbors after he tried to prevent him from hunting.[47]Protection of birds was the reason for establishing the first wildlife refuge when President Theodore Roosevelt set Pelican Island as a sanctuary in 1903.  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

In the 1920s, after birds were protected and alligators hunted nearly to extinction, Prohibition created a living for those willing to smuggle alcohol into the U.S. from Cuba. Rum-runners used the vast Everglades as a hiding spot: there were never enough law enforcement officers to patrol it.[48] The advent of the fishing industry, the arrival of the railroad,  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

and the discovery of the benefits of adding copper to Okeechobee muck soon created unprecedented numbers of residents in new towns like Moore Haven, Clewiston, and Belle Glade. By 1921, 2,000 people lived in 16 new towns around Lake Okeechobee.[3] Sugarcane became the primary crop grown in south Florida and it began to be mass-produced. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

Miami experienced a second real estate boom that earned a developer in Coral Gables $150 million and saw undeveloped land north of Miami sell for $30,600 an acre.[49] Miami became cosmopolitan and experienced a renaissance of architecture and culture. Hollywood movie stars vacationed in the area and industrialists built lavish homes. Miami's population multiplied fivefold, and Ft. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Lauderdale and Palm Beach grew many times over as well. In 1925, Miami newspapers published editions weighing over 7 pounds (3.2 kg), most of it real estate advertising.[50] Waterfront property was the most highly valued. Mangrove trees were cut down and replaced with palm trees to improve the view. Acres of south Florida slash pine were taken down, some for lumber, but the wood was found to be dense and it split apart when nails were driven into it. HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

It was also termite-resistant, but homes were needed quickly. Most of the pine forests in Dade County were cleared for development.

The canals proposed by Wright were unsuccessful in making the lands south of Lake Okeechobee fulfill the promises made by real estate developers to local farmers. The winter of 1922 was unseasonably wet and the region was underwater. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The town of Moore Haven received 46 inches (1,200 mm) of rain in six weeks in 1924.[52]Engineers were pressured to regulate the water flow, not only for farmers but also for commercial fishers, who often requested conflicting water levels in the lake. Fred Elliot, who was in charge of building the canals after James Wright retired, commented: "A man on one side of the canal wants it raised for his particular use and a man on the other side wants it lowered for his particular use".SONY VAIO VGN-CS17G/R laptop keyboard

The 1920s brought several favorable conditions that helped the land and population boom, one of which was an absence of any severe storms. The last severe hurricane, in 1906, had struck the Florida Keys. Many homes were constructed hastily and poorly as a result of this lull in storms.[54] However, on September 18, 1926, a storm that became known as the 1926 Miami Hurricane struck with winds over 140 miles per hour (230 km/h), TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

and caused massive devastation. The storm surge was as high as 15 feet (4.6 m) in some places. Henry Flagler's opulent Royal Palm Hotel was destroyed along with many other hotels and buildings. Most people who died did so when they ran out into the street in disbelief while the eye of the hurricane passed over, not knowing the wind was coming in from the other direction. SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

"The lull lasted 35 minutes, and during that time the streets of the city became crowded with people", wrote Richard Gray, the local weather chief. "As a result, many lives were lost during the second phase of the storm."[55] In Miami alone, 115 people were counted dead—although the true figure may have been as high as 175, because death totals were racially segregated.[54] More than 25,000 people were homeless in the city.DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

The town of Moore Haven, bordering Lake Okeechobee, was hardest hit. A levee built of muck collapsed, drowning almost 400 of the town's entire 1,200 residents.[56] The tops of Lake Okeechobee levees were only 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm) above the lake itself and the engineers were aware of the danger. Two days before the hurricane, an engineer predicted, "[i]f we have a blow, even a gale, Moore Haven is going under water". HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

The engineer lost his wife and daughter in the flood.

The City of Miami responded to the hurricane by downplaying its effects and turning down aid. The Miami Herald declared two weeks after the storm that almost everything in the city had returned to normal. The governor supported the efforts to minimize the appearance of the destruction by refusing to call a special legislative session to appropriate emergency funds for relief. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

As a result, the American Red Cross was able to collect only $3 million of $5 million needed.[54] The 1926 hurricane effectively ended the land boom in Miami, despite the attempts at hiding the effects. It also forced drainage commissioners to re-evaluate the effectiveness of the canals. A $20 million plan to build a dike around Lake Okeechobee, to be paid by property taxes, was turned down after a skeptical constituency sued to stop it;[58] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

more than $14 million had been spent on canals and they were ineffective in taking away excess water or delivering it when needed.

The weather was unremarkable for two years. In 1928, construction was completed on the Tamiami Trail, named because it was the only road spanning between Tampa and Miami.  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The builders attempted to construct the road several times before they blasted the muck down to the limestone, filled it with rock and paved over it.[60] Hard rains in the summer caused Lake Okeechobee to rise several feet; this was noticed by a local newspaper editor who demanded it be lowered. However, on September 16, 1928 came a massive storm, now known as the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

Thousands drowned when Lake Okeechobee breached its levees; the range of estimates of the dead spanned from 1,770 (according to the Red Cross) to 3,000 or more.[61] Many were swept away and never recovered.[54][62] The majority of the dead were black migrant workers who had recently settled in or near Belle Glade. The catastrophe made national news, and although the governor again refused aid,  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

after he toured the area and counted 126 bodies still unburied or uncollected a week after the storm, he activated the National Guard to assist in the cleanup,[54] and declared in a telegram: "Without exaggeration, the situation in the storm area beggars description".

The focus of government agencies quickly shifted to the control of floods rather than drainage. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

The Okeechobee Flood Control District, financed by both state and federal funds, was created in 1929. President Herbert Hoover toured the towns affected by the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane and, an engineer himself, ordered the Army Corps of Engineers to assist the communities surrounding the lake.[64] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Between 1930 and 1937, a dike 66 miles (106 km) long was built around the southern edge of the lake, and a shorter one around the northern edge. It was 34 feet (10 m) tall and 3.5 feet (1.1 m) thick on the lake side, 3 feet (0.91 m) thick on the top, and 2 feet (0.61 m) thick toward land. Control of the Hoover Dike and the waters of Lake Okeechobee were delegated to federal powers: SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

the United States declared legal limits of the lake to be 14 feet (4.3 m) and 17 feet (5.2 m).[12]

A massive canal 80 feet (24 m) wide and 6 feet (1.8 m) deep was also dug through the Caloosahatchee River; when the lake rose too high, the excess water left through the canal to the Gulf of Mexico. Exotic trees were planted along the north shore levee:Australian pines, Australian oaks, willows, and bamboo.[12] Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

More than $20 million was spent on the entire project. Sugarcane production soared after the dike and canal were built. The populations of the small towns surrounding the lake jumped from 3,000 to 9,000 after World War II.

The effects of the Hoover Dike were seen immediately. An extended drought occurred in the 1930s, and with the wall preventing water leaving Lake Okeechobee and canals and ditches removing other water, the Everglades became parched. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

Peat turned to dust, and salty ocean water entered Miami's wells. When the city brought in an expert to investigate, he discovered that the water in the Everglades was the area's groundwater—here, it appeared on the surface. Draining the Everglades removed this groundwater, which was replaced by ocean water seeping into the area's wells.[66] In 1939, 1 million acres (4,000 km2) of Everglades burned, and the black clouds of peat and sawgrass fires hung over Miami. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Underground peat fires burned roots of trees and plants without burning the plants in some places.[67]Scientists who took soil samples before draining had not taken into account that the organic composition of peat and muck in the Everglades was mixed with bacteria that added little to the process of decomposition underwater because they were not mixed with oxygen. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

As soon as the water was drained and oxygen mixed with the soil, the bacteria began to break down the soil. In some places, homes had to be moved on to stilts and 8 feet (2.4 m) of topsoil was lost.

Conservationists concerned about the Everglades have been a vocal minority ever since Miami was a young city. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

South Florida's first and perhaps most enthusiastic naturalist was Charles Torrey Simpson, who retired from the Smithsonian Institution to Miami in 1905 when he was 53. Nicknamed "the Sage of Biscayne Bay", Simpson wrote several books about tropical plant life around Miami. His backyard contained a tropical hardwood hammock, which he estimated he showed to about 50,000 people.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

Though he tended to avoid controversy regarding development, in Ornamental Gardening in Florida he wrote, "Mankind everywhere has an insane desire to waste and destroy the good and beautiful things this nature has lavished upon him".[69]

Although the idea of protecting a portion of the Everglades arose in 1905, a crystallized effort was formed in 1928 when Miami landscape designer Ernest F. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Coe established the Everglades Tropical National Park Association. It had enough support to be declared a national park by Congress in 1934, but there was not enough money during the Great Depression to buy the proposed 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) for the park. It took another 13 years for it to be dedicated on December 6, 1947. [70] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

One month before the dedication of the park, the former editor of The Miami Herald and freelance writer Marjory Stoneman Douglas published her first book, The Everglades: River of Grass. After researching the region for five years, she described the history and ecology of the south of Florida in great detail, characterizing the Everglades as a river instead of a stagnant swamp.[15]HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Douglas later wrote, "My colleague Art Marshall said that with [the words "River of Grass"] I changed everybody's knowledge and educated the world as to what the Everglades meant".[71] The last chapter was titled "The Eleventh Hour" and warned that the Everglades were approaching death, although the course could be reversed.[72] Its first printing sold out a month after its release.HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Coinciding with the dedication of Everglades National Park, 1947 in south Florida saw two hurricanes and a wet season responsible for 100 inches (250 cm) of rain, ending the decade-long drought. Although there were no human casualties, cattle and deer were drowned and standing water was left in suburban areas for months. Agricultural interests lost about $59 million.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The embattled head of the Everglades Drainage District carried a gun for protection after being threatened.

In 1948 Congress approved the Central and Southern Florida Project for Flood Control and Other Purposes (C&SF) and consolidated the Everglades Drainage District and the Okeechobee Flood Control District under this.[74] The C&SF used four methods in flood management: HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

levees, water storage areas, canal improvements, and large pumps to assist gravity. Between 1952 and 1954 in cooperation with the state of Florida it built a levee 100 miles (160 km) long between the eastern Everglades and suburbs from Palm Beach to Homestead, and blocked the flow of water into populated areas.[75] Between 1954 and 1963 it divided the Everglades into basins. Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

In the northern Everglades were Water Conservation Areas (WCAs), and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) bordering to the south of Lake Okeechobee. In the southern Everglades was Everglades National Park. Levees and pumping stations bordered each WCA, which released water in drier times and removed it and pumped it to the ocean or Gulf of Mexico in times of flood. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The WCAs took up about 37 percent of the original Everglades.[76]

During the 1950s and 1960s the South Florida metropolitan area grew four times as fast as the rest of the nation. Between 1940 and 1965, 6 million people moved to south Florida: 1,000 people moved to Miami every week.[77] Urban development between the mid-1950s and the late 1960s quadrupled. Much of the water reclaimed from the Everglades was sent to newly developed areas.[78] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

With metropolitan growth came urban problems associated with rapid expansion: traffic jams; school overcrowding; crime; overloaded sewage treatment plants; and, for the first time in south Florida's urban history, water shortages in times of drought.[79]

The C&SF constructed over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of canals, and hundreds of pumping stations and levees within three decades.HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

It produced a film, Waters of Destiny, characterized by author Michael Grunwald as propaganda, that likened nature to a villainous, shrieking force of rage and declared the C&SF's mission was to tame nature and make the Everglades useful.[80] Everglades National Park management and Marjory Stoneman Douglas initially supported the C&SF, as it promised to maintain the Everglades and manage the water responsibly. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

However, an early report by the project reflected local attitudes about the Everglades as a priority to people in nearby developed areas: "The aesthetic appeal of the Park can never be as strong as the demands of home and livelihood. The manatee and the orchid mean something to people in an abstract way, but the former cannot line their purse, nor the latter fill their empty bellies."[81] HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Establishment of the C&SF made Everglades National Park completely dependent upon another political entity for its survival.[82] One of the C&SF's projects was Levee 29, laid along the Tamiami Trail on the northern border of the park. Levee 29 featured four flood control gates that controlled all the water entering Everglades National Park; before construction, water flowed in through open drain pipes. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

The period from 1962 to 1965 was one of drought for the Everglades, and Levee 29 remained closed to allow the Biscayne Aquifer—the fresh water source for South Florida—to stay filled.[83] Animals began to cross Tamiami Trail for the water held in WCA 3, and many were killed by cars. Biologists estimate the population of alligators in Everglades National Park was halved; otters nearly became extinct.[78]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The populations of wading birds had been reduced by 90 percent from the 1940s.[84] When park management and the U.S. Department of the Interior asked the C&SF for assistance, the C&SF offered to build a levee along the southern border of Everglades National Park to retain waters that historically flowed through the mangroves and into Florida Bay. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Though the C&SF refused to send the park more water, they constructed Canal 67, bordering the east side of the park and carrying excess water from Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic.

The C&SF established 470,000 acres (1,900 km2) for the Everglades Agricultural Area—27 percent of the Everglades before development.[85] In the late 1920s, agricultural experiments indicated that adding large amounts of manganese sulfate to Everglades muck produced profitable vegetable harvests. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

Adding 100 pounds (45 kg) of the compound was more cost effective than adding 1 short ton (0.91 t) of manure.[86] The primary cash crop in the EAA is sugarcane, though sod, beans, lettuce, celery, and rice are also grown. Sugarcane became more consolidated an industry than did any other crop; in 1940 the coalition of farms was renamed U.S. Sugar and this produced 86 percent of Everglades sugar.[87] SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

During the 1930s the sugarcane farmers' coalition came under investigation for labor practices that bordered on slavery. Potential employees—primarily young black men—were lured from all over the U.S. by the promise of jobs, but they were held financially responsible for training, transportation, room and board and other costs. Quitting while debts were owed was punishable with jail time. Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

By 1942, U.S. Sugar was indicted for peonage in federal court, though the charges were eventually dismissed on a technicality. U.S. Sugar benefited significantly from the U.S. embargo on Cuban goods beginning in the early 1960s.[88] In 1958, before the Castro regime, 47,000 acres (190 km2) of sugarcane were harvested in Florida; by the 1964–1965 season, 228,000 acres (920 km2) were harvested. SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

From 1959 to 1962 the region went from two sugar mills to six, one of which in Belle Glade set several world records for sugar production.[89]

Fields in the EAA are typically 40 acres (16 ha), on two sides bordered by canals that are connected to larger ones by which water is pumped in or out depending on the needs of the crops. HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

The water level for sugarcane is ideally maintained at 20 inches (51 cm) below the surface soil, and after the cane is harvested, the stalks are burned.[90] Vegetables require more fertilizer than sugarcane, though the fields may resemble the historic hydrology of the Everglades by being flooded in the wet season. Sugarcane, however, requires water in the dry season.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

The fertilizers used on vegetables, along with high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus that are the by-product of decayed soil necessary for sugarcane production, were pumped into WCAs south of the EAA, predominantly to Everglades National Park. The introduction of large amounts of these let exotic plants take hold in the Everglades.[91] DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

One of the defining characteristics of natural Everglades ecology is its ability to support itself in a nutrient-poor environment, and the introduction of fertilizers began to change this ecology.

A turning point for development in the Everglades came in 1969 when a replacement airport was proposed as Miami International Airport outgrew its capacities. HP 550 CPU Fan


evelopers began acquiring land, paying $180 an acre in 1968, and the Dade County Port Authority (DCPA) bought 39 square miles (100 km2) in the Big Cypress Swamp without consulting the C&SF, management of Everglades National Park or the Department of the Interior. Park management learned of the official purchase and agreement to build the jetport from The Miami Herald the day it was announced.[82] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The DCPA bulldozed the land it had bought, and laid a single runway it declared was for training pilots. The new jetport was planned to be larger than O'Hare, Dulles, JFK, and LAX airports combined; the location chosen was 6 miles (9.7 km) north of the Everglades National Park, within WCA 3. The deputy director of the DCPA declared: "This is going to be one of the great population centers of America. DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

We will do our best to meet our responsibilities and the responsibilities of all men to exercise dominion over the land, sea, and air above us as the higher order of man intends."[93]

The C&SF brought the jetport proposal to national attention by mailing letters about it to 100 conservation groups in the U.S.[82] Initial local press reaction condemned conservation groups who immediately opposed the project. HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

Business Week reported real estate prices jumped from $200 to $800 an acre surrounding the planned location, and Life wrote of the expectations of the commercial interests in the area.[82] The U.S. Geological Survey's study of the environmental impact of the jetport started, "Development of the proposed jetport and its attendant facilities ... will inexorably destroy the south Florida ecosystem and thus the Everglades National Park".[94] Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

The jetport was intended to support a community of a million people and employ 60,000. The DCPA director was reported in Time saying, "I'm more interested in people than alligators. This is the ideal place as far as aviation is concerned."[95] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

When studies indicated the proposed jetport would create 4,000,000 US gallons (15,000,000 L) of raw sewage a day and 10,000 short tons (9,100 t) of jet engine pollutants a year, the national media snapped to attention. Science magazine wrote, in a series on environmental protection highlighting the jetport project, "Environmental scientists have become increasingly aware that, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

without careful planning, development of a region and the conservation of its natural resources do not go hand in hand".[96] The New York Times called it a "blueprint for disaster",[97] and Wisconsin senator Gaylord Nelson wrote to President Richard Nixon voicing his opposition: "It is a test of whether or not we are really committed in this country to protecting our environment."[95] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Governor Claude Kirk withdrew his support for the project, and the 78-year-old Marjory Stoneman Douglas was persuaded to go on tour to give hundreds of speeches against it. She established Friends of the Everglades and encouraged more than 3,000 members to join. Initially the U.S. Department of Transportation pledged funds to support the jetport, but after pressure, Nixon overruled the department.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan

He instead established Big Cypress National Preserve, announcing it in the Special Message to the Congress Outlining the 1972 Environmental Program.[98] Following the jetport proposition, restoration of the Everglades became not only a statewide priority, but an international one as well.  HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

In the 1970s the Everglades were declared an International Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, and a Wetland of International Importance by the Ramsar Convention,[99][100] making it one of only three locations on earth that have appeared on all three lists. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan,HP G42-221BR CPU Fan,HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

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As the months passed, and the privations in Constantinople increased, the pro-Kantakouzenos faction in the capital grew as the Empress refused even to consider negotiations. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

Twice agents were sent to assassinate Kantakouzenos, but they failed. The Empress eventually fell out with Patriarch John Kalekas, who was deposed in a synod on 2 February 1347. On the same night, supporters of Kantakouzenos opened the disused Golden Gate, and Kantakouzenos entered the city with 1,000 men.[88]Meeting no resistance, his troops surrounded the Palace of Blachernae, Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

the imperial residence, the next morning, but the Empress refused to surrender for several days, still fearful of the fate that awaited her. Kantakouzenos' men grew impatient and stormed part of the palace complex, and John V persuaded his mother to accept a settlement.

On 8 February 1347, the war formally ended with an agreement making Kantakouzenos senior emperor for ten years, after which he and John V would reign as equals. Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

Kantakouzenos also promised to pardon anyone who had fought against him.[90] To seal the pact, John V married Kantakouzenos' daughter Helena, and in May, Kantakouzenos was crowned again in the Church of St. Mary of Blachernae.[91] In the end, as Donald Nicol commented, the long conflict had been meaningless, with terms that "could have been agreed five years before and saved the Empire so much bitterness, hatred and destruction."[92] Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

Despite the moderation and clemency shown by Kantakouzenos in this settlement, it did not gain universal acceptance. Supporters of the Palaiologoi still distrusted him, while his own partisans would have preferred to depose the Palaiologoi outright and install the Kantakouzenoi as the reigning dynasty.[93] Kantakouzenos' eldest son, Matthew, also resented being passed over in favour of John V, Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

and had to be placated with the creation of a semi-autonomous appanage covering much of western Thrace, which doubled as a march against Dushan's Serbia.[94] Of the remaining Byzantine territories, only the Zealots in Thessalonica, now an isolated exclave surrounded by the Serbs, refused to acknowledge the new arrangement, instead leading a de facto independent existence until Kantakouzenos conquered them in 1350.[95] Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

After 1347, John VI Kantakouzenos tried to revive the Empire, but met with limited success. Aided by the depopulation brought by about by the Black Death, Dushan and his general Preljub took Kantakouzenos' Macedonian strongholds as well as Epirus and Thessaly in 1347–1348, thereby completing their conquest of the remaining Byzantine lands in mainland Greece.[96] Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

An attempt to break Byzantium's dependence for food and maritime commerce on the Genoese merchants of Galata led to a Byzantine–Genoese war, which ended in 1352 with a compromise peace.[97] In 1350, Kantakouzenos took advantage of Dushan's preoccupation with a war againstBosnia to recover Thessalonica from the Zealots as well as Berroia, Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

Vodena and other Macedonian cities from the Serbs, but the Serbian emperor quickly reversed the Byzantine gains. Again, only Thessalonica remained in Byzantine hands.[98]Steadily deteriorating relations between Matthew Kantakouzenos, who now ruled eastern Thrace, and John V Palaiologos, who had taken over Matthew's former domain in western Thrace, sowed the seeds of yet another internal conflict. Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

Open warfare broke out in 1352, when John V, supported by Venetian and Turkish troops, launched an attack on Matthew Kantakouzenos. John Kantakouzenos came to his son's aid with 10,000 Ottoman troops who retook the cities of Thrace, liberally plundering them in the process. In October 1352, at Demotika, the Ottoman force met and defeated 4,000 Serbs provided to John V by Stephen Dushan.[99] This was the Ottomans' first victory in Europe and an ominous portent. Two years later their capture of Gallipoli maSony VAIO PCG-3E1M battery

rked the beginning of the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, culminating a century later in the Fall of Constantinople.[100] Meanwhile, John V fled to the island of Tenedos, from where he made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Constantinople in March 1353. John VI Kantakouzenos responded by having Matthew crowned as co-emperor, but John V Palaiologos, enlisting Genoese support and relying on the declining popularity of Kantakouzenos, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery

succeeded in entering the capital in November 1354. John VI abdicated and retired to a monastery. Matthew held out in Thrace until 1357, when he too abdicated, leaving John V Palaiologos as the sole master of a rump state.

The civil war proved a critical turning point in the history of the Byzantine Empire. In the words of the Byzantinist Angeliki Laiou, "after the end of the second civil war, Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

Byzantium was an empire in name only",[103] while according to Eva de Vries-Van der Velden, it marks "the point of rapture between the "decline" and "the fall" of the Byzantine Empire".[104]

The Byzantines' division and reliance on foreign troops, especially the Serbs and Turks, encouraged the latter's expansionism. Dushan in particular proved adept in exploiting the civil war to expand his state at Byzantium's expense.[29][105Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery

] Aside from huge territorial losses, the prolonged conflict exhausted the Byzantine state's resources, as it brought "anarchy to the cities and devastation to the countryside" (Alice-Mary Talbot). Thrace, the largest contiguous territory remaining in the Empire, suffered such destruction that, along with Constantinople, it became dependent on grain imported from Bulgaria and theCrimea.[29][1Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery

06] Trade had stopped, and the treasury contained, in the words of Gregoras, "nothing but the atoms of Epicurus". Kantakouzenos had exhausted his own personal fortune, and Empress Anne had left the Empire heavily indebted to the Venetians. The war also led to the collapse of the centralized imperial administration in the provinces, causing control of the Thracian countryside to shift to a manorial system run by the local magnates. Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery

Despite their considerable wealth, the magnates, through exemptions or outright evasion, managed to avoid paying taxes to the imperial government.[107] In addition, the arrival in 1347 of the Black Death and its recurrent outbreaks further reduced the Empire's tax and recruitment base, curtailing its ability to reverse the Serbian territorial gains.[108] Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

Along with the renewal of the civil war in 1352, these factors destroyed any chance of even a modest recovery similar to that experienced under Andronikos III.[109]Thereafter, Byzantium remained under the menacing threat of stronger neighbours, unable to pursue an independent foreign policy, handicapped by a shortage of resources and riven by internal strife.[110] Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

Nevertheless, through a combination of fortuitous external circumstances and adroit diplomacy, it survived for another century, until finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1453.[111] Only the Byzantine exclave in the Morea remained prosperous, having been spared the ravages of the civil war because of its relative isolation. Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery

The appointment of Manuel Kantakouzenos as its despotes in 1349 heralded the creation of the semi-independent Despotate of the Morea, which experienced the last economic and cultural flowering of the Byzantine world before it too fell to the Ottomans in 1460. Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery

The Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologoi dynasty is a period of Byzantine history spanning from 1260 to 1453 AD, from the restoration of Roman rule to Constantinople by the usurper Michael VIII Palaiologos to the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire.

From the start, the régime faced numerous problems.[1] The Turks of Asia Minor had since 1263 been raiding and expanding into Byzantine territory in Asia Minor. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

Anatolia, which had formed the very heart of the shrinking empire, was systematically lost to numerous Turkic ghazis, whose raids evolved into conquering expeditions inspired by Islamic zeal. With a decreasing source of food and manpower, the Palaiologoi were forced to fight on several fronts, most of them being Christian states: the Second Bulgarian Empire, the Serbian Empire, the remnants of the Latin Empire and even the Knights Hospitaller. Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

The loss of the land in the east to the Turks and in the west to Bulgarians was complemented by two disastrous civil wars, the Black Death and the 1354 earthquake at Gallipoli, whose destruction and evacuation allowed the Turks to occupy it. By 1380, the Byzantine Empire consisted of the capital Constantinople and a few other isolated exclaves, which only nominally recognized the Emperor as their lord. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

Nonetheless, Byzantine diplomacy coupled with the adroit exploitation of internal divisions and external threats among their enemies, and above all the invasion of Anatolia by Timur, allowed Byzantium to survive until 1453. The last remnants of the Byzantine Empire, the Despotate of the Morea and the Empire of Trebizond, fell shortly afterwards. Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

However, the Palaiologan period witnessed a renewed flourishing in art and the letters, in what has been called the "Palaiologian Renaissance". The migration of Byzantine scholars to the West also helped to spark the Renaissance in Italy.

Following the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantine Empire had fractured into the Greek successor-states of Nicaea, Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

Epirus and Trebizond, with a multitude of Frankish and Latin possessions occupying the remainder, nominally subject to the Latin Emperors at Constantinople. In addition, the disintegration of the Byzantine Empire allowed the Bulgarians, the Serbs and the various Turcoman emirates of Anatolia to make gains. Although Epirus was initially the strongest of the three Greek states, Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

the Nicaeans were the ones who succeeded in taking back the city of Constantinople from the Latin Empire.[2]

The Nicaean Empire was successful in holding its own against its Latin and Seljuk opponents. At the Battle of Meander Valley, a Turkic force was repelled[2] and an earlier assault on Nicaea led to the death of the Seljuk Sultan. Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

In the west, the Latins were unable to expand into Anatolia; consolidating Thrace against Bulgaria was a challenge that kept the Latins occupied for the duration of the Latin Empire.

In 1261, the Empire of Nicaea was ruled by John IV Laskaris, a boy of ten years.[2] However, John IV was overshadowed by his co-emperor, Michael VIII Palaiologos. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

Palaiologos was a leading noble of military standing and the main figure of the regency of John IV, who had used this role to propel himself to the throne, and set the stage for his becoming sole Emperor of the restored Byzantine Empire.

In 1261, while the bulk of the Latin Empire's military forces were absent from Constantinople, Byzantine General Alexios Strategopoulos used the opportunity to seize the city with 600 troops. Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery

Thrace, Macedonia and Thessalonica had already been taken by Nicaea in 1246.[2] Following the capture of Constantinople, Michael ordered the blinding of John IV in December 1261, so as to become sole emperor.[2] As a result, Patriarch Arsenios excommunicated Michael, but he was deposed and replaced by Joseph I. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

The Fourth Crusade and their successors, the Latin Empire, had done much to reduce Byzantium's finest city to an underpopulated wreck.[3] Michael VIII began the task of restoring many monasteries, public buildings and defence works.[4] The Hagia Sophia, horribly looted in the Crusade of 1204, was refurbished to Greek Orthodox tradition. Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

The Kontoskalion harbour and the walls of Constantinople were all strengthened against a possible new expedition by the Latin West. Many hospitals, hospices, markets, baths, streets and churches were built, some with private patronage. Even a new Mosque was built to compensate for the one burnt during the Fourth Crusade.[4] These attempts were costly and crippling taxes were placed on the peasantry.[5Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery

] Nonetheless, the city grew new cultural and diplomatic contacts, notably with the Mamelukes. Both had common enemies; Latin aggression, and later on, the Ottoman Turks.

The Sultanate of Rum was in chaos and decentralized ever since the Mongol invasions in ca. 1240.[6] As a result, the greatest threat to Byzantium was not the Muslims but their Christian counterparts in the West — Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery

Michael VIII knew that the Venetians and the Franks would no doubt launch another attempt to establish Latin rule in Constantinople. The situation became worse when Charles of Anjou, brother of the King of France, conquered Sicily from the Hohenstaufens in 1266.[7] In 1267, Pope Clement IV arranged a pact, whereby Charles would receive land in the East in return for assisting a new military expedition to Constantinople.[7] Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery

A delay on Charles' end meant that Michael VIII was given enough time to negotiate a union between the Church of Rome and that of Constantinople in 1274, thus removing Papal support for an invasion of Constantinople.

Unfortunately for Michael VIII, the new union was seen as a fake by the Clement's successor, Martin IV. Sony VAIO PCG-394L battery

The Greek Church was excommunicated, and Charles was given renewed Papal support for the invasion of Constantinople.[8] In order to counter this, Michael VIII subsidized Peter III of Aragon's attempts to seize Sicily from Charles. Michael's efforts paid off with the outbreak of the Sicilian Vespers, a revolt that overthrew the Angevin King of Sicily and installed Peter III of Aragon as King of Sicily in 1281.[8] Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery

For the remainder of his life, Michael campaigned to drive the Latins out of Greece and the Balkans, and secure his position versus the Bulgarians. He was largely successful, regaining several islands in the Aegean, and establishing a foothold in the Peloponnese, that would grow to become the Despotate of the Morea. Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery

The downside however was that Michael's efforts in the West absorbed most of the Empire's manpower and resources, and neglected the Asian provinces, where a new and fateful threat was rising: the beylik of Osman I, who by 1263 had captured Sogut. Nevertheless, the border was kept relatively secure, and no significant losses occurred in Asia Minor during Michael's reign. Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery

Michael VIII's foreign policy relied heavily on diplomacy;[8] nevertheless, his construction projects and military campaigns against the remaining Latins were extensive as well as expensive; the Nicaean army was modeled around the Komnenian army, and while it was not as effective, it was just as burdensome on the treasury. The result was that heavy taxes were levied on the peasantry,[5] Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery

something that the Ottomans would later use to their advantage, winning over these poverty-stricken peasants with promises of lower taxes.The Second Council of Lyons and the ostensible union of the two Churches did little to avert Catholic aggression, while at the same time the Orthodox population, led by large parts of the priesthood, denounced Michael VIII as a traitor.[8Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

] His death in 1282 came as a relief to many, and his body was denied an Orthodox funeral, as a result of his policies towards Rome.

Michael VIII was a very energetic, ambitious and capable emperor, who had enlarged and preserved the Empire and had once again made Byzantium a power to be reckoned with in the region. His army however was still small, and diplomacy was relied upon more than ever. Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery

An extortionate tax system supported his ambitious and successful foreign policies of expansion, as well as his numerous bribes and gifts to various potentates. He had put Byzantium on the road of recovery, but his achievements were still perilously fragile, as events would soon show.

Andronikos II was tied down with events in the West and the East. Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

The Serbians under King Stefan Uroš II Milutin had begun invading the Balkans and took Skopje in 1282[12] and raids against Macedonia were launched throughout the 1290s. Byzantine counter-attacks failed to stop these, and as a result Andronikos was forced to resort to diplomacy, marrying his 5-year-old daughter to the Serbian King[12] and conceding a number of forts from Ohrid to Stip to Strumica as a "dowry". Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery

Nonetheless, the Serbs continued their expansion.

