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Six of George's siblings reached maturity, including two older half-brothers, Lawrence and Augustine, from his father's first marriage to Jane Butler Washington, and four full siblings, Samuel, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

Elizabeth (Betty), John Augustine and Charles. Three siblings died before becoming adults: his full sister Mildred died when she was about one,[20] his half-brother Butler died while an infant,[21] and his half-sister Jane died at the age of 12, when George was about 2.[20]George's father died when George was 11 years old, after which George's half-brother Lawrence became a surrogate father and role model. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

William Fairfax, Lawrence's father-in-law and cousin of Virginia's largest landowner, Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was also a formative influence.

Washington spent much of his boyhood at Ferry Farm in Stafford County near Fredericksburg. Lawrence Washington inherited another family property from his father, a plantation on the Potomac River which he named Mount Vernon, DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

in honor of his commanding officer, Admiral Edward Vernon. George inherited Ferry Farm upon his father's death and eventually acquired Mount Vernon after Lawrence's death.[22]

The death of his father prevented Washington from crossing the Atlantic to receive the rest of his education at England's Appleby School, as his older brothers had done. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

He received the equivalent of an elementary school education from a variety of tutors,[23] and also a school run by an Anglican clergyman in or near Fredericksburg.[24] Talk of securing an appointment in the Royal Navy for him when he was 15 was dropped when his widowed mother objected.[ HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan

Thanks to Lawrence's connection to the powerful Fairfax family, at age 17 in 1749, Washington was appointed official surveyor for Culpeper County, a well-paid position which enabled him to purchase land in the Shenandoah Valley, the first of his many land acquisitions in western Virginia. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Thanks also to Lawrence's involvement in the Ohio Company, a land investment company funded by Virginia investors, and Lawrence's position as commander of the Virginia militia, Washington came to the notice of the new lieutenant governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie. Washington was hard to miss: At exactly six feet, he towered over most of his contemporariesSONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan


In 1751, Washington travelled to Barbados with Lawrence, who was suffering from tuberculosis, with the hope that the climate would be beneficial to Lawrence's health. Washington contracted smallpox during the trip, which left his face slightly scarred, but immunized him against future exposures to the dreaded disease.[  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Lawrence's health did not improve; he returned to Mount Vernon, where he died in 1752.[28] Lawrence's position as Adjutant General (militia leader) of Virginia was divided into four offices after his death. Washington was appointed by Governor Dinwiddie as one of the four district adjutants in February 1753, with the rank of major in the Virginia militia.[ ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

Washington also joined the Freemasons fraternal association in Fredericksburg at this time.[30]

The Ohio Company was an important vehicle through which British investors planned to expand into the Ohio Valley, opening new settlements and trading posts for the Indian trade In 1753, the French themselves began expanding their military control into the Ohio Country, HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan

a territory already claimed by the British colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania. These competing claims led to a war in the colonies called the French and Indian War (1754–62), and contributed to the start of the global Seven Years' War (1756–63). By chance, Washington became involved in its beginning. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan


Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia, was ordered by the British government to guard the British territorial claims including the Ohio River basin. In late 1753 Washington was ordered by Dinwiddie to deliver a letter asking the French to vacate the Ohio Valley;[31] DELL Inspiron 1720 laptop keyboard

he was eager to prove himself as the new adjutant general of the militia, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor himself only a year before. During his trip Washington met with Tanacharison (also called "Half-King") and other Iroquois chiefs allied with England at Logstown to secure their support in case of a military conflict with the French; TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1BZ laptop keyboard

Washington and Tanacharison became friends. Washington delivered the letter to the local French commander Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, who politely refused to leave.[32] Washington kept a diary during his expedition which was printed by William Hunter on Dinwiddie's order and which made Washington's name recognizable in Virginia.HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

This increased notoriety helped him to obtain a commission to raise a company of 100 men and start his military career.[34]

Dinwiddie sent Washington back to the Ohio Country to protect an Ohio Company's crew constructing a fort at present-dayPittsburgh, Pennsylvania. However, before he reached the area, a French force drove out colonial traders and began construction of Fort Duquesne. FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 laptop keyboard

A small detachment of French troops led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, was discovered by Tanacharison and a few warriors east of present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. On May 28, 1754 Washington and some of his militia unit, aided by their Mingoallies, ambushed the French in what has come to be called the Battle of Jumonville Glen. DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Exactly what happened during and after the battle is a matter of some controversy, but a few primary accounts agree that the battle lasted about 15 minutes, that Jumonville was killed, and that most of his party were either killed or taken prisoner. Whether Jumonville died at the hands of Tanacharison in cold blood or was somehow shot by an onlooker with a musket as he sat with Washington or by another means, is not completely clear.  Lenovo 45N2205 laptop keyboard


The French responded by attacking and capturing Washington at Fort Necessity in July 1754.[37] However, he was allowed to return with his troops to Virginia. Historian Joseph Ellis concludes that the episode demonstrated Washington's bravery, initiative, inexperience and impetuosity.[38] These events had international consequences; SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX laptop keyboard

the French accused Washington of assassinating Jumonville, who they claimed was on a diplomatic mission.[38] Both France and Great Britain were ready to fight for control of the region and both sent troops to North America in 1755; war was formally declared in 1756.[39]

Braddock disaster 1755  SONY VAIO VGN-NW50JB laptop keyboard

In 1755, Washington was the senior American aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Braddock expedition. This was the largest British expedition to the colonies, and was intended to expel the French from the Ohio Country. The French and their Indian allies ambushed Braddock, who was mortally wounded in the Battle of the Monongahela. SONY VAIO VGN-CR36G laptop keyboard

After suffering devastating casualties, the British retreated in disarray; however, Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnants of the British and Virginian forces to an organized retreat.COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard


Governor Dinwiddie rewarded Washington in 1755 with a commission as "Colonel of the Virginia Regiment and Commander in Chief of all forces now raised in the defense of His Majesty's Colony" and gave him the task of defending Virginia's frontier. The Virginia Regiment was the first full-time American military unit in the colonies (as opposed to part-time militias and the British regular units).  HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

Washington was ordered to "act defensively or offensively" as he thought best.[41]

In command of a thousand soldiers, Washington was a disciplinarian who emphasized training. He led his men in brutal campaigns against the Indians in the west; in 10 months units of his regiment fought 20 battles, and lost a third of its men. DELL 9Z.N1K82.C01 laptop keyboard

Washington's strenuous efforts meant that Virginia's frontier population suffered less than that of other colonies; Ellis concludes "it was his only unqualified success" in the war.[42][43]

In 1758, Washington participated in the Forbes Expedition to capture Fort Duquesne. SONY 148084122 laptop keyboard

He was embarrassed by a friendly fire episode in which his unit and another British unit thought the other was the French enemy and opened fire, with 14 dead and 26 wounded in the mishap. Washington was not involved in any other major fighting on the expedition, and the British scored a major strategic victory, gaining control of the Ohio Valley, SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK laptop keyboard

when the French abandoned the fort. Following the expedition, he retired from his Virginia Regiment commission in December 1758. Washington did not return to military life until the outbreak of the revolution in 1775.[44]

Lessons learned SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard


Although Washington never gained the commission in the British army he yearned for, in these years the young man gained valuable military, political, and leadership skills.[45][46] He closely observed British military tactics, gaining a keen insight into their strengths and weaknesses that proved invaluable during the Revolution.  ACER MP-04653U4-698 Laptop Keyboard

He demonstrated his toughness and courage in the most difficult situations, including disasters and retreats. He developed a command presence—given his size, strength, stamina, and bravery in battle, he appeared to soldiers to be a natural leader and they followed him without question.[  IBM ThinkPad T42 2375 Laptop Keyboard


Washington learned to organize, train, drill, and discipline his companies and regiments. From his observations, readings and conversations with professional officers, he learned the basics of battlefield tactics, as well as a good understanding of problems of organization and logistics.[49] He gained an understanding of overall strategy, especially in locating strategic geographical points.[50] GATEWAY MT6919 Laptop Keyboard


Historian Ron Chernow is of the opinion that his frustrations in dealing with government officials during this conflict led him to advocate the advantages of a strong national government and a vigorous executive agency that could get results;[45] other historians tend to ascribe Washington's position on government to his later American Revolutionary War service.[  COMPAQ Presario CQ45-208TU Laptop Keyboard

He developed a very negative idea of the value of militia, who seemed too unreliable, too undisciplined, and too short-term compared to regulars.[51] On the other hand, his experience was limited to command of at most 1000 men, and came only in remote frontier conditions that were far removed from the urban situations he faced during the Revolution at Boston, New York, Trenton and Philadelphia.[52] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard


On January 6, 1759, Washington married the wealthy widow Martha Dandridge Custis, then 28 years old. Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend.[53] Nevertheless, George and Martha made a compatible marriage, because Martha was intelligent, gracious, and experienced in managing a planter's estate.[54]  HP Mini 110-3105tu Laptop Keyboard


Together the two raised her two children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis; later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together – his earlier bout with smallpox in 1751 may have made him sterile. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, near Alexandria, where he took up the life of a planter and political figure.