Unlike his father, Andronikos II recognized the gravity of the situation in Asia Minor,[12] and tried to drive out the Turks, utilizing a variety of methods. His first action was to move his court to Asia Minor, where he could better oversee the construction of fortifications and raise troop morale.[13] Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

His General, Alexios Philanthropenos, was an able commander, campaigning with some success against the Turks in the Meander Valley. Unfortunately Byzantium was robbed of his services when he staged an unsuccessful coup, leading to his blinding.[13] Next Andronikos sent his son, Michael IX, and the Heteriarch George Mouzalon to attack the Turks who were laying siege to Nicomedia, but they were beaten at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302. Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

Not giving up, Andronikos hired the 6,500 strong "Catalan Company" of Almogavars, led by Roger de Flor. Originating from Catalonia, these hardy mercenaries were used to skirmishing against the Moors in Spain and now, for an extraordinarily high price, they drove the Turks back in Asia Minor.[13] Once again, these successes were nullified when their leader, Roger de Flor, was assassinated on his way to meet Andronikos; Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

the Catalans then revolted against imperial authority, and began pillaging and raiding cities in Thrace, leaving Asia Minor open to Turkish incursions. After this, Andronikos turned to diplomacy, asking the Ilkhanids of Persia to send troops to attack the Turks, but negotiations for such an alliance failed.

Andronikos II ordered the Union of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches to be canceled, a move which pleased many. Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery

But he also ordered drastic reductions in the military, and effectively disbanded the navy,[12] which his father had worked hard to build up. As a result, tax reductions throughout the Empire were possible,[12] earning him greater popularity while seriously undermining Byzantium's abilities to deal with its opponents. He debased the hyperpyron currency[12] and heavily taxed the military elite of the pronoiarioiSony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

thereby further reducing Byzantium's military capability. Whilst these solved some problems that Michael VIII had left for his son, it unraveled his father's attempts at restoring the power of the Byzantine Empire; where Michael VIII had attempted to deal with problems outside the Empire, Andronikos aimed to solve the internal problems resulting from his father's reign. Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery

Andronikos II's policies were not successful in dealing with Byzantium's external problems; however, it would be threats from within the Empire that led to his abdication — in 1320 Andronikos III, the young (in his twenties) grandson of Andronikos II was disinherited by the Emperor.[14] Andronikos III's brother had been murdered and his father (Michael IX), the son of Andronikos II, died of shock. Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery

Andronikos III did not take his disinheritance lightly — organizing an armed opposition, he succeeded in drawing support with promises of generous tax cuts, even beyond those enacted by Andronikos II.[14] Andronikos II was powerless to stop the young usurper; he granted him Thrace as an appanage in 1321,[14] the title of co-emperor in 1322,[14] and after a small war where the Bulgarians and Serbians played the two sides against each other, Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery

Andronikos II was forced to abdicate and retire as a monk to a monastery, where he died in 1332.[14]

Despite the calamities of the civil war, Andronikos III was about to revitalise the Empire.[14] Though Asia Minor was at this point destined to fall to the Turks, it had been in a worse position in 1091 and yet still recovered by Byzantium.

The rule of Andronikos III is characterized as the last genuine attempt to restore Byzantine fortunes. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery

His attempts came close to fruition, but the many hostile neighbors of Byzantium eventually took their toll on an Empire in decline.His first concern was that of Asia Minor. Nicaea, until 1261 the capital of the Empire, was under siege by Ottoman Turks. In the summer of 1329, Andronikos III launched a relief attempt which culminated in a defeat at the Battle of Pelekanon on June 10,[15] and in 1331, the city fell. Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery

Not wishing to see Nicomedia or the other few remaining forts in Asia Minor suffer the same fate, Andronikos III sought to pay off the Ottomans with tribute — the Ottomans did not stop at this and seized Nicomedia as well in 1337.

Despite this, Andronikos III scored a few successes as well in the Aegean: in 1329, Chios was recovered,[15]and in 1335, Andronikos arranged an alliance involving financial indemnities with the Turkic Emir Bahud-din Umur, Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery

Bey of Aydin, and was able to recover Lesbos and Phocaea from the Latins.[15]

In Europe, Andronikos III had mixed results; Thessaly returned to Imperial rule in 1333, but Serbia once again began expanding southwards: led by the Byzantine renegade Syrgiannes Palaiologos, Serbian forces took five key forts from Byzantium in 1334 and forced it to recognize the new borders.[15] Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery

Nevertheless, Andronikos was able to bring back Epirus into the fold in 1341 through the use of diplomacy.[15] The result was that whilst the Empire was reduced to its European territories, it had succeeded in bringing much of Greece under its control. Unfortunately for the newly expanded Byzantium, Stephen Dusan (ruling Serbia from 1331) decided to take these lands as well from Byzantium. Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery

The death of Andronikos III and the resulting chaos left the Empire in no position to fight back.

Though ultimately unsuccessful, the reign of Andronikos III was one of the last bright spots in Byzantine history, as the Empire's position was becoming increasingly precarious. Diplomacy became less useful, as Byzantium's enemies realized that the Emperor had not the military or even economic might to back his word. Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery

Whilst there was a general decline in the Empire's fortunes, Andronikos III's death would be the coup de grâce for the Empire — his 10-year-old son was led by a regency that was torn apart in dynastic rivalries which would lead to a civil war from which Byzantium would never recover.

The Byzantine Empire entered into a new era of decay in 1341. Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery

The Empire was ravaged by every possible disaster[16] — alongside wars and civil wars, renewed epidemics of bubonic plague swept through its diminished lands. The first outbreak occurred in 1347, and between the 1360s and 1420s, eight further outbreaks of plague are recorded. Cities were full of social unrest between the corrupt wealthy (who had been exploiting the tax system for their own benefit) Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery

and the countless landless peasants burdened by the demands of the government.[16] Religious controversy, the cancer of Byzantium in the 7th and 8th centuries, once again emerged in the form of the Hesychasm controversy,[16] which eventually became a doctrine of the Eastern Orthodox church. There were numerous earthquakes, destroying Byzantium's infrastructure — the fortress of Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

Gallipoli was destroyed in 1354 by such an earthquake[16] and the Ottoman Turks lost no time in taking it and establishing a bridgehead in Europe. Meanwhile, the Serbs continued pressing south, removing any nominal Imperial control in Epirus. The Empire shrunk in size and when the civil war ended, Byzantium would be a petty city state, hanging on to life through the respites of her foes, and soon to-be protectors. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

John V, ten years old at his ascension, was guided by a regency consisting of his mother, Anna of Savoy, John VI Kantakouzenos and the Patriarch of Constantinople (John XIV Kalekas).[16]

The Patriarch, aided by the ambitious Alexios Apokaukos, sparked the civil conflict when he convinced the Empress that John V's rule was threatened by the ambitions of Kantakouzenos. Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

In September 1341, whilst Kantakouzenos was in Thrace, Kalekas declared himself as regent and launched a vicious attack on Kantakouzenos, his supporters and family.[16] In October, Anna ordered Kantakouzenos to resign his command.[17] Kantakouzenos not only refused, but declared himself Emperor atDidymoteichon, allegedly to protect John V's rule from Kalekas. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

Whether or not Kantakouzenos wished to be Emperor is not known, but the provocative actions of the Patriarch forced Kantakouzenos to fight to retain his power and started the civil war.

There were not nearly enough troops to defend Byzantium's borders at the time and there certainly was not enough for the two factions to split; consequently, foreigner mercenaries were brought in. Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

Kantakouzenos hired Turks and Serbs — his main supply of Turkish mercenaries came from the Bey of Aydin, a nominal ally established by Andronikos III. The Regency of John V relied on Turkish mercenaries as well. However, Kantakouzenos began to draw support from the Ottoman Sultan Orkhan, who wed Kantakouzenos' daughter in 1345. By 1347, Kantakouzenos had triumphed and entered Constantinople. Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

However, in his hour of victory, he came to an accord with Anna and her son, John V: John V (now 15 years of age) and Kantakouzenos would rule as co-emperors, though John V would be the junior in this relationship.[18] This unlikely partnership was not destined to last long.

Kantakouzenos had a son, Matthew Kantakouzenos — and any hope of keeping peace between John V and Matthew became more remote as the two grew older and more independent. Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

John V wed Kantakouzenos' daughter, thus becoming his son in law,[18]in a move designed to bind the two families, but it was destined to fail.

In 1353, Kantakouzenos was still hopeful that peace would be maintained, but in that year, John V launched a military attack on Matthew,[18] thereby re-igniting the civil war. John V was demoted and exiled to the island of Tenedos, one of the few islands in the Aegean still under Byzantine control, Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

while Kantakouzenos made his son Matthew co-emperor. John V would not give up so easy however, and in 1354 Ottoman troops began crossing over into Thrace in his support. The citizens of Constantinople became gripped with fear and in November of that same year, John V launched a successful coup with Genoan aid. Kantakouzenos now abdicated and retired to a monastery, where he would write his memoirs and thoughts until his death in 1383.[19] Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

Matthew Kantakouzenos, no doubt disappointed with his father's failure, continued to resist John V. Since the Ottoman Sultan Orkhan was his brother-in-law, he was able to obtain troops from him, but had barely begun his campaign when he was captured in the summer of 1356. He was forced to renounce his claims in 1357 and exiled to the Morea sometime between 1361 and 1383,[19] though other sources indicate 1391 a possible date. Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

At 25 years, John V had managed to establish himself firmly as ruler of the Empire, at the cost of bleeding out all its resources.The lands ravaged and depopulated by the civil war were filled up by arriving Turks who colonised the land through a mixture of conquest and trade.[19] Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

The result was that Byzantium's power was undermined beyond all recovery — two hundred years ago Byzantium could rely on the people living in the lands of Anatolia, Greece, Macedonia and several large islands like Cyprus and Crete. Now the population under its control was limited to the few remaining cities in Byzantine possession, namely Thessalonica and Constantinople and the surrounding countryside, and the Despotate of the Morea. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

The immigration of Turks would be decisive in the survival of the Empire as it gave her most dire enemy, the Ottomans, a new power base, not in Asia but now in Europe.

Like his predecessors Alexios I Komnenos and Michael VIII, John V now turned to the Pope and offered the promise of a Union of the two Churches in the hopes of receiving military assistance. Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

As a guarantee of compliance, John V offered his son, Manuel. In the past, Byzantium's cry for assistance were answered with mixed results — pillaging Crusaders would sack both friend and foe but the First Crusade had been largely beneficial and no doubt John V envisioned a repeat of such a Crusade. This time, however, the Papacy was unmoved by the calamity facing the Byzantine Empire.[20] Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

Fortunately for John V, he had other European connections — his mother was Anna of Savoy, and her nephew (being John V's cousin) was concerned for the safety of his Greek counterpart.[20] Sailing from Venice in June 1366 with dreams of initiating yet another Crusade, Amadeo VI of Savoy arrived at and seized the fortress of Gallipoli from the Ottomans and handed it back to the Byzantines, Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

hoping that this would stem the tide of Turkish emigration into Thrace.[20] However, the Turks had by now firmly established themselves in Thrace. Amadeo and John spent much time between 1367 and 1369 thinking of ways to stave off defeat. Amadeo returned to Europe via Rome and brought with him Byzantine envoys. The Pope again was uninterested, but called for John V to visit him.[20] Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

In 1369, when the Ottomans finally captured Adrianople (though some sources indicate 1365),[20] John V rushed to Rome and confessed his Catholic faith both privately and at a public spectacle.[20]

Nevertheless, in 1371 John V returned empty-handed, having humiliated himself and done nothing to improve the deteriorating situation in the Balkans. Sony VAIO PCG-3E1M battery

In 1371, the Serbs mustered their strength and prepared to launch an attack to drive back the Turks from Thrace. In a crushing victory, the Ottomans annihilated the Serbian army at the Battle of Maritsa,[20] and in its aftermath, many surviving lords submitted to the Ottoman Sultan Murad I. Byzantium was in no better position and after taking Serres from the defeated Serbs, John V swore allegiance as a vassal to Murad. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery

John V's rule was an unhappy one, resulting in his vassalage to Murad I. However, it must have been all the more worse when his eldest son and heir to the throne Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebelled against his father in 1373.[21] Curiously, this rebellion coincided with the rebellion of Murad I's son, Savci Celebi[21] and the two worked towards fomenting revolution in their peoples.SONY VAIO PCG-81111V battery

Consequently, both the Byzantine and Ottoman rulers were facing their sons and as a result, coordinated efforts were made to defeat both.[21] John V had his eldest son, Andronikos IV, along with the latter's son, John VII, partially blinded, while Murad I defeated his son, Savci, and had him executed.[22] Manuel, the second son of John V, was made co-emperor and heir to the throne. SONY VAIO PCG-81211V battery

Unfortunately for John V, Andronikos IV and his son John VII escaped. With Genoan and Turkish aid, they returned to Constantinople and succeeded in overthrowing John V, imprisoning him and Manuel.[22] In exchange for Ottoman aid, Andronikos IV handed the fortress of Gallipoli over to the Ottomans, thus rendering the only genuine European aid, provided by Amadeoof Savoy, useless. SONY VAIO PCG-51111V battery

Again, prison break became the next event with John V and Manuel escaping Constantinople, offering the Ottoman Sultan higher tribute than normally paid, in return for help in taking over Constantinople.[22] Andronikos IV, having been beaten yet again, evaded capture and slipped into the Genoese district of Galata with his family and hostages. SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery

John V, only interested in securing his throne and stability, came to conclude a pact with Andronikos IV in 1381, recognizing him as heir with John VII as heir apparent,[22] thus removing Manuel from the line of succession.

Naturally, Manuel felt betrayed by this move which demoted him from co-emperor. Returning to Thessalonica in 1382, he rebelled and established his rule over Thessaly and Epirus, thus "expanding" the Empire, at least nominally, SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery

and thereby catching the Ottoman Sultan's attention.[22] Murad I besieged Thessalonica in 1383, beginning a siege that would last until 1387. Meanwhile, Andronikos IV died and his son, John VII, began quarreling with his grandfather, John V.

With Thessalonica surrendering in 1387 and his position rather hopeless, Manuel returned to John V and, with the Sultan's assent, began making conciliatory offers to his father.[23] SONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery

John V realized that accepting his second son back would cause his grandson to rebel in turn, and therefore he simply kept Manuel in exile in Lemnos.[23] Eventually, John VII did rebel against his grandfather — news of Manuel's arrival at Constantinople and John V's reconciliation talks with him prompted John VII to head to Genoa and then to the new Ottoman Sultan, Bayezid the Thunderbolt, to seek aid in order to topple John V. SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery

John VII's rebellion succeeded initially, taking Constantinople from John V,[23] but Manuel countered by rousing the rest of the empire and its few remaining military assets and turned them against John VII. Manuel also received aid from the Knights of St. John stationed at Rhodes, where he "donated" religious relics made of precious metals to them for their support.[23] SONY PCG-7134M battery

John refused to give up his right to rule as Emperor of Byzantium until his death in 1408. By then however, the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid had recognized Manuel II Palaiologos as co-emperor of Byzantium alongside his father John V, and finally, when John V died in 1391, as sole Emperor.

Manuel II's reign saw another temporary respite for the Byzantines. For an Empire in such trouble, he succeeded in retaking some territory and held it to the end of his reign. SONY PCG-7131M battery

His limited success largely came through the resurrection of Mongol Power in the East and the great friendship achieved between Manuel II and Mehmed I. However, he lived long enough to see his son undo much of his achievements.

Manuel II's first priority was to establish an agreement with Bayezid the Thunderbolt. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery

John VII was a favorite of Bayezid so Manuel II was in a dangerous position. He eventually sealed an agreement. However, the Ottoman Sultan became infuriated by Manuel II's attempts to reconcile his nephew John VII.[24] Manuel was concerned that John VII might once again launch a coup against him so wished to end the threat diplomatically. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery

Bayezid ordered Manuel's execution, but then reduced his furious response and instead demanded that Constantinople build another Mosque and that a colony of Turks be established.

Manuel's next steps were bold and seemingly foolish — not only did he refuse to pay the Sultan tribute, he refused to answer the Sultan's messages and Bayezid set about laying siege to Constantinople.[24Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery

] In 1394, his siege began and would continue for 8 years. Manuel II realized that whilst the City could endure a half-hearted blockade, it did not have the military assets to man the walls of Constantinople. At first, the situation was not so dire — a massive counter-attack by the West was to be launched as the Crusade of Nicopolis.[26] In a titanic battle, Bayezid force-marched his army to a stunning yet costly victory. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery

Thousands were killed, but now Bayezid was able to turn his armies fully against Constantinople.

The situation was dire; so much so that John VII, Manuel' dire opponent, was left in charge of Constantinople. He made one grand tour of Europe in 1399, stopping atVenice, Padua, Milan, Paris and London, where he met the English King Henry IV; Sony VAIO PCG-5N1M battery

in England, he was well received[26] and treated to a jousting tournament. However, Manuel was unable to secure any help from Western Christendom.

In the end, it would be Eastern Islam that would come to Constantinople's aid — Timur, the Khan of the Chagatai Mongols led his army deep into Anatolia, decisively defeating Bayezid and his exhausted army in 1402 near Ankara. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery

The defeat caused a panic amongst the Turks in Anatolia, who frantically began crossing over to Europe, albeit with hired Byzantine ships.

Manuel, who was still in Europe, arrived in 1403 to a welcoming sight — Constantinople free from Ottoman siege. John VII remained loyal, handing back the capital and even taking Thessalonica back from the Ottomans. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery

The defeat of the Ottomans considerably changed the mood within Constantinople. The rewards reaped by the Empire were outstanding considering that only a short time had passed since the city (and possibly the Empire itself) stood on the brink of destruction. John VII appeared to have achieved numerous other benefits for Byzantium. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery

The first was a non-aggression treaty between the local Christian powers (who were also free from Ottoman servitude), meaning that the disasters of Andronikos III's later rule would not be repeated. Next were a treaty between Byzantium and the successor of Bayezid, Suleyman who was in Asia Minor, confirming Byzantium's freedom from paying tribute. The Empire also gained Mount Athos and coastal land of the Black Sea from Constantinople to Varna. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery

As an added bonus, Imperial authority was asserted over a number of Aegean Islands. The importance of the latter should not be underestimated as these would serve in the future as refuge for any seeking to escape Ottoman expansion, even if only as a temporary refuge.

Bayezid's sons lost no time fighting each other for their father's shattered realm. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery

By 1413, Mehmed I had emerged as the victor. However, the Byzantines had made sure to support the victor and Mehmed I did not forget the kindness of the Byzantines and was able to "control" his Turk subjects from expanding into Byzantine territory.

Manuel II Palaiologos was 70 years of age in 1421 and believed that the time had come for him to retire and give his eldest son,Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery

John VIII, the opportunity to rule with a more aggressive manner than he had done so. At the same time, a far less restrained Murad II, son of Mehmed I, came to the Ottoman throne in May of that year. With two un-diplomatic men on thrones of Byzantium and the Ottoman Sultanate, war was inevitable.

The Byzantines were the first to make a move when John VIII and his advisors made a risky decision by inciting a rebellion within the Ottoman Empire. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/R Battery

In August 1421, they backed a man named Mustafa who claimed to be a long lost son of Bayezid the Thunderbolt. In Europe, Mustafa's rebellion worked well and he gathered some support. However in August 1422, Murad II had this rebellion crushed and Mustafa received the traditional execution (hanging) shortly after, something any rebel would have expected. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery

Murad II was enraged and had an army sent to Constantinople and to Thessalonika, the latter falling in 1430. Murad II was unable to take Constantinople by force. Nonetheless, the situation in the Capital was dire enough for Manuel II to come out of retirement and incite yet another rebellion in Asia Minor under Murad II's brother, Kucuk Mustafa. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery

Initial rebel success, including a siege of Brusa was too much for Murad II to ignore so the siege of Constantinople was lifted to deal with this threat, and to the Byzantines' greatest despair, dealt with it indeed.

Manuel II was now out of tricks to save the erroneous rule of his son, John VIII. In September 1423, Sony PCG-61211M battery

Thessalonika was surrendered to the Venetians, no doubt hoping to draw in the Western Powers into crusading mode and, if not, at least their wealth would enable them to defend it better. In February 1424, Manuel II Palaiologos re-established Byzantium as a vassal of the Ottomans — 300,000 silver coins were to be paid to the Sultan on annual basis. Sony PCG-71213M battery

That the Empire managed to accomplish this at its lowest ebb is remarkable. Nonetheless until c. 1450, the Ottomans would not make any concerted efforts to overcome the walls of Constantinople; the city retained a tenuous security for the next two decades.Sony PCG-71311M battery,Sony PCG-71212M battery,Sony PCG-71313M battery

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The Byzantine civil war of 1341–47, sometimes referred to as the Second Palaiologan Civil War,[1] was a conflict that broke out after the death of Andronikos III Palaiologos over the guardianship of his nine-year-old son and heir,John V Palaiologos. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's 

It pitted on the one hand Andronikos III's chief minister, John VI Kantakouzenos, and on the other the Empress-Dowager Anna of Savoy, the Patriarch of Constantinople John XIV Kalekas, and the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos. The war polarized Byzantine society along class lines, with the aristocracy backing Kantakouzenos and the lower and middle classes supporting the regency.SONY PCG-7122M battery

To a lesser extent, the conflict acquired religious overtones. Byzantium was embroiled in the Hesychast controversy, and adherence to the mystical doctrine of Hesychasm was often equated with support for Kantakouzenos.

As the chief aide and closest friend of Emperor Andronikos III, Kantakouzenos became regent for the under-age John V upon the Emperor's death in June 1341. SONY PCG-7121M battery

While Kantakouzenos was absent from Constantinople in September the same year, a coup d'état led by Alexios Apokaukos and the Patriarch John XIV secured the support of Empress Anna and established a new regency. In response, Kantakouzenos' army and supporters proclaimed him co-emperor in October, cementing the rift between himself and the new regency. The split immediately escalated into armed conflict. SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery

During the first years of the war, forces of the new regency prevailed. In the wake of several anti-aristocratic uprisings, most notably that of the Zealots in Thessalonica, a majority of the cities in Thrace and Macedonia came under regency control. With assistance from Stephen Dushan of Serbia and Umur Beg of Aydin, Kantakouzenos successfully reversed these gains. SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery

By 1345, despite Dushan's defection to the opposition and the withdrawal of Umur, Kantakouzenos retained the upper hand through the assistance of Orhan, ruler of the Ottoman emirate. The June 1345 murder of megas doux Apokaukos, the regency's chief administrator, dealt the regency a severe blow. Formally crowned as emperor in Adrianople in 1346, Kantakouzenos entered Constantinople on 3 February 1347. SONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery

By agreement, he was to rule for ten years as the senior emperor and regent for John V, until the boy came of age and ruled alongside him. Despite this apparent victory, subsequentresumption of the civil war forced John VI Kantakouzenos to abdicate and retire to become a monk in 1354.

The consequences of the prolonged conflict proved disastrous for the Empire, which had regained a measure of stability under Andronikos III. SONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery

Seven years of warfare, the presence of marauding armies, social turmoil, and the advent of theBlack Death devastated Byzantium and reduced it to a rump state. The conflict also allowed Dushan to conquer Albania,Epirus and most of Macedonia, where he established the Serbian Empire. The Bulgarian Empire also acquired territory north of the Evros river. SONY VAIO PCG-7191V battery

In 1341, the once-mighty Byzantine Empire was in a state of flux. Despite the restoration of the Empire's capital to Constantinople and the recovery of a measure of its former power by Michael VIII Palaiologos (r. 1259–1282), the policies implemented during his reign had exhausted the state's resources, and the Empire's strength waned under his successor, Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1282–1328).[2] SONY VAIO PCG-7192V battery

During Andronikos II's long reign, the remaining Byzantine possessions in Asia Minor slowly fell to the advancing Turks, most notably the newly established Ottoman emirate. This caused a flood of refugees into Byzantium's European provinces, while at the same time the Catalan Company wrought havoc in the imperial domains. Taxes also rose dramatically to finance tributes to the Empire's enemies. SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

A combination of these failures and personal ambition moved the Emperor's grandson and heir, the young Andronikos III Palaiologos, to revolt. Supported by a group of young aristocrats led by John Kantakouzenos and Syrgiannes Palaiologos, Andronikos III deposed his grandfather after a series of conflicts during the 1320s.[3] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery

Although successful in removing the old Emperor from power, the war did not augur well for the future, as the Empire's neighbours—the Serbs, Bulgarians, Turks,Genoese and Venetians—took advantage of Byzantine infighting to gain territory or expand their influence within the Empire.

The only son of a former governor of the Byzantine holdings in the Morea, John Kantakouzenos was related to the Palaiologoi through his mother. Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery

He inherited vast estates in Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly, and became a childhood friend and the closest and most trusted advisor of Andronikos III.[5] During Andronikos III's reign (1328–1341), John Kantakouzenos acted as his chief minister, holding the office of megas domestikos, commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army.[6] The relationship between the two remained close, and in 1330, SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

when the heirless Andronikos III (John V was born in 1332) fell ill he insisted that Kantakouzenos be proclaimed Emperor or regent after his death.[7] Their ties were further strengthened in the spring of 1341, when the latter's eldest son, Matthew Kantakouzenos, wed Irene Palaiologina, a cousin of the Emperor.[8]

Unlike Andronikos II, who had disbanded the Byzantine army and navy, and who favoured monks and intellectuals, SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

Andronikos III was an energetic ruler who personally led his forces in military campaigns.[4] In 1329, his first campaign against the Ottomans resulted in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Pelekanos, after which the Byzantine position in Bithynia rapidly collapsed.[9] Subsequent sorties into the Balkans were nevertheless successful in shoring up Andronikos' tottering realm. SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

Thessaly and the Despotate of Epirus, two territories separated from the Empire after the Fourth Crusade, were restored to imperial rule, almost without bloodshed in 1328 and 1337 respectively.[10] Andronikos III also rebuilt a modest fleet, which allowed him to recover the rich and strategically placed island of Chios from the Genoese Zaccaria family in 1329 as well as to claim the allegiance of Andreolo Cattaneo, Sony VGN-NR11S Battery

the Genoese governor of Phocaea on the Anatolian mainland.[11] In 1335, however, Cattaneo with Genoese assistance captured the island of Lesbos. The Emperor led a fleet to recover it and Phocaea, and requested the aid of the Turkish emirs of Saruhan and Aydin. Saruhan sent troops and supplies, but Aydin's ruler Umur Beg came to meet the Emperor in person. SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

It was during this encounter that Kantakouzenos and Umur established a long-lasting close friendship and alliance.[12]

A war with Serbia in 1331–1334 proved less successful for the Emperor when several towns in Macedonia were captured by the Serbs, led by the renegade Syrgiannes Palaiologos. These gains were only curtailed when the assassination of Syrgiannes and the threat of a Hungarian invasion forced the Serbian ruler, SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

Stephen Dushan, to seek a negotiated settlement.[13] The subsequent peace treaty concluded between Andronikos III and Dushan was important for the future of Byzantine-Serbian relations. For the first time, the Byzantines recognized the extensive gains the Serbs had made at the Empire's expense in the central Balkans during Andronikos II's reign. In the aftermath of the pact, Dushan also moved his seat, and with it his realm's centre of gravity, south to Prilep.[14] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

Although the loss of Asia Minor proved irreversible, successes in Epirus and Thessaly led to a consolidation of the Empire in the Greek-speaking lands of the southern Balkans. Andronikos III and Kantakouzenos planned further campaigns to recover the Latin principalities of southern Greece, a project of major long-term importance, for, as the historian Donald Nicol writes, Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

"if the whole peninsula of Greece could be united under Byzantine government then the Empire would once again be a homogeneous structure, able to stand up to the Serbians, the Italians and its other enemies. It would be small, but it would be a compact and manageable economic and administrative unit running from Cape Matapan to Thessalonica and Constantinople".Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery

Following a short illness, on the night of 14–15 June 1341 the emperor Andronikos III died at the relatively early age of 45. His nine-year-old son John (John V) was the obvious successor, but he had not been officially proclaimed or crowned as co-emperor.[15] This left a legal vacuum, and raised the question of who would lead the Empire's government. Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery

According to Byzantine custom, the empress-dowager automatically headed any regency. Nevertheless, despite the lack of any formal appointment, Kantakouzenos placed Andronikos III's sons and the Empress-dowager Anna of Savoy under armed guard in the palace, and in a meeting of the Byzantine Senate claimed for himself the regency and governance of the state by virtue of his close association with the deceased Emperor. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

He also demanded that John V marry forthwith his own daughter Helena Kantakouzene. This claim was disputed by Patriarch John XIV Kalekas, who presented a document from Andronikos dating from 1334, assigning to him the care of the imperial family in the case of his death. Only after a demonstration of the capital's troops on 20 June did Kantakouzenos secure recognition as regent and control of the reins of government, as well as maintaining control over the army as its megas domestikos.[17] SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

Nevertheless, opposition to Kantakouzenos began to coalesce around three figures: the Patriarch, a forceful man determined to have a voice in the governance of the Empire, the Empress-regent, who feared that Kantakouzenos would dispossess her son, and last but not least Alexios Apokaukos, the ambitious megas doux (commander-in-chief of the navy) and head of the bureaucracy.[18] Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery

A "new man" promoted to high office as the protégé of Andronikos III and possibly the richest man in the Empire by 1341, Apokaukos was distrusted by the hereditary aristocracy. The only surviving narrative accounts of the period, Kantakouzenos's memoirs and the history of Nikephoros Gregoras, with their pro-aristocracy bias, paint a very negative picture of the man.[19] SONY PCG-8113M battery

According to Kantakouzenos, Apokaukos' adherence to the Patriarch's camp resulted from his ambition: Apokaukos sought further advancement by trying to convince Kantakouzenos to declare himself Emperor. When the latter refused, Apokaukos secretly switched his allegiance.[20]

In Donald Nicol's opinion, had Kantakouzenos remained at Constantinople, his authority might have remained secure. SONY PCG-8112M battery

As the megas domestikos and regent however, he had the duty of dealing with the Empire's various enemies, who sought to take advantage of Andronikos' death. Dushan had invaded Macedonia, the Emir of Saruhanraided the coasts of Thrace, and Tsar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria threatened war.[21] In July Kantakouzenos left the capital at the head of the army, leaving control of the government to Apokaukos, whom he still believed loyal to him. Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

Kantakouzenos' campaign proved successful. He persuaded Dushan to withdraw and repulsed the Turkish raiders, while Ivan Alexander, threatened by a fleet from the Emirate of Aydin, renewed his peace treaty with Byzantium.[16][22] To crown this success, Kantakouzenos received an embassy of the Latin barons of the Principality of Achaea in the Morea. Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery

They expressed readiness to surrender the country in exchange for a guarantee of their property and rights. It was a unique opportunity, as Kantakouzenos himself recognized in his memoirs, since if successful, the Catalan-controlled Duchy of Athens was bound to follow, consolidating Byzantine control over Greece.[23]

At this point Kantakouzenos received grave news from Constantinople. Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery

In late August Apokaukos attempted a coup and tried to kidnap John V. Having failed, he fled to his fortified house at Epibatai, where he was blockaded by troops. Kantakouzenos returned to Constantinople in early September, where he stayed for a few weeks consulting with the Empress. On his way back to Thrace to prepare for a campaign into the Morea, he went to Epibatai, where he pardoned Apokaukos and restored him to his former offices. Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery

Kantakouzenos' second departure proved a great error. Back in the capital, his enemies moved in his absence. Apokaukos gathered a group of high-ranking aristocrats around him, including men such as the megas droungarios John Gabalas or George Choumnos, whom he tied to himself by marriage alliances. The Patriarch, backed by Apokaukos' group and the authority of the Empress, Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

dismissed Kantakouzenos from his offices and declared him a public enemy. Kalekas himself was proclaimed regent and Apokaukos named Eparch of Constantinople. Kantakouzenos' relatives and supporters were imprisoned or forced to flee the city, and their properties confiscated.[25] Although Kantakouzenos' wife and children were safe in his headquarters at Demotika (Didymoteicho), the regency placed his mother, Theodora, under house arrest. Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

The privations she suffered during her imprisonment were to cause her eventual death.

As the first groups of his partisans fleeing the capital arrived at Demotika, Kantakouzenos, by his own account, tried to negotiate with the new regency, but his approach was rebuffed.[27] Finally forced to take decisive action, on 26 October 1341, the army (2,000 cavalry and 4,000 infantry, according to Gregoras) and his supporters, Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery

largely drawn from the land-holding aristocracy, proclaimed Kantakouzenos Emperor. Although he still presented himself officially as a junior colleague to John V, and claimed to be only acting in the boy's name, having staked his claim on the throne, he had effectively started a civil war.[28][29] Kantakouzenos still hoped that negotiation might resolve the situation, but all his envoys were imprisoned and he and his supporters excommunicated by Patriarch John XIV. Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery

On 19 November 1341, the regency responded to Kantakouzenos' proclamation as Emperor with the formal coronation of John V.[30]

Reaction to Kantakouzenos' proclamation caused a rift in Byzantine society, with the rich and powerful land-holding magnates (traditionally called the dynatoi, the "powerful ones")[31] who dominated the countryside quickly rallying to support him, while the ordinary population, Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

often living in abject conditions and suffering under oppressive taxation, supported the Empress-dowager and the Patriarch.[32] Apokaukos was especially quick to capitalize upon this division and foment popular dislike for the aristocracy, by widely publicizing the immense wealth confiscated from Kantakouzenos' and his supporters' houses and estates.[33] Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

In the words of Donald Nicol, "it was against him [Kantakouzenos] and everything that he stood for as a millionaire and landowning aristocrat that the people rose up. 'Kantakouzenism' became their war cry, the slogan of their discontent".[34]

Thus the battle lines of the civil war were drawn up between urban and rural factions. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

The cities, dominated by the middle-class civil bureaucracy and merchant class (the "people of the market"), favoured a more mercantile economy and close relations with the Italian maritime republics, while the countryside remained under the control of the conservative landed aristocracy, which derived its wealth from its estates and traditionally shunned commercial and entrepreneurial activities as unworthy of its status. Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

The lower social strata tended to support the respective dominant faction, the middle classes in the cities and the landholding magnates in the countryside.[35]Polarization of this nature was not new in the Byzantine Empire. Evidence of competition between the landed aristocracy and the city-based middle classes in the political, economic and social spheres has been attested since the 11th century, but the scale of the conflict that erupted in 1341 was unprecedented. Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

This class conflict was mirrored in the breakaway Byzantine Empire of Trebizond, as well, where a pro-imperial and pro-Constantinopolitan urban faction confronted the provincial landholding aristocracy between 1340 and 1349.[36] The more conservative and anti-Western tendencies of the aristocrats, and their links to the staunchlyOrthodox and anti-Catholic monasteries, also explain their increased attachment to the mystical Hesychasm movement advocated by GSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

regory Palamas, whose views were mostly opposed in the cities.[37] Although several significant exceptions leave the issue open to question, in the contemporary popular mind (and in traditional historiography), the supporters of "Palamism" and of "Kantakouzenism" were usually equated.[38] Kantakouzenos' eventual victory also meant the victory of Hesychasm,confirmed in a synod in Constantinople in 1351. Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

Hesychasm became a hallmark of the Orthodox church tradition, although it was rejected by the Catholics as a heresy.[29][39]

The first manifestation of this social division appeared in Adrianople where, on 27 October, the populace expelled the city's aristocrats, securing it for the regency. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

This event was repeated over the next weeks in town after town throughout Thrace and Macedonia, as the people declared their support for the regency and against the despised forces of "Kantakouzenism".[40] In this hostile atmosphere, many of Kantakouzenos' soldiers abandoned him and returned to Constantinople.[41] In Demotika alone the popular uprising was quelled, and the town remained Kantakouzenos' main stronghold in Thrace throughout the war. Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery

When heavy snowfall rendered campaigning impossible during the following winter, Kantakouzenos instead sent envoys, including an embassy of monks from Mount Athosto Constantinople. However, they too were dismissed by the Patriarch.[43] By then, almost all of the Byzantine provinces and their governors had declared themselves for the regency. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

Only Theodore Synadenos, an old associate of Kantakouzenos who was the governor of the Empire's second city, Thessalonica, indicated his support. Synadenos had kept his allegiance to Kantakouzenos secret from the city's populace, and intended to surrender Thessalonica in collusion with the local aristocracy. Furthermore, Hrelja, the Serbian magnate and virtually independent ruler of Strumica and the Strymon River valley, Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

seemed to lean towards Kantakouzenos. Consequently, as soon as the weather improved, on 2 March 1342, Kantakouzenos left his wife Irene Asanina, his brother-in-law Manuel Asen and his daughters to hold Demotika and marched west with his army toward Thessalonica.[44] On the way, he first attacked Peritheorion but was repelled and continued westward. Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery

Kantakouzenos was however able to take fortress Melnik, where he met with Hrelja to forge an alliance. Their two armies marched toward Thessalonica, but arrived too late to take control. As they approached the city, they were met by Synadenos and other aristocrats, who had fled after an uprising led by a radical popular party, theZealots.[45] Soon afterwards a fleet of 70 ships led by Apokaukos reinforced the city. Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery

Synadenos, whose family had remained behind in Thessalonica, defected to the regency. Apokaukos' son John was appointed governor of Thessalonica, although effective power rested with the Zealots, who for the next seven years led an autonomous regime unparalleled in Byzantine history.

At the same time, the regency's army campaigned in Thrace, formally taking possession of towns secured by popular revolt. Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery

With Thessalonica barred against him, his supply lines to Thrace cut, and desertions having reduced his army to 2,000 men, of whom half belonged to Hrelja, Kantakouzenos was forced to withdraw north to Serbia, where he hoped to secure the aid of Stephen Dushan. Soon after, Hrelja also deserted Kantakouzenos and joined the regency, hoping to gain control of Melnik for himself.[47]Sony VAIO PCG-394L battery

In July 1342, Kantakouzenos met Dushan near Pristina. The Serbian ruler appeared initially reluctant to form an alliance. Nevertheless, under pressure from his nobles, especially the powerful Jovan Oliver, he could not afford to miss this unique opportunity to expand south. Desperately in need of Serbian aid, Kantakouzenos apparently agreed that the Serbs could keep any town they took, despite his own later account to the contrary. Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery

According to Nikephoros Gregoras, the Serbs claimed all of Macedonia west of Christopolis (Kavala), except for Thessalonica and its environs. The only concession Kantakouzenos secured was that an exception be made for those towns that surrendered to him in person. To seal the pact, Kantakouzenos' younger son, Manuel, was to be wed to the daughter of Jovan Oliver, although after Dushan later broke the alliance, the marriage did not take place.[48] Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery

Hrelja too acceded to the pact, in exchange for the surrender of Melnik by Kantakouzenos' garrison. After Hrelja's death later that year, Melnik was seized by Dushan.[49]

In late summer 1342, Kantakouzenos, accompanied by several Serbian magnates, marched into Macedonia at the head of a Greek and Serbian force, intending to break through to his wife, who still held out at Demotika.[50] Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery

His advance was stopped almost immediately beforeSerres when the city refused to surrender, and the subsequent siege had to be abandoned after an epidemic killed most of his men, forcing him to retreat into Serbia with a rump force of barely 500 soldiers. Dushan led a more successful parallel campaign, capturing Vodena (Edessa).[51] Serbian forces captured Florina and Kastoria shortly afterwards, thereby extending their hold over western Macedonia. Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery

The Serbs also expanded their control over Albania, so that by the summer of 1343, with the exception of Angevin-controlledDyrrhachium, all of the region appears to have fallen under Serbian rule.[52] Morale among Kantakouzenos' followers fell dramatically. Rumours circulated in Constantinople that a dejected Kantakouzenos planned to retire to Mount Athos as a monk, and riots broke out in the city in which several rich men were killed and their houses looted by the populace.[53] Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

In late fall, Empress Anna twice sent embassies to Dushan trying to convince him to surrender Kantakouzenos, but the Serbian ruler, seeking to extract more profit from their alliance, refused.[54] Kantakouzenos' fortunes began to improve when a delegation of the nobles of Thessaly reached him and offered to accept his authority. Kantakouzenos appointed his relative John Angelos as the province's governor. Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery

Although in effect a semi-independent ruler, Angelos was both loyal and effective. He soon brought Epirus—which he had governed in Andronikos II's name in 1340—into the Kantakouzenist camp, and even made gains in Thessaly at the expense of the Catalans of Athens.[55] Another effort by Kantakouzenos to break from Serbia into Macedonia failed before Serres.[56] Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

In the meantime, Kantakouzenos' wife Irene called upon the aid of the Bulgarians to help relieve the blockade of Demotika by the regency's army. Ivan Alexander dispatched troops, but although they clashed with the regency's forces, they made no effort in assisting the city, instead pillaging the countryside.

At this point, Kantakouzenos' position was greatly strengthened by the intervention of his old friend, Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery

Umur Bey, who in late 1342 or early 1343 sailed up the Evros river with a fleet of 300 ships and 29,000 (according to Kantakouzenos) or 15,000 (according to Turkish sources) men-in-arms and relieved Demotika both from the siege by the regency's forces and from the depredations of the Bulgarians. After pillaging Thrace for a few months, Umur was forced to retreat to Asia at the onset of winter, to which the Turks were unaccustomed.[58] Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

This turn of events displeased Dushan, for Kantakouzenos now had an independent power base and was less reliant on the Serbian ruler's goodwill. The final rift between Kantakouzenos and Dushan occurred in April 1343, when Kantakouzenos persuaded the town of Berroia, besieged by the Serbs, to surrender to him instead of Dushan. This was followed by the surrender of several other forts in the area to Kantakouzenos, including Servia and Platamon. Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

These moves strengthened Kantakouzenos' position and independence from Dushan, thereby thwarting the latter's plans for expansion. Realizing that he had little to gain by continuing to support Kantakouzenos, Dushan opened negotiations with the regency and concluded a formal alliance with them in the summer of 1343.[59] Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

Meanwhile, Kantakouzenos and his army camped outside Thessalonica, hoping to take the city through the aid of his supporters within the walls. Apokaukos arrived at the head of the Byzantine fleet to aid the Zealots, pinning Kantakouzenos down in Macedonia between Thessalonica and Dushan's possessions. Once again Umur of Aydin came to Kantakouzenos' assistance with a fleet carrying some 6,000 men, Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery

whereupon Apokaukos and his ships fled from the superior Turkish navy. Nevertheless, a reinforced Thessalonica was able to hold out against a siege by Kantakouzenos and Umur.[60] Although he had failed to take Thessalonica, the presence of his Turkish allies allowed Kantakouzenos to turn his attention towards Thrace. In late 1343 he left his son Manuel as governor of Berroia and western Macedonia and marched towards Demotika, Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

relieving the city and seeing his wife for the first time in almost two years. On his way to Demotika, Kantakouzenos had seized a number of fortresses in Thrace, although another siege of Peritheorion failed. He followed up with a successful campaign that took Komotini and other fortresses in the Rhodope area.[61] Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery

Over the next couple of years, the towns and forts of Thrace came over to Kantakouzenos' camp one by one, but at great cost, as his mainly Turkish troops repeatedly plundered the countryside.[62] The shifting tide of the war did not go unnoticed in the opposing camp. In late 1344, several prominent personalities defected to Kantakouzenos, including John Vatatzes, a general and relative by marriage to both the Patriarch and Apokaukos, Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery

the Patriarch of Jerusalem Lazaros, and, most importantly, Manuel Apokaukos, son of the megas doux and governor of Adrianople.

At the same time, the regency's alliance with Dushan was paying dividends for the Serbian ruler alone, as he had free rein to plunder and occupy all of Macedonia and Epirus. By the end of 1345, only Thessalonica, held by the Zealots, Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery

Serres and the surrounding region, which remained loyal to the regency, along with Berroia, which still held out under Manuel Kantakouzenos, remained outside Serbian control.[65]

These developments placed the regency in considerable difficulties. In spite of Apokaukos' adroit management of the state's finances, the devastation caused by the prolonged wars had emptied the treasury. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery

In August 1343, Empress Anna was forced to pawn the crown jewels to Venice for 30,000 ducats. In addition, Turkish ravages in Thrace led to a scarcity of food in Constantinople.[66] Hoping for Western aid, Anna appealed to the Pope, promising the submission of herself, John V, Apokaukos and even the Patriarch to his authority, and began persecuting the pro-Kantakouzenists and anti-Western Palamists. Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery

In 1344, the regency concluded a further alliance with Bulgaria, which required the surrender of Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and nine other towns in northern Thrace along the river Evros. Nevertheless, after their occupation, Ivan Alexander refrained from direct action against Kantakouzenos' forces operating in southern and eastern Thrace.[68] Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery

At the same time, Momchil, a formerbrigand whom Kantakouzenos had entrusted with control over the region of Merope in the Rhodope mountains, switched over to the regency.[69] In early 1344, Kantakouzenos was deprived of Umur and the bulk of his army, who had sailed home to repel a Latin attack on his main harbour, Smyrna. On their way, the Turkish force was attacked by the Serbs under Gregory Preljub, Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery

but prevailed at the Battle of Stephaniana.[70] Nevertheless, Kantakouzenos was able to ward off joint attacks by Dushan and Apokaukos until Umur returned to his aid the next spring at the head of an army of 20,000 men.[71]

Kantakouzenos and Umur raided Bulgaria, and then turned against Momchil. The latter had exploited the power vacuum in the Rhodope, an effective no man's land between the Serbs, Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery

Bulgarians and Byzantines, to set himself up as a quasi-independent prince, supported by a substantial force of around 5,000 men. On 7 July 1345, the two armies clashed at Peritheorion. Momchil's army was crushed, and he himself fell in the field.[69] Soon afterwards, Dushan arrived before Serres and laid siege to the city. Rejecting demands by Kantakouzenos to withdraw, Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery

a clash appeared inevitable until the murder of Alexios Apokaukos in Constantinople forced Kantakouzenos to direct his attention there.In early 1345, Kantakouzenos sent Franciscan monks to the regency to make an offer of conciliation, but it was rejected. Despite this show of confidence, the regency's position remained insecure. The defections of the previous winter had weakened their control of the capital, and in response Apokaukos launched a series of proscriptions. Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery

He also ordered the construction of a new prison to house political prisoners. On 11 June 1345, while undertaking an inspection of the prison unaccompanied by his bodyguard, Apokaukos was lynched by the prisoners.

When Kantakouzenos heard the news he marched towards Constantinople, urged by his supporters, who expected that the death of Apokaukos would result in the collapse of the regency. Kantakouzenos was more sceptical, and indeed the Patriarch and Empress Anna quickly brought the situation under control.[75Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery

] At the same time, Kantakouzenos suffered a series of reverses. These began when John Apokaukos, the nominal governor of Thessalonica, openly announced his allegiance to Kantakouzenos and his plans to surrender the city. He was immediately thwarted by the Zealots who rose up again and killed Apokaukos and the other Kantakouzenist sympathizers in the city.[76] Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

Then John Vatatzes, who had defected to Kantakouzenos the year before, once more switched sides. He attempted to take some of Kantakouzenos' Turkish allies and a few Thracian cities with him, but was murdered soon afterwards.[77] Finally, Kantakouzenos lost the support of his most crucial ally, Umur of Aydin, who left with his army to confront the crusaders in Smyrna. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

Kantakouzenos replaced him by allying himself with the Emir of Saruhan and, more importantly, Orhan I of the rising Ottoman emirate in Bithynia.[29][78]

In September 1345, after a long siege, Serres fell to Dushan. The Serbian ruler, who by now controlled about half of the pre-1341 Byzantine realm, was spurred by this success to lay his own claim on the Byzantine throne. Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

Consequently, on Easter Sunday, 16 April 1346, he was crowned "Emperor of the Serbs and the Romans" in Skopje, thereby founding the Serbian Empire.[79] This development prompted Kantakouzenos, who had only been acclaimed Emperor in 1341, to have himself formally crowned in a ceremony held at Adrianople on 21 May, presided over by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Lazaros. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

Lazaros then convened a synod of bishops to excommunicate the Patriarch of Constantinople, John Kalekas.[80] Not long afterwards, Kantakouzenos' ties with his new ally Orhan were cemented through the marriage of his daughter Theodora Kantakouzene to the Ottoman emir at an elaborate ceremony in Selymbria.[81]

For the regency, the situation had become desperate. Empress Anna's requests for aid from foreign powers proved unsuccessful, as both Orhan and the beylik of Karasi rebuffed her overtures for assistance.[82] Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

Only Balik, the ruler of Dobruja, sent an elite force of 1,000 men under his brothers Theodore and Dobrotitsa, but they were routed by a Kantakouzenist army under protostrator George Phakrases.[83] The emirate of Saruhan offered a more substantial force of 6,000 men in the summer of 1346, but instead of fighting, they plundered Thrace and then defected to join Kantakouzenos' army.[84Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

] Revenue remained scarce for the regency, the Genoese once again seized the imperial possessions of Chios and Phocaea, and on 19 May 1346, a part of the Hagia Sophia cathedral collapsed, a terrible omen in the eyes of the capital's inhabitants.[85]

By the summer of 1346, Kantakouzenos stood on the verge of victory. He left Thrace under the control of his son Matthew and moved on to Selymbria, close to Constantinople.[86Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

] He did not attack the capital, but waited for almost a year for the city to surrender. In his memoirs, he explains that he did not want to turn his Turks on the city, although contemporaries such as Gregoras accused him of indecision and of needlessly prolonging the war.[87]

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The two small upper register panels show a rather traditional Annunciation scene, with the usual dove representing the Holy Spirit near Mary.[1DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

The two sets of panels, unlike those on the interior, are compositionally very different. The figures occupy distinctly separate niches and the colour schemes of the grisaille saints and donors contrast sharply.[20]

Like many mid-1400s polyptychs, the exterior panels borrow heavily from the Ghent Altarpiece, which was completed in 1432. The combination of naturalistic donor portraits with grisaille imitation statues of saints is borrowed from that work, as is the treatment of the Annunciation.[47] HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

Van der Weyden used iconography in the Beaune exterior panels not found in his other works, which suggests Rolin may have commissioned the altarpiece to follow van Eyck's example.[19] Van der Weyden was not inclined merely to imitate though, and arranged the panels and figures in a concentrated and compact format.[47] Jacobs writes that "the exterior presents the most consistent pictorial rendering of trompe l'oeil sculpture to date". HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

Gabriel's scroll and Mary's lily appear to be made of stone; the figures cast shadows against the back of their niches, creating a sense of depth which adds to the illusion.

The exterior panels are drab, according to Blum, who writes that on Rolin's panel the most colourful figure is the red angel, which, with its gold helmet and keys, "emerges like an apparition".[19] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Rolin and de Salins can be identified by the coats-of-arms held by the angels;[1] husband and wife kneel at cloth-covered prie-dieux (portable altars) displaying their emblems. Although De Salins was reputedly pious and charitable, and even perhaps the impetus for the building of the hospice, she is placed on the exterior right,[DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

traditionally thought of as an inferior position corresponding to Hell, linking her to Eve, original sin and the Fall of man.Van Eyck had earlier portrayed Rolin in the c. 1435 Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, and the patron is recognizable from that work; both portraits show similar lips, a large chin and somewhat pointed ears. In van Eyck's portrait, Rolin is presented as perhaps pompous and arrogant; HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

here – ten years later – he appears more thoughtful and concerned with humility.[50][51] Campbell notes wryly that van der Weyden may have been able to disguise the sitter's ugliness and age, and that the unusual shape of his mouth may have been downplayed. He writes that while "van Eyck impassively recorded, van der Weyden imposed a stylised and highly personal vision of the subject". HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

Van Eyck's depiction was most likely the more accurate; van der Weyden embellished, mainly by lengthening the nose, enlarging the eyes and raising the eyebrows.The panels contain quotations in Latin from several biblical texts. They appear either as lettering seemingly sewn into the edges of the figures' clothes (mostly hidden in the folds), or directly on the surface of the central inner panel.[5HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

2] The latter occur in four instances; two pairs of text float on either side of Christ, two around Michael. Beneath the lily, in white paint[36] are the words of Christ: VENITE BENEDICTI PATRIS MEI POSSIDETE PARATUM VOBIS REGNUM A CONSTITUTIONE MUNDI ("Come ye blessed of my father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundations of the world"). DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The text beneath the sword reads: DISCEDITE A ME MALEDICTI IN IGNEM ÆTERNUM QUI PARATUS EST DIABOLO ET ANGELIS EJUS ("Depart from me ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels").[C]

The inscriptions follow the 14th-century convention of showing figures, imagery and motifs associated with the saved to Christ's right, and those of the damned to his left. HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

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The words beneath the lily (the benedicti) read upwards towards Heaven, their curves leaning in towards Christ. The text to the left (the maledicti) flows in the opposite direction; from the highest point downwards. The inscriptions to Christ's right are decorated in light colours, to the extent that they are usually difficult to discern in reproductions. The lettering opposite faces downwards, and is applied with black paint. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

A number of panels are in poor condition, owing variously to darkening of the colours, accumulated dirt, and poor decisions during early restorations.[54] The altarpiece stayed in the chapel from the time of its installation until the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution, when it was hidden in the attic for decades. When it was brought out, the nude souls – thought to be offensive – were painted over with clothing and flames; DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

it was moved to a different room, hung 3 metres (10 ft) from the ground, and portions were whitewashed. In 1836, the Commission of Antiquities retrieved it and began plans to have it restored.[55] Four decades later it underwent major restoration – between 1875 and 1878 – when many of these additions were removed, but not without significant damage to the original paintwork,[54]HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard

such as the loss of pigment to the wall-hangings in the donor panels, which were originally red and gold.[56] In general, the central inside panels are better preserved than the interior and exterior wings.[54] De Salins' panel is damaged; its colours have darkened with age; originally the niche was a light blue (today it is light green) and the shield held by the angel was painted in blue.[54]APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

The panels were laterally divided so that both sides could be displayed simultaneously,[1] and a number of the panels were transferred to canvas.Since before 1000 the Last Judgement had been developing as a complex subject in art, and from the 11th century became a very common subject as a wall-painting in churches, typically placed over the main door in the west wall, where it would be seen by worshippers as they left the building.[57] HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan

Elements of the image had gradually been added, with Saint Michael weighing the souls a late arrival, first seen in 12th-century Italy. Since it has no biblical basis it is often thought to draw from pre-Christian parallels, such as depictions of Anubis performing a similar role in Ancient Egyptian art.[58]In medieval English a wall-painting of the Last Judgement was called a doom.[59]  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Van der Weyden may have drawn influence from Stefan Lochner's c. 1435 Last Judgement, and a similar c. 1420 painting now in the Hotel de Ville, Diest, Belgium. Points of reference include Christ raised over a Great Deësis of saints, apostles and clergy above depictions of the entrance to Heaven and the gates of Hell. In both earlier works Christ perches on a rainbow; in the Deësis panel he also is above a globe. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

While these two earlier works are filled with dread and chaos, van der Weyden's panels display the same sorrowful, but self-controlled dignity of his best works. This is most evident in the manner in which the oversized and dispassionate Christ orchestrates the scene from Heaven.[60]

The work's moralising tone is apparent from some of its more overtly dark iconography, HP 550 CPU Fan

HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

its choice of saints, and how the scales tilt far lower beneath the weight of the damned than the saved. The damned to Christ's left are more numerous and less detailed than the saved to his right. In these ways it can be compared to Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece, which served much the same purpose, having been commissioned for the Monastery of St. Anthony in Isenheim, which cared for the dying. DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

The similarities between the altarpiece and the c. late 1460s Last Judgement by van der Weyden's apprentice Hans Memling has led art historians to suggest a common tie, Florentine banker Angelo Tani, gave commissions to van der Weyden before his death in 1464. Because Memling's apprenticeship post-dated the completion and installation of the altarpiece, HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

art historians speculate that Tani or Memling would have seen it in situ, or that Memling came into possession of a workshop design.[61]Two additional works with similar depictions of Christ – a Martin Schongauer at the Louvre dated c. 1469 and another in Germany from about 1493 – suggest the existence of the input of members of his workshop.[62] Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan

In Memling's work the Deësis and Christ's placement, above St Michael with his scales, are almost identical to the Beaune Altarpiece.[35] Despite the marked similarities, the crowded scenes in Memling's Last Judgement contrast sharply with "the hushed serenity of Rogier's composition," according to Lane,[35] and in a mirror image of van der Weyden's altarpiece, Memling shows the saved outweighing the damned in St Michael's scales. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

The Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald was a set of four large panels painted by the Flemish painter Rogier van der Weyden that decorated one wall of a court-room in the Town Hall of Brussels. They represented the Justice of Trajan, a Roman emperor, and The Justice of Herkinbald, a legendary Duke of Brabant. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The panels were intended as a reminder to judges to dispense impartial justice and were admired by generations of visitors, including Albrecht Dürer.[1] They were destroyed when the city was bombarded by the French in 1695 and are now known only from descriptions and from a tapestry copy in the Historical Museum of Bern.[2][3] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

The work is thought to have preoccupied van der Weyden for several years, and is believed to have been, in conception and excution, on a scale and breath and skill to equal Jan van Eyck'sGhent Altarpiece. The panels were recorded and described in a number of sourced until the 17th century; espicially detailed are the inscriptions on the frames, which are likely the same as those contained on the edges of the tapestry.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan

Each panel was about eleven feet in height and together they spanned a distance of about thirty five feet. The theme of the panels was justice safeguarded by divine intervention.[5] The legends of Trajan and Herkinbald appear to occur together for the first time in 1308 in the Alphabetum Narrationum (Alphabet of Tales), a collection of over 800 tales attributed to Arnold of Liége(previously to Etienne de Besançon)  HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan

arranged by themes and intended to be used as a basis forhomilies. The theme Iustitia (Justice) included just these two legends, although the legend of Trajan is given in a slightly different version from that depicted in the paintings and tapestry.[6]

The first panel showed a widow begging justice from Trajan for the murder of her son and Trajan ordering the execution of the soldier accused by the woman (in the tale in the Alphabetum NarrationumASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

Trajan offered the widow his son as a replacement for her murdered son). The second panel depicted the story in the Golden Legend of Pope Gregory I's miraculous resurrection and conversion of Trajan, thus releasing him from Purgatory. Gregory is shown holding Trajan's exhumed skull, in which the tongue has been miraculously preserved and thus able to utter the death sentence, demonstrating the justness of that sentence. FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan

Van der Weyden is known to have portrayed himself as a bystander in this scene. The third panel depicted Herkinbald on his death bed slitting the throat of his nephew, who had committed a rape. The fourth panel showed Herkinbald miraculously receiving the Host, despite refusing to confess the slaying of his nephew as a sinful act.[2][7] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Both Nicholas of Cusa (in 1453) and Dubuisson-Aubenay (in the 1620s) mentioned that the work contained a self-portrait, generally though to be faithfully reproduced in the 'Herkinbald slaying his nephew' passage.

The tapestry dates from about 1450. It measures 461 cm by 1053 cm (about 15 feet by 35 feet) and was probably woven in eitherTournai or Brussels,  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

two important centres of tapestry manufacture and both associated with van der Weyden. It is a wall tapestry, woven in wool, silk, and gold and silver thread.

It was commissioned by George of Saluzzo on his appointment as Bishop of Laussanne in 1440. Saluzzo wanted a tapestry depicting justice scenes for the courtroom above his chapter house. HP Probook 4325s laptop keyboard

He apparently knew that van der Weyden had painted these scenes and ordered them copied. It was not an exact copy but the earliest surviving work which depicts the same scenes.[7]

In the passages depicting Pope Gregory I, one of the bystanders is more finely and carefully worked than the others, and this is almost certainly a copy of the self-portrait that van der Weyden had originally incorporated in his painting. HP Pavilion dv6-3004tu laptop keyboard

It is one of only two self-portraits that survive, both as copies (of which the other has two versions), of van der Weyden. Campbell remarks it gives a better impression of van der Weyden's disdainful appearance than the other.

Matthias Grünewald (c. 1470 – August 31, 1528) was a German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the expressive and intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century.Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

His first name is also given as Mathis and his surname as Gothart or Neithardt. Only ten paintings—several consisting of many panels—and thirty-five drawings survive, all religious, although many others were lost at sea in the Baltic on their way to Sweden as war booty. His reputation was obscured until the late nineteenth century, and many of his paintings were attributed to Albrecht Dürer, who is now seen as his stylistic antithesis. HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard

His largest and most famous work is the Isenheim Altarpiece created 1506 to 1515 or perhaps 1512 to 1516.

The details of his life are unusually unclear for a painter of his significance at this date, despite the fact that his commissions show that he had reasonable recognition in his own lifetime. The first source for his biography is the German art historian Joachim von Sandrart, who describes him around 1505 working on the exterior decoration of an altarpiece by Albrecht Dürer in Frankfurt. HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard

This is the sort of work typically performed by apprentices and therefore an estimate of his age can be reached, suggesting he was born in 1480-83.[1] Sandrart records that Grünewald had as an apprentice the painter Hans Grimmer, who would become famous in his time, but most of whose works were lost in the Thirty Years' War.[2] Sandrart describes Grünewald as leading a withdrawn and melancholy life, and marrying unhappily.[3] TOSHIBA Satellite L40-17U laptop keyboard

More recent investigations have provided further information on Grünewald's life. In 1511 he became court artist of Uriel von Gemmingen, Archbishop of Mainz, and he also worked for the next archbishop, Albert of Brandenburg. In 1512 he settled in nearbyFrankfurt where records indicate he bought a house and married Anna, a converted Jew, then probably aged 18.  Lenovo 25-011670 laptop keyboard

The marriage was not happy and in 1523 she would be institutionalised with what is variously described as mental illness and demonic possession.[4]

From 1512 to 1514 or 1515 he worked on the Isenheim altarpiece, apparently in partnership with another Mathis, variously surnamed Nithart, Neithart, von Würzburg (after his place of birth), or Gothardt. Compaq Presario CQ71-402SA laptop keyboard

Grünewald seems to have left Isenheim in a hurry, returning to Frankfurt, and his subsequent poverty suggests he was not fully paid for the altarpiece. In 1527 he entered the services of the wealthy and noble von Erbach family, apparently with a child (whether his own or adopted, is unclear). He most probably died in 1532, although sources vary.[5] HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

There has been considerable uncertainty about the details of his life. In 1938 Walter Karl Zülch published the theory that Grünewald and his partner Nithart/Gothardt were the same person; this Nithart/Gothardt was a painter, engineer, and "water artist" born in Würzburg in the 1460s or maybe 1470s and probably dying in 1528.  HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

This theory is now generally discredited, although more recent historians believe Nithart/Gothardt may have pretended to be Grünewald for business reasons.[6]

Grünewald's first dated painting is probably in Munich, dated 1503 on a much later note which apparently records an older inscription. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

There is much speculation about Grünewald's politics, with some people associating him with the Reformation or support for the lower classes. He may have left the Archbishop of Mainz because of sympathies either with the German Peasants' War, or Lutheranism (he had some Lutheran pamphlets and papers at his death). GATEWAY MX8741 Laptop Keyboard

Only religious works are included in his small surviving corpus, the most famous being the Isenheim Altarpiece, completed 1515, now in the Musée d'Unterlinden, Colmar. Its nine images on twelve panels are arranged on double wings to present three views (rather than just the open and closed states of triptych altarpieces), according to the season or occasion. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

The first view with the outer wings closed shows a Crucifixion flanked by Saint Sebastien and Saint Anthony, with a predella showing the entombment. When the first set of wings is opened, the AnnunciationAngelic Concert (sometimes interpreted as the Birth of EcclesiaMary bathing Christ, and Resurrection are displayed. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

The third view discloses a carved and gilded wood altarpiece by Nikolaus Hagenauer, flanked by the Temptation of St. Anthony and Anthony's visit to Saint Paul. As well as being by far his greatest surviving work, the altarpiece contains most of his surviving painting by surface area, being 2.65 metres high and over 5 metres wide at its fullest extent. Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

His other works are in Germany, except for a small Crucifixion in Washington and another in Basel, Switzerland. Around 1510 he was asked to paint four saints in grisaille for the outside of the wings of Albrecht Dürer's Heller Altarpiece (de) in Frankfurt. Dürer's work was destroyed by fire and survives only in copies, but fortunately the wings have survived, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

one pair of saints being displayed in Frankfurt's Municipal Art Gallery and the other in Karlsruhe's, Staatliche Kunsthalle. There are also the lateTauberbischofsheim altarpiece in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, and the Establishment of the Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome(1517–1519), Augustiner Museum, Freiburg. A large panel of Saint Erasmus and Saint Maurice in Munich probably dates from 1521–24, and was apparently part of a larger altarpiece project, the rest of which has not survived. HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

Other works are in Munich, Karlsruhe,Aschaffenberg and Stuppach (:de). Altogether four somber and awe-filled Crucifixions survive. The visionary character of his work, with its expressive colour and line, is in stark contrast to Dürer's works. His paintings are known for their dramatic forms, vivid colors, and depiction of light. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

The Protestant theologian Philipp Melanchthon is one of the few contemporary writers to refer to Grünewald, who is rather puzzlingly described as "moderate" in style, when compared with Dürer and Cranach; what paintings this judgement is based on is uncertain. By the end of the century, when the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, embarked on his quest to secure as many Dürer paintings as possible, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

the Isenheim Altarpiece was already generally believed to be a Dürer. In the late 19th century he was rediscovered, and became something of a cult figure, with the angst-laden expressionism—and absence of any direct classicism—of the Isenheim Altarpiece appealing to both German Nationalists and Modernists. Joris-Karl Huysmans promoted his art enthusiastically in both novels and journalism, rather as Proust did that of Vermeer. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

His apparent sympathies with the peasants in the Peasants' War also brought him admiration from the political left.