Washington's marriage to Martha greatly increased his property holdings and social standing, and made him one of Virginia's wealthiest men.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

He acquired one-third of the 18,000-acre (73 km2) Custis estate upon his marriage, worth approximately $100,000, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children, for whom he sincerely cared.In 1754, Lieutenant Governor Dinwiddie had promised land bounties to the soldiers and officers who volunteered to serve during the French and Indian War. HP Pavilion dv4-1030ee Laptop Keyboard

Lord Botetourt, the new governor, finally fulfilled Dinwiddie's promise in 1769–1770,[58][59] with Washington subsequently receiving title to 23,200 acres (94 km2) near where the Kanawha River flows into the Ohio River, in what is now western West Virginia.[60] He also frequently bought additional land in his own name. HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km2), and had increased its slave population to over 100. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.[61] HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard


Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity.He also enjoyed going to dances and parties, in addition to the theater, races, and cockfights. Washington also was known to play cards, backgammon, andbilliards. Like most Virginia planters, he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting his tobacco crop. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard


Washington began to pull himself out of debt in the mid-1760s by diversifying his previously tobacco-centric business interests into other ventures[64] and paying more attention to his affairs.In 1766, he started switching Mount Vernon's primary cash crop away from tobacco to wheat, a crop that could be processed and then sold in various forms in the colonies, DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

and further diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, weaving and (in the 1790s) whiskey production.[64] Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard


A successful planter, he was a leader in the social elite in Virginia. From 1768 to 1775, he invited some 2000 guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those he considered "people of rank". As for people not of high social status, his advice was to "treat them civilly" but "keep them at a proper distance, for they will grow upon familiarity, in proportion as you sink in authority".HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard

In 1769, he became more politically active, presenting the Virginia Assembly with legislation to ban the importation of goods from Great Britain.American Revolution (1775–1783)

Main articles: George Washington in the American Revolution and Military career of George Washington SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard


Washington opposed the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, and began taking a leading role in the growing colonial resistance when protests against the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) became widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal, drafted by his friend George Mason, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

calling for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed.[69] Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges".In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

which called for the convening of a Continental Congress, among other things. In August, Washington attended the First Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.After the Battles of Lexington and Concord near Boston in April 1775, the colonies went to war. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in a military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war.[72] Washington had the prestige, military experience, charisma and military bearing of a military leader and was known as a strong patriot. Virginia, the largest colony, deserved recognition, and New England—where the fighting began—realized it needed Southern support. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard

Washington did not explicitly seek the office of commander and said that he was not equal to it, but there was no serious competition.[73] Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed General and Commander-in-chief.[74] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard


Washington had three roles during the war. In 1775–77, and again in 1781 he led his men against the main British forces. Although he lost many of his battles, he never surrendered his army during the war, and he continued to fight the British relentlessly until the war's end. He plotted the overall strategy of the war, in cooperation with Congress.[75] HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan


Second, he was charged with organizing and training the army. He recruited regulars and assignedBaron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff, to train them. The war effort and getting supplies to the troops were under the purview of Congress,[76] but Washington pressured the Congress to provide the essentials.[77]  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan


In June 1776, Congress' first attempt at running the war effort was established with the committee known as "Board of War and Ordnance", succeeded by the Board of War in July 1777, a committee which eventually included members of the military.[76] The command structure of the armed forces was a hodgepodge of Congressional appointees DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan

 (and Congress sometimes made those appointments without Washington's input) with state-appointments filling the lower ranks and of all of the militia-officers. The results of his general staff were mixed, as some of his favorites (like John Sullivan) never mastered the art of command. HP 550 CPU Fan


Eventually, he found capable officers, such as General Nathanael Greene, General Daniel Morgan, "the old wagoner", with whom he had served in The French and Indian War, Henry Knox, his chief of artillery, and his chief-of-staff Alexander Hamilton. The American officers never equaled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and consequently they lost most of the pitched battles. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The great successes, at Boston (1776), Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781), came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops.[75] Daniel Morgan's annihilation of Banastre Tarleton's legion of dragoons at Cowpens in February of 1781, came as a result of Morgan's employment of superior line tactics against his British opponent, DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan

resulting in one of the very few double envelopments in military history, another being Hannibal's defeat of the Romans at Cannae in 216 b.c. The decisive defeat of Col. Patrick Ferguson's Tory Regiment at King's Mountain demonstrated the superiority of the riflery of American "over mountain men" over British-trained troops armed with musket and bayonet. HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan

These "over-mountain men" were led by a variety of elected officers, including the 6'6" William Campbell who had become one of Washington's officers by the time of Yorktown. Similarly, Morgan's Virginia riflemen proved themselves superior to the British at Saratoga, a post-revolutionary war development being the creation of trained "rifle battalions" in the European armies. Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan


Third, and most important, Washington was the embodiment of armed resistance to the Crown—the representative man of the Revolution. His long-term strategy was to maintain an army in the field at all times, and eventually this strategy worked. His enormous personal and political stature and his political skills kept Congress, HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

the army, the French, the militias, and the states all pointed toward a common goal. Furthermore, by voluntarily resigning his commission and disbanding his army when the war was won (rather than declaring himself monarch), he permanently established the principle of civilian supremacy in military affairs. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Yet his constant reiteration of the point that well-disciplined professional soldiers counted for twice as much as erratic militias (clearly demonstrated in the rout at Camden, where only the Maryland and Delaware Continentals under Baron DeKalb held firm), helped overcome the ideological distrust of a standing army. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan


Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1775, during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. American troops raided British arsenals, including some in the Caribbean, and some manufacturing was attempted.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan

They obtained a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) by the end of 1776, mostly from France.Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery onDorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston in March 1776 and Washington moved his army to New York City.[  HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan


Although highly disparaging toward most of the Patriots, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These articles were bold, as Washington was an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire. ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan

Defeat at New York City and Fabian tactics

In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan

The Americans were heavily outnumbered, many men deserted, and Washington was badly beaten. Subsequently, Washington was forced to retreat across the East River at night. He did so without loss of life or materiel.Washington retreated north from the city to avoid encirclement, enabling Howe to take the offensive and capture Fort Washington on November 16 with high Continental casualties. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Washington then retreated across New Jersey; the future of the Continental Army was in doubt due to expiring enlistments and the string of losses.[83] On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a comeback with a surprise attack on a Hessian outpost in western New Jersey.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

He led his army across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another over British regulars at Princeton in early January. The British retreated back to New York City and its environs, which they held until the peace treaty of 1783. HP Probook 4325s laptop keyboard

Washington's victories wrecked the British carrot-and-stick strategy of showing overwhelming force then offering generous terms. The Americans would not negotiate for anything short of independence.  SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series laptop keyboard

These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate Patriot victory, however, since many soldiers did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington and Congress reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles. HP Pavilion dv6-3004tu laptop keyboard