The composer Paul Hindemith based his 1938 opera Mathis der Maler on the life of Grünewald during the German Peasants' War; scene Six includes a partial re-enactment of some scenes from the Isenheim Altarpiece. DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

Elias Canetti wrote his novel Auto-da-Fé surrounded by reproductions of the Isenheim altarpiece stuck to the wall.

German author W.G. Sebald traces the life story of Grünewald in his first literary work, After Nature. This book-length prose-poem uses the preoccupations of Grünewald and especially his creation of the Isenheim Altarpiece to communicate an intensely apocalyptic vision of a world that has abandoned nature.[7SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

] The Isenheim Altarpiece also features in the last chapter of Sebald's novel The Emigrants, in which the painter Max Ferber describes his intuition of the extreme power of pain after seeing Grünewald's work

The Isenheim Altarpiece is an altarpiece sculpted and painted by, respectively, the Germans Niclaus of Haguenau andMatthias Grünewald in 1512–1516.[1] It is on display at the Unterlinden Museum at Colmar, Alsace, in France. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

The museum celebrated the 500th anniversary of this masterpiece in 2012.[2] By far Grünewald's greatest and largest work, it was painted for the Monastery of St. Anthony in Isenheim near Colmar, which specialized in hospital work. The Antonine monks of the monastery were noted for their care of plague sufferers as well as their treatment of skin diseases, such asergotism. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The image of the crucified Christ is pitted with plague-type sores, showing patients that Jesus understood and shared their afflictions.

With the exception of certain holy days, the wings of the altarpiece were kept closed, displaying The Crucifixion framed on the left by the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian pierced by arrows, and on the right by Saint Anthony the Great, remaining placid although he is being taunted by a frightening monster. SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan

The two saints protect and heal the sick, Saint Anthony as the patron saint of the victims of Saint Anthony's fire and Saint Sebastian, whose aid was invoked to ward off the plague. Grünewald's Crucifixion stands as one of the most poignant representations of this scene in Western art due to the artist's masterful depiction of horrific agony, with Christ's emaciated body writhing under the pain of the nails driven through his hands and feet.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

This body covered with sores and riddled with thorns must have terrified the sick, but also left no doubt about Christ's suffering, thus comforting them in their communion with the Saviour, whose pain they shared. Mary, the mother of Jesus, is shown at Christ's right, collapsing in anguish in the arms of John, the beloved disciple of Christ, and shrouded in a large piece of white cloth.ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

At Christ's left, John the Baptist is accompanied by a lamb, symbolising the sacrifice of Jesus. The presence of John the Baptist is anachronistic. Beheaded by order of Herod in 29 AD, he could not possibly have witnessed the death of Christ. This last figure announces the New Testament by crying out in Latin, illum oportet crescere me autem minui (Vulgate, John3:30), "He must increase, but I must decrease."[John 3:30] HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

The inclusion of John the Baptist in this scene is symbolic, since he is considered as the last of the prophets to announce the coming of the Messiah.

The outer wings of the Isenheim Altarpiece were opened for important festivals of the liturgical year, particular those in honour of the Virgin Mary. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Thus are revealed four scenes: the left wing represents the Annunciation during which thearchangel Gabriel comes to announce to Mary that she will give birth to Jesus, the son of God. The Virgin Mary is depicted in a chapel to indicate the sacred character of the event. In the central corpus, the Concert of Angels and the Nativity are not independent scenes but instead fit within a unified concept: DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

the viewer witnesses Christ's coming to earth as a newborn baby, who will be led to combat the forces of evil personified by certain of the angels, disturbing in their physical appearance. A number of symbols provide keys to aid in interpretation: the enclosed garden represents Mary's womb and is a sign of her perpetual virginity, the rose bush without thorns refers to her as free of original sin, the fig tree symbolises mother's milk. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

The bed, the bucket and the chamber pot underscore the human nature of Christ. Lastly, the right wing shows the Resurrection, in which Christ emerges from the tomb and ascends into Heaven bathed in light transfiguring the countenance of the Crucified into the face of God. The Resurrection and the Ascension are therefore encapsulated in a single image.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Saint Augustine and Guy Guers, Saint Anthony, Two Bearers of Offerings, Saint Jerome, Christ and the Twelve Apostles by Niclaus of Haguenau With its inner wings open, the Altarpiece allowed pilgrims and the afflicted to venerate Saint Anthony, protector and healer of Saint Anthony's fire. Saint Anthony occupies the place of honour at the centre of the corpus and at his side a pig is depicted, the emblem of the Antonite order. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

On his left and right, two bearers of offerings illustrate these contributions in kind, an important source of income for the Antonites. This central section is framed by Saint Augustine and Saint Jerome, two of the four great fathers of the Latin Church. Guy Guyers, who had commissioned the Altarpiece, is depicted kneeling at the feet of Saint Augustine. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

- Visit of Saint Anthony to Saint Paul the Hermit The two hermits meet in a stunning landscape, intended to represent the Theban Desert. Grünewald created a fantastic universe, surrounding the date palm with a strange mixture of vegetation, in marked contrast with the calmness and tranquillity of the encounter, in which the animals in attendance take part, with the crow bringing two morsels of bread to the two recluses.  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

In this dreamlike scene, medicinal plants, painted in naturalistic fashion, sprout at the feet of the two main figures.

- Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons This panel depicts Saint Anthony being tormented by monstrous creatures sent by Satan. Trampled to the ground, beaten with sticks, torn by claws and bitten, Saint Anthony appeals to God for help who sends angels to combat these evil demons. Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

In the lower left corner, the being with webbed feet and a distended belly seems to personify the disease caused by ergot poisoning, resulting in swelling and ulcerous growths.

The altarpiece’s location in Alsace has meant that, in recent times, control of the work has alternated between France and Germany according to the fortunes of war.[3] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

Following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71 and the passing of control to Germany, German writers developed the concept that the altarpiece somehow represented the essential character of the German nation. The work subsequently became an object of extraordinary scenes of veneration in Munich during its temporary relocation there during the First World War, and again when Alsace passed back into French hands at the end of the War [4] Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

In the immediate postwar period the altarpiece, with its strong overtones of violent sensation and emotion, became a natural source of inspiration for many painters in the influential Expressionist school, such as George Grosz and Otto Dix;.[5][6] It also provided the basis for Hindemith's modernist opera Mathis der Maler. In the later 1930s, Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

it appears to have suffered a temporary decline in official esteem in Germany as a result of the National Socialists’ branding of both Expressionism and of Hindemith’s work as "degenerate".[7]

Due to renovation work in the former convent and until April 2015, the Isenheim Altarpiece is on view in the local Dominican Church, located about 200 metres from the Unterlinden Museum. Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

This temporary transfer offers an exceptional and unprecedented opportunity to present, alongside Grünewald and Haguenau’s monumental masterwork, all three painted works by the Colmar native Martin Schongauer held in Colmar: the Orlier Altarpiece (1470–1475), the Altarpiece of the Dominicans (c. 1480) and the Virgin of the Rose Bush (1473). Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

The altarpiece depicting Saint Catherine and Saint Lawrence (c. 1510) and sculptures from the Late Middle Ages round out the presentation. Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery,Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery,Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery,Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery,Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

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The Beaune Altarpiece (c. 1445–50), often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by theFlemish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil on oak panels, with parts later transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels; six of these are painted on both sides. It retains some of its original frames.[1] French Macaron Pillow,Creative Cushion - Matty's 

Six outer panels (or shutters) are hinged, when folded they show an exterior view of saints and the donors. The inner panels contain scenes from the Last Judgement and are arranged across two registers. The large central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgement, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

The panel on Christ's far right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a continuous landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel to their final destinations after receiving judgement.

The altarpiece was commissioned in 1443 for the Hospices de Beaune by Nicolas Rolin, SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

Chancellor of the Duchy of Burgundy, and his wife Guigone de Salins, who is buried in front of the altarpiece's original location in the hospice.[2] It is one of van der Weyden's most ambitious works, equal to his Prado Deposition and lost Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald.[3] It remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

It is in poor condition and was moved in the 20th century to shield it from sunlight and better protect it from the almost 300,000 visitors it receives annually.[2] It has suffered from extensive paint loss, the wearing and darkening of its colours, and an accumulation of dirt. In addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. The two painted sides of the outer panels have been separated so both can be shown simultaneously; SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

traditionally, the shutters would have been opened only on selected Sundays or church holidays.

Nicolas Rolin was appointed Chancellor of Burgundy by Philip the Good in 1422, a position he held for the next 33 years.[4] His tenure with the duke made him a wealthy man, and he donated a large portion of his fortune for the foundation of the Hôtel-Dieu in Beaune.[5] SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

It is not known why he decided to build in Beaune rather than in his birthplace of Autun. He may have chosen Beaune because it lacked a hospital and an outbreak of the plague decimated the population between 1438 and 1440.[6] Furthermore, when in 1435 the Treaty of Arras failed to bring a cessation to the longstanding hostility and animosity between Burgundy and France, SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

the town suffered brutal ravages and famine from écorcheurs (marauding bands) who roamed the countryside during the late 1430s and early 1440s.[7] The hospice was built after Rolin gained permission from Pope Eugene IV in 1441,[8] and it was eventually consecrated on 31 December 1452. In conjunction, Rolin established the religious order of "Les sœurs hospitalières de Beaune".[6] . Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

Rolin dedicated the hospice to St Anthony Abbot, who was commonly associated with sickness and healing during the Middle Ages.

In the hospice's founding charter, signed in August 1443, Rolin wrote that "disregarding all human concerns and in the interest of my salvation, Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

desiring by a favourable trade to exchange for celestial goods temporal ones, that I might from divine goodness render those goods which are perishable for ones which are eternal ... in gratitude for the goods which the Lord, source of all wealth, has heaped upon me, from now on and for always, I found a hospital."[10][11] Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery

In the late 1450s, only a few years before he died, he added a provision to the hospital charter stipulating that the Mass for the Dead be offered twice daily.[12] Rolin's wife, Guigone de Salins,[A] played a major role in the foundation, as probably did his nephew Jan Rolin. De Salins lived and served at the hospice until her own death in 1470.[4] Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery

Documents regarding the artwork's commissioning survive and, unusually for a Netherlandish altarpiece, the artist, patron, place of installation and date of completion are all known.[8] It was intended as the centrepiece for the chapel,[1] and Rolin approached van der Weyden around 1443, when the hospital was founded. The altarpiece was ready by 1451, the year the chapel was consecrated.[8] Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

Painted in van der Weyden's Brussels workshop – most likely with the aid of apprentices – the completed panels were then transported to the hospice.[13] The altarpiece is first mentioned in a 1501 inventory, when it was positioned on the high altar.

The polyptych was commissioned to provide both comfort and warning to the dying.[15] SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

It was intended to remind them of their faith, and direct their last thoughts towards the divine. This is evident in its positioning in the chapel, within view of the patients' beds.[14] Rolin specified that 30 beds be placed within sight of the altarpiece for those too ill to walk,[16] where it was visible to them through a pierced screen.[17] There were usually only two patients per bed, luxurious at a time when six to fifteen in a large bed was more common.[14HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

] Medical care was expensive and primitive in the 15th century; the spiritual care of patients was as important as the treatment of physical ailments.[15]

Saints Sebastian and Anthony represent healing. Both were associated with bubonic plague, and intended to reassure the dying as intercessors with the divine.[14]  HP Mini 110-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

St Michael developed a cult following in 15th-century France, most likely because he was thought to have appeared to Joan of Arc. He was seen as a guardian of the dead, a crucial role given the disasters wrought by plague in the region. There was a severe outbreak in 1441–42, just before Rolin founded the hospital. Pilgrimage to Mont Saint-Michel, Normandy reached a peak around this time. HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard

According toBarbara Lane, patients were unlikely to survive their stay, yet St Michael offered consolation as they could "gaze on his figure immediately above the altar of the chapel every time the altarpiece was opened. Like Saints Anthony and Sebastian on the exterior of the polyptych, the archangel offered ... hope that they would overcome their physical ills." ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

The altarpiece is composed of fifteen separate paintings on nine panels, six of which are painted on both sides.[1] The closed view comprises two upper and four lower panels on the outside of the shutters. The upper panels are separately hinged and able to close independently of the others. When all the shutters are opened, the viewer is exposed to the expansive "Last Judgement" interior panels.[19] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

These document the possible spiritual fates of the viewers: that they might reach Heaven or Hell, salvation or damnation; stark alternatives appropriate for a hospice. The exterior panels serve as a funerary monument for the donors. Art historian Lynn Jacobs believes that the "dual function of the work accounts for the choice of the theme of the Last Judgement on its interior".[20]HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Laptop Keyboard

The work clearly distinguishes between figures of the divine, earthly and hellish realms.[21] Perhaps following Jan van Eyck's c. 1432 Ghent Altarpiece, the polyptych wings form an inverted T-shape. When the shutters are closed the panels resemble an upside-down cross, a form common in 15th-century carved retables:[22]an elevated central panel allowed additional space for a narrative scene, HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

to depict a heavenly vista, a single large figure, or a crucifixion with space for the cross to extend above the other panels, an innovation seen in van der Weyden's Descent from the Cross. This shape echoes typical configuration of Gothic churches, where the naves often extended past the aisles into the apse or choir. The imagery of the outer panels is set in the earthly realm with the donors, and saints painted in grisaille to imitate sculpture. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard

According to Jacobs, the treatment of the panels as a whole with van der Weyden's "elimination of thresholds is quite remarkable and indeed astonishing in the history of the triptych."[24] As with his Braque Triptych, the background landscape extends across each panel of the lower register.[25] The celestial sphere, towards which the saved move, is dramatically presented with a "radiant gold background, spanning almost the entire width of the altarpiece".[26] COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

Motifs and arrangements of figures extend along the lower panels from one to the next,[21] to the extent that the separations between panels are ignored with the intersections cutting figures in two.[25] This is particularly evident on the lower register where each panel division intersects figures, so that parts of figures are painted on two adjoining panels;[24] HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

whereas Christ and St Michael are enclosed within the single central panel, giving emphasis to the iconography.[27]

The lower register presents Earth, with its exits to Heaven and Hell. The imposing figure of Christ above indicates the "reign of heaven is about to begin."[28] The distinction between the earthly and heavenly realms creates a sense of order. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

Christ, raised high above the altarpiece, "exudes calm and control", and creates a sense of balance and movement throughout the other panels.

The manner with which van der Weyden presents the resurrection of the dead across the five lower panels is reminiscent of a Gothic tympanum, specifically that at Autun Cathedral. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard

Rolin would have been familiar with the Autun Cathedral entrances, which may have motivated his decision to commission a Last Judgement for the hospice from van der Weyden.[29]

Rolin was aware of the liturgy associated with the Mass for the Dead, and would have known Last Judgement scenes associated with the Mass from 15th-century illuminated manuscripts, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

such as the full-page Last Judgement in the Hours of Catherine of Cleves which shows Christ placed in a similar position, sitting above as the dead rise from the ground.

Jesus sits in judgement in the upper centre panel. He holds a lily in his right hand and a sword in his left, and sits on a rainbow extending across two panels, while his feet rest on a sphere. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard

His right hand is raised in the act of blessing, his left hand lowered. These positions indicate the act of judgement; he is deciding if souls are to be sent to Heaven or Hell,[31] his gestures echoing the direction and positioning of the scales held by the Archangel Michael beneath him. His palms are open, revealing the wounds sustained when they were nailed to the cross, HP G72-b80SB Laptop Keyboard

while his cope gapes in places making visible the injury caused by the lance, which pours deep-red blood.[32] Christ's face is identical to the representation in van der Weyden's Braque Triptych, completed just a few years later in 1452.[33] Christ, placed so high in the pictorial space and spanning both registers, orchestrates the entirety of the inner panels. Whereas earlier Last Judgements might have seemed chaotic, here Christ brings a sense of order.[29] HP Pavilion dv7-4070us CPUFan

The two upper register wings on either side of Jesus show a pair of angels holding the instruments of the Passion.[2] These include a lance, crown of thorns and a stick with a sponge soaked in vinegar. The angels are dressed in white liturgical vestments.

The Archangel Michael, the embodiment and conduit of divine justice, is positioned directly below Christ, the only figure to reach both Heaven and Earth. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

He wears a dispassionate expression as he holds a set of scales to weigh souls. Unusually for Christian art, the damned outweigh the blessed; Michael's scales have only one soul in each pan, yet the left pan tips below the right. Michael is given unusual prominence in a "Last Judgement" for the period, and his powerful presence emphasises the work's function in a hospice and its preoccupation with the liturgy of death. ACER Aspire 4820T Series CPUFan

His feet are positioned as if he is stepping forward, almost about to move out of the canvas and he looks directly at the viewer, giving the illusion of judging not only the souls in the painting but also the viewers.[34] Michael, like Sebastian and Anthony, was a plague saint and would have been visible to inmates through the openings of the pierced screen as they lay in their beds.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-3007tx CPUFan

Michael is painted with iconographic elements associated with paintings of the Last Judgement,[20] and is by far the most beautifully and colourfully painted figure; he is dressed in a red cope with woven golden fabrics over a shining white alb, which dominates the lower panels, "hypnotically attracting the viewer's glance" according to Lane. He is surrounded by four cherubs, playing trumpets to call the dead to their final destination.[35] Dell Latitude E6510 CPUFan

Michael's role in the Last Judgement is emphasised through van der Weyden's use of colour: Michael's gleaming white alb contrasts with the cherub's red vestments, set against a blue sky directly below heaven's golden clouds.[36]

Beneath Michael, souls scurry left and right. The saved walk in single file towards the gates of Heaven where they are greeted by a saint; the damned arrive at the mouth of Hell and fall en masse headlong into damnation.[29] HP Envy 17 Series CPUFan

The souls balanced in the scales are naked. The blessed look towards Christ, the banished look downwards. Both groups are tilted in the direction of Christ's hands.[B] Reinforcing this, inscriptions around the groupings read VIRTUTES (Virtues) and PECCATA(sins).

The Virgin Mary, John the Baptist, the twelve Apostles and an assortment of dignitaries are positioned at either side of Michael in aDeësis. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4499 CPUFan

The apostles are seated in a semicircle; Peter, dressed in red, is on the far left, and Paul, dressed in green, is on the far right. The seven haloed dignitaries, dressed in contemporary clothing, are unidentified but include a king, a pope, a bishop, a monk, and three women. Rather than general representative types, they are portraits of specific unidentified individuals, according to Shirley Blum.[38] HP 441137-001 CPUFan

The dead rise from their graves around Michael's feet; some emerge to walk towards Heaven, others towards Hell. They are tiny compared to Christ and the saints. Lorne Campbell notes that these panels display a deeply pessimistic view of humanity, with the damned far outnumbering the saved,[37] especially compared to Stefan Lochner's Cologne panel, where the saved crowd the entrance to Heaven.[35] HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPUFan

The dead undergo a gradual transformation as they move from panel to panel. The souls rising at Michael's feet show little expression, becoming more animated as they move to either side; horror and desperation become especially visible on the faces of the damned as they move towards Hell.[39] On the left, the saved all have, according to Jacobs, "the same beatific expressions",ACER eMachines G620 Series CPUFan

but their postures gradually change from facing Christ and Michael to looking towards Heaven's gate, notably with the couple below Mary – the man turns the woman's gaze away from Michael, towards Heaven.[39] This contrasts with another couple on the opposite panel who face Hell; the woman is hunched over as the man raises his hand in vain to beseech God for mercy.[40] TOSHIBA UDQFRZH05C1N CPUFan

Heaven is represented by an entrance to the Heavenly City, which is in a contemporary Gothic style illuminated by long, thin rays of light. The saved approach clasping their hands in prayer, and are greeted at the entrance by an angel.[37] Only a few souls pass through the heavenly gates at a time.[35] The imagery of a church as an earthly representation of Heaven was popularised in the 13th century by theologians such as Durandus;[4 Compaq Presario C714NR CPUFan

1] the gate to Heaven in this work resembles the entrance to the Beaune hospice.[42] The way to Heaven is shown clearly as a gilded church – the saved ascend a set of steps, turn right, and disappear from sight.[43] It is fully enclosed in a single panel, whereas Hell extends onto the adjoining panel, perhaps hinting that sin contaminates all around it.  DELL DFS531205PC0T(F6K2-CCW) CPUFan

Van der Weyden depicts Hell as a gloomy, crowded place of both close and distant fires, and steep rock faces. The damned tumble helplessly into it, screaming and crying. The sinners descend into Hell with heads mostly bowed, dragging each other along as they go.[36] Traditionally, a Last Judgement painting would depict the damned tormented by malevolent spirits; yet here the souls are left alone, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

the only evidence that they are tormented is in their expressions.[37] The hellscape is painted so as to instil terror, but without devils.[45] Erwin Panofsky was the first to pick up on this absence, and proposed that van der Weyden had opted to convey torment in an inward manner, rather than through elaborate descriptions of devils and fiends. He wrote, "HP G42-221BR CPUFan

The fate of each human being ... inevitably follows from his own past, and the absence of any outside instigator of evil makes us realize that the chief torture of the Damned is not so much physical pain as a perpetual and intolerably sharpened consciousness of their state".[46] According to Bernhard Ridderbos, van der Weyden accentuated the theme by "restricting the number of the dead and treating them almost as individuals. HP KSB06105HA CPUFan

As the damned approach the abyss of hell they become more and more compressed."

The exterior is comprised of the two donor wings, a pair of saints, and two panels with Gabriel presenting himself to Mary. The donors are on the outer wings, kneeling in front of prayer books. Four imitation statues in grisaille make up the inner panels. HP Pavilion dv5-1233se laptop keyboard

The lower two depict Saint Sebastian and Saint Anthony.[47] Sebastian was the saint of plagues and an intercessory against epidemics, Anthony the patron saint of skin diseases and ergotism, known in medieval times as St Anthony's Fire.[48] The two saints had strong associations with the Burgundian court as well: Philip the Good was born on St Anthony's day, he had anillegitimate son named Anthony, and two of Rolin's sons were named Anthony.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

St Sebastian was the patron saint of Philip the Good's chivalric Order of the Golden Fleece, of which Rolin was a member.[49]

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The restoration of the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel was one of the most significant art restorations of the 20th century.The Sistine Chapel was built by Pope Sixtus IV within the Vatican immediately to the north of St. Peter's Basilica and completed in about 1481. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Its walls were decorated by a number of Renaissance painters who were among the most highly regarded artists of late 15th century Italy, including Ghirlandaio, Perugino, and Botticelli.[1] The Chapel was further enhanced under Pope Julius II by the painting of the ceiling by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512 and by the painting of the Last Judgment, commissioned by Pope Clement VII and completed in 1541, again by Michelangelo.[2] French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

The tapestrieson the lowest tier, today best known from the Raphael Cartoons (painted designs) of 1515–16, completed the ensemble.Together the paintings make up the greatest pictorial scheme of the Renaissance. Individually, some of Michelangelo's paintings on the ceiling are among the most notable works of western art ever created.[a] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

The frescoes of the Sistine Chapel and in particular the ceiling and accompanying lunettes by Michelangelo have been subject to a number of restorations, the most recent taking place between 1980 and 1994. This most recent restoration had a profound effect on art lovers and historians, as colours and details that had not been seen for centuries were revealed. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

It has been claimed that as a result "Every book on Michelangelo will have to be rewritten".[3] Others, such as the art historianJames Beck of ArtWatch International, have been extremely critical of the restoration, saying that the restorers have not realised the true intentions of the artist. This is the subject of continuing debate.

The frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel had a number of interventions prior to the restoration process which was started in 1980. Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

Initial problems with the ceiling appear to have been caused by water penetrating through the floor above. In about 1547 Paolo Giovio wrote that the ceiling was being damaged bysaltpetre and cracks. The effect of saltpetre is to leave a white efflorescence. Gianluigi Colalucci, Head Restorer at the Laboratory for the Restoration of Paintings for Papal Monuments, Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

Museums and Galleries, states in his essay Michelangelo's colours rediscovered,[4] that the early conservators treated this cosmetically by an application of linseed or walnut oil which had the effect of making the crystalline deposit more transparent.

In 1625, a restoration was carried out by Simone Lagi, the "resident gilder", who wiped the ceiling with linen cloths and cleaned it by rubbing it with bread. Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

He occasionally resorted to wetting the bread to remove the more stubborn accretions. His report states that the frescoes "were returned to their previous beauty without receiving any harm".[5] Colalucci states that Lagi "almost certainly" applied layers of glue-varnish to revive the colours but does not state this in his report in the interests of "preserving the secrets of their [the restorers'] craft".[4] Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

Between 1710 and 1713 a further restoration was carried out by the painter Annibale Mazzuoli and his son. They used sponges dipped in Greek wine which Colalucci suggests was necessitated by the accretion of grime caused by soot and dirt trapped in the oily deposits of the previous restoration. Mazzuoli then worked over the ceiling, according to Colalucci, strengthening the contrasts by overpainting details. Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery

They also repainted some areas the colours of which were lost because of the efflorescence of salts. Areas of repainting were hatched or treated with a linear brushstroke.[b] Colalucci states that Mazzuoli also applied a great deal of glue varnish. The restoration concentrated on the ceiling and less attention was paid to the lunettes.[4]

The penultimate restoration was undertaken by the Restoration Laboratory of the Vatican Museum between 1935–38. Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery

The scope of the work was to consolidate some areas of the intonaco at the eastern end of the building and partially remove the soot and dirt.

The preliminary experimentation for the modern restoration began in 1979. The restoration team comprised Gianluigi Colalucci, Maurizio Rossi, Piergiorgio Bonetti, and others,[6] Sony VAIO PCG-GRS100 battery

who took as their guidelines the Rules for restoration of works of art as established in 1978 by Carlo Pietrangeli, director of the Vatican's Laboratory for the Restoration of Pictures, which govern the procedure and methods employed in restoration. An important part of modern restoration procedure, as established by these rules, is the study and analysis of the artwork.[4] Part of this was the recording of every stage of the restoration process. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery

This was done by the photographer Takashi Okamura for Nippon Television Network Corporation.[7]

Between June 1980 and October 1984 the first stage of restoration, the work upon Michelangelo's lunettes, was achieved. The focus of the work then transferred to the ceiling, which was completed in December 1989 and from there to the Last Judgment.Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery

The restoration was unveiled by Pope John Paul II on 8 April 1994.[8] The final stage was the restoration of the wall frescoes, approved in 1994 and unveiled on 11 December 1999.

In 1979 Colalucci undertook a series of experiments to discover the right approach for the restoration of the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

The investigation began by testing small areas of the wall fresco, Conflict over the Body of Moses by Matteo de Lecce, which had similar physical and chemical attributes to the painting techniques employed on Michelangelo's frescoes. Trials to find the right solvents were continued on a small portion of the Eleazar and Matthan lunette.[4] SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

Because of the height of the ceiling and the inaccessibility of the ceiling frescoes, the precise nature of the damage and the problems that would be encountered by the restoration team could not be entirely foreseen until after the decision to restore was taken, and the scaffolding was in place.SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

According to Colalucci, the continued scientific analysis and the response of the restorers to the particular problems was an ongoing part of the process, rather than the conservation team deciding on a single treatment for every part of the building.[4]In 1980 the decision to undertake a total restoration was taken. Nippon Television Network Corporation of Japan provided major funding of US$4.2 million in exchange for the filming rights. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

The team of restorers completed the first stage of the restoration, on the vertical surfaces and curved spandrels around the upper sections of the windows, from aluminium scaffolding projecting from just below the lunettes and using the same holes in the wall that had been made for Michelangelo's scaffold. When they moved to the ceiling, they likewise employed a system similar to Michelangelo's, FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

which involved cantilevering a shelf outwards from the scaffolding to support a stepped and arched platform. The advantages of modern lightweight materials meant that the platform could be wheeled, facilitating easy movement along the length of the building rather than dismantling and replacement, as Michelangelo had done in 1506. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

The findings of the investigation of 1979 were that the entire interior of the chapel, but particularly the ceiling, was covered with a grime of candle smoke comprising wax and soot (amorphous carbon). Above the windows (the main source of ventilation), the lunettes were particularly stained from the smoke and exhaust fumes of the city, being "much dirtier than the ceiling proper".[7] HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

The building was a little unstable and had already shifted considerably prior to Michelangelo's work of 1508, causing cracking of the ceiling, the crack in the "Judith" pendentive being so large that it had to be filled with bricks and mortar before painting. The upper part of the ceiling provided Michelangelo an irregular surface due to cracks and water seepage.[1]  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

Continued ingress of water from the roof and from unroofed exterior walkways above the ceiling level had caused seepage which carried down salts from the building mortar and deposited them on the ceiling through evaporation. In places this caused the surface of the frescoes to bubble and lift. Although discolouration was a serious problem, bubbling was not, DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

because the thinness and transparency of the paint which Michelangelo employed on the greater part of the ceiling permitted the salts to pass through rather than accumulating beneath the surface.[4]

Earlier restorations had all left their marks on the frescoes. To counteract the whitening caused by salination, animal fat and vegetable oil had been applied, which effectively made the salt crystals transparent, but left a sticky layer that accumulated dirt. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

An additional problem, most obvious in the small putti which hold the nameplates on the pendentives, was saltpetre seeping through small cracks and appearing as dark rings on the surface. Unlike the white crystalline salt deposits, this could not be removed and the staining was irreversible. Layers of varnish and glue had been applied to many areas.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

This had darkened and become opaque. Restorers had repainted details over the darkened areas in order to define the features of figures. This was particularly the case for the lunettes, spandrels and lower parts of the pendentives.[4]

Close examination revealed that apart from smoky deposits, seepage deposits and structural cracks, the thin "pictorial skin" of Michelangelo's frescoes was in excellent condition.[4] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Colalucci describes Michelangelo as having employed the best possible fresco techniques, as described by Vasari.[11] Most of the paint was well adhered and required little retouching. The plaster, or intonaco, on which the paintings were executed was found, for the most part, to be secure, as previous restorers had fixed it in places with bronze pins. HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Prior to the restoration the team spent six months investigating the composition and condition of the frescoes, questioning members of the team that had restored the frescoes in the 1930s and making a detailed scientific study to ascertain which solvents and methods were best employed upon particular painted surfaces.

The first stage of the physical restoration was to re-attach any areas of the plaster surface (which was approximately 5 mm thick) that were in danger of separating and breaking away. COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

This was done by injecting apolyvinylacetate resin. Earlier bronze braces that had been used to stabilise surfaces were removed in those places where they were causing cracking, and the holes filled. Pigments that appeared to be not well adhered were consolidated with the application of diluted acrylic resin.[4]

The restorers washed the surfaces using a variety of solvents. Distilled water was used wherever possible to remove soot and dissolve water-soluble gums. HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Retouching and repainting that had been part of previous later restorations were removed with a gelatinous solvent, applied in several stages for measured times, and washed with distilled water. Salt efflorescences of calcium carbonate were treated by the application of a solution of dimethylformamide. The final step was the application of a weak solution of acrylic polymer to consolidate and protect the surface, and further washing.[4]  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Where necessary some areas were retouched in watercolour, to integrate the pictorial material. These areas are distinctively textured with vertical brushstrokes, not visible from a distance but easily discernible as restoration work when viewed close up.[4]

Certain small areas were left unrestored, in order to maintain a physical record of the previous restorations that had taken place, DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

for example, an area left with overpainting and candle wax, and another area demonstrating the attempt to counteract salination with oil.

Once the many layers of candle wax, varnish, and animal glue were removed from the surface of the Sistine Chapel frescoes, they became subject to dangers that could not have been predicted by previous restorers. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

One of the major dangers to the frescoes is automotive exhaust, and they are also vulnerable to the effects of the crowds of tourists that pass through the chapel every day, bringing with them heat, humidity, dust and bacteria. The clean plaster surfaces are more in danger from these destructive elements than they were when they were covered with a layer of smoky wax.[12] TOSHIBA Mini NB 300 Series Laptop Keyboard

Previously, the Sistine Chapel's only ventilation was from its windows in the upper level of the walls. To prevent exhaust fumes and wind-blown pollutants from entering, the windows are now permanently closed and an air conditioning system has been installed. The installation is by Carrier of the United Technologies Corporation and was developed with the cooperation of the Vatican's Office of Technical Services. GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

It has been designed to counteract the various problems specific to the Chapel, in particular the rapid changes of heat and humidity that occur with the admission of the first crowds of tourists each morning and the departure of the last visitors each afternoon. The air conditioning varies not only the heat but also the relative humidity between the summer and winter months so that changes to the atmospheric environment occur gradually. The air near the ceiling is kept at a temperate level, while the air in the lower section of the building is cooler and circulates more rapidly, with the effect that dirt particles fall towards the floor rather than being streamed upwards. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

Bacteria and chemical pollutants are filtered out.

When the restoration of the Sistine Chapel was announced, it sparked a barrage of queries and objections from art historians from around the world. One of the most vocal of these critics was James Beck, of ArtWatch International, who issued repeated warnings about the possibility of damage to Michelangelo's work from over-strenuous restoration. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Laptop Keyboard

An argument that was used repeatedly was that all the previous interventions had caused damage of one sort or another. Any restoration, as opposed to conservation, puts an artwork at risk. Conservation, on the other hand, aids in the preservation of the work in its present state and in prevention of further deterioration. Beck has written about his concerns in Art Restoration, the Culture, the Business and the Scandal. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

In the rhetoric of this conversation, [the conservators] say that the previous restoration was no good – now we're going to make a really good one. It's like having a facelift. How many times can people go through one without their poor faces looking like an orange peel?

While James Beck became "embroiled in a public debate" with Gianluigi Colalucci, SAMSUNG R522 laptop keyboard

Ronald Feldman, a New York art dealer, started a petition supported by 15 well-known artists including Robert Motherwell, George Segal, Robert Rauschenberg, Christo and Andy Warholasking Pope John Paul II to call a halt to the procedure and also the restoration of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper.[14]  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

An undertaking of the restoration team was that everything would be handled in a transparent fashion, that reporters, art historians and others with a bona fide interest should have ready access to information and to view the work. However, a single company, Nippon Television Network Corporation, had sole photography rights. HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

Michael Kimmelman, chief art critic of The New York Times, wrote, in 1991, that the criticism of the restoration of the ceiling and lunettes was in part fuelled by the Nippon Television Network's reluctance to make public those photographs that they had taken by exclusive right, which had recorded every stage of the process and which were the only solid evidence that the work was being done appropriately. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

According to Kimmelman, the reason for their reluctance to produce the detailed photos, which could have put to rest the worst fears of many of the interested parties, was the intention of the company to produce a large limited-edition two-volume coffee-table book ("as large as a coffee table"). This book, when produced retailed for US$1,000. Kimmelman refers to the fact that these photos were only made available to the few who could afford the exorbitant price as "ungenerous" and "immoral".[15] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

As the work was progressively completed, there were those who were delighted; Pope John Paul II spoke an inaugural homily after each stage. In December 1999, after the completion of the wall frescoes, he said:It would be difficult to find a more eloquent visual commentary on this biblical image than the Sistine Chapel, whose full splendour we can enjoy today thanks to the recently completed restoration. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

Our joy is shared by the faithful throughout the world, who not only cherish this place because of the masterpieces it contains, but also for the role it plays in the Church's life.

—Pope John Paul II, [9]

Cardinal Edmund Szoka, governor of Vatican City, said: "This restoration and the expertise of the restorers allows us to contemplate the paintings as if we had been given the chance of being present when they were first shown."[16]

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Other writers were less flattering. Andrew Wordsworth of The Independent, London, expressed the major point of concern:There seems little doubt that the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel was in part painted a secco (that is, once the plaster was dry), but the restorers none the less decided that radical cleaning was necessary, given the amount of dirt that had accumulated (in particular from candle smoke).  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

As a result the ceiling now has a curiously washed-out look, with pretty but flavourless colouring – an effect quite unlike that of Michelangelo's intensely sensual sculpture.

—Andrew Wordsworth, [17]

This crucial matter was also emphasised by Beck and defined in very clearly expressed terms on the website of the artist, Peter Layne Arguimbau.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

That part of the restoration in the Sistine Chapel which has caused the most concern is the ceiling, painted by Michelangelo. The emergence of the brightly colouredAncestors of Christ from the gloom sparked a reaction of fear that the processes being employed in the cleaning were too severe. Despite warnings, the work on the ceiling proceeded and, according to critics such as James Beck, their worst fears were confirmed once the ceiling was completed.[ COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard

The cause for dissent lies in the analysis and understanding of the techniques utilised by Michelangelo, and the technical response of the restorers to their understanding of those techniques. A close examination of the frescoes of the lunettes convinced the restorers that Michelangelo worked exclusively in "buon fresco"; that is, the artist worked only on freshly laid plaster and each section of work was completed while the plaster was still in its fresh state. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

In other words, Michelangelo did not work "a secco"; he did not come back later and add details onto the dry plaster.

The restorers, by assuming that the artist took a universal approach to the painting, took a universal approach to the restoration. A decision was made that all of the shadowy layer of animal glue and "lamp black", all of the wax, and all of the overpainted areas were contamination of one sort or another: smoke deposits, HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

earlier restoration attempts and painted definition by later restorers in attempt to enliven the appearance of the work. Based on this decision, according to Arguimbau's critical reading of the restoration data that has been provided, the chemists of the restoration team decided upon a solvent that would effectively strip the ceiling down to its paint-impregnated plaster. After treatment, only that which was painted "buon fresco" would remain. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

According to critics, the inherent problem with this approach is that it relied heavily upon an assumption that Michelangelo only painted buon fresco, that he was always satisfied with the result at the end of the day, and that in four and a half years spent on the ceiling, he stuck exclusively to one approach, and never made small alterations or added details. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

Arguimbau, on his website, quotes Colalucci, the head of the team, as contradicting himself on this matter.

A summary of the relevant statements of Colalucci, in the order that they occur in the Appendix entitled Michelangelo's colours uncovered is as follows:The elderly restorers who had taken part in the restoration of the 1930s were interviewed as part of the preparatory process. SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

They claimed that Michelangelo worked over the frescoes a secco using velature or glazes as a binder. Colalucci rejects this, stating that Michelangelo worked exclusively in buon fresco. Colalucci then contradicts this by stating that Michelangelo had worked a secco, but "to a minimal degree" and "not at all in the lunettes".

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Colalucci then talks of Michelangelo's "rigorous maintenance" of buon fresco technique, contradicting this by describing the a secco retouchings that Michelangelo made to the shoulder of Eleazar and the foot of Reboam, both of which are in the lunettes. He then says that Michelangelo worked in buon fresco with "no pentimenti proper", (pentimenti means the changes) but only small corrections in fresco.[4] HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

The on-going criticism has been that the restorers presumed to know what end result the master was seeking to achieve in every separate case across the ceiling, and by what method he sought to achieve it. The disagreements about this have been vociferous and are unresolved.

The restorers took for granted that all of the layers of grease and soot on the ceiling were the result of candle smoke. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

Contrary to this view, James Beck and numerous artists have suggested that Michelangelo used carbon black in a wash of glue to lay on shadows and crisp dark definition, a secco. If this is the case, then the greater part was removed in the restoration.[21]

On some of the figures, however, there still remains clear evidence of painting in carbon black. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

The apparent explanation for this is that over the long period that Michelangelo was at work, he probably, for a variety of reasons, varied his technique. Things that might affect the degree of finish achieved on a particulargiornata include the heat and humidity of the day and the length of daylight hours. Whatever the reason for the difference is, a difference in approach to the light and shade on the individual figures is clearly apparent. HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

There are still intense areas of shadow which throw the Cumaean Sibyl into relief. But it is more than relief; it is the three-dimensionality which art-lovers expect to see in the work of the man who sculpted Moses.[19] Critics of the restoration claim that this was Michelangelo's aim and that many frescoes had brightly contrasting colours laid side-by-side that were then worked over a secco to achieve this effect and that this is what has been lost by a too-scrupulous cleaning.[18] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Consistently missing from the restored ceiling is the crisp a secco detailing of the architecture: the scallop shells, acorns and "bead and reel" ornament which Michelangelo possibly would have left for completion by an assistant, when he moved on to the next panel. The treatment of these details varied considerably. In a few places, around the Ezekias spandrel, for example, the architectural detailing was painted buon fresco and remains intact. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

A comparison of two spandrels reveals different post-restoration states. The one on the left has shadows and details defined in black. The green robe with yellow highlights has been washed with black and defined with deep shadow. On the fictive architecture each motif is picked out in black. The eyes of the child are detailed in black and white. The continued presence of these details suggests that they were completed while the plaster was damp. Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

The entire right spandrel has an unfinished look. Before cleaning it also had black defining the shadows of the robes and crisp detailing on the architecture.

On the corner pendentives, each of which depicts a violent subject, the removal of the carbon black has diminished the dramatic intensity of all four scenes. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

This is particularly noticeable in the loss of depth in the Punishment of Haman. Where once the figure projected starkly against the darkly shadowed interior, now foreshortening, definition and drama is lost in the pastel monotone that remains.

The curator, Fabrizio Mancinelli, quotes the 18th-century French traveller De Lalande in saying that the colouring of the ceiling was, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

by that time, monotonous, "tend[ing] towards dull red and grey". Mancinelli writes that the restoration reveals "a new Michelangelo" as a colourist and that this "new character makes much better sense of his historical position".[7] He goes on to say that perceptive viewers of the Sistine Chapel ceiling have always been aware that the range of colours used was very different from that which could be seen,[7] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

and included the same pinks, apple greens, oranges, yellows and pale blues that were employed by Michelangelo's teacher, Domenico Ghirlandaio, one of the most competent fresco painters of the Renaissance.

The brilliant palette ought to have been expected by the restorers as the same range of colours appears in the works of Giotto, Masaccio and Masolino, HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Fra Angelicoand Piero della Francesca, as well as Ghirlandaio himself and later fresco painters such as Annibale Carracci and Tiepolo. The reason for employing this range of colours is that many other pigments are not usable in fresco as they have chemical properties that react badly in interaction with wet plaster. The colour that is noticeably missing from Michelangelo's ceiling, but not The Last Judgment, is the intense blue of lapis lazuli.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

This colour, achieved by grinding semi-precious stone, was always applied as a secondary, a secco stage, along with the gold leaf applied as haloes and decoration to robes.

The aspect of the colouring which was most unexpected was Michelangelo's treatment of shadows. The painting of theLibyan Sibyl and the Prophet Daniel, which are side-by-side, are exemplary. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

On the yellow dress of the Sibyl, Michelangelo has bright yellow highlights, passing through carefully graded tones of deeper yellow to pale orange, darker orange and almost to red in the shadows. While red shadows are of themselves unusual in a fresco, the gradation through adjacent parts of the spectrum is a natural enough solution. On Daniel's robes, there is no such gentle gradation. HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

The yellow lining of his cloak becomes a sudden dense green in the shadows, while the mauve has shadows that are intensely red. These colour combinations, which are best described as iridescent, can be found at various places on the ceiling, including the hose of the young man in the Mathan lunette which is pale green and reddish purple. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

In some instances, the colour combinations look garish: this is particularly the case with the Prophet Daniel. A comparison of the "restored" and "unrestored" figure gives strong evidence that Michelangelo worked over this figure in a wash of carbon black, and that the technique was preplanned.[22] The bright red used on the robes of Daniel and the Libyan Sibyl does not, on its own, create effective shadows. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

In these and many other cases it appears to have been intended as underpainting, to be seen only through a thin black wash and with the deepest shadows picked out in more intense black, as they still are on the Cumaean Sibyl. This use of bright, contrasting colours as underpainting is not a common feature of frescoes, but it is commonly employed in both oil painting and tempera.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Like Daniel, the Libyan Sibyl's yellow garment once had much more subtlety in its folds and shadows than it has now.

There is absolutely no doubt that before the restoration, the whole ceiling was dirtier, more muted and more monochrome than Michelangelo ever intended, but when images of the frescoes are viewed in their stained and unrestored state the subtle washes and intense definitions, HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

described by Beck and Arguimbau,[18][19] still make their presence known, giving mass and bulk to the forms.

The painter and biographer Giorgio Vasari, in his Lives of the Artists, describes the figure of Jonah as it appeared in the mid-16th century:"Then who is not filled with admiration and amazement at the awesome sight of Jonah, the last figure in the chapel?Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

The vaulting naturally springs forward, following the curve of the masonry; but through the force of art it is apparently straightened out by the figure of Jonah, which bends in the opposite direction; and thus vanquished by the art of design, with its lights and shades, the ceiling even appears to recede."[23]

The large figure of Jonah is of great significance to the total composition, both pictorially and theologically, being symbolic of the Risen Christ. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

The figure occupies the pendentive which rises from the altar wall to support the vault, and strains backward, his eyes turned towards God. The foreshortening described by Vasari was innovative and highly influential to later painters. The cleaning of this significant figure has left a few remnants of black shadow visible to the extreme left side of the painting. Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

All the other, less intense, black lines and washes have been removed, lessening the impact of the radical foreshortening, and also robbing the great fish, the genii behind Jonah, and the architectural figures of much detail.

The missing depth is not the only factor that the critics deplore. An important feature of Michelangelo's work which, in many places, has disappeared forever is the painting of the eyeballs.[24] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Eyes appear in many instances to have been painted buon fresco. Wherever they have not been painted buon fresco but added a secco, they have been removed by the restorers.[24]

They are an essential part of the most impressive and famous of the frescoes, the Creation of Adam. Adam gazes at God. God looks directly at Adam. And under God's protective arm, Eve turns her eyes sideways in a look of admiration for her husband-to-be. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Again and again, Michelangelo painted telling gazes into the faces of his characters. The eye sockets of the family in the Zorobabel lunette are empty as are the eyes of the man in the Aminadab lunette, but the removal that has caused the most distress to the critics are the eyes of the little figure in green and white who once looked out of the gloom above the lunette of Jesse. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Arguimbau says:Have you ever felt that some things never fade and remain an inspiration for all time? That was the Sistine Chapel, now chemically stripped down of divine inspiration and looking shockingly out of place. ...It is the duty of the restorer not to alter the intent of the artist, but the scientist cannot help himself. Who cares if Colalucci discovered Michelangelo as a colorist and can explain the Colorist trends of Pontormo and Rossi. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

His job is to make sure the thing is stuck on there and leave it alone. In comparing before and after photos there is much proof that Colalucci removed ‘a secco' passages and left many areas sketchy and thin and. [sic] Proof of one single change of the artist's intent is negligence of which there are many.

Carlo Pietrangeli, former Director General of the Vatican Museums, writes of the restoration:  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

"It is like opening a window in a dark room and seeing it flooded with light."[6] His words resonate with those of Giorgio Vasari who, in the 16th century, said of the Sistine Chapel ceiling:There is no other work to compare with this for excellence ... The ceiling has proved a veritable beacon for our art, of inestimable benefit to all painters, restoring light to a world that for centuries had been plunged into darkness.[23] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Pietrangeli, in his foreword to The Sistine Chapel, written after the restoration of the lunettes, but prior to the restoration of the ceiling, commends those who had the courage to commence the restoration process, and thanks not only those who visited the restoration while it was in progress and gave the benefit of their knowledge and experience, but also those who were critical of the enterprise. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

Pietrangeli made acknowledgement that these people spurred the team on to punctilious documentation so that a full report of criteria and methods should be available to those who are interested, both in the present and the future.

Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus IV; 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. He also established the Vatican Archives. Sixtus furthered the agenda of the Spanish Inquisition and annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

He was famed for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi Conspiracy.Francesco was born to a family of modest means from Liguria, Italy, the son of Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona.As a young man Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities.[3]

In 1464, Della Rovere was elected Minister General of the Franciscan order at the age of 50. In 1467, he was appointedCardinal by Pope Paul II with the titular church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. Before his papal election, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had even written learned treatises entitled On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God.[4] His pious reputation was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.

Upon being elected pope Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus – a name that had not been used since the 5th century. FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

One of his first acts was to declare a renewed crusade against the Ottoman Turks in Smyrna. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded.[6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues and dynastic considerations.

Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

In the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì he is accompanied by his Della Rovere and Riarionephews, not all of whom were made cardinals: the protonotary apostolic Pietro Riario (on his right), the future Pope Julius II standing before him, and Girolamo Riario and Giovanni della Rovere behind the kneeling Platina, author of the first humanist history of the Popes.[7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano della Rovere.

The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

from this union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired in 1631.[8] Six of the thirty-four cardinals that he created were his nephews.[9]

In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, Sixtus' niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

was a leader in the failed "Pazzi conspiracy" of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. To this, Sixtus IV replied with an interdict and two years' of war with Florence. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

According to the later published chronicle of the Italian historian Stefano Infessura, "Diary of the City of Rome", Sixtus was a "lover of boys and sodomites" - awarding benefices and bishoprics in return for sexual favours, and nominating a number of young men as cardinals; some of whom were celebrated for their good look.HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial.[13] The English churchman and protestant polemicist John Bale writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia".[14] However, such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

but did nevertheless prompt the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.

Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), according to which papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France.[3] This was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church, SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI maneuvered to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy and Sixtus could not permit it.

On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus, through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon, who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily.[citation needed]Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction, was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482.[16]

As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. The angered Italian princes allied to force Sixtus IV to make peace, to his great annoyance.[3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated (and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche),  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Sixtus placed Venice under interdictin 1483. He also lined the coffers of the state by unscrupulously selling high offices and privileges.[6]In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the cult of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439[6] and designated 8 December as the Feast day of the Immaculate Conception of Mary. He formally annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance in 1478. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African coast by force or trade. These concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis of 21 June 1481.[17] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in these texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[18] DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

In November 1476 Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478 they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. Sixtus' earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the   DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted.[19] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water that had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches, among them San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and added seven new ones. The Sistine Chapel was sponsored by Sixtus IV, as was the Ponte Sisto,[7] Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

the Sistine Bridge – the first new bridge across the Tiber since antiquity – and the building of Via Sistina (later named Borgo Sant'Angelo), a road leading from Castel Sant'Angelo to Saint Peter. All this was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of old Rome. This was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage.

At the beginning of his papacy in 1471, HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

Sixtus donated several historically important Roman sculptures that founded a papal collection of art that would eventually develop into the collections of theCapitoline Museums. He also re-founded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library.[7] He hadRegiomontanus attempt the first sanctioned reorganization of the Julian calendar and increased the size and prestige of the papal chapel choir, HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

bringing singers and some prominent composers (Gaspar van Weerbeke, Marbrianus de Orto, and Bertrandus Vaqueras) to Rome from the North.In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. Before becoming pope, he spent time at the then very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international characterHP 535438-001 CPU Fan

. As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. It was this access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabricaDell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Pope Sixtus' tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. A simple marble tombstone marks the site.

His bronze funerary monument, now in the basement Treasury of St. Peter's Basilica, DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

like a giant casket of goldsmith's work, is byAntonio Pollaiuolo. The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. Around the sides are bas relief panels, depicting with allegorical female figures the arts and sciences (Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy, and Theology). SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Each figure incorporates the oak tree ("rovere" in Italian) symbol of Sixtus IV. The overall program of these panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references, and arrangement relative to each other is on

e of the most compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan,HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan, Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan,ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

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The Rova of Antananarivo /ˈruːvə/ (Malagasy: Rovan'i Manjakamiadana [ˈruvən manˌdzakəmiˈadə̥nə]) is a royal palace complex (rova) in Madagascar that served as the home of the sovereigns of the Kingdom of Imerina in the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as of the rulers of the Kingdom of Madagascar in the 19th century. Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

Its counterpart is the nearby fortified village of Ambohimanga, which served as the spiritual seat of the kingdom in contrast to the political significance of the Rova in the capital. Located in the central highland city of Antananarivo, the Rova occupies the highest point onAnalamanga, formerly the highest of Antananarivo's many hills. Merina king Andrianjaka, Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

who ruled Imerina from around 1610 until 1630, is believed to have captured Analamanga from a Vazimba king around 1610 or 1625 and erected the site's first fortified royal structure. Successive Merina kings continued to rule from the site until the fall of the monarchy in 1896, frequently restoring, modifying or adding royal structures within the compound to suit their needs. Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

Over time, the number of buildings within the site varied. Andrianjaka founded the Rova with three buildings and a dedicated tomb site in the early 17th century. The number of structures rose to approximately twenty during the late 18th-century reign of King Andrianampoinimerina. By the late 20th century, the Rova's structures had been reduced to eleven, representing various architectural styles and historical periods. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

The largest and most prominent of these was Manjakamiadana, also known as the "Queen's Palace" after Queen Ranavalona I, for whom the original wooden palace was built between 1839–1841 by Frenchman Jean Laborde. In 1867 the palace was encased in stone for Queen Ranavalona II by Scotsman James Cameron, an artisan missionary of the London Missionary Society. Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

The neighbouring Tranovola, a smaller wooden palace constructed in 1819 by Creole trader Louis Gros for King Radama I, was the first multi-storey building with verandasin the Rova. The model offered by Tranovola transformed architecture throughout the highlands over the course of the 19th century, inspiring a widespread shift toward two-storey houses with verandas. Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

The Rova grounds also contained a cross-shaped wooden house (Manampisoa) built as the private residence of Queen Rasoherina, a stone Protestant chapel (Fiangonana), nine royal tombs, and a number of named wooden houses built in the traditional style reserved for the andriana (nobles) in Imerina. Among the most significant of these were Besakana, Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

erected in the early 17th century by Andrianjaka and considered the throne of the kingdom, and Mahitsielafanjaka, a later building which came to represent the seat of ancestral spiritual authority at the Rova.

A fire on the night of 6 November 1995 destroyed or damaged all the structures within the Rova complex shortly before it was due to be inscribed on the list ofUNESCO World Heritage Sites. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

Although officially declared an accident, rumours persist that politically motivated arson may have been the actual cause of the fire. The chapel and tombs, as well as Besakana and Mahitsielafanjaka, have since been fully restored with bilateral government donations, state funds and grants from intergovernmental and private donors. Completion of the reconstruction of the Manjakamiadana exterior is estimated for 2012, while interior restoration work will continue until at least 2013. Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

Once the building is fully restored, Manjakamiadana will serve as a museum showcasing royal artefacts saved from destruction in the fire.Madagascar's central highlands were first inhabited between 200 BCE–300 CE by the island's earliest settlers, the Vazimba, who appear to have arrived by piroguefrom southeastern Borneo and established simple villages in the island's dense forests.[1] Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

By the 15th century the Merina ethnic group from the southeastern coast had gradually migrated into the central highlands[2] where they established hilltop villages interspersed among existing Vazimba settlements ruled by local kings. In the mid-16th century these royal Merina villages (rovas)—now fortified with stone walls, gateways and deep defensive trenches[3]—were united under the rule of King Andriamanelo (1540–1575), Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

who initiated the first military campaigns to expel or assimilate the Vazimba population by force. Villages inhabited by theandriana (noble) class established by Andriamanelo[4] typically contained a rova or palace compound.[5]

The rova's earliest defining features had crystallised among the Merina as residences for local rulers at least 100 years before the emergence of the united Kingdom of Imerina under Andriamanelo. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

According to custom, a rova's foundation was always elevated relative to the surrounding village. The compound also always featured akianja (central courtyard) marked by a vatomasina (tall sacred stone) where the sovereign would stand to deliver kabary (royal speeches or decrees). Contained within the rova was at least one lapa (royal palace or residence) as well as the fasana (tomb) of one or more of the site's founders.[5] Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

The sovereign's lodgings typically stood in the northern part of the rova, while the spouse or spouses lived in the southern part.[6] It was not until the dawn of the 19th century that a perimeter wall of sharpened wooden stakes would constitute another defining feature of rova construction.

The Rova of Antananarivo is located 1,480 metres (4,860 ft) above sea level on Analamanga, originally the highest of the numerous hills in Antananarivo.[7] Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

Around 1610[8] or 1625,[9] Andrianjaka, King of Imerina and grandson of King Andriamanelo, ordered a garrison of 1,000 soldiers to seize the strategic site from its original Vazimba inhabitants. He reportedly succeeded with minimal bloodshed. According to oral history, the mere encampment of his army at the foot of Analamanga was sufficient to secure the submission of the Vazimba.[10] Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

Andrianjaka's army then cleared the forest covering the hill's summit and built a traditional rova to serve as an initial garrison, including an unnamed simple wooden house within it as a palace for the king. Soon afterward Andrianjaka built two more houses, reportedly named Masoandrotsiroa ("There Are Not Two Suns", also called Masoandro) and Besakana ("Great Breadth").[11] Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

According to another account, Besakana may have been the name of the very first of the three houses Andrianjaka built within the Rova.[12] The king also designated the construction site and design for the royal tombs he named Trano Masina Fitomiandalana ("Seven Sacred Houses Arranged in Order", also called Fitomiandalana), which were to be laid out in a line.[13] Andrianjaka's own tomb was the first of these to be built.[14] Sony VAIO PCG-3E1M battery

Generations of Andrianjaka's successors through to his great-grandson King Andriamasinavalona (1675–1710) ruled over the united central highland kingdom of Imerina from the Rova of Antananarivo. These monarchs occasionally altered the compound and its buildings to suit their purposes.[8] In particular, Besakana served as a primary royal residence and was repeatedly rebuilt, most notably for Andriamasinavalona who, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery

according to oral history, had famously sought and then spared a human sacrifice in preparation for the endeavour.[12] At some point prior to 1800,[15] as the community of nobles inhabiting the Rova grew, the hilltop was lowered by 9.1 metres (30 ft) to expand the amount of level land available for construction. Consequently, among the hills of Antananarivo, the hilltop of Analamanga is now second in height to that of Ambohimitsimbina to the south.[16] 
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The role of the Rova as a seat of power for the Kingdom of Imerina changed when Andriamasinavalona chose to divide the kingdom into four provinces ruled by his favourite sons. Antananarivo became the capital of the southern Imerina province with the Rova as its seat of government. The site retained this role until the late 18th century, when King Andrianampoinimerina (1787–1810) of Ambohimanga led a series of attacks beginning in 1792 that culminated in the capture of Antananarivo and its incorporation into the newly reunified Kingdom of Imerina. Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery

After Andrianampoinimerina reunited the divided and warring Kingdom of Imerina, he successfully pursued an expansionist policy that saw his authority extended over a large portion of Madagascar by the time of his death in 1810. Having captured Antananarivo by 1793[18] and transferred his capital from Ambohimanga to Antananarivo the following year,[19] Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery

Andrianampoinimerina established new structures on the Rova grounds that would become imbued with the political and historic significance of his reign. In keeping with the tradition of Merina sovereigns before him, each building was assigned a name by which it could be distinguished. Several of the buildings were used interchangeably by the king as personal residences, including Manjakamiadana ("Where It is Pleasant to Rule"),[20] Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery

Besakana, Manatsaralehibe ("Vast Improvement", also called Manatsara)—which he alone was authorised to enter—and Marivolanitra ("Beneath the Heavens"), a building reportedly designed with a staircase leading to a rooftop observation deck from which the king could observe the town and plains below.[21]

A number of the Rova's buildings possessed unique design features. Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

The modest wood building then known as Manjakamiadana was also called Felatanambola ("Silver Hands") for the hand-shaped sculptures crafted from melted silver piastres and attached to each of the building's four tandrotrano (roof horns)—an architectural design element formed from the crossed gable beams that extended past the roof line of all traditional aristocratic Merina houses. Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

Felatanambola's decorative silver hands were later affixed to the roof horns of Besakana. Another distinctive building from this period was called Bevato ("Many Stones") because its foundation was atypically composed of stone blocks.[22] Manatsara was said to be the most well constructed of the many houses because it was built usingambora (Tambourissa parrifolia), Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery

an extremely durable and rot-resistant indigenous hardwood, rather than a traditional wood called hazomena (Weinmannia rutenbergii).[23] According to oral history, Manatsara was treasured by Andrianampoinimerina and the house was quite old but still well preserved in the mid-19th century when Queen Ranavalona I decided to recover its interior walls with wood taken from Sihanaka country.[24] Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery

Andrianampoinimerina's many wives and other family members occupied the majority of the buildings, most notably Mahitsielafanjaka ("That Which is Upright Rules Long", also called Mahitsy), the abode of wife Rabodonizimirabalahy, where the sampy (royal idol) called Manjakatsiroa was kept. Three other royal idols were kept on the Rova grounds, namely Rakelimalaza, Ramahavaly and Rafantaka, each of which were housed in their own separate buildings. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

Nanjakana ("Royal") was occupied by wives named Ramanantenasoa and Rasamona. Tsarazoky ("Good Eldest One") was the home of Ramiangaly,[21] while Rasendrasoa, Andrianampoinimerina's principal wife,[25]occupied Bado ("Stupid"). Rarihasana ("Armor of Sanctity") was inhabited by wives Ravaomanjaka and Razafinamboa; Andrianampoinimerina's son and heir, Radama I, would later offer this same house to Rasalimo, who eventually became one of Radama's wives. Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

Three notable houses were inhabited by other family members. Andrianampoinimerina gave Besakana to his adopted daughter Ramavo (later to become Radama's wife and eventually Queen Ranavalona I). Andrianampoinimerina's sister, Ralaisoka, originally shared Besakana with Ramavo until a daughter named Ratsimanompo vacated a house called Fohiloha ("Short"), leaving Ralaisoka to occupy it alone. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

Masoandrotsiroa served as the residence of Ramavo's sister, Rangita, and an aunt named Rasalamo, a daughter of Andrianampoinimerina's grandfather KingAndriambelomasina, was given a house named Rarisambo ("Fortified Ship").[21]

At least two buildings were transported in their entirety onto or away from the Rova compound during Andrianampoinimerina's reign. Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

Miandrivola ("Guarding Money") was moved from Ambohidrano to the Rova compound, where it was inhabited by one of the king's wives, Rafaravavy.[21] The king also had Manatsara removed from Antananarivo to Ambohidrabiby.