Historians debate whether or not Washington preferred a Fabian strategy[Note 4] to harass the British with quick, sharp attacks followed by a retreat so the larger British army could not catch him, or whether he preferred to fight major battles.[Note 5] While his southern commander Greene in 1780–81 did use Fabian tactics, Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

Washington did so only in fall 1776 to spring 1777, after losing New York City and seeing much of his army melt away. Trenton and Princeton were Fabian examples. By summer 1777, however, Washington had rebuilt his strength and his confidence; he stopped using raids and went for large-scale confrontations, as at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth and Yorktown. HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard


In the late summer of 1777, the British under John Burgoyne sent a major invasion army south from Quebec, with the intention of splitting off rebellious New England. General Howe in New York took his army south to Philadelphia instead of going up the Hudson River to join with Burgoyne near Albany. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-17U laptop keyboard

It was a major strategic mistake for the British, and Washington rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe, while closely following the action in upstate New York. In pitched battles that were too complex for his relatively inexperienced men, Washington was defeated. At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, Howe outmaneuvered Washington, SONY VAIO VGN-CR363 laptop keyboard

and marched into the American capital at Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York.[ Lenovo 25-011670 laptop keyboard

It was a major turning point militarily and diplomatically. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. Compaq Presario CQ71-402SA laptop keyboard

This attempt failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.

In the summer of 1779 at Washington's direction, General John Sullivan carried out ascorched earth campaign that destroyed at least 40 Iroquois villages in central and upstate New York; the Indians were British allies who had been raiding American settlements on the frontierHP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

In July 1780, 5,000 veteran French troops led by the comte de Rochambeau arrived at Newport, Rhode Island to aid in the war effort.[98] The Continental Army having been funded by $20,000 in French gold, Washington delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia.  HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard

The surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781, marked the end of major fighting in continental North America.[99] Washington could not know that after Yorktown, the British would not reopen hostilities. They still had 26,000 troops occupying New York City, Charleston and Savannah, together with a powerful fleet. The French army and navy departed, so the Americans were on their own in 1782–83. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

The treasury was empty, and the unpaid soldiers were growing restive, almost to the point of mutiny or possible coup d'état. Washington dispelled unrest among officers by suppressing the Newburgh Conspiracyin March 1783, and Congress came up with the promise of a five-year bonus. GATEWAY MX8741 Laptop Keyboard


With the initial peace treaty articles ratified in April, a recently formed Congressional committee under Hamilton, was considering needs and plans for a peacetime army. On May 2, 1783, the Commander in Chief submitted his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment[101] to the Committee, essentially providing an official Continental Army position. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

The original proposal was defeated in Congress in two votes (May 1783, October 1783) with a truncated version also being rejected in April of 1784.[102]

By the Treaty of Paris (signed that September), Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.[103]

On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession.  HP Mini 110-1109TU Laptop Keyboard

At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief. Historian Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe.[ HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard

King George III called Washington "the greatest character of the age" because of this.[105]

Historian John Shy says that by 1783 Washington was "a mediocre military strategist but had become a master political tactician with an almost perfect sense of timing and a developed capacity to exploit his charismatic reputation, using people who thought they were using him".[10ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard


Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in 1784.[74] He was visiting his land holdings in Western Pennsylvania that had been given to him decades earlier by the British in consideration for his service in the French and Indian War.[ Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

There, he confronted squatters, including David Reed and the Covenanters, who left the land only after losing a 1786 court case heard in Washington, Pennsylvania.[107]

Washington was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and was unanimously elected president of the Convention.[ HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Laptop Keyboard

He participated little in the debates (though he did vote for or against the various articles), but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected.[ SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard

After the Convention, his support convinced many to vote for ratification; the new Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states.The diagnosis of Washington's final illness and the immediate cause of his death have been subjects of debate since the day he died. In the days immediately following his death, Craik and Dick's published account stated that they felt his symptoms had been consistent with what they called "cynanchetrachealis", HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

a term of that period for describing severe inflammation of the structures of the upper airway.Even at that early date, there were accusations of medical malpractice, with some believing that Washington had been bled to death. Various modern medical authors have speculated that Washington probably died from a severe case of epiglottitis which was complicated by the given treatments ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard

 (all of which were accepted medical practice in Washington's day)—most notably the massive deliberate blood loss, which almost certainly caused hypovolemic shock.[Note 9]

Throughout the world, men and women were saddened by Washington's death. In France, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte ordered ten days of mourning throughout the country; COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

in the United States, thousands wore mourning clothes for months.[153] To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and her following his death. Only a total of five letters between the couple are known to have survived, two letters from Martha to George and three from him to Martha.[ HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard

On December 18, 1799, a funeral was held at Mount Vernon, where his body was interred.] Congress passed a joint resolution to construct a marble monument in the planned crypt below the rotunda of the center section of the Capitol (then still under construction) for his body, a plan supported by Martha. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

In December 1800, the House passed an appropriations bill for $200,000 to build the mausoleum, which was to be a pyramid with a 100-foot (30 m) square base. Southern representatives and senators, in later opposition to the plan, defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have Washington's body remain at Mount Vernon.[ SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard


In 1831, for the centennial of his birth, a new tomb was constructed to receive his remains. That year, an unsuccessful attempt was made to steal the body of Washington.[158] Despite this, a joint Congressional committee in early 1832, debated the removal of President Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard

built by architect Charles Bulfinch in the 1820s during the reconstruction of the burned-out structure after the British set it afire in August 1814, during the "Burning of Washington". Southern opposition was intense, antagonized by an ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said: COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard


Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil.[157]HP G72-b80SB Laptop Keyboard


His remains were moved on October 7, 1837 to the new tomb constructed at Mount Vernon, presented by John Struthers of Philadelphia.[159] After the ceremony, the inner vault's door was closed and the key was thrown into the Potomac.[As Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, HP Pavilion dv7-4070us CPUFan

hero of the revolution and the first president of the United States, George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history.[Note 10] Congressman Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade, famously eulogized Washington:

First in war—first in peace—and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in the humble and enduring scenes of private life; HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding, his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting. To his equals he was condescending, to his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily tender; ACER Aspire 4820T Series CPUFan

correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand; the purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues. His last scene comported with the whole tenor of his life—although in extreme pain, not a sigh, not a groan escaped him; and with undisturbed serenity he closed his well-spent life. HP Pavilion dv7-3007tx CPUFan

Such was the man America has lost—such was the man for whom our nation mourns.

Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government, and the presidency in particular, and was called the "Father of His Country" as early as 1778Dell Latitude E6510 CPUFan

Washington's Birthday (celebrated on Presidents' Day), is a federal holiday in the United States.During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 passed on January 19, 1976, HP Envy 17 Series CPUFan

with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976.This restored Washington's position as the highest-ranking military officer in U.S. history.See also: Historical rankings of Presidents of the United States and Cultural depictions of George Washington.See also: Parson Weems § The cherry-tree anecdoteToshiba Satellite A135-S4499 CPUFan


Perhaps the best known story about Washington's childhood is that he chopped down his father's favorite cherry tree and admitted the deed when questioned: "I can't tell a lie, Pa." The anecdote was first reported by biographer Parson Weems, who after Washington's death interviewed people who knew him as a child over a half-century earlier. HP 441137-001 CPUFan

The Weems text was very widely reprinted throughout the 19th century, for example in McGuffey Readers. Adults wanted children to learn moral lessons from history, especially as taught by example from the lives of great national heroes like Washington. After 1890 however, HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPUFan

historians insisted on scientific research methods to validate every statement, and there was no documentation for this anecdote apart from Weems' report that he learned it in an interview with an old person. Joseph Rodman in 1904 noted that Weems plagiarized other Washington tales from published fiction set in England, but no one has found an alternative source for the cherry tree story.[ ACER eMachines G620 Series CPUFan


Starting with victory in their Revolution, there were many proposals to build a monument to Washington. After his death, Congress authorized a suitable memorial in the national capital, but the decision was reversed when the Republicans took control of Congress in 1801. The Republicans were dismayed that Washington had become the symbol of the Federalist Party;  TOSHIBA UDQFRZH05C1N CPUFan

furthermore, the values of Republicanism seemed hostile to the idea of building monuments to powerful men.Further political squabbling, along with the North-South division on the Civil War, blocked the completion of the Washington Monument until the late 19th century. By that time,  Compaq Presario C714NR CPUFan

Washington had the image of a national hero who could be celebrated by both North and South, and memorials to him were no longer controversial. Predating the obelisk on the National Mall by several decades, the first public memorial to Washington was built by the citizens of Boonsboro, Maryland, in 1827.[  DELL DFS531205PC0T(F6K2-CCW) CPUFan


Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States.[169] He appears on contemporary currency, including the one-dollar bill and the quarter coin, and on U.S. postage stamps. Along with appearing on the first postage stamps issued by the U.S. Post Office in 1847,[ HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan

Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, and Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the best known American landmarks, was built in his honor. The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, HP G42-221BR CPUFan

was constructed between 1922 and 1932 with voluntary contributions from all 52 local governing bodies of the Freemasons in the United States.

Many places and entities have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., one of two national capitals across the globe to be named after an American president (the other is Monrovia, Liberia). HP KSB06105HA CPUFan

The state ofWashington is the only state to be named after a United States President.[173] George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him, as was Washington and Lee University (once Washington Academy), which was renamed due to Washington's large endowment in 1796. SONY 148781311 laptop keyboard


Washington College inChestertown, Maryland (established by Maryland state charter in 1782) was supported by Washington during his lifetime with a 50 guineas pledge,[174] and with service on the college's Board of Visitors and Governors until 1789 (when Washington was elected President).[ TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard

According to the US Census Bureau's 1993 geographic data, Washington is the 17th most common street name in the United States,[176] and the only person's name so honored.

There are many "Washington Monuments" in the United States, including two well-known equestrian statues, one in Manhattan and one in Richmond, Virginia. HP Pavilion dv5-1233se laptop keyboard

The first statue to show Washington on horseback was dedicated in 1856 and is located in Manhattan's Union Square.The second statue is known as either the Virginia Washington Monument or as the George Washington Equestrian Statue and was unveiled in 1858. It was the second American statue of Washington on horseback but figures prominently in the official seal of the Confederate States of America.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard


A marble statue of Washington was made from life by sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon, and now sits in the Rotunda of the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia. A duplicate, one of 22 bronze exact replicas,[181] was given to the British in 1921 by the Commonwealth of Virginia and now stands in front of the National Galleryat Trafalgar Square.[ SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard


The serious collection and publication of Washington's documentary record began with the pioneer work of Jared Sparks in the 1830s, Life and Writings of George Washington (12 vols., 1834–1837). The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745–1799 (1931–44) is a 37 volume set edited by John C. Fitzpatrick.  ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

It contains over 17,000 letters and documents and is available online from the University of Virginia.The definitive letterpress edition of his writings was begun by the University of Virginia in 1968, and today comprises 52 published volumes, with more to come. It contains everything written by Washington, or signed by him, together with most of his incoming letters. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Part of the collection is available online from the University of Virginia.Along with Martha's biological family, George Washington had a close relationship with his nephew and heir, Bushrod Washington, son of George's younger brother, John Augustine Washington. The year before his uncle's death, Bushrod became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

George, however, apparently did not get along well with his mother, Mary Ball Washington (Augustine's second wife), who was a very demanding and difficult person.As a young man, Washington had red hair.A popular myth is that he wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

However, Washington did not wear a wig; instead, he powdered his hair,[188] as is represented in several portraits, including the well-known, unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction, The Athenaeum portrait.

Washington had unusually great physical strength that amazed younger men. Jefferson called Washington "the best horseman of his age",ACER Extensa 5635Z laptop keyboard

and both American and European observers praised his riding; the horsemanship benefited his hunting, a favorite hobby. Washington was an excellent dancer and frequently attended the theater, often referencing Shakespeare in letters.[ DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

He drank in moderation and precisely recorded gambling wins and losses, but Washington disliked the excessive drinking, gambling, smoking, and profanity that was common in colonial Virginia. Although he grew tobacco, he eventually stopped smoking, and considered drunkenness a man's worst vice; SONY 148738411 laptop keyboard

Washington was glad that post-Revolutionary Virginia society was less likely to "force [guests] to drink and to make it an honor to send them home drunk."

Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life. He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President.[ ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

John Adams claims he lost them because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest the mercury oxide, which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria, probably contributed to the loss. He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood. DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard

Contrary to popular belief, none of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs.[193] Prior to these, he had a set made with real human teeth,likely ones he purchased from "several unnamed 'Negroes,' presumably Mount Vernon slaves" in 1784. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

Dental problems left Washington in constant pain, for which he took laudanum.This distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office,including the one still used on the $1 bill.Washington was the only prominent Founding Father to arrange in his will for the manumission of all his slaves following his death. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard


He privately opposed slavery as an institution which he viewed as economically unsound and morally indefensible. He also regarded the divisiveness of his countrymen's feelings about slavery as a potentially mortal threat to the unity of the nation. SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboardHP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy and was one of the five Fireside Poets. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan


Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine, which was then a part of Massachusetts. He studied at Bowdoin College. After spending time in Europe he became a professor at Bowdoin and, later, at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of the Night (1839) and Ballads and Other Poems (1841). SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, living the remainder of his life in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in a former headquarters ofGeorge Washington. His first wife Mary Potter died in 1835 after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861 after sustaining burns when her dress caught fire. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on his translation. He died in 1882.

Longfellow wrote predominantly lyric poems, known for their musicality and often presenting stories of mythology and legend. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

He became the most popular American poet of his day and also had success overseas. He has been criticized, however, for imitating European styles and writing specifically for the masses.

Longfellow was born on February 27, 1807, to Stephen Longfellow and Zilpah (Wadsworth) Longfellow in Portland, Maine,[1]then a district of Massachusetts,[2] and he grew up in what is now known as the Wadsworth-Longfellow House. FUJITSU Lifebook E8110 Laptop Keyboard

His father was a lawyer, and his maternal grandfather, Peleg Wadsworth, was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress.[3] He was named after his mother's brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli.[4] Young Longfellow was the second of eight children;[5] Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard

his siblings were Stephen (1805), Elizabeth (1808), Anne (1810), Alexander (1814), Mary (1816), Ellen (1818), and Samuel (1819).

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was enrolled in a dame school at the age of three and by age six was enrolled at the private Portland Academy. In his years there, he earned a reputation as being very studious and became fluent in Latin.[6] HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard

His mother encouraged his enthusiasm for reading and learning, introducing him to Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote.[7] He printed his first poem — a patriotic and historical four-stanza poem called "The Battle of Lovell's Pond" — in the Portland Gazette on November 17, 1820.[8] He stayed at the Portland Academy until the age of fourteen.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard

He spent much of his summers as a child at his grandfather Peleg's farm in the western Maine town of Hiram.