Following unification of the greater part of the island under Merina rule in the 19th century, the palaces of the Rova served as the seat of power for successive sovereigns of the Kingdom of Madagascar, Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

including King Radama I (1810–1828), Queen Ranavalona I (1828–1861), King Radama II (1861–1863), Queen Rasoherina (1863–1868), Queen Ranavalona II (1868–1883) and lastly Queen Ranavalona III (1883–1895), who ruled from the Rova until Madagascar's annexation by France.[26] During his successful 1817 military campaign to pacify the east coast, Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

Radama I—son and successor of Andrianampoinimerina—was favourably impressed by the houses he saw in Toamasina that had been built by newly arrived Creole merchants from Mauritius and Reunion.[27] Radama invited one of them, a craftsman named Louis Gros, to return with him to Antananarivo to redesign Bevato[28] as a home for his principal wife, Rasalimo. Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

The new Bevato reportedly featured two stories, much like the houses Radama had seen in Toamasina.[6]

Another wooden palace, Tranovola ("Silver House"), was under construction at the same time as Bevato and is considered by historians to represent the first true hybrid of Creole and traditional Merina aristocratic architecture.[29Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

] Its innovations included a roof of wood shingles,[27] a second storey, the addition of a veranda, glass windows, multiple interior rooms (as opposed to a single open interior space) and the use of curved shapes as design elements. Historic sources offer conflicting accounts of these two buildings. Some maintain that Bevato was relocated and remodelled to become Tranovola,[28] Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery

while others maintain the buildings were separate but debate which of the two houses was the first two-storey building in the Rova (still other sources award this innovation to Marivolanitra).[30] The design of Radama's tomb likewise embodies the hybrid style[31] that was to influence and inspire not only the majority of the buildings built at the Rova in the 19th century, Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

but ultimately architecture throughout the entire highland region of Madagascar—particularly in its use of equidistant pillars supporting the overhanging roof to create a veranda.[29]

Despite the stylistic innovations Radama adopted for the construction of several of the compound's buildings, the Rova largely retained its traditional features during his reign. Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

The basic layout of the compound remained largely unaltered from its original design with the sole exception of an expansion of the Rova along its north-south axis. Stone walls topped with sharpened wooden stakes were built around the new perimeter during this period. Venerable buildings such as Besakana, Nanjakana, Mahitsy and Manjakamiadana were retained, Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

as were the houses of several of Andrianampoinimerina's wives, many of whom were still living at the time of Radama's death in 1828. During his reign, Radama undertook the restoration of Marivolanitra to serve chiefly as housing for visiting foreigners,[6] and briefly inhabited it himself[31] in addition to his main residence at Besakana. He also had a house called Kelisoa ("Petite Beauty") built as a lodging for his concubines.[6] Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery

The Rova underwent several significant changes during the lengthy reign of Queen Ranavalona I. The largest of the buildings in the modern-day compound, the wooden Manjakamiadana, was built between 1839 and 1840.[32] Ranavalona also made further modifications to Tranovola in 1845, when it became the residence of her son Radama II. Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

The boundaries of the compound were expanded to their largest and final extent, and numerous older buildings were removed from the Rova of Antananarivo to other towns in the highlands. Voahangy ("Pearl"), the former home of Andrianampoinimerina's wife Ramisa, was moved to Alasora. The house known as Tsiazompaniry ("Forbidden to be Desired"), formerly inhabited by another of his wives, Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery

Rabodonizimirahalahy, was moved to the region of Antanamalaza.[21] Bado was moved to Ambohidrabiby. The queen also moved Fohiloha, Kelisoa, Manatsara and Masoandro to the royal village of Ambohimanga.[24]

Later queens also left their mark on the Rova through major construction projects. Queen Rasoherina had Marivolanitra relocated to Mahazoarivo to make room for Manampisoa ("Adding What is Pleasant"), built from 1865 to 1867 for use as her personal residence. Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

A Protestant chapel (Fiangonana) was erected during the reign of Ranavalona II, who also ordered the exterior of the wooden Manjakamiadana to be encased in stone. Plans to build a private residence for Ranavalona III were abandoned in 1896 at the time of French colonisation of the island.[33] According to one source, partial electrification of the Rova may have been successfully tested on Christmas Day 1892. Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

Following this experiment, Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony and Queen Ranavalona III began working with a contractor to purchase and install the necessary equipment to expand electrification throughout the Rova, but this initiative was also interrupted by the advent of French colonisation.

The 1896 French colonisation of Madagascar brought an end to the rule of the Merina sovereigns. Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

The Rova of Antananarivo was converted into a museum the following year,[35] and the Fitomiandalana tombs were excavated and moved to a new location behind the tombs of Radama I and Rasoherina.[13] The bodies of sovereigns previously interred in the royal tombs at Ambohimanga were exhumed and transferred to the tombs in the Rova grounds, a sacrilegious move that degraded the status of Ambohimanga as a site of sacred pilgrimage. Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery

According to Frémigacci (1999), French colonial administrator General Joseph Gallieni undertook this desacralisation of the Rova in an attempt to break popular belief in the power of the royal ancestors. By the same token, his actions relegated Malagasy sovereignty under the Merina rulers to a relic of an unenlightened past. Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

The desecration of the two most sacred sites of Merina royalty represented a calculated political move intended to establish the political and cultural superiority of the colonial power.[35]

Following independence the Rova compound remained largely closed to the public throughout the First (1960–1972) and Second (1975–1992) Republics except on special occasions.[35] In 1995, three years into the Third Republic (1992–2010), the Rova compound was destroyed by fire.[36] Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

The tombs, chapel, exterior of Manjakamiadina and two traditional wooden hou

ses (Besakana and Mahitsy) have since been restored[37] with further restorations planned to continue until at least 2013.The Rova compound extends to just less than one hectare (approximately two acres), spanning 116 metres (381 ft) north to south and over 61 metres (200 ft) from east to west.[16] Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

A barricade of thick wooden posts with sharpened ends surrounded the compound until 1897 when it was replaced with a brick wall on the orders of General Gallieni. Entered via a stone stairway leading to a large north-facing gate built byJames Cameron in 1845, this portal is topped by a bronze voromahery (eagle) imported from France by Jean Laborde in 1840.[39] Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

Beyond the gate lies an open dirt courtyard approximately 37 metres (121 ft) square, with the far end opposite the gate delimited by the northern face and entrance of Manjakamiadana.[16] Over time, the Rova compound has contained several key buildings of political and historical significance, including five palaces, a chapel and nine tombs. Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

Manjakamiadana was built in two stages. The original palace, built between 1859 and 1840 on the orders of Ranavalona I, was built entirely in wood by Jean Laborde. In 1867, during the reign of Ranavalona II, a stone casing was erected around the original wooden structure.[35] The 30-metre (98 ft) long, 20-metre (66 ft) wide original wooden structure was 37 metres (121 ft) high, including the steeply pitched roof of wooden shingles, Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

itself 15 metres (49 ft) in height. These measurements exclude the two superimposed balconies that extended 4.6 metres (15 ft) from the exterior walls and encircled the entire building, supported by 0.61-metre (2.0 ft) diameter wooden posts.[16] The exterior of the entire building, including the roof, was painted white, with the exception of the balcony railings which were red.[40] Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

The exterior walls were composed of wooden planks tightly fitted together in a repeated chevron pattern reminiscent of traditional thatch walls, while the wood planks of the interior walls were hung vertically.[41] The building could be entered by three doors: the main entrance in the northern wall, another in the southern wall and a third reserved for servants in the eastern wall.[42] Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

An open and spacious ground floor respected the same traditional layout exemplified in Besakana and other Merina homes, including the presence of hearth stones in their customary corner.[22] Following traditional construction practices, the roof three stories above was supported by an enormous andry (central pillar) that was given the name Volamihitsy ("Genuine Silver").[41] Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

According to popular legend, this was made of a single rosewood tree trunk transported from the eastern rain forests. Recent archaeological excavations of the site during reconstruction have since disproved this account as the pillar was found to be a composite of fitted rosewood pieces rather than a single solid post.[43] According to custom, the north-eastern corner pillar was the first to be erected. Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

Its length necessitated the use of a pulley designed by Jean Laborde, the principal architect, to haul the trunk into place. When an accident occurred during the operation, the queen designated a Malagasy carpenter to manufacture a crane to complete the task. Thousands of the queen's subjects were forced to labour on the building's construction in lieu of paying cash taxes pursuant to a tradition called fanampoanaSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

One historic source claimed that 25,000 subjects participated in the raising of the building's corner posts alone. The harsh working conditions were said to have been the cause of many deaths, although precise figures are unknown.

Due to the deterioration of the wood of the exterior balconies over time,[45] Queen Ranavalona II commissioned James Cameron to reinforce and encase the original structure in a stone shell in 1867. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

Cameron's exterior replaced the wooden balconies with stone walls three stories high. On each of the three floors, seven arched windows run the length of the two longer side walls while five windows illuminate the shorter front and back walls. A square tower stands at each of the four corners of the stone shell, extending above the level of the walls and forming their junction.[16] A clock and bells were installed in the north-eastern tower.[45] Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

The ground floor of Manjakamiadana was divided into two vast rooms[16] with furniture and decor that reflected European influence but with placement of objects respecting the norms of Malagasy cosmology.[46]Following the reign of Radama II, the building was no longer inhabited but instead was reserved for state occasions.[47] The northernmost of these two rooms was the site of the signing of important trade treaties with British and American dignitaries.[16Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

] It was also opened annually for the celebration of the Fandroana(Royal Bath) ceremony.[48] Following the imposition of French colonial rule, Manjakamiadana was transformed in 1897 into L'Ecole Le Myre de Vilers (Le Myre de Vilers School), a training centre for Malagasy civil servants employed by the French colonial regime.[49] When the purpose of the building changed, the elevation of the main hall's floor was raised by building a platform on top of the original wooden floor. Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

Tranovola was first built in the Rova compound for Radama I in 1819 by Gros, then later reconstructed by Jean Laborde in 1845 on the orders of Queen Ranavalona I for her son Radama II.[35] The origin of the name Tranovola, meaning "Silver House", derives from the silver ornamentation used to decorate the exterior of the building. Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

Sources have offered varying accounts of this silver decoration, including silver nails reportedly used to affix the roof, silver ornamentation on the window and door casings,[50] tiny silver bells hung from the roof,[6] and tiny mirrors embedded in the interior and exterior walls.[51] Another account describes silver "fringes" on the west side of the building, and gable decorations consisting of silver "buttons" and decorative images made from pounded silver.SONY VAIO PCG-81111V battery

After the supposed assassination of Radama II in 1863, the palace was used by Prime Ministers Rainivoninahitriniony and Rainilaiarivony to receive ambassadors and conduct the diplomatic affairs of the Kingdom of Madagascar.[49]

Built entirely of wood and surrounded by two stacked verandas around a central interior pillar supporting a steeply pitched roof,SONY VAIO PCG-81211V battery

the exterior walls of Tranovola were painted red while the roof and railings of the verandas were painted white.[40] Prior to its 1845 remodel, the original 6-metre (20 ft) long and 7.2-metre (24 ft) wide Tranovola took shape in several stages over the course of Radama's reign.[52] The initial building was a two-storey house that in other respects largely followed the traditional architectural norms of the noble class in the highlands. SONY VAIO PCG-51111V battery

Some time later a balcony was added on the second floor. This was eventually replaced by wraparound verandas on both floors, from which the king would deliver his royal speeches to the crowd gathered below.[53]

There were two key catalysts beyond Radama's affinity for Creole architecture that inspired Gros to innovate so far beyond traditional construction norms: SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery

the recent construction of a two-storey house with a balcony in the neighbourhood of Andohalo by a British missionary (the first balcony in highland Madagascar), and the 1823 arrival of Princess Rasalimo to the Rova, necessitating the redesign of Bevato as her residence. Rasalimo, whose marriage to Radama secured the peace between the Merina Kingdom and that of her Sakalava people on the west coast, SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery

was made Radama's principal wife and reportedly demanded an exceptional palace for her home. This request led Radama to employ a Creole architect named Jean Julien to design the unprecedented two-storey house.[53] Although historic sources are divided on whether Tranovola, Bevato or Marivolanitra was the first two-storey house at the Rova, SONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery

the innovations embodied in these buildings and particularly in Tranovola underscore the rising influence of foreign architectural norms in Imerina. Tranovola is widely represented by historians as the first true example of the hybridisation of Merina architectural norms and those of Europe, and its design served as a model for the larger Manjakamiadana palace some years later.SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery

The innovative features of this building and the Manjakamiadana it inspired—particularly the verandas supported by exterior columns—became the new norm in highlands architecture, especially upon the adoption of brick as the principal building material.[54]

On each floor of the two-storey building, the floor plan consisted of a large central room flanked on either side by two smaller rooms.[39] SONY PCG-7134M battery

Although the interior was laid out according to traditional cosmological norms with a north-south orientation and central supporting pillar, the decor was entirely innovative. Tranovola was the first building in Imerina to feature glass windows. Its walls were inlaid with mirrors[51] and painted with naive art frescoes of Merina sovereigns and royal army imagery in a style that has drawn comparisons with French 19th century Épinal prints.[39] SONY PCG-7131M battery

The building's fine silk brocaded curtains, chandeliers, cabinets in ebony and gold, and sculptures in alabaster and bronze were remarked upon by a European visitor in 1823, as were the colourful fabric wall coverings imported from England.[51] During the reign of Ranavalona I, Crown Prince Rakoto (later King Radama II) occupied Tranovola as his personal residence. After the Queen's death, Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery

Radama continued to occupy rooms on the second storey of the building, using the smaller rooms on the ground floor as storage space.[55] A British visitor in 1873 reported that the wooden floors of Tranovola were highly polished, while the walls were hung with French wallpaper and decorated with imported mirrors and oil paintings including a portrait of Queen Victoria given as a gift to Radama II. Sony PCG-61211M battery

Just inside the front door sat a seven-pound Armstrong gun in its carriage with numerous imported sofas, costly decorative objects and other items placed throughout the vast space.[47]

Under Gallieni's colonial administration, Tranovola was annexed to L'Ecole le Myre de Vilers housed in the nearby Manjakamiadana.[49] Sony PCG-71213M battery

Later, in 1902, Tranovola became the headquarters of the Académie Malgache (Malagasy Academy) before being transformed into a museum of palaeontology.

Manampisoa, also called Lapasoa ("Beautiful Palace"), was a small villa in the form of a cross designed by James Cameron for Queen Rasoherina.[35] Construction was overseen by William Pool.[39] Sony PCG-71311M battery

After the first corner post of the building was raised on 25 April 1865, work continued for two years before Manampisoa was complete. Measuring approximately 19 metres (62 ft) long, 9.1 metres (30 ft) wide and 15 metres (49 ft) high,[16] the structure was built using traditional vertical wood wall boards topped by a wooden roof and featured sliding windows protected by heavy wooden shutters.[49] Sony PCG-71212M battery

It was built on a site formerly occupied by the wooden house called Marivolanitra, which was relocated to Mahazoarivo to make room for the new building.[48]

Inside, the layout consisted of two floors with four rooms each, linked by a central staircase with a decorative wooden balustrade. Ebony and rosewood were used for the interior panelling, floors and ceilings while the floor of the central hall exhibited a diamond parquet design in oak and rosewood.[39] Sony PCG-71313M battery

An 1873 visitor described the floor as "highly polished ... all right enough for bare feet but rather slippery for boots". Wallpaper adorned the walls of the central hall, which was approximately 15 metres (49 ft) long, 6.1 metres (20 ft) wide and 3.7 metres (12 ft) high. The queen's couch occupied the northeast corner of the room, a space reserved for the ancestors according to traditional Malagasy cosmology, where she would receive visitors in repose.[49] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

A room formerly used as an office by Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony occupied the portion of the second floor facing the stairway.Manampisoa was one of the residences of queens Rasoherina, Ranavalona II and Ranavalona III, the last three monarchs of the Kingdom of Madagascar.[47] Once complete, Manampisoa was used by Rasoherina as her primary residence but the queen was only able to inhabit the house for approximately one year before dying in April 1868. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

After Rasoherina's death, her successor, Ranavalona II, used the building as a temporary worship space during work on the stone chapel.[48] Upon the collapse of the monarchy following French colonisation, the colonial authority transformed Manampisoa into a museum of Malagasy culture.

To the south of Manjakamiadana and Tranovola stood a number of smaller, older wooden houses, Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

each between 15 metres (49 ft) and 18 metres (59 ft) high built in the traditional Merina architectural style reserved for the noble class. Three of these were of particular importance: Besakana, Mahitsy and Masoandro.

Besakana is believed to have been the first residence of a Merina sovereign on the Rova site. Historical accounts claim that the first sovereign of Antananarivo, Andrianjaka, built the original Besakana as his personal residence at his newly established capital in the mid-17th century. Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

This original building was torn down and reconstructed in the same design by Andriamasinavalona around 1680, and again by Andrianampoinimerina in 1800, each of whom used the building as their personal residence. Radama I lived in Besakana for much of his time in the Rova compound.[35] The first school in Imerina was established at Radama's behest on 8 December 1820 by David Jones of the London Missionary Society to educate the children of the royal family. Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

This school initially operated from Besakana for a short while until classes were transferred to the larger, recently remodelled Bevato nearby.[56] Sovereigns were enthroned in Besakana and their mortal remains were displayed here before burial.[16] A visitor writing in 1888 described this ancient building as "the official state room for civil affairs... regarded as the throne of the kingdom."[55] Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

Mahitsielafanjaka (Mahitsy) became the residence of Andrianampoinimerina after he moved his capital from Ambohimanga to Antananarivo.[39] Described in 1888 as the seat of ancestral spiritual authority at the Rova, the traditional sacrifice of a rooster during the ceremony of the Fandroana took place here, and ombiasy (astrologers) asked to perform sikidy(divination) for a sovereign would do so within this space.[55] Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery

The building also formerly housed a major royal idol called Manjakatsiroa[39] (or the entire collection of royal idols, according to another account) until the supposed public burning of all such relics by Queen Ranavalona II in 1869 following her conversion to Christianity.[16] Built in 1796, the traditional wooden Mahitsy follows traditional architectural norms: Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery

the roof is supported by the central pillar, and two superimposed beds—the highest for the king and the other for his wives—are located in the northeast corner, the portion of the home reserved for royalty and the ancestors. These beds are raised high off the ground to protect the sleepers from a nocturnal attack. Sony VAIO PCG-GRS100 battery

Items formerly on display in this building after the end of the Merina monarchy in 1897 until the destruction of the original structure in the 1995 fire included Andrianampoinimerina's filanzana (palanquin), several wooden trunks and a pot of jaka (zebu confit) said to date from the king's reign.[39]

The name Masoandrotsiroa (Masoandro) was given to a series of buildings on the Rova grounds. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery

The original Masoandro was one of the first three residences built by the Rova's founder, Andrianjaka, in the early 17th century,[12] and over time it became the house reserved for occupation by a new sovereign immediately following coronation.[55] This same Masoandro or a restored version of it was still standing on the Rova grounds and occupied by one of Andrianampoinimerina's wives two hundred years later.[21] Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery

However, historic sources offer seemingly contradictory or incomplete accounts of the fate of this historic building. A Masoandro was said to have been relocated from the Rova to Ambohimanga by Ranavalona I.[24] Another source states that Masoandro was demolished at the Rova by Ranavalona II and replaced by a house in brick, only to be demolished again by Ranavalona III. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

This last sovereign of Madagascar sought to build a new brick palace, also called Masoandro, with four square corner towers and a higher central tower modelled on the French Residence of Antananarivo. Work began in 1893 but was interrupted by war with France in 1895. The brick foundations of this unfinished Masoandro are still visible today.[57] SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan

Still another source states that Masoandro was one of three traditional wooden houses still standing at the Rova when Madagascar was colonised by the French, with the implication that the name was applied to distinct buildings at various times.

Near the foundations of the brick Masoandro formerly stood Kelisoa, HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

a traditional wooden structure which housed sacred animals[39]and concubines[6] at different points during the reign of Radama I and was later used by Ranavalona III to hold receptions. Also formerly standing here was Tsarahafatra ("Good Message"), a small palace built for Ranavalona I,[39] rebuilt after 1862, occupied as a primary residence by Ranavalona II and Ranavalona III,[48] and ultimately destroyed by French artillery in September 1895.[39] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

By the 1960s, Besakana, Mahitsy and one other wooden house[39] (presumably the last wooden Masoandro[55]) were the only remaining examples of an estimated twenty ancient aristocratic houses that had occupied the Rova site during the reign of Andrianampoinimerina.[39] By 1975, this unidentified third house—said to be the oldest original structure on the grounds[39]—was no longer standing. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

Nine royal tombs were located in the north-eastern quadrant of the Rova grounds. These included the two large tombs of King Radama I (d.1828) and Queen Rasoherina (d.1868), as well as seven ancient wooden tombs known collectively as the Fitomiandalana. These older tombs, the first of which was built in 1630 for King Andrianjaka,  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

were a series of seven tomb pits topped with individual wooden trano masina (tomb houses) built close together in a row with their gable peaks aligned, followed by one tomb pit without a tomb house. Tomb houses are particular to highland tombs and are intended to indicate the noble rank of the deceased and house his or her spirit after death.DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Each tomb of the Fitomiandalana contained the bodies of early Kings of Imerina and their relatives, and was assigned a name after the principal occupant of the underlying grave. These were, in order: Andrianavalonibemihisatra (son of Andriamasinavalona and King of Antananarivo, five bodies), Andriamponimerina (son of Andriamasinavalona and King of Antananarivo at the time of future king Andrianampoinimerina's birth, three bodies),  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

Andrianjakanavalomandimby (oldest son of Andriamasinavalona and King of Antananarivo, two bodies), Andriamasinavalona (great-grandson of Andrianjaka and King of Imerina, three bodies), Andriantsimitoviaminandriandehibe(grandson of Andrianjaka and King of Imerina, two bodies), Andrianjaka (founder of Antananarivo and King of Imerina, 12 bodies) and Andriantsitakatrandriana (son of Andrianjaka and King of Imerina, two bodies).  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

The final tomb without a tomb house was for Andriantomponimerina (son of Andriamasinavalona and King of Antananarivo) and housed eight bodies.[13]

After the dissolution of the Kingdom of Madagascar, the French colonial authorities shifted the location of these tombs thereby disrupting the original cosmological symbolism of their arrangement.[35] HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

When the original tombs were excavated for relocation, the French found the mortal remains of the nobles within had each been wrapped in numerous traditional lambas (woven silk cloths) then set within wooden coffins packed with charcoal. Bodies buried at Ambohimanga were found to have been entombed in the same way.[13]

Two more distinctive stone tombs were built beside the Fitomiandalana, to the north of Tranovola, COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

the first of which was completed in 1828 by Louis Gros for Radama I. Further north, the second tomb was originally built for Queen Rasoherina by James Cameron in 1868.[16] Both of these stone tombs were topped with a tomb house.[35] Radama's tomb bears features popularised during the reign of his father, Andrianampoinimerina: three superimposed levels (excluding the tomb house) with upright sheets of stone at the base level, HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

one of which could be removed to provide access to the subterranean chamber where the sovereign's body was laid upon a massive stone slab. Radama's tomb house broke with tradition by replacing the usual miniaturised version of the aristocratic wooden house (typified by Besakana and other ancient houses in the Rova grounds) with a house featuring a veranda, an architectural novelty introduced during his reign.  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The roof of this tomb house was originally thatch made from rushes but was replaced in the 1850s with wooden shingles, an innovation introduced from nearby Reunion Island or Mauritius. By contrast, the tomb of Rasoherina, erected forty years later, featured a two-level base (excluding the tomb house) made of chiselled stone blocks held together with cement.[59]  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

General Joseph Gallieni ordered the disinterment of the Merina sovereigns buried 21 kilometres (13 mi) away at Ambohimanga and had them reburied at the Rova.[60]The bodies of Radama II and Andrianampoinimerina were added to the tomb of Radama I, while those of Ranavalona I and Ranavalona II went into the tomb of Rasoherina.

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Several decades later in 1938, the body of Ranavalona III, who died in 1917 at her place of exile in Algiers (Algeria), was added to those of the other queens of Madagascar at the Rova. During the 1995 fire, heat from the burning wooden structures within the Rova compound caused the stone tombs to explode, leaving the mortal remains of generations of Merina sovereigns to be consumed by the flames. Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

Built by William Pool for Ranavalona II, Fiangonana ("Chapel") required eleven years to complete.[16]The structure's foundation stone was laid on 20 July 1869,[61] and its subsequent construction used over 35,000 hand-chiselled stones.[37] Inaugurated on 8 April 1880,[35] the central worship space measured 12.9 metres (42 ft) wide and 18.5 metres (61 ft) in length with an estimated capacity of 450 persons. SONY VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Laptop Keyboard

The building was designed with a private pew for the royal family, elevated on a platform approximately 0.91 metres (3.0 ft) high and accessed by a short staircase. A private entrance available to the royal family was accessible by a decorative exterior bridge linking the chapel to the raised embankment upon which Manampisoa stood.[61] Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The chapel boasts a number of distinctive features. At the time of its completion, its 34-metre (112 ft) tower was the only structure in Madagascar to be roofed in locally sourced slate. The windows were decorated with stained glass, and a pipe organ was installed to provide music at services. The organ and stained glass were imported from England,

 Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

while the pews, altar panels and queen's private pew were all ornately crafted from indigenous precious woods by local artisans.[37] During the colonial period, the chapel was used briefly as an exhibition space for European paintings before being closed to the public.

On the night of 6 November 1995, a fire broke out in the Rova compound, destroying or severely damaging all of its buildings.[62]HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

Once the flames had been extinguished, all that remained of the original structures were the stone shells of the royal chapel and Manjakamiadana. Fire-fighters arrived late at the scene. Their capacity to douse the fire was hampered by the discovery that their fire hoses did not properly fit onto the nearby hydrants. In addition, the water pressure at the hydrants was significantly reduced due to Analamanga hilltop's high elevation. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

As the fire-fighters battled the flames, numerous bystanders ran into Rova compound buildings to retrieve artefacts of historic and cultural significance. Approximately 1,675 objects were saved out of an estimated total of 6,700. Some pillaging is believed to have occurred.[63] On the night of the fire, the body of one of the queens was found in the public square in the centre of the city. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

A funeral vigil was held the following day for these royal remains.[62] The remains were later identified as belonging to Ranavalona III, and have since been re-interred in the royal tombs at Ambohimanga.[64]

The destruction of the Rova of Antananarivo occurred at a time when the complex was in the final stages of the process to become classified as Madagascar's first cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site.HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

Six people were initially charged in connection with the Rova's destruction in an Antananarivo court of law,[46] but the official investigation concluded that the fire was an accident.[63]Public accusations of a cover-up placed the blame for the fire on government officials, various ethnic groups, foreign powers and other parties.[62] Over fifteen years after the fire, the widespread belief persists within and outside Madagascar that a deliberate arson was the cause.[66] Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

Rumoured justifications for arson at the Rova were numerous and remain unproven. The revelation that important financial archives had been destroyed early on the morning of the fire sparked rumours that corrupt government officials had lit the blaze to create a public distraction from their illicit activities. Other explanations have included popular dissatisfaction with the election of divisive mayor Guy Willy Razanamasy or a flare-up of long-standing tensions among coastal peoples resentful of Merina socio-political domination. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

Accusations were also made against both then-president Albert Zafy and his predecessor, Didier Ratsiraka. The debate over why and how the Rova burned remains an unresolved and highly contentious subject almost two decades later.

Shortly after the fire, the government of Madagascar established the Direction nationale des opérations Rova (DNOR, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

or National Office of Rova Operations), a body directed by four national experts within Madagascar's Ministry of Culture who were tasked with developing and overseeing plans for the reconstruction of the Rova. Two years after the fire, several key milestones in the process had been achieved, with objects recovered from the fire inventoried, site excavations completed, HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

preliminary restoration plans for Manjakamiadana developed, and work on the royal chapel initiated. A ramp was also built to enable site access for the necessary heavy construction vehicles. Prior to work commencing, a traditional ceremony was performed to restore the sanctity of the site, which had served a dual role as both a physical tomb and spiritual link to venerated ancestors.[67] HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

Estimated initial reconstruction costs were put at 20 million U.S. dollars by experts from UNESCO,[67] which was the principal contributor of funds as well as expertise due to the Rova's then status as a soon-to-be officially recognised World Heritage Site. TheFrench Development Agency also pledged tens of thousands of dollars to the project while additional monies in the form of private donations from residents of SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Antananarivo helped to fund the reconstruction of the tombs on the complex.[67] However, according to a UNESCO report released in June 2000, the majority of funds raised by UNESCO between 1997 and 2000 for the Ratsiraka administration's Rova reconstruction initiative—an estimated 700 billion Malagasy Francs—were allegedly embezzled by the DNOR Administrator, stalling reconstruction at the end of the planning stage.[68] DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

Significant progress toward reconstruction was seen under the administration of President Marc Ravalomanana (2001–2009) who created the Comité national du patrimoine (CMP, or National Heritage Committee) responsible for overseeing the effort. The less time-intensive restoration projects were the first to be undertaken and completed. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

Efforts to restore the chapel, the monument least affected by the fire due to its stone structure,[67] focused particularly on restoring its roof, steeple and wooden pews along with altar panels that had burned in the fire. Work on the chapel was completed in 2003. Reconstruction work on Mahitsy began in 2001 and was completed in January 2003, while planning for the reconstruction of Besakana began in December 2003 but stalled in 2009.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

The restoration of the nine royal tombs in the Rova complex was completed in October 2003.[37] In early January 2006, Phase 1 of the Manjakamiadana reconstruction commenced. This phase was scheduled for completion in May 2008.[38] The reconstruction of the larger wooden palaces, such as Tranovola and Manampisoa, has not been planned. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

The original exterior of Manjakamiadana comprised over 70,000 granite stones, of which approximately 20,000 had become cracked during the fire and needed replacement.[38] The western wall of the palace partially collapsed in January 2004 and required complete rebuilding.[63] Every stone was removed and numbered to facilitate the reinsertion of each one in its original place with two French stone-masonry companies engaged to supervise the work.[38] DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

The foundation was modernised, first using laser technology to assess the topography of the site, then by driving 22 cement piles into the ground beneath the foundation base to a depth of 23 metres (75 ft).[38] Phase 2 consisted of replacing each of the numbered exterior wall stones in its original place, bolstered where needed by new stones to replace those damaged in the fire.  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

Although the palace interior was originally made of wood, the reconstructed building was designed using reinforced concrete interior supporting beams for the walls, ceiling and roof due to concerns over the availability and durability of hardwood.[69] Finally, the roof was re-tiled in blue-gray slate imported from quarries near the French city of Angers.[38]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard

Phases 1 and 2 of the reconstruction process were declared complete in December 2009 at a total cost of 6.5 million euros. The work employed 230 people at three sites: a granite quarry on National Route 1 (RN1), a separate site where the stones were chiselled into shape, and the site of the Rova itself.[38] Phase 3 will consist of the design and rebuilding of the interior of the palace, SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

while Phase 4 will involve planning and subsequent development of the display and management of the museum collection to be housed on the ground floor. In late 2010, work on these final two phases of reconstruction was scheduled to begin in 2011 with completion expected within 24 months at a cost of approximately 3,765,000 euros.[70]

Following the completion of the first two phases, the Minister of Culture and Heritage fast-tracked the enclosure of windows and doors to protect the building's interior and began establishing a new inventory of historic objects saved from the fire. These artefacts are currently housed in theAndafiavaratra Palace, former home of late 19th-century Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, and will be transferred to a museum within Manjakamiadana upon its completion.[71] Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

In March 2009 the Ravalomanana administration was ousted following several months of opposition protests led by then-mayor of Antananarivo, Andry Rajoelina. The transfer of power to Rajoelina, who adopted the title of President of the High Transitional Authority (HAT), was widely viewed as a coup d'état by members of the international community, leading many bilateral and intergovernmental donors to suspend non-humanitarian support to the regime. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

The HAT declared its intention to continue the Manjakamiadana reconstruction project using a combination of state funds and donations from private Malagasy citizens. Six banking agencies in Madagascar were selected to serve as collection points for private donations.[76] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

On 7 March 2011 the HAT relieved the original members of the National Heritage Committee of their posts and mandated the appointment of new members selected from among the regime's ministerial staff. Despite the introduction of these diverse strategies, the HAT struggled to obtain adequate funds to continue the pace of Rova reconstruction seen in the latter half of the Ravalomanana presidency. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

Progress toward completion advanced sporadically at a gradual rate throughout the Rajoelina administration.[77][78] Since assuming power in January 2014, theRajaonarimampianina administration has been engaged in discussions with the French Secretary of State for the Francophonie and International Development to agree upon French financial support to assist in completing the restoration work. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

In June 2014, the administration declared that the cost of completing the final two phases had risen to 6-7 million from the 3.7 million originally estimated in 2010. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan,DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

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Madonna in the Church (or The Virgin in the Church) is a small oil panel by the early Netherlandish painter Jan van Eyck. Probably executed between c. 1438–40, it shows the Virgin Mary holding the Child Jesus in a Gothic cathedral. Mary is presented as Queen of Heaven wearing a jewel-studded crown, cradling a playful child Christ who gazes at her and grips the hem of her dress in a manner that recalls the 13th-century Byzantine tradition of the Eleusa icon (Virgin of Tenderness). French Macaron Pillow,Creative Cushion - Matty's

French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Tracery in the arch at the rear of the nave contains wooden carvings depicting episodes from Mary's life, while a faux sculpture in a niche shows her holding the child in a similar pose. Erwin Panofsky sees the painting composed as if the main figures in the panel are intended to be the sculptures come to life.[1] In a doorway to the right, two angels sing psalms from a hymn book. SONY PCG-7122M battery

Like other Byzantine depictions of the Madonna, van Eyck depicts a monumental Mary, unrealistically large compared to her surroundings. The panel contains closely observed beams of light flooding through the cathedral's windows. It illuminates the interior before culminating in two pools on the floor. The light has symbolic significance, alluding simultaneously to Mary's virginal purity and God's ethereal presence.[2] SONY PCG-7121M battery

Most art historians see the panel as the left wing of a dismantled diptych; presumably its opposite wing was a votive portrait. Near-contemporary copies by the Master of 1499 and Jan Gossaert pair it with two very different right-hand images: one is of a donor kneeling in an interior setting; the other is set outdoors, with the donor being presented by St Anthony. SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery

Both painters made significant alterations to van Eyck's composition, which may have brought the image more up to date with contemporary styles, but the copies have been described as "spiritually if not aesthetically disastrous to the original concept".[3]

Madonna in the Church was first documented in 1851. Since then its dating and attribution have been widely debated amongst scholars. SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery

At first thought an early work by Jan van Eyck, and for a period attributed to his brother Hubert van Eyck, it is now definitively attributed to Jan and believed to be a later work, demonstrating techniques present in work from the mid-1430s and later. The panel was acquired for the Berlin Gemäldegalerie in 1874. It was stolen in 1877 and soon returned, but without its original inscribed frame, which was never recovered.[4] SONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery

Today Madonna in the Church is widely considered one of van Eyck's finest; Millard Meiss wrote that its "splendor and subtlety of [its depiction] of light is unsurpassed in Western art."

The attribution of the panel reflects the progression and trends of 19th and 20th-century scholarship on Early Netherlandish art. It is now thought to have been completed c. SONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery

1438–40, but there are still arguments for dates as early as 1424–29. As with the pages ascribed to Hand G in the Turin-Milan Hours manuscript, the panel was attributed to Jan's brother Hubert van Eyck in the 1875 Gemäldegalerie catalogue, and by a 1911 claim by art historian Georges Hulin de Loo.[6] This is no longer considered credible and Hubert, today, is credited with very few works.[7][8] SONY VAIO PCG-7191V battery

By 1912 the painting had been definitively attributed to Jan in the museum catalogue.[6]

Attempts to date it have undergone similar shifts of opinion. In the 19th century the panel was believed to be an early work by Jan completed as early as c. 1410, although this view changed as scholarship progressed. In the early 20th century, SONY VAIO PCG-7192V battery

Ludwig von Baldassplaced it around 1424–29, then for a long period it was seen as originating from the early 1430s.[6] Erwin Panofsky provided the first detailed treatise on the work and placed it around 1432–34. However, following research from Meyer Schapiro, he revised his opinion to the late 1430s in the 1953 edition of his Early Netherlandish Painting.[8SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

] A 1970s comparative study of van Eyck's 1437 Saint Barbara concluded that Madonna in the Church was completed after c. 1437.[6] In the 1990s, Otto Pächt judged the work as probably a late van Eyck, given the similar treatment of an interior in the 1434 Arnolfini Portrait.[9] In the early 21st century, Jeffrey Chipps Smith and John Oliver Hand placed it between 1426 and 1428, claiming it as perhaps the earliest extant signed work confirmed as by Jan. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery

At 31 cm × 14 cm, the painting's dimensions are small enough to be almost considered miniature, consistent with most 15th-century devotional diptychs. A reduced size increased portability and affordability, and encouraged the viewer to approach the piece to more closely see its intricate details.[11] The work shows Mary wearing a dark blue robe – the colour traditionally used to emphasise her humanity – over a red dress of different textured fabrics. Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery

Her hem is embroidered in gold with gilded lettering that reads "SOL" and "LU",[12] or perhaps SIOR SOLE HEC ES,[13] in all probability, fragments of the Latin words for "sun" (sole) and "light" (lux).[12] On her head is an elaborately tiered and jeweled crown and in her arms she carries the infant Jesus, his feet resting on her left hand. SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

Swaddled in a white cloth from hips trailing down beyond his feet, his hand rests on her neckline clutching the jeweled hem of his mother's dress.

Further depictions of Mary are found in the church background. They include a statue of the Virgin and Child positioned between two lit candles in the choir screen behind the main figures, and to the right two angels stand in the choir singing her praises (perhaps singing the hymn inscribed on the frame). SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

Above her is anannunciation relief, and in the recessed bay a relief depicting her coronation; the crucifixion is shown on the rood. Thus, the stages of Mary's life as mother of Jesus are depicted in the painting.[15] A two-column prayer tablet – similar to the one depicted in Rogier van der Weyden's large Seven Sacraments Altarpiece (1445–50) – hangs on a pier to the left. It contains words alluding to and echoing the lines on the original frame.[1] SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

The windows of the clerestory overlook flying buttresses, and cobwebs are visible between the arches of thevault.[16] Several different building phases can be seen in the arched gallery, while the choral balcony andtransept are depicted in a more contemporary style than the nave.[16]

Closely detailed beams of light spill through the high windows and illuminate the interior, filling the portal and flowing across the tiled floors before it hits the clerestory windows. Sony VGN-NR11S Battery

The brilliance of the daylight is juxtaposed with the gentle glow of the candles in the choir screen altar, while the lower portion of the pictorial space is relatively poorly lit.[15] Shadows cast by the cathedral can be seen across the choir steps and near aisle.[12] Their angle is rendered in an unusually realistic manner for early 1400s, and the detail is such that their description is likely based on observation of the actual behaviour of light, SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

a further innovation in 15th-century art. Yet while the light is portrayed as it might appear in nature, its source is not. Panofsky notes that the sunlight enters from the north windows, but contemporary churches normally had east-facing choirs, so the light should enter from the south. He suggests the light is not intended to be natural, but rather to represent the divine, and hence subject to "the laws of symbolism and not those of nature." SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

According to Elisabeth Dhanens, the shape and rounded top of the original frame is reminiscent of those found on the top register of panels of the Ghent altarpiece, which are accepted as designed by Jan's brother Hubert.[6] She believes the current frame is too narrow and small, and contains "clumsy marbling".[18] From a detailed 1851 inventory, we know the text of the hymn inscribed on original frame. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

The text is written in a poetic form and begun on the lower border and then extended upwards on the vertical borders, ending on the top border.[15][19] The lower border of the frame read FLOS FLORIOCOLORUM APPELLARIS; the sides and top MATTER HEC EST FILLIA PATER EST NATUS QUIS AUDIVIT TALIA DEUS HOMO NATUS ETCET ("The mother is the daughter. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

This father is born. Who has heard of such a thing? God born a man"). The fifth stanza of the hymn (not included in van Eyck's transcription) reads, "As the sunbeam through the glass. Passeth but not staineth. Thus, the Virgin, as she was. Virgin still remaineth."[15] The lettering on the hem of her robe echoes the inscription on the frame, Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery

words similar to those found on Mary's dress in van Eyck's 1436 Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele,[16] a passage from the Book of Wisdom (7:29) reading EST ENIM HAEC SPECIOSIOR SOLE ET SUPER OMNEM STELLARUM DISPOSITIONEM. LUCI CONPARATA INVENITUR PRIOR ("For she is more beautiful than the sun, and excels every constellation of the stars. Compared with the light she is found to be superior").[12] Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery

Some historians have suggested that the inscriptions were intended to breathe life into the other statues and depictions of Mary.[15] Others, including Craig Harbison, believe they were purely functional; given that contemporary diptychs were commissioned for private devotion and reflection, the inscriptions were meant to be read as an incantation or were personalised indulgence prayers. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

Harbison notes that van Eyck's privately commissioned works are unusually heavily inscribed with prayer, and that the words may have served a similar function to prayer tablets, or more exactly "Prayer Wings", of the type seen in the reconstructed LondonVirgin and Child triptych. SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

Van Eyck's earlier work often shows churches and cathedrals in older Romanesque style, sometimes to represent the Temple in Jerusalem as an appropriate historical setting, with decoration drawn exclusively from the Old Testament.[21] That is clearly not the case here – the Christ Child occupies the same space as a large rood cross depicting him being crucified. Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery

The church in this panel is contemporary Gothic – a choice perhaps intended to associate Mary with the Ecclesia Triumphans – while her pose and oversized scale are indebted to the forms and conventions of Byzantine art and the International Gothic.[22] Van Eyck details the architecture with a precision not seen before in northern European painting. SONY PCG-8113M battery

The different elements of the cathedral are so specifically detailed and the elements of Gothic and contemporary architecture so well delineated, that art and architecture historians have concluded that van Eyck must have had enough architectural knowledge to make nuanced distinctions. More so, given the finesse of the descriptions, many scholars have tried to link the painting with a particular building.[23SONY PCG-8112M battery

] Yet, and as with all buildings in van Eyck's work, the structure is imagined and probably an idealised formation of what he viewed as a perfect architectural space. This is evident from a number of features that would be unlikely in a contemporary church, such as the placing of a round arched triforium above a pointedcolonnade.[24]

Several art historians have reasoned why van Eyck did not model the interior on any actual building. Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

Most agree that he sought to create an ideal and perfect space for Mary's apparition,[25] and aimed for visual impact rather than physical possibility. Buildings suggested as possible (at least partial) sources includeSaint Nicholas' Church, Ghent, the Basilica of St Denis, Dijon Cathedral, Liège Cathedral and Cologne Cathedral,[26] as well as the basilica of Our Lady in Tongeren, which contains a very similar triforium gallery and clerestory.[25Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery

] Tongeren is one of a minority of churches in the region aligned on a north-east to south-west axis, so that the lighting conditions in the painting can be seen on summer mornings.[27] In addition, the church contains a standing statue of the Virgin and Child (the Virgin with a tall crown), once credited with miraculous powers, though the current statue post-dates van Eyck.[28] Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery

Pächt described the work in terms of an "interior illusion", noting the manner in which the viewer's eye falls across the nave, the crossing, but "only then, [is he] looking through and over the rood screen, the choir." From this Pächt views the perspective as deliberately lacking cohesion, as "the relationship between the parts of the building is not shown in full ... Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery

The transition from foreground to background is ingeniously masked by the figure of the Madonna herself, who obscures the crossing pier; the middle ground is practically eliminated and our eye crosses over it without our becoming aware of it." The illusion is enhanced by the use of colour to suggest light: the interior is dim and in shadow while the unseen exterior seems bathed in bright light. Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

Unusual for a 13th-century Gothic cathedral, most of the windows are of clear glass.[15] Looking at the windows running along the nave, John L. Ward observed that the window directly above the suspended crucifix is the only one whose uppermost portion is visible. Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

That window directly faces the viewer, revealing intricately designed stained glass panels that show intertwined red and blue flowers. Because the window is so far back in the pictorial space, where perspective is becoming faint, the proximity of the flowers to the crucifix lends them the appearance of coming "forward in space, as if [they] had suddenly grown from the top of the crucifix in front of it."[30] Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery

Ward does not believe this a trick of the eye resulting from loss of perspective towards the high reaches of the panel. Instead he sees it as a subtle reference to the iconography and mythology of the Book of Genesis' Tree of life, which he describes here as "reborn in Christ's death". He does acknowledge the subtlety of the illusion, and the fact that neither of the two well known near copies include the motif. Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery

The idea of flowers shown as if sprouting from the top of the cross may have been borrowed from Masaccio's c. 1426 Crucifixion, where flowers are placed on the upper portion of the vertical beam of the cross. Ward concludes than van Eyck took the idea even further by showing the flowers emanating from another source, and sought to depict the actual moment where the tree of life is reborn and "the cross comes to life and sprouts flowers as one watches".Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

In the early 15th century, Mary held a central position in Christian iconography and was often portrayed as the one in whom the "Word was made flesh", a direct result of the work of the divine light.[31] During the medieval period, light acted as a visual symbol for both the immaculate conception and Christ's birth; it was believed that he was made manifest by God's light passing through Mary's body, just as light shines through a window pane. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

The divine represented by light is a motif in keeping with the sentiment of both the Latin text on the hem of Mary's dress (which compares her beauty and radiance to that of divine light)[17] and on the frame. A separate source of light, which also behaves as if from a divine rather than natural source, illuminates her face. Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

The two pools of light behind her have been described as lending the painting a mystical atmosphere, indicating the presence of God.[12] In the niche behind her, the statues are lit by two candles - symbols of the incarnation, whereas she is bathed in natural light.[15] The artificial light adds to the overall illusion of the interior of the church, which Pächt views as achieved mainly through colour.[33] Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

Light became a popular means for 15th-century Northern painters to represent the mystery of the Incarnation, utilising the idea of light passing through glass without shattering it to convey the paradox of conception and "virgo intacta". This is reflected in a passage attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux from his "Sermones de Diversis"; Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

"Just as the brilliance of the sun fills and penetrates a glass window without damaging it, and pierces its solid form with imperceptible subtlety, neither hurting it when entering nor destroying it when emerging: thus the word of God, the splendor of the Father, entered the virgin chamber and then came forth from the closed womb."[34] Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

Before the early Netherlandish period, divine light was not well described: if a painter wanted to depict heavenly radiance, he typically painted an object in reflective gold. There was a focus on describing the object itself rather than the effect of the light as it fell across it. Van Eyck was one of the first to portray light's saturation, illuminating effects and gradations as it poured across the pictorial space. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

He detailed how an object's colour could vary depending on the amount and type of light illuminating it. This play of light is evident across the panel, and especially seen on Mary's gilded dress and jewelled crown, across her hair and on her mantle.

The panel is, with the Antwerp Madonna at the FountainSony VAIO PCG-381L battery

broadly accepted as one of van Eyck's two late "Madonna and Child" paintings before his death in about 1441. Both show a standing Virgin dressed in blue. In both works, Mary's positioning and colourisation contrasts with his earlier surviving treatments of the subject, in which she was typically seated and dressed in red. Models for standing Virgins existed in the icons of Byzantine art,Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

and both paintings also represent modified versions of the eleusa type, sometimes called the Virgin of Tenderness in English, where the Virgin and Child touch cheeks, and the child caresses Mary's face.[35]

During the 14th and 15th centuries, a large number of these works were imported into northern Europe, and were widely copied by the first generation of Netherlandish artists, among others.[36] Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

The iconography of both the late Byzantine – typified by the unknown artist responsible for the Cambrai Madonna – and 14th-century successors such as Giotto favoured presenting the Madonna on a monumental scale. Undoubtedly van Eyck absorbed these influences, though when and through which works is disputed. It is believed that he had first-hand exposure to them during his visit to Italy, Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery

which occurred either in 1426 or 1428, before the Cambrai icon was brought to the North.[37] Van Eyck's two Madonna panels carried forward the habit of reproduction and were themselves frequently copied by commercial workshops throughout the 15th century.[38][39] Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery

It is possible that the Byzantine flavour to these images was also connected with contemporary attempts through diplomacy to achieve reconciliation with the Greek Orthodox Church, in which van Eyck's patron Philip the Good took a keen interest. Van Eyck's Portrait of Cardinal Niccolò Albergati (c. 1431) depicts one of the papal diplomats most involved with these efforts. Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery

Van Eyck gives Mary three roles: Mother of Christ, the personification of the "Ecclesia Triumphans" and Queen of Heaven, the latter apparent from her jewel-studded crown.[11] The painting's near miniature size contrasts with Mary's unrealistically large stature compared with her setting. She physically dominates the cathedral; her head is almost level with the approximately sixty feet high gallery.[11] Sony VAIO PCG-394L battery

This distortion of scale is found in other a number of other van Eyck's Madonna paintings, where the archs of the mostly gothic interior do not allow headroom for the virgin. Pächt describes the interior as a "throne room", which envelopes her as if a "carrying case".[41] Her monumental stature reflects a tradition reaching back to an Italo-Byzantine type – perhaps best known through Giotto's Ognissanti Madonna (c. 1310) – and emphasises her Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery

identification with the cathedral itself. Till-Holger Borchert says that van Eyck did not paint her as "the Madonna in a church", but instead as metaphor, presenting Mary "as the Church".[16] This idea that her size represents her embodiment as the church was first suggested by Erwin Panofsky in 1941. Art historians in the 19th century, who thought the work was executed early in van Eyck's career, attributed her scale as the mistake of a relatively immature painter.[42] Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery

The composition is today seen as deliberate, and opposite to both his Madonna of Chancellor Rolin and Arnolfini Portrait. These works show interiors seemingly too small to contain the figures, a device van Eyck used to create and emphasise an intimate space shared by donor and saint.[43] The Virgin's height recalls hisAnnunciation of 1434–36, although in that composition there are no architectural fittings to give a clear scale to the building. Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery

Perhaps reflecting the view of a "relatively immature painter", a copy of the Annunciation by Joos van Cleve shows Mary at a more realistic proportion scale to her surroundings.[11]

Mary is presented as a Marian apparition; in this case she probably appears before a donor, who would have been kneeling in prayer in the now lost opposite panel.[1] Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery

The idea of a saint appearing before laity was common in Northern art of the period,[44] and is also represented in van Eyck's Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele (1434–36). There, the Canon is portrayed as if having just momentarily paused to reflect on a passage from his hand-held bible as the Virgin and Child with two saints appear before him, as if embodiments of his prayer. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery

As a prayer tablet placed on a pier was a distinctive trait of pilgrimage churches, Harbison sees the panel as partly concerned with the phenomenon of pilgrimage. This type of tablet contained specific prayers whose recitation in front of a particular image or in the church was believed to attract an indulgence, or remission of time in Purgatory. Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery

The statue of the Virgin and Child in the niche behind Mary's left shoulder might represent such an image, whereas the inscription of a Nativity hymn around the lost frame, ending in ETCET, i.e. "etcetera", would have told the viewer to recite the whole hymn, perhaps for an indulgence. The purpose of the picture, therefore, may have been to represent and bring the act of pilgrimage to a domestic setting. Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

This would have been attractive to Philip the Good who, though he made many pilgrimages in person, is recorded as paying van Eyck to perform one on his behalf in 1426, apparently an acceptable practice in Late Medieval celestial accounting.[46]

The Virgin and Child at the forefront might represent the background statues coming to life; Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery

at the time such an apparition was considered the highest form of pilgrimage experience. Their poses are similar and her tall crown is typical of those seen on statues rather than either royalty or painted figures of the Virgin. Harbison further suggests that the two pools of light on the floor echo the two candles on either side of one of the statues, and notes that the copies described below retain the prayer tablet, one bringing it nearer to the foreground. Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

Most art historians believe that there are a number of indicators that the panel was the left-hand wing of a dismantled diptych. The frame contains clasps, implying it was once hinged to a second panel.[47] The work seems composed to be symmetrically balanced towards an accompanying right-hand wing: Mary is positioned slightly to the right of centre, Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

while her downward, almost coy glance is directed at a space beyond the edge of the panel, suggesting that she is looking at, or in the direction of, a kneeling donor in a right-hand wing. The visible architectural features – with the exception of the niches, the crucifixion and the windows directly behind it, which are at a right angle to the nave and centre front, facing the viewer – are at the left of the panel, facing right.[48] Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

Harbison believes the panel is "almost certainly only the left-hand half of a devotional diptych".[49] Dhanens observes how Mary's eyeline extends beyond the horizon of her panel, a common feature of Netherlandish diptychs and triptychs, where the saint's gaze is directed towards an accompanying image of a donor.[18] Other indicators include the unusually oblique architectural aspect of the church, Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery

which suggests that its depiction was intended to extend across to a sister wing – in a manner similar to the Master of Flemalle's Annunciation,[18] and especially in van der Weyden's c. 1452 Braque Triptych, where continuity between the panels is especially emphasised.

Two near-contemporary copies, usually attributed to the Ghent Master of 1499 and Jan Gossaert,[52] Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

were completed while the original was in the collection of Margaret of Austria, great-granddaughter of Philip the Good. Both present variants of the Madonna panel as the left wing of a devotional diptych, with a donor portrait as the right wing.[53] However, the two donor panels have very different settings. The 1499 version shows the Cistercian abbot Christiaan de Hondt praying in his luxurious quarters,[48Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery

] while Gossaert presents the donor Antonio Siciliano, accompanied by Saint Anthony, in a panoramic landscape setting. It is not known if either work is based on an original left-hand panel painted by van Eyck.[54]

The 1499 Madonna panel is a free adaption, in that the artist has changed and repositioned a number of elements. However art historians usually agree that they are to the detriment of the balance and impact of the composition.[3][3Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery

] The panel attributed to Gossaert shows even more significant, though perhaps more successful, alterations, including shifting the centre of balance by adding a section to the right-hand side, dressing the Virgin entirely in dark blue and changing her facial features.[55] Both copies omit the two pools of bright light on the floor across from her, thus removing the mystical element of van Eyck's original,[56] Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery

perhaps because its significance was not grasped by the later artists.[57] That Gossaert followed other aspects of the original so closely, however, is evidence of the high regard he held for van Eyck's technical and aesthetic ability, and his version has been seen by some as a homage.[58] The Master of 1499's admiration for van Eyck can be seen in his left-hand panel, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery

which contains many features reminiscent of van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait, including the rendering of the ceiling beams and the colour and texture of the red fabrics.[48]

Around 1520–30, the Ghent illuminator and miniaturist Simon Bening produced a half-length Virgin and Child that closely resembles van Eyck's panel, to the extent that it can be considered a loose copy. Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery

However, it can be more closely related to the original Cambrai Madonnaespecially in its retention of the halo, which was considered old fashioned by the 15th century. Bening's Madonna is distinct to the two earlier copies of van Eyck; it was intended as a stand-alone panel, not part of a diptych, and though compositionally similar, radically departs from the original, especially in its colourisation. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery

It is thought that Bening's work was informed by Gossaert's panel rather than directly by van Eyck's.

The ownership of the work contains lot of gaps; even the periods where there is some record are often complicated and, according to Dhanens, "murky" in aspects. There is almost no record from between the early 16th century and 1851, and the theft in 1877 leaves doubt for some as to what exactly was returned. Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery

Historian Léon de Laborde documented an altarpiece in a village near Nantes in 1851, which contained a Madonna in a church nave holding the Christ Child in her right arm, which he described as "painted on wood, very well preserved, still in its original frame".[19] The description contains a detailing of the frame's inscription.[60] A document from 1855 records a Virgin in the Church thought by Hubert and Jan van Eyck, which may be the same painting. Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery

It belonged to a Monsieur Nau, who had bought it for 50francs from the housekeeper of Francois Cacault, a French diplomat who had acquired a number of paintings from Italy.[19]

A panel very similar in description was purchased by the Aachen art collector Barthold Suermondt sometime during the 1860s and catalogued in 1869 with a detailing of the frame's inscription. Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery

This work was thought to have come from Nantes,[60] suggesting it was the same as the panel mentioned in 1851. The Suermondt collection was acquired by the Berlin museum in May 1874, as part of an acquisition of 219 paintings.[61] The painting was stolen in March 1877, generating worldwide news coverage; it was recovered ten days later, but without the original frame.[62] Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

The 1875 Berlin museum catalogue attributes a van Eyck imitator; the 1883 catalogue described the original as lost and the Berlin painting a copy. Soon after, however, its authenticity was verified, and the 1904 Berlin catalogue attributed Jan.[6] Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery

It is thought Philip the Good may have been the original patron, given that a painting matching its description was recorded in a 1567 inventory of his great-granddaughter Margaret of Austria, who inherited the majority of Philip's collection. The description in her record reads, "Ung autre tableaul de Nostre-Dame, du duc Philippe, qui est venu de Maillardet, couvert de satin brouché gris et ayant fermaulx d'argent doré et bordé de velours vertSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery

. Fait de la main Johannes."[63]From the naming conventions known from the collection's inventory, "Johannes" probably refers to van Eyck, "duc Philippe" to Philip.

Early Netherlandish painting refers to the work of artists, sometimes known as the Flemish Primitives, active in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands during the 15th- and 16th-century Northern Renaissance, Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

especially in the flourishing cities of Tournai, Bruges, Ghent and Brussels in modern-day Belgium. Their work followed the International Gothic style and began approximately with Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the early 1420s. It lasted at least until the death of Gerard David in 1523,[3] although many scholars extend it to the start of the Dutch Revolt in 1566 or 1568. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

Early Netherlandish painting coincides with the Early and High Italian Renaissance but is seen as an independent artistic culture, separate from the Renaissance humanism that characterised developments in Italy. Because the works of these painters represent the culmination of the northern European medieval artistic heritage and the incorporation ofRenaissance ideals, Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

the painters are sometimes categorised as belonging to both the Early Renaissance and Late Gothic.

The major Netherlandish painters include Campin, van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Dieric Bouts, Petrus Christus, Hans Memling, Hugo van der Goes and Hieronymus Bosch. These artists made significant advances in natural representation andillusionism, and their work typically features complex iconography. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

Their subjects are usually religious scenes or small portraits, with narrative painting or mythological subjects being relatively rare. Landscape is often richly described but relegated as a background detail before the early 16th century. The painted works are generally oil on panel, either as single works or more complex portable or fixed altarpieces in the form of diptychs, triptychs or polyptychs. Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery

The period is also noted for its sculpture, tapestries, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass and carved retables.

The period occurred during the height of Burgundian influence in Europe, when the Low Countries became the political and economic centre in Northern Europe, noted for its crafts and luxury goods. In conjunction with production by the workshop system, Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery

panels and a variety of crafts were sold on commissions from foreign princes or to merchants through market stalls. The majority of the works were destroyed during waves of iconoclasm in the 16th and 17th centuries and today only a few thousand examples survive. Early northern art in general was not well regarded from the early 17th to the mid-1Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery

9th century and the painters and their works were not well documented until the mid-19th century with the reinvigoration of interest in Early Netherlandish art. Art historians spent almost another century determining attributions, studying iconography, and establishing bare outlines of even the major artists' lives. Attribution of some of the most significant works is still debated.Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

Queen of Heaven is a title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary by Christians mainly of the Roman Catholic Church, and also, to some extent, in Anglicanism[and Eastern Orthodoxy, to whom the title is a consequence of the First Council of Ephesus in the fifth century, in which the Virgin Mary was proclaimed "theotokos", a title rendered in Latin as Mater Dei, in English "Mother of God".Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

The Catholic teaching on this subject is expressed in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam,[1] issued by Pope Pius XII. It states that Mary is called Queen of Heaven because her son, Jesus Christ, is the king of Israel and heavenly king of the universe; indeed, the Davidic tradition of Israel recognized the mother of the king as the Queen Mother of Israel. Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery

The Eastern Orthodox Churches do not share the Catholic dogma, but themselves have a rich liturgical history in honor of Mary.

In the Old Testament, under some Davidic kings, the gebirah, the "Great Lady", usually the Mother of the King, held great power as advocate with the king. Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery

In 1 Kings 2:20, Solomon said to his Mother Bathsheba, seated on a throne at his right, "Make your request, Mother, for I will not refuse you." Fr. William G. Most sees here a sort of type of Mary.

A statue of the Assumption of Mary typically crowned with 12 stars. A reflection of the biblical image in Revelation 12. Statue by Attard, Malta. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

In the New Testament, the title has several biblical sources. At the Annunciation, the archangel Gabriel announces that [Jesus] "... will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David. He will rule over the house of Jacob forever and his reign will be without end." Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

 (Luke 1:32) The biblical precedent in ancient Israel is that the mother of the king becomes the queen mother.[8] Mary's queenship is a share in Jesus’ kingship.[6]

The Roman Catholic Church views Mary as the woman clothed with the sun in the Book of Revelation 12:1–3:[5] "1 A great and wondrous sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery

She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on his heads." The Church accepts Revelation 12 as a reference to Mary, Israel, and the Church as a three-fold symbolism through the Book of Isaiah and affirms Mary as the mother of Jesus as the prophetic fulfilment described in Revelation 12 (cf. Isaiah 7:14, 26:17, 54:1, 66:7).[5] Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

In the Old Testament the term "queen of heaven" appears in a context unrelated to Mary. The prophet Jeremiah writing circa 628 BC refers to a "queen of heaven" in chapters 7 and 44 of the Book of Jeremiah when he scolds the people for having "sinned against the Lord" due to their idolatrous practices of burning incense, making cakes and pouring out drink offerings to her. Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery

This title was probably given to Asherah, a Caananite idol and goddess worshipped in ancient Israel and Judah.[9] For a discussion of "queen of heaven" in the Old Testament, seeQueen of heaven (Antiquity). Sony VAIO PCG-3E1M battery,Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery,Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

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The Four Freedoms is a series of four 1943 oil paintings by the American artist Norman Rockwell. The paintings—Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear—are each approximately 45.75 inches (116.2 cm) × 35.5 inches (90 cm),[1] and are now in the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Sony PCG-61211M battery

The four freedoms refer to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's January 1941 Four Freedoms State of the Union address in which he identified essentialhuman rights that should be universally protected.[2][3] The theme was incorporated into the Atlantic Charter,[4][5] and became part of the charter of the United Nations.[6] Sony PCG-71213M battery

 The paintings were reproduced in The Saturday Evening Post over four consecutive weeks in 1943, alongside essays by prominent thinkers of the day. They became the highlight of a touring exhibition sponsored by The Post and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The exhibition and accompanying sales drives ofwar bonds raised over $132 million.[7] Sony PCG-71311M battery

This series has been the cornerstone of retrospective art exhibits presenting the career of Rockwell,[8][9] who was the most widely known and popular commercial artist of the mid-20th century, but did not achieve critical acclaim.[2][10] These are his best-known works,[3] and by some accounts became the most widely distributed paintings.[11] Sony PCG-71212M battery

At one time they were commonly displayed in post offices, schools, clubs, railroad stations, and a variety of public and semi-public buildings.[11]

Critical review of these images, like most of Rockwell's work, has not been entirely positive. Rockwell's idyllic and nostalgic approach to regionalism made him a popular illustrator but a lightly regarded fine artist during his lifetime,[ Sony PCG-71313M battery] a view still prevalent today. However, he has created an enduring niche in the social fabric with Freedom from Want, emblematic of what is now known as the "Norman Rockwell Thanksgiving".