In the fall of 1822, the 15-year-old Longfellow enrolled at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, alongside his brother Stephen.[6] His grandfather was a founder of the college[9] and his father was a trustee.DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

There, Longfellow met Nathaniel Hawthorne, who would later become his lifelong friend.[10] He boarded with a clergyman for a time before rooming on the third floor of what is now Maine Hall in 1823.[11] He joined the Peucinian Society, a group of students withFederalist leanings.[12] In his senior year, Longfellow wrote to his father about his aspirations:  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard


I will not disguise it in the least... the fact is, I most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature, my whole soul burns most ardently after it, and every earthly thought centres in it... I am almost confident in believing, that if I can ever rise in the world it must be by the exercise of my talents in the wide field of literature.[13]  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard


He pursued his literary goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines, partly due to encouragement from a professor named Thomas CogswellUpham.[14] Between January 1824 and his graduation in 1825, he had published nearly 40 minor poems.[15] About 24 of them appeared in the short-lived Boston periodical The United States Literary Gazette.[12SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

] When Longfellow graduated from Bowdoin, he was ranked fourth in the class, and had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa.[16] He gave the student commencement address.[14]

After graduating in 1825, he was offered a job as professor of modern languages at his alma mater. The story, possibly apocryphal, is that an influential trustee, HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard

Benjamin Orr, had been so impressed by Longfellow's translation of Horace that he was hired under the condition that he travel to Europe to study French, Spanish, and Italian.[17] Whatever the motivation, he began his tour of Europe in May 1826 aboard the ship Cadmus.[18] His time abroad would last three years and cost his father $2,604.24.[19] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard

He traveled to France, Spain, Italy, Germany, back to France, then England before returning to the United States in mid-August 1829.[20] While overseas, he learned French, Spanish, Portuguese, and German, mostly without formal instruction.[21] In Madrid, he spent time withWashington Irving and was particularly impressed by the author's work ethic.[22] HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard

Irving encouraged the young Longfellow to pursue writing.[23] While in Spain, Longfellow was saddened to learn that his favorite sister, Elizabeth, had died of tuberculosis at the age of 20 that May while he was abroad.

On August 27, 1829, he wrote to the president of Bowdoin that he was turning down the professorship because he considered the $600 salary "disproportionate to the duties required".  HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The trustees raised his salary to $800 with an additional $100 to serve as the college's librarian, a post which required one hour of work per day.[25] During his years teaching at the college, he translated textbooks in French, Italian, and Spanish;[26] his first published book was in 1833, a translation of the poetry of medieval Spanish poet Jorge Manrique.[27]  DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

He also published a travel book, Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea, first published in serial form before a book edition was released in 1835.[26] Shortly after the book's publication, Longfellow attempted to join the literary circle in New York and asked George Pope Morris for an editorial role at one of Morris's publications. SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard

Longfellow considered moving to New York after New York Universityconsidered offering him a newly created professorship of modern languages, though there would be no salary. The professorship was not created and Longfellow agreed to continue teaching at Bowdoin.[28] It may have been joyless work. He wrote, "I hate the sight of pen, ink, and paper... TOSHIBA Mini NB 300 Series Laptop Keyboard

I do not believe that I was born for such a lot. I have aimed higher than this".[29]

On September 14, 1831, Longfellow married Mary Storer Potter, a childhood friend from Portland.[30] The couple settled in Brunswick, though the two were not happy there.[31] Longfellow published several nonfiction and fiction prose pieces inspired by Irving, including "The Indian Summer" and "The Bald Eagle" in 1833.[32TOSHIBA K000098730 Laptop Keyboard


In December 1834, Longfellow received a letter from Josiah Quincy III, president of Harvard College, offering him the Smith Professorship of Modern Languages with the stipulation that he spend a year or so abroad.[33] There, he further studied German as well as Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, and Icelandic.[34] GATEWAY NV-54 Laptop Keyboard

In October 1835, during the trip, his wife Mary had a miscarriage about six months into her pregnancy.[35] She did not recover and died after several weeks of illness at the age of 22 on November 29, 1835. Longfellow had her body embalmed immediately and placed into a lead coffin inside an oak coffin which was then shipped to Mount Auburn Cemetery near Boston.[36] Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard

He was deeply saddened by her death, writing "One thought occupies me night and day... She is dead — She is dead! All day I am weary and sad".[37] Three years later, he was inspired to write the poem "Footsteps of Angels" about her. Several years later, he wrote the poem "Mezzo Cammin" expressed his personal struggles in his middle years.[38] SONY VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Laptop Keyboard


When he returned to the United States in 1836, Longfellow took up the professorship at Harvard. He was required to live in Cambridge to be close to the campus and rented rooms at the Craigie House in the spring of 1837,[39] now preserved as theLongfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic Site. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

The home, built in 1759, had once been the headquarters of George Washington during the Siege of Boston beginning in July 1775.[40] Previous boarders also included Jared Sparks,Edward Everett, and Joseph Emerson Worcester.[41] Longfellow began publishing his poetry, including the collection Voices of the Night in 1839.[42] SAMSUNG R522 laptop keyboard

The bulk of Voices of the Night, Longfellow's debut book of poetry, was translations though he also included nine original poems and seven poems he had written as a teenager.[43] Ballads and Other Poems was published shortly thereafter in 1841[44] and included "The Village Blacksmith" and "The Wreck of the Hesperus", which were instantly popular.[45]  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Longfellow also became part of the local social scene, creating a group of friends who called themselves the Five of Clubs. Members included Cornelius Conway Felton, George StillmanHillard, and Charles Sumner, the latter of whom would become Longfellow's closest friend over the next 30 years.[46] HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard

As a professor, Longfellow was well liked, though he disliked being "constantly a playmate for boys" rather than "stretching out and grappling with men's minds."[47]

Longfellow met Boston industrialist Nathan Appleton and his family, including his son Thomas Gold Appleton, in the town ofThun, Switzerland. HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

There, he began courting Appleton's daughter, Frances "Fanny" Appleton. At first, the independent-minded Appleton was not interested in marriage but Longfellow was determined.[48] In July 1839, he wrote to a friend: "[V]ictory hangs doubtful. The lady says she will not! I say she shall! It is not pride, but the madness of passion".[49] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

His friend George StillmanHillard encouraged Longfellow in the pursuit: "I delight to see you keeping up so stout a heart for the resolve to conquer is half the battle in love as well as war".[50] During the courtship, Longfellow frequently walked from Cambridge to the Appleton home in Beacon Hill in Boston by crossing the Boston Bridge. That bridge was replaced in 1906 by a new bridge which was later renamed the Longfellow Bridge. SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard


In late 1839, Longfellow published Hyperion, a book in prose inspired by his trips abroad[49] and his unsuccessful courtship of Fanny Appleton.[51] Amidst this, Longfellow fell into "periods of neurotic depression with moments of panic" and took a six-month leave of absence from Harvard to attend a health spa in the former Marienberg Benedictine Convent at Boppard in Germany.[51] ASUS X85S laptop keyboard

After returning, Longfellow published a play in 1842, The Spanish Student, reflecting his memories from his time in Spain in the 1820s.[52] There was some confusion over its original manuscript. After being printed in Graham's Magazine, its editor Rufus Wilmot Griswold saved the manuscript from the trash. Longfellow was surprised to hear that it had been saved,  SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

unusual for a printing office, and asked to borrow it so that he could revise it, forgetting to return it to Griswold. The often vindictive Griswold wrote an angry letter in response.[53]

A small collection, Poems on Slavery, was published in 1842 as Longfellow's first public support of abolitionism. However, as Longfellow himself wrote, the poems were "so mild that even a Slaveholder might read them without losing his appetite for breakfast".[5ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

4] A critic for The Dial agreed, calling it "the thinnest of all Mr. Longfellow's thin books; spirited and polished like its forerunners; but the topic would warrant a deeper tone".[55] The New England Anti-Slavery Association, however, was satisfied with the collection enough to reprint it for further distribution.[56]  LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard

On May 10, 1843, after seven years, Longfellow received a letter from Fanny Appleton agreeing to marry him and, too restless to take a carriage, walked 90 minutes to meet her at her house.[57] They were soon married. Nathan Appleton bought the Craigie House as a wedding present to the pair. Longfellow lived there for the rest of his life.[58 Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

] His love for Fanny is evident in the following lines from Longfellow's only love poem, the sonnet "The Evening Star",[59] which he wrote in October 1845: "O my beloved, my sweetHesperus! My morning and my evening star of love!" He once attended a ball without her and noted, "The lights seemed dimmer, the music sadder, the flowers fewer, and the women less fair."[60] COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard


He and Fanny had six children: Charles Appleton (1844–1893), Ernest Wadsworth (1845–1921), Fanny (1847–1848), Alice Mary (1850–1928), Edith (1853–1915), and Anne Allegra (1855–1934). Their second-youngest daughter, Edith, married Richard Henry Dana III, son of the popular writer Richard Henry Dana, Jr., author of Two Years Before the Mast.[61] Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard

When the younger Fanny was born on April 7, 1847, Dr. Nathan Cooley Keep administered ether as the first obstetric anesthetic in the United States to Fanny Longfellow.[62] A few months later, on November 1, 1847, the poem Evangeline was published for the first time.[62] His literary income was increasing considerably: HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard

in 1840, he had made $219 from his work but the year 1850 brought him $1,900.[63]

On June 14, 1853, Longfellow held a farewell dinner party at his Cambridge home for his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne, who was preparing to move overseas.[64] In 1854, Longfellow retired from Harvard,[65] devoting himself entirely to writing. He was awarded an honorary doctorate of laws from Harvard in 1859.[66] HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard


On July 9, 1861,[67] a hot day, Fanny was putting locks of her children's hair into an envelope and attempting to seal it with hot sealing wax while Longfellow took a nap.[68] Her dress suddenly caught fire, though it is unclear exactly how;[69] it may have been burning wax or a lighted candle that fell on her dress.[70] SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series laptop keyboard

Longfellow, awakened from his nap, rushed to help her and threw a rug over her, though it was too small. He stifled the flames with his body as best he could, but she was already badly burned.[69] Over a half a century later, Longfellow's youngest daughter Annie explained the story differently, SONY VAIO VGN-CS17G/R laptop keyboard

claiming that there had been no candle or wax but that the fire had started from a self-lighting match that had fallen on the floor.[61] In both versions of the story, however, Fanny was taken to her room to recover and a doctor was called. She was in and out of consciousness throughout the night and was administered ether. The next morning, July 10, 1861, she died shortly after 10 o'clock after requesting a cup of coffee.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard

71] Longfellow, in trying to save her, had burned himself badly enough for him to be unable to attend her funeral.[72] His facial injuries led him to stop shaving, thereafter wearing the beard which became his trademark.[71]

Devastated by her death, he never fully recovered and occasionally resorted to laudanum and ether to deal with it.[73SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard

] He worried he would go insane and begged "not to be sent to an asylum" and noted that he was "inwardly bleeding to death".[74] He expressed his grief in the sonnet "The Cross of Snow" (1879), which he wrote eighteen years later to commemorate her death:[38]

Longfellow spent several years translating Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard

To aid him in perfecting the translation and reviewing proofs, he invited friends to weekly meetings every Wednesday starting in 1864.[76] The "Dante Club", as it was called, regularly included William Dean Howells, James Russell Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton and other occasional guests.[77] HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard

The full three-volume translation was published in the spring of 1867, though Longfellow would continue to revise it,[78] and went through four printings in its first year.[79] By 1868, Longfellow's annual income was over $48,000.[80] In 1874, Samuel Cutler Ward helped him sell the poem "The Hanging of the Crane" to the New York Ledger for $3,000; it was the highest price ever paid for a poem.Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard


During the 1860s, Longfellow supported abolitionism and especially hoped for reconciliation between the northern and southern states after the American Civil War. He wrote in his journal in 1878: "I have only one desire; and that is for harmony, and a frank and honest understanding between North and South".[82] LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

Longfellow, despite his aversion to public speaking, accepted an offer from Joshua Chamberlain to speak at his fiftieth reunion at Bowdoin College; he read the poem "MorituriSalutamus" so quietly that few could hear him.[83] The next year, 1876, he declined an offer to be nominated for the Board of Overseers at Harvard "for reasons very conclusive to my own mind".[84]  DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


On August 22, 1879, a female admirer traveled to Longfellow's house in Cambridge and, unaware to whom she was speaking, asked Longfellow: "Is this the house where Longfellow was born?" Longfellow told her it was not. The visitor then asked if he had died here. "Not yet", he replied.[85] In March 1882, Longfellow went to bed with severe stomach pain. HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard

He endured the pain for several days with the help of opium before he died surrounded by family on Friday, March 24, 1882.[86]He had been suffering from peritonitis.[87] At the time of his death, his estate was worth an estimated $356,320.[80] He is buried with both of his wives atMount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

His last few years were spent translating the poetry of Michelangelo; though Longfellow never considered it complete enough to be published during his lifetime, a posthumous edition was collected in 1883. Scholars generally regard the work as autobiographical, reflecting the translator as an aging artist facing his impending death.[88] HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard


Though much of his work is categorized as lyric poetry, Longfellow experimented with many forms, including hexameter andfree verse.[89] His published poetry shows great versatility, using anapestic and trochaic forms, blank verse, heroic couplets, ballads and sonnets.[90] Typically, Longfellow would carefully consider the subject of his poetic ideas for a long time before deciding on the right metrical form for it.[91Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

] Much of his work is recognized for its melody-like musicality.[92]As he says, "what a writer asks of his reader is not so much to like as to listen".[93]

As a very private man, Longfellow did not often add autobiographical elements to his poetry. Two notable exceptions are dedicated to the death of members of his family. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan

"Resignation", written as a response to the death of his daughter Fanny in 1848, does not use first-person pronouns and is instead a generalized poem of mourning.[94] The death of his second wife Frances, as biographer Charles Calhoun wrote, deeply affected Longfellow personally but "seemed not to touch his poetry, at least directly".[9Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan

5] His memorial poem to her, a sonnet called "The Cross of Snow", was not published in his lifetimeLongfellow often used didacticism in his poetry, though he focused on it less in his later years.[96] Much of his poetry imparts cultural and moral values, particularly focused on promoting life as being more than material pursuits.[97HP G71-340US CPU Fan

]Longfellow also often used allegory in his work. In "Nature", for example, death is depicted as bedtime for a cranky child.[98] Many of the metaphors he used in his poetry as well as subject matter came from legends, mythology, and literature.[99] He was inspired, for example, by Norse mythology for "The Skeleton in Armor" and by Finnish legends for The Song of Hiawatha.[ Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

In fact, Longfellow rarely wrote on current subjects and seemed detached from contemporary American concerns.[101] Even so, Longfellow, like many during this period, called for the development of high quality American literature. In Kavanagh, a character says:

We want a national literature commensurate with our mountains and rivers... HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

We want a national epic that shall correspond to the size of the country... We want a national drama in which scope shall be given to our gigantic ideas and to the unparalleled activity of our people... In a word, we want a national literature altogether shaggy and unshorn, that shall shake the earth, like a herd of buffaloes thundering over the prairies.[102] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan


He was also important as a translator; his translation of Dante became a required possession for those who wanted to be a part of high culture.[103] He also encouraged and supported other translators. In 1845, he published The Poets and Poetry of Europe, an 800-page compilation of translations made by other writers, including many by his friend and colleague Cornelius Conway Felton.  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan

Longfellow intended the anthology "to bring together, into a compact and convenient form, as large an amount as possible of those English translations which are scattered through many volumes, and are not accessible to the general reader".[104] In honor of Longfellow's role with translations, HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Harvard established the Longfellow Institute in 1994, dedicated to literature written in the United States in languages other than English.[105]

In 1874, Longfellow oversaw a 31-volume anthology called Poems of Places, which collected poems representing several geographical locations, including European, HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan

Asian, and Arabian countries.[106] Emerson was disappointed and reportedly told Longfellow: "The world is expecting better things of you than this... You are wasting time that should be bestowed upon original production".[107] In preparing the volume, Longfellow hired Katherine Sherwood Bonner as an amanuensis. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan


Longfellow's early collections, Voices of the Night and Ballads and Other Poems, made him instantly popular. The New-Yorkercalled him "one of the very few in our time who has successfully aimed in putting poetry to its best and sweetest uses".[45]The Southern Literary Messenger immediately put Longfellow "among the first of our American poets".[45HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

] Poet John Greenleaf Whittier said that Longfellow's poetry illustrated "the careful moulding by which art attains the graceful ease and chaste simplicity of nature".[109] Longfellow's friend Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. wrote of him as "our chief singer" and one who "wins and warms... kindles, softens, cheers [and] calms the wildest woe and stays the bitterest tears!"[110]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan


The rapidity with which American readers embraced Longfellow was unparalleled in publishing history in the United States;[111] by 1874, he was earning $3,000 per poem.[112] His popularity spread throughout Europe as well and his poetry was translated during his lifetime into Italian, French, German, and other languages.[113] HP 493001-001 CPU Fan

As scholar Bliss Perry later wrote, Longfellow was so highly praised that criticizing him was a criminal act like "carrying a rifle into a national park".[114]In the last two decades of his life, he often received requests for autographs from strangers, which he always sent.[115]John Greenleaf Whittier suggested it was this massive correspondence that led to Longfellow's death, writing: "My friend Longfellow was driven to death by these incessant demands".[116] Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan


Contemporary writer Edgar Allan Poe wrote to Longfellow in May 1841 of his "fervent admiration which [your] genius has inspired in me" and later called him "unquestionably the best poet in America".[117] However, after Poe's reputation as a critic increased, he publicly accused Longfellow of plagiarism in what has been since termed by Poe biographers as "The Longfellow War".[118] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

His assessment was that Longfellow was "a determined imitator and a dextrous adapter of the ideas of other people",[117] specificallyAlfred, Lord Tennyson.[119] His accusations may have been a publicity stunt to boost readership of the Broadway Journal, for which he was the editor at the time.[120] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan

Longfellow did not respond publicly, but, after Poe's death, he wrote: "The harshness of his criticisms I have never attributed to anything but the irritation of a sensitive nature chafed by some indefinite sense of wrong".[121]

Margaret Fuller judged him "artificial and imitative" and lacking force.[ HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan

Poet Walt Whitman also considered Longfellow an imitator of European forms, though he praised his ability to reach a popular audience as "the expressor of common themes – of the little songs of the masses".[123] He added, "Longfellow was no revolutionarie: never traveled new paths: of course never broke new paths."[124] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

Lewis Mumford said that Longfellow could be completely removed from the history of literature without much effect.[101] Towards the end of his life, contemporaries considered him more of a children's poet[125] as many of his readers were children.[126] A contemporary reviewer noted in 1848 that Longfellow was creating a "Goody two-shoes kind of literature.. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

. slipshod, sentimental stories told in the style of the nursery, beginning in nothing and ending in nothing".[127] A more modern critic said, "Who, except wretched schoolchildren, now reads Longfellow?"[101] A London critic in the London Quarterly Review, however, condemned all American poetry, saying, ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

"with two or three exceptions, there is not a poet of mark in the whole union" but singled out Longfellow as one of those exceptions.[128] As an editor of the Boston Evening Transcript wrote in 1846, "Whatever the miserable envy of trashy criticism may write against Longfellow, one thing is most certain, no American poet is more read".[129]  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan


Longfellow was the most popular poet of his day.[130] As a friend once wrote to him, "no other poet was so fully recognized in his lifetime".[131] Many of his works helped shape the American character and its legacy, particularly with the poem "Paul Revere's Ride".He was such an admired figure in the United States during his life that his 70th birthday in 1877 took on the air of a national holiday, with parades, HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

speeches, and the reading of his poetry.

Over the years, Longfellow's personality has become part of his reputation. He has been presented as a gentle, placid, poetic soul: an image perpetuated by his brother Samuel Longfellow, who wrote an early biography which specifically emphasized these points.[132] Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan

As James Russell Lowell said, Longfellow had an "absolute sweetness, simplicity, and modesty".[121] At Longfellow's funeral, his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson called him "a sweet and beautiful soul".[133] In reality, Longfellow's life was much more difficult than was assumed. He suffered from neuralgia, which caused him constant pain, and he also had poor eyesight. SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan

He wrote to friend Charles Sumner: "I do not believe anyone can be perfectly well, who has a brain and a heart".[134] He had difficulty coping with the death of his second wife.[73] Longfellow was very quiet, reserved, and private; in later years, he was known for being unsocial and avoided leaving home.[135] Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan

He had become one of the first American celebrities and was also popular in Europe. It was reported that 10,000 copies of The Courtship of Miles Standish sold in London in a single day.[136] Children adored him and, when the "spreading chestnut-tree" mentioned in the poem "The Village Blacksmith" was cut down, SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan


the children of Cambridge had the tree converted into an armchair which they presented to the poet.[137] In 1884, Longfellow became the first non-British writer for whom a commemorative sculpted bust was placed in Poet's Corner ofWestminster Abbey in London; he remains the only American poet represented with a bust.[ LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 Laptop Keyboard

In 1909, a seated statue of Longfellow sculpted by William Couperwas unveiled in Washington, D. C.

More recently, he was honored in March 2007 when the United States Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating him. ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

A number of schools are named after him in various states as well. Neil Diamond's 1974 hit song, "Longfellow Serenade", is a reference to the poet.He is a protagonist in Matthew Pearl's murder mystery The Dante Club (2003).

Longfellow's popularity rapidly declined, beginning shortly after his death and into the twentieth century as academics began to appreciate poets like Walt Whitman, FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

Edwin Arlington Robinson, and Robert Frost.[141] In the twentieth century, literary scholar Kermit Vanderbilt noted, "Increasingly rare is the scholar who braves ridicule to justify the art of Longfellow's popular rhymings."20th-century poet Lewis Putnam Turco concluded "Longfellow was minor and derivative in every way throughout his career... nothing more than a hack imitator of the English Romantics."[  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard


George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][Note 1][Note 2] – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.[3] TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard

He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and remains the supreme law of the land.

Washington was elected president as the unanimous choice of the electors in the elections of both 1788–1789 and1792.[4] Lenovo 45N2205 Laptop Keyboard

He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types.[5] His leadership style established many forms and rituals of government that have been used since, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard

such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address.[6][7] Further, his retirement after two terms and the peaceful transition from his presidency to that of John Adams established a tradition that continued up until Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a third term.[8] Washington was hailed as "father of his country" even during his lifetime.[3][9] HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard


Washington was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia; his wealthy planter family owned tobacco plantations and slaves. After both his father and older brother died when he was young, Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier. HP 517865-031 Laptop Keyboard

Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to be commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in 1776, HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard

but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.

Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. SAMSUNG NP-N102-JA01DX Laptop Keyboard

Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals, encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army, coordination with the state governors and state militia units, relations with Congress and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as Commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism.

Dissatisfied with the weaknesses of the Continental Congress, TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard

in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that devised a new Federal government of the United States. Elected unanimously as the first President of the United States in 1789, he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation. He supported Alexander Hamilton's programs to pay off all state and national debt,  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank[11] (despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson).

Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793. He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795, despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Although he never officially joined the Federalist Party, he supported its programs.Washington's Farewell Address was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He retired from the presidency in 1797 and returned to his home, DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard

Mount Vernon, and his domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises. He freed all his slaves by his final will.

Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power.  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard

He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty, improve infrastructure, open the western lands, promote commerce, found a permanent capital, reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalism.[12] At his death, Washington was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen" by Henry Lee.[13]  TOSHIBA Mini NB 255-SP1002L Laptop Keyboard


The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history, Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism, especially in France and Latin America.[ SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan

He is consistently ranked among the top three presidents of the United States, according to polls of both scholars and the general public.