Throughout his political career Roosevelt championed the cause of human rights.[6] In his annual State of the Union address to Congress of January 6, 1941, which was delivered at a time when Nazi Germanyoccupied much of Western Europe,[15] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

he asked the American citizens to support war efforts in various ways. He stated his vision of a better future, founded upon four freedoms: "In the future days which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms,"[2][16] some traditional and some new ones: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

Roosevelt's January 6 State of the Union address became known as his "Four Freedoms Speech", due to its conclusion that described President's vision of worldwide extension of the American ideals of individual liberties summarized by these four freedoms.[6] To put it another way, FDR's speech was known for "identifying the objectives of the war and revealing his hopeful view of the postwar world."[3] Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery

The speech helped to awaken Congress and the nation to the dire war calling, articulate ideological aims of the necessary armed conflict and appeal to the universal American belief of freedom.[15] Domestically, the Four Freedoms were not something that Roosevelt was able to achieve through simple legislation, although they provided a theme for American military participation in the war.[3] Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

Of the Four Freedoms, the only two described in the United States Constitution were freedom of speech and freedom of worship.

Between 1916 and his December 16, 1963 Kennedy Memorial cover,[18] Rockwell created 322 magazine covers for The Saturday Evening Post,[19] which was once the most widely read American magazine.[20][21] Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery

 In a preelectronic era where mass production magazine color illustration was the most popular form of media, Rockwell became a national name, and by the 1950s was rivaled only by Walt Disney for his familiarity to the public among visual artists.[22] During World War I, Rockwell had taken a bit of a back seat to more established illustrators under The Post editorship of George Horace Lorimer, Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery

who had died in 1937.[23] Unfettered by Lorimer's restrictions, Rockwell saw the opportunity to illustrate the Four Freedoms as the chance of a lifetime.[23]

Rockwell's covers highlighted the human aspect of the American war effort.[18] The illustrations supported the effort by promoting war bonds, and encouraging women to work and men to enlist. Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery

They employed themes of patriotism, longing, shifting gender roles, reunion, love, work, community, and family.[24] In his role as a magazine illustrator during times of war, Rockwell draws comparisons to Winslow Homer, an American Civil War illustrator for Harper's Weekly.[25] The four Rockwell paintings are thought to have influenced the adoption of Roosevelt's Four Freedoms as a goal.[26] Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery

The Four Freedoms had become an important theme for Artists for Victory.[27] The consortium was one of several artists' organizations that provided the government with promotional artwork for the war.[28] It also sponsored exhibits about global peace.[29]

Rockwell was perceived as apolitical, but advocated "tolerance for differences, courtesy, kindness, and the freedoms that FDR articulated".[30Sony VAIO PCG-GRS100 battery]

He believed FDR's freedoms were worth fighting for,[30] and he made numerous artistic contributions to the war efforts apart from the Four Freedoms. He is widely known for his idealized fictional wartime character Willie Gillis and his depiction of Rosie the Riveter. Some of his other war art is known by name such as War News andHomecoming Soldier.[31] Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery

He was responsible for encouraging individual monetary support of the war through posters like the 1943 Hasten the Homecoming.Rockwell's Four Freedoms—Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear—were first published on February 20, February 27, March 6, and March 13, Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery

1943 along with commissioned essays from leading American writers and historians (Booth Tarkington, Will Durant, Carlos Bulosan, and Stephen Vincent Benét, respectively).[33] They measure 45.75 inches (116.2 cm) × 35.5 inches (90 cm) except Freedom of Worship which measures 46.0 inches (116.8 cm) × 35.5 inches (90 cm).[1] For all of his paintings, Rockwell used live models.[34Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery

 In 1935, Rockwell began using black-and-white photography of these live models extensively,[35] although he did not publicly reveal he did so until 1940.[36] The use of photography expanded the possibilities for Rockwell who could ask models to pose in positions that they could only hold for brief periods of time. SONY PCG-7122M battery

He could also produce works from new perspectives and the Four Freedoms represented "low vantage point of Freedom of Speech, to close-up in Freedom of Worship, midrange in Freedom from Fear, and wide angle in Freedom from Want."[35]

In 1939, Rockwell moved to Arlington, Vermont, which was an artist-friendly community that had hosted Robert Frost, Rockwell Kent, and Dorothy Canfield Fisher.[35] SONY PCG-7121M battery

Of the move from New Rochelle, New York, Rockwell said "I was restless ... The town [of New Rochelle] seemed tinged with everything that happened to me". In New Rochelle, he had both endured a divorce and run with a fast crowd.[37] Artists John Atherton, Mead Schaeffer and George Hughes established residences in Arlington soon after Rockwell. SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery

The resident artists, Rockwell included, were mutually supportive and hired local citizens as their amateur models.[35] Using photography and Arlington residents as models, Rockwell was able to capture what he referred to as "human-looking humans", who were generally working-class people, in an hour or so rather than hire professional models for the entire day.[38] SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery

Rockwell paid his models modestly. Rose Hoyt, who was engaged for a total of three photographic sessions for Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Worship, earned $15 ($216.51 in 2014 dollars[39]) for her sittings.[40]

When the US entered the war in 1941, it had three agencies responsible for war propaganda: SONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery

The Office of Facts and Figures (OFF), The Division of Information of theOffice of Emergency Management (OEM), and Office of Government Reports (OGR).[3] The OFF was responsible for commissioned artwork and for assembling a corps of writers, led by Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish. SONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery

By mid-1942, the Office of War Information determined that despite the efforts of OFF in distributing pamphlets, posters, displays, and other media, only a third of the general public was familiar with Roosevelt's Four Freedoms and at most one in fifty could enumerate them.[3] The Four Freedoms had been a "campaign to educate Americans about participation in World War II".[41]SONY VAIO PCG-7191V battery

By 1942, Rockwell had been illustrating professionally for thirty years and was having a successful career.[42] Additionally, by mid-1942 Rockwell's Gillis was becoming famous.[43] Lorimer had been the editor of The Post from 1898 to 1936. He was followed by Wesley W. Stout for five years.[44] SONY VAIO PCG-7192V battery

 In early 1942, Stout ran an article entitled "The Case Against the Jew", which led to advertising and subscription cancellations.[45] The Post was rumored to be in financial trouble in 1942.[46] Soon Stout was replaced by Hibbs who revamped the magazine.[45]

On May 24, 1942, Rockwell was seeking approval for a poster design at The Pentagon because the Artists Guild[SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery

had designated that he advocate for the U.S. Army Ordnance Department. Robert Patterson, who was then United States Undersecretary of War, suggested revisions. On the same day, he visited with Thomas Mabry of the Graphic Division of the War Department's Office of Facts and Figures, which coordinated war-themed posters and billboards. Mabry relayed the need for Four Freedoms artwork.[47] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery

Rockwell returned home pondering the Atlantic Charter, which had incorporated the Four Freedoms.[48]

Rockwell remembered a scene of a local town meeting in which one person spoke out in lone dissent, but was given the floor, and was listened to respectfully, despite his solitary opposition. He was inspired to use this scene to illustrate Freedom of Speech,Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery

and Rockwell decided to use his Vermont neighbors as models for an inspirational set of posters depicting the themes laid out by Roosevelt the previous year in a Four Freedoms series.[49] He spent three days making charcoalsketches of the series,[50] which some sources describe as color sketches.[51SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery

] Rockwell's patriotic gesture was to travel to Washington, D.C. and volunteer his free services to the government for this cause.[51][52] In mid-June, accompanied by Schaeffer, he took four charcoal sketches to Washington, where they stayed at theMayflower Hotel, as the two sought commissions to design war art.[48] SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

During the trip, Rockwell was asked by the Boy Scouts of America to continue his annual creation of a new painting for their annual calendar by publishing representative Orion Winford.[48] He was unable to hold Patterson's attention during their meeting,[48] so he met with the new Office of War Information (OWI), where he was told "The last war you illustrators did the posters. SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery

This war we're going to use fine artists men, real artists."[53][54]

On his return trip to Vermont with Schaeffer on June 16, they stopped in Philadelphia to meet with new Saturday Evening Post editor Ben Hibbs.[55] Many accounts portray this visit as unplanned, but whether it was is unclear.[56] Sony VGN-NR11S Battery

Hibbs liked Rockwell's Four Freedoms sketches,[50][52] and he gave Rockwell two months to complete the works.[55] A June 24 correspondence from The Post clarified that both Rockwell's and Schaeffer's series would be published.[56] By June 26, The Post's art editor James Yates notified Rockwell of plans for a layout of paintings with an accompanying essay or accompanying essays by President Roosevelt.[55] SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery

Rockwell's summer was full of distractions. At one point a Manhattan gastroenterologist prescribed a surgery of uncertain nature, though it was not performed. He had commissions for other magazines, and business complications regarding second reproduction rights.[57] He also had his Boy Scout commitment.[58] SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery

Under time constraints, Rockwell made every excuse to avoid all other distracting assignments.[59] In October, The Post sent its art editor to Arlington to check on Rockwell's progress.[60] At about the same time, despite its Graphics Division chief's, Francis Brennan's outrage, the OWI began showing signs of renewed interest. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

In fact, after Rockwell was chosen the entire OWI Writers' Division resigned.[23] The press release associated with the resignation asserted that the OWI was dominated by "high-pressure promoters who prefer slick salesmanship to honest information. These promoters would treat as stupid and reluctant customers the men and women of the United States."[61] Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

There was further turmoil in the OWI from a faction supporting work by Ben Shahn; Shahn's work was not used in propaganda because it lacked general appeal.[62] There were several artists who were commissioned to promote the war, including Jean Carlu, Gerard Hordyke, Hugo Ballin, and Walter Russell.[29]Russell created a Four Freedoms Monument that was eventually dedicated at Madison Square Garden in New York City.[63] Sony VAIO PCG-7186M battery

The series took seven months to complete,[59][64] and was finished by year end.[65] Supposedly, Rockwell lost 10 pounds (4.54 kg) from the assignment.[66] As Rockwell was completing the series, he was motivated by news of Allied setbacks, a fact that gives the work a sense of urgency.[67] Models included a Mrs. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M battery

Harrington who became the devout old woman in Freedom of Worship and a man named Jim Martin who appears in each painting in the series (most prominently in Freedom from Fear).[64]The intention was to remind America what they were fighting for: freedom of speech and worship, freedom from want and fear.[52] Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery

All of the paintings used a mutedpalette and are devoid of the use of vermilion that Rockwell is known for.

Some sources published after Rockwell's death question whether the government was truly as discouraging as Rockwell claimed. They cite an encouraging April 23, 1943 correspondence with Thomas D. Mabry of the OWI (a former Executive Director of the Museum of Modern Art).[50] French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

At the time, the three government propaganda agencies were disjointed until they were unified under the OWI on June 13, 1942 by aPresidential Executive Order.[50] Furthermore, the writers' division, led by MacLeish, was under pressure for failing to deliver a message intelligible to people of varying intelligence. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's

Upon completion, Rockwell's works were briefly exhibited at the West Arlington Grange before being delivered to The Post in Philadelphia.[68] The series arrived in Philadelphia in January 1943.[69] Roosevelt was shown the paintings in early February, and The Postsought Roosevelt's approval for the series of paintings and essays. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Roosevelt responded with both a personal letter to Rockwell and an "official" letter of commendation to The Post dated February 10.[70] Roosevelt instructed The Post to have the OWI have the essays translated into foreign languages so that they could be presented to leaders at the United Nations.[71] SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

The Freedoms were published in a series of four full-color, full-page editions, each accompanied by an essay of the same title. The panels were published in successive weeks in the order corresponding to Roosevelt's speech:[71] Freedom of Speech (February 20), Freedom of Worship (February 27), Freedom from Want (March 6), and Freedom from Fear (March 13). Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

For the authors of the accompanying essays, Hibbs had numerous options given the number of regular contributors to The Post.When the series was published, The Saturday Evening Post received millions of reprint requests.[11] They produced 25,000 sets, including both the essays and full-color reproductions of the paintings, sold at cost for $0.25 ($3.41 in 2014 dollars[39]).[72] HP G71-340US CPU Fan

 According to Rockwell, the OWI got involved and produced 2.5 million sets of Four Freedoms posters only after the public demanded reprints.[52][64] By the end of the war, 4 million posters had been printed.[7] Both the Freedom from Fear and Freedom from Want posters had the leading caption "ours. . . Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

to fight for" and the Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Worship had the leading caption "Buy War Bonds" and the word "Save" before the respective freedom.[73][74][75][76] A 1946 lithograph version of the 1943 paintings exists showing all four paintings under the heading "ours. . .to fight for".[77]

The Four Freedoms were issued as posters by the United States Government Printing Office and as postage stamps by the United States Postal Service.[2] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

They were used as commemorative covers for war bonds and postage stamps offered during the War Bond show.[78] The stamps are not to be confused with the February 12, 1943 one-cent Four Freedoms Postage Stamp Issue by another artist.[79] The Rockwell versions were issued in a set of four fifty-cent stamps in 1994, the 100th anniversary of Rockwell's birth.[80] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Freedom from Want was included as the cover image of the 1946 book Norman Rockwell, Illustrator that was written when Rockwell was "at the height of his fame as America's most popular illustrator".[81] By 1972, this 1946 publication was in its seventh printing.[81]  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

Although the paintings were originally intimately connected to Roosevelt and the American cause in World War II, the paintings have now developed an independent iconic identity intextbooks and on ties as well as in the cultural and social fabric.[7] By the end of the 20th century, 25 million people bought Rockwell's Four Freedoms prints.[12] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Rockwell noted that the series took an emotional toll on him, saying that the works were "serious paintings which sucked the energy right out of me like dredges, leaving me dazed and thoroughly weary." His subsequent assignment was to produce the 1943 April Fools' Day cover for The Post, which was much more relaxing.[68] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Rockwell was solicited for a variety of works following the publication of the Four Freedoms. Massachusetts Representative Edith Nourse Rogers put forth a congressional resolution to declare a fifth freedom: "Freedom of Private Enterprise".[82] Bronx Inter-Racial Conference chairman Roderick Stephens, HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

requested Rockwell's services to highlight the need for improved interracial relations in a series that would complement the original Four Freedoms. Rockwell and Stephens communicated, and, over the course of his career, Rockwell did contemplate and depict race relations in several works, but not as a series. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Between 1941 and 1946, the United States Department of the Treasury conducted eight War Loan Drives to promote the sale of war bonds to finance America's World War II efforts. The government used several forms of solicitation, advertising, and marketing, such as aircraft carrier exhibits. For the Seventh War Loan Drive,  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

they used direct appeals from all five-star generals and admirals (George Marshall, Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, Jackson D. Arnold, Ernest King, Chester W. Nimitz, and William D. Leahy),[84][85] and used a commemorative bond image of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the Eighth War Loan Drive.[86] HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

The marketing attempts were quite varied even within a single War Loan Drive.[87]

The War Bond Drives were viewed as key in boosting national morale by giving citizens the opportunity to support the war effort. They boosted patriotism and were a good marketing device for drumming up support.[88] Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan

In fact, not only did celebrities help promote the bonds for free, but also, most air time and advertising space for the bonds was donated.[89] The first War Loan Drive, known as "The Victory Loan Drive", began in early 1942. It was initiated by Roosevelt and United States Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau and raised $13 billion.[90] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Despite its success, only 35% of Americans understood the objectives of the war.[88]

Between January and April 1943, The Post and the United States Department of the Treasury collaborated to plan the Second War Bond Drive tour featuring the Four Freedoms beginning at Hecht's in Washington, D.C.[89] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

Thousands of people volunteered to be part of the War Bond Drive and The Post used its resources to promote the tour.[91] In 1943, the Saturday Evening Post donated the Four Freedoms to the Second War Loan Drive.[92] The OWI assumed the lead in marketing the Bond Drive. Using an all-star celebrity roster and the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

they created a March 1943 radio dramatization via their "Free World Theater". The OWI produced and distributed posters of the Four Freedoms to 400,000 retailers via the Boy Scouts and began receiving 2,000 daily poster requests.[93]

The tour began on April 26, 1943 at Hecht's.[61] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Rockwell was present at the debut to make obligatory appearances in front of ambassadors and dignitaries and to sign autographs. In the subsequent days, he sketched people in the White House waiting room using charcoal.[61] Due to strained relations with The Post, Morganthau did not attend the debut.[94] HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

The show ran for eleven days in Washington, D.C. with a wide variety of celebratory festivities,[95] such as hourly featured guests and entertainers, chorus performances, and military unit exhibitions.[96] The second stop of the tour coincided with the 75th anniversary of Strawbridge and Clothier in Philadelphia. Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, and Durant were among the celebrities on hand.[9ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

7] The tour arrived at New York City's Rockefeller Center on June 4 with festivities that featured Kate Smith.[97] The tour arrived in Boston on June 19 at Filene's.[98] Subsequent stops included Buffalo (July 12), Rochester, New York (August 2), and Pittsburgh (September 8).[99] In the Midwest, the show stopped in Detroit (September 27), Cleveland (October 25) and Chicago (November 11).[100 HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

]Other stops in the Midwest and West included St. Louis (December 16), New Orleans (January 16, 1944), Dallas (January 27), Los Angeles (February 12), Portland, Oregon (March 27), and Denver (May 1).[101]

Bond purchasers received full-color reproduction sets.[96] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

During the 16-city tour, which included various celebrities, public officials, and entertainers,[11]approximately 1.2 million people throughout the United States viewed the paintings, which helped to raise $132 million [78] ($18.533 million for the Second Loan Drive alone)[102] for the war effort though the sale of war bonds. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

According to The New Yorker in 1945, the Four Freedoms "were received by the public with more enthusiasm, perhaps, than any other paintings in the history of American art".[7][31] Rockwell is widely credited with contributing to the success of the war effort.[11] However, Rockwell only took part in the war bond tour when it was convenient for his other interests.[103] SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

 He did not travel with the tour which lasted a year.

Rockwell is considered the "quintessential middlebrow American artist".[104] As an artist he is an illustrator rather than a fine arts painter. Although his style is painterly, his work is produced for the purpose of mass reproduction, and it is produced with the intent of delivering a common message to its viewers via a detailed narrative style.[8][1Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

2] Furthermore, the vast majority of Rockwell's work was viewed in reproduced format and almost none of his contemporaneous audience ever saw his original work.[8][22] Also, Rockwell's style of backwoods New England small-town realism, known as regionalism, was sometimes viewed as out of step with the oncoming wave of abstract modern art.[12][13] SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan

Some say his realism is so direct that he abstains from using artistic license.[12] John Canaday, a New York Timesart critic once referred to Rockwell as the "Rembrandt of Punkin' Crick" for his aversion to the vices of big city life.[105] Dave Hickey derided Rockwell for painting without inflection.[12SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

Some critics also view his sentimental and nostalgic vision out of step with the harsh realities of American life, such as theGreat Depression.[8] Deborah Solomon views the works as being "based on lofty civic principles", but rather than dealing with the warring patriots, they present themes with "civic and familial rituals" for "emblematic scenes".[106] Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

Post editor Hibbs said that the Four Freedoms were an "inspiration ... in the same way that the clock tower of old Independence Hall, which I can see from my office window, inspires me."[69] Roosevelt wrote to Rockwell "I think you have done a superb job in bringing home to the plain, everyday citizen the plain, everyday truths behind the Four Freedoms ... Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

I congratulate you not alone on the execution but also for the spirit which impelled you to make this contribution to the common cause of a freer, happier world".[70] Roosevelt wrote to The Post "This is the first pictorial representation I have seen of the staunchly American values contained in the rights of free speech and free worship and our goals of freedom from fear and want."[71] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

 Roosevelt also wrote of the corresponding essays, "Their words should inspire all who read them with a deeper appreciation of the way of life we are striving to preserve."[71]

The Four Freedoms are perhaps Rockwell's most famous work.[3] Some have said that Rockwell's Four Freedoms lack artistic maturity.  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Others have pointed to the universality of the Freedom of Religion as disconcerting to practitioners of particular faiths.[64] Others complained that he idealized American life because by depicting wholesome, healthy, and happy sentiments Rockwell depicted the good that was remembered or wished for, but by avoiding misery, HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

poverty, and social unrest, he failed to demonstrate command of the bad and the ugly parts of American life.[8] Rockwell's response to this criticism was, "I paint life as I would like it to be."[8] Rockwell made it known that he hoped these would be his masterpieces, but was disappointed.[78] Nonetheless, he was satisfied with the public acceptance of the series and that the series was able to serve such a patriotic purpose.[103 SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

] Laura Claridge feels he might have achieved his ambition if he had pursued the "quiet small scenes" he later became known for.[78]

Although all four images were intended to promote patriotism in a time of war, Freedom from WantHP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard

which depicts an elderly couple serving a fat turkey to what looks like a table of happy and eager children and grandchildren has given the idyllic Norman Rockwell Thanksgiving work as important a place in the enduring marketplace of promoting family togetherness, peace and plenty as Hallmark at Christmas.[2] SONY 148781311 laptop keyboard

Some say that the Four Freedoms were unable to live up to the role of "illustrating grandiose concepts with humble correlatives" because they are too loud.[78]

The commercial success of the series was in part because each painting is considered to be a model of understandable art by the general public.[107] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

The success of Rockwell's depictions was due to his use of long-standing American cultural values about unity and respect of certain institutions while using symbols that enabled a broad audience to identify with his images.[41] This understandability made it one extreme on the scale of artistic complexity when comparing the series to contemporaneous art. HP Pavilion dv5-1233se laptop keyboard

It was diametrically opposed to abstract art and far removed from the intrigue of surrealism.[108]

In 1999, the High Museum of Art and the Norman Rockwell Museum produced the first comprehensive exhibition of Rockwell's career that started at the High Museum on November 6, 1999, stopped at the Chicago Historical Society, Corcoran Gallery of Art,  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

San Diego Museum of Art, Phoenix Art Museum, and Norman Rockwell Museum before concluding at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on February 11, 2002.[9][109] Although there has been a long history of Rockwell detractors, during this Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People touring exhibition attendance was record-setting and critical reviews were quite favorable. SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard

The nostalgia seemed to cause a bit of revisionism in the art world, according to The New York Times which said, "What's odd is the show's enthusiastic reception by the art world, which in a lather of revisionism is falling all over itself to embrace what it once reviled: the comfy, folksy narrative visions of a self-deprecating illustrator ..."[110]  ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

Some found Rockwell's presentation somewhat patronizing, but most were satisfied. The New Yorker remarked two years later: "They were received by the public with more enthusiasm, perhaps, than any other paintings in the history of American Art".[78] Claridge notes that the series is an example in which the sum is greater than its parts. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

She notes the inspiration comes in part from their cumulative "heft".

Following the 1943–44 War Bond Show, the Four Freedoms toured the country further by train in a specially-designed car. Through the 1950s the Four Freedoms hung in Hibbs' offices at The Post. Hibb retired in 1961 and by the time The Post was discontinued in 1969, Rockwell regained possession of the original paintings.[111] HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

Norman Rockwell bequeathed his personal collection in trust to the Norman Rockwell Museum in 1973 for the "advancement of art appreciation and art education".[112]This collection included the Four Freedoms paintings.[112] The works remained on exhibit at "The Norman Rockwell Museum at The Old Corner House" for nearly 25 years.[113] HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

In 1993, when the Rockwell Museum moved from its original location, the Four Freedoms were displayed in the new museum's central gallery.[114] As of 2014, the Four Freedoms remain in the collection of the Museum.[112] In 2011, the Williamstown Art Conservation Center did some work on the Four Freedoms, including reducing exposure to various elements and preventing further wear. DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

The Four Freedoms were widely exhibited as part of the sixteen-city Second War Loan Drive in 1943 and have subsequently been part of other tours and exhibitions.[31] They were a highlight of the first comprehensive Rockwell touring exhibition, entitled Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People, which was a seven-city tour that ran from November 1999 until February 2002.[9][12] SONY 148738411 laptop keyboard

They returned to the Corcoran Gallery of Art, which had been part of the Pictures for the American People tour, for an exhibition in association with the National World War II Memorial grand opening in 2004.[116] In addition to being included in various tours, the Four Freedoms were the subject of a 144-page book in 1993, the fiftieth anniversary of their production.[117] ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

In addition to exhibitions of the Four Freedoms by Rockwell, there have been tribute exhibitions of works by other artists depicting these themes. For example, in 2008 at the Wolfsonian museum at Florida International University, 60 artists exhibited 80 works that represented their takes on the Four Freedoms.[118] DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Other artists, such as Thomas Kinkade, have found individual inspiration in Rockwell's patriotic works, resulting in their own works using different symbols to present similar themes.

Freedom of Speech is the first of the Four Freedoms paintings by Norman Rockwell that were inspired by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms, he delivered on January 6, 1941.[1]DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

Freedom of Speech was published in the February 20, 1943 Issue of The Saturday Evening Post with a matching essay by Booth Tarkington as part of the Four Freedoms series.[2] Rockwell felt that this and Freedom to Worship were the most successful of the set.[3] Since Rockwell liked to depict life as he experienced it or envisioned it, it is not surprising that this image depicts an actual occurrence. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

Freedom of Speech was the first of a series of four oil paintings entitled, Four Freedoms painted by Norman Rockwell. The works were inspired by United States President, Franklin D. Roosevelt in a State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms, delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941.[1] SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard

Of the Four Freedoms, the only two described in the United States Constitution were freedom of speech and freedom of worship.[4] The Four Freedoms' theme was eventually incorporated into the Atlantic Charter,[5][6] and it became part of the charter of the United Nations.[1] The series of paintings ran in HP Pavilion dv7-4070us CPUFan

The Saturday Evening Postaccompanied by essays from noted writers on four consecutive weeks: Freedom of Speech (February 20), Freedom of Worship (February 27), Freedom from Want (March 6) and Freedom from Fear (March 13). Eventually, the series became widely distributed in poster form and became instrumental in the U. S. Government War Bond Drive. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

Freedom of Speech depicts a scene of a local town meeting in which Jim Edgerton, the lone dissenter to the town councilors' announced plans to build a new school, was accorded the floor as a matter of protocol.[7] The old school had burned down.[8] Once he envisioned this scene to depict freedom of speech, Rockwell decided to use hisVermont neighbors as models for a Four Freedoms series.[9ACER Aspire 4820T Series CPUFan

] The blue-collar speaker wears a plaid shirt and suede jacket. He has dirty hands and a darker complexion than others in attendance.[10] The other attendees are wearing white shirts, ties and jackets.[11] Although one of the men is wearing a wedding band, the speaker is not.[11] HP Pavilion dv7-3007tx CPUFan

Edgerton's youth and workmanlike hands are fashioned with a worn and stained jacket, while the other attendees, appear to be older and more neatly and formally dressed. He is shown "standing tall, his mouth open, his shining eyes transfixed, he speaks his mind, untrammeled and unafraid." Edgerton is depicted in a way that resembles Abraham Lincoln.[4] Dell Latitude E6510 CPUFan

According to Bruce Cole of The Wall Street Journal, The closest figure in the painting is revealing a subject of the meeting as "a discussion of the town's annual report".[4] According to John Updike, the work is painted without any painterlybrushwork.[12] According to Robert Scholes, the work shows audience members in rapt attention with a sort of admiration of this lone speaker. HP Envy 17 Series CPUFan

Rockwell's final work was the result of four restarts and consumed two months.[8][10] According to Scholes, the subject resembles aGary Cooper or Jimmy Stewart character in a Frank Capra film.[13] Each version depicted the blue-collar man in casual attire standing up at a town meeting, but each was from a different angle.[10] Toshiba Satellite A135-S4499 CPUFan

Earlier versions were troubled by the distraction of multiple subjects and the improper placement and perspective of the subject for the message to be clear.[14] An Arlington, VermontRockwell neighbor, Carl Hess, stood as the model for the shy, brave young workman, and another neighbor, Jim Martin, who appeared in each painting in the series, is in the scene.[15] HP 441137-001 CPUFan

Rockwell's assistant, Gene Pelham, suggested Hess, who had a gas station in town and whose children went to school with the Rockwell children.[8] According to Pelham, Hess "had a noble head".[16] Others in the work were Hess' father Henry (left ear only), Jim Martin (lower right corner), Harry Brown (right — top of head and eye only), HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPUFan

Robert Benedict, Sr. and Rose Hoyt to the left. Rockwell's own eye is also visible along the left edge.[8] Hess was married at the time and Henry Hess was a German immigrant.[11] Pelham was the owner of the suede jacket.[11] Hess posed for Rockwell eight different times for this work and all other models posed for Rockwell individually.[11] ACER eMachines G620 Series CPUFan

An early draft had Hess surrounded by others sitting squarely around him. Hess felt the depiction had a more natural look, Rockwell objected, "It was too diverse, it went every which way and didn't settle anywhere or say anything." He felt the upward view from the bench level was more dramatic.[8]  TOSHIBA UDQFRZH05C1N CPUFan

Rockwell explained to Yates at The Post that he had to start Freedom of Speech from scratch after an early attempt because he had overworked it.[17] Twice he almost completed the work only to feel it was lacking. Eventually, he was able to produce the final version with the speaker as the subject rather than the assembly.[18] For the accompanying essay,  Compaq Presario C714NR CPUFan

Post editor Ben Hibbs chose novelist and dramatist Tarkington who was a Pulitzer Prize winner.[2] People who purchased war bonds during the Second War Bond Drive received a full-color set of reproductions of the Four Freedoms that had a commemorative cover with Freedom of Speech on it.  DELL DFS531205PC0T(F6K2-CCW) CPUFan

Tarkington's accompanying essay published in the February 20, 1943 issue of The Saturday Evening Post was really a fable or parable in which youthful Adolf Hitlerand youthful Benito Mussolini meet in The Alps in 1912. During the fictional meeting both men describe plans to secure dictatorships in their respective countries via the suppression of freedom of speech.HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

This image was praised for its focus, and the empty bench seat in front of the speaker is perceived as inviting to the viewer. The solid dark background of theblackboard helps the subject to stand out but almost obscures Rockwell's signature.[14] According to Deborah Solomon, the work "imbues the speaker with looming tallness and requires his neighbors to literally look up to him."[10] HP G42-221BR CPUFan

The speaker represents a blue-collar unattached and sexually available, likely ethnic, threat to social customs who nonetheless is accorded the full respect from the audience.[11] Some question the authenticity of white-collar residents being so attentive to the comments of their blue-collar brethren.[11] HP KSB06105HA CPUFan

The lack of female figures in the picture gives this an Elks club meeting feel rather than an open town meeting.[11]

Laura Claridge said, "The American ideal that the painting is meant to encapsulate shines forth brilliantly for those who have canonized this work as among Rockwell's great pictures. HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

For those who find the piece less successful, however, Rockwell's desire to give concrete form to an ideal produces a strained result. To such critics the people looking up at the speaker have stars in their eyes, their posture conveying celebrity worship, not a room full of respectful dissent."[21]  HP Mini 110-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

Cole describes this freedom as an "active and public" subject that Rockwell formulated "his greatest painting forging traditional American illustration into a powerful and enduring work of art." He notes that Rockwell uses "a classic pyramidal composition" to emphasize the central figure, HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard

a standing speaker whose appearance is juxtapposed by the rest of the audience that by participating in democracy defends it. Cole describes Rockwell's figure as "the very embodiment of free speech, a living manifestation of that abstract right—an image that transforms principle, paint and, yes, creed, into an indelible image and a brilliant and beloved American icon still capable of inspiring millions world-wide".[4] ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard

He notes that the use of a New England town-hall meetings incorporates the "long tradition of democratic public debate" into the work while the blackboard and pew represent church and school, which are "two pillars of American life."[4] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Hibbs said of Speech and Worship "To me they are great human documents in the form of paint and canvas. A great picture, I think is one which moves and inspires millions of people. The Four Freedoms did — do so."[22] Westbrook notes that Rockwell presents "individual dissent" that acts to "protect private conscience from the state."[20] HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Laptop Keyboard

Another writer describes the theme of the work as "civility", a theme of days gone by. HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard,HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard,HP G72-b80SB Laptop Keyboard

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