The first child of Augustine Washington (1694–1743) and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington (1708–1789), Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan

George Washington was born on their Pope's Creek Estatenear present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. According to theJulian calendar and Annunciation Style of enumerating years, then in use in the British Empire, Washington was born on February 11, 1731; SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

when the Gregorian calendar was implemented in the British Empire in 1752, in accordance with the provisions of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, his birth date became February 22, 1732.[15][Note 1][Note 2]

Washington's ancestors were from Sulgrave, England; his great-grandfather, John Washington, had emigrated to Virginia in 1657.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan

George's father Augustine was a slave-owning tobacco planter who later tried his hand in iron-mining ventures.[17]In George's youth, the Washingtons were moderately prosperous members of the Virginia gentry, of "middling rank" rather than one of the leading planter families.[18] HP G62-341NR CPU Fan

At this time, Virginia and other southern colonies had become a slave society, in which slaveholders formed the ruling class and the economy was based on slave labor.[19]

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The survey confirmed a low level of fraud within the public sector, but nevertheless, the OAG acknowledges that "fraud is a fact of business life in New Zealand"[18] and that there had been "an unprecedented number of high profile requests for (the OAG) to inquire into" in 2011/12.[19] The Auditor General also found that the larger the organisation, the more likely fraud was to occur.HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Keyboard

For government entities with more than 2,000 staff, 61% of respondents were aware of at least one incident of fraud at their organisation in the preceding 12 months.[20]

In addition to an increase in fraud, the OAG's Annual Report for 2011 rated almost half of central government entities as "needing to improve" their management of information and controls.[21] HP 517865-031 Keyboard

This appears to relate to the high number of confidential information breaches by Government departments in 2012.[22] ACC sent out 7,000 confidential files to Bronwyn Pullar[23] and computer systems at Work and Income were found to be open to anyone using their public kiosks.[24]  Lenovo 0A62039 Keyboard

An independent report highlighted the risk with the kiosks in April 2011 and a beneficiary advocate had twice raised concerns. The warnings were ignored and Social Development Minister Paula Bennett acknowledged the privacy breach had exposed "atrocious" practices and that the ministry "woefully underestimated" the risk of hacking.[25] DELL Vostro A860 Keyboard

Although information breaches do not automatically lead to fraud or corruption, they have the potential to. They demonstrate poor governance, inadequate protocols and undermine confidence in the institution of government[26] – as does corruption. State Services Commissioner Iain Rennie has formally asked the Government chief information officer Colin McDonald to carry out an urgent review of publicly accessible systems operated by State Services. HP Pavilion DV3000 Keyboard

Given these differing views, the extent of corrupt practice in New Zealand is not entirely clear – even in the public sector. One especially blurred case involves the Corrections Department. In 2010 the Dominion Post reported that the Department failed to disclose to Parliament a huge contract it gave to one company by claiming that the company provides services and maintenance but "the contract is not to a contractor".[2ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Keyboard

That company was Honeywell – a multinational technology and security firm which Corrections used to install cell phone blocking technology. Originally budgeted at $6 million, the cost of the service blew out to $11 million. Several former Honeywell employees work for Corrections, manage Corrections' contract with Honeywell and even approve payments to Honeywell. HP G42-415DX Keyboard

The Dominion Post said the undisclosed contract was among hundreds of contracts worth tens of millions of dollars which Corrections has with consultants and contractors that were never tendered.[27] The editor of the Dominion Post was sufficiently concerned about the dubious nature of Corrections contracting arrangements to suggest there should be an independent inquiry.[2SONY VAIO PCG-FRV25 Keyboard

A few questions were raised in Parliament about the Corrections Department's procurement processes but no inquiry was held.

A much clearer case was that of former Auditor General and ACC boss, Jeff Chapman, who in 1997 was convicted of 10 charges of fraudulently using documents totalling $54,594. DELL Inspiron M5030 Keyboard

He was sentenced to 18 months in prison.[29] One of the biggest public sector cases was that of Michael Swann who was chief information officer of the Otago District Health Board. He was convicted of defrauding the DHB of approximately $16.9 million between 2000 and 2006 and was sentenced to nine years six months in prison. HP 519265-001 Keyboard

On a smaller scale, tax department investigator Alex Song, was sentenced to three months' home detention in 2008 for soliciting $120,000 to make a tax investigation go away.[10]

The immigration section of the Labour Department also has problems with fraud. It has a fraud unit which investigates the sale of fake degrees, sham marriages and bogus job offers to aid residency applications to New Zealand. Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

In 2005, former head of the immigration unit, Mary Anne Thompson, told the New Zealand Herald: "We come across many cases every year where people have tried to provide forged documents for qualifications, marriages that are not genuine...it’s pretty brazen and out there, and that’s a worry." National’s Asian affairs spokeswoman Pansy Wong said she had spent years complaining to officials about the scams, but nothing had been done.[30HP 365485-001 Keyboard

Ironically, Ms Thompson was forced to resign three years later after using her position to help three family members from Kiribati gain residency.[31] In 2012 she was found guilty of fraud after pleading guilty to three counts of using a document for pecuniary advantage. She claimed on her CV she held a PhD from the London School of Economics (LSE) – credentials she used when applying for New Zealand public service jobs in 1989, 1998 and 2004.[ DELL Vostro 1014 Keyboard

Another high-profile case involving a forged CV was that of Canadian John Davy who was appointed head of Maori TV after claiming he held a master of business administration degree. His case was taken much more seriously by the Courts; he was only in the job for three months but was sent to prison and then deported. FUJITSU Lifebook E8210 Keyboard

According to one editorial, "he did no harm after dishonestly getting his job" while Ms Thompson benefited from her fraud for much longer but was simply told her offence was 'out of character'.

The private sector in New Zealand has seen a significant increase in fraudulent activity in the last 30 years. TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard

Although there have been earlier company failures due to fraud – such as the collapse of Jeff Brother's Ltd (JBL) in 1972 – financial turmoil in New Zealand came to a head in the stockmarket crash of 1987. The crash followed a sharemarket boom in the early 1980s during which investment companies like Brierleys, Chase Corporation,  FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard

Equiticorp, Robert Jones Investments, Renouf Corporation and Capital Market had huge increases in value by issuing shares to the public. The National Business Review suggested at the time that unsophisticated New Zealand investors were 'bedazzled by paper shuffling'.[34]  GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Keyboard

Apparently little of the newly raised equity was going into real projects and financial commentator Brian Gaynor subsequently commented that "There were endless media comments about inside trading, creative accounting, poor disclosure and huge paper profits for IPO promoters."

As a result of the crash, many companies on the NZ stock exchange disappeared, wiping out millions in shareholders’ funds.  SONY 148738121 Keyboard

In 1989 alone, almost 3,000 companies became insolvent – the collapse of the high-flying Equiticorp stood out as one of the largest. These turbulent events led to the establishment of the Serious Fraud Office to investigate complex cases of fraud including bribery and corruption.[35] Allan Hawkins, the founder of Equiticorp, was one of the first to be pursued by the SFO.  DELL PVDG3 Keyboard

He was convicted of conspiring to dishonestly use a system designed to disguise the source and disposition of money and four counts of defrauding his own company. He was sentenced to six years in prison while other Equiticorp directors were jailed for shorter terms.[36]

The stock market eventually settled down but fell in value from $45.5 billion before the crash to only $14 billion by 1991.[37]  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

However, financial institutions in New Zealand continued to run close to the wind. In July 2007, Bridgecorp collapsed owing 14,500 people about $490 million. The five directors were convicted of making untrue statements in the company's offer documents and the judge sentenced Rod Petricevic and Rob Roest to six and a half years in prison.[38] DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

Also in 2007, Capital + Merchant Finance collapsed owing $167 million to 7500 investors with the directors facing numerous charges arising out of its demise.[39] Wayne Douglas and Neal Nicholls, the founding directors of Capital+Merchant were found guilty of 'theft by a person in a special relationship' and jailed for seven and a half years each – the longest sentences so far given to failed finance company directors.[40]  DELL Precision M4500 Keyboard

One of the largest finance companies to fall was South Canterbury Finance in 2010 with debts of $1.7 billion. Charges were laid by the SFO against the owner, Allan Hubbard, but the case against him was dropped after he died in a car crash.[41] Also in 2010 Stephen Versalko was sent to prison after committing the biggest case of employee theft in New Zealand. HP Pavilion dv6-3040sp Keyboard

Versalko stole $17.8 million from wealthy clients while working as an investment adviser at the ASB's Remuera branch.[42] In 2012,KPMG released its latest fraud figures for New Zealand showing losses in 2011 were $279 million.[6] Altogether since 2005, more than 50 finance firms have failed, leaving billions of dollars owed to retail investors, lengthy legal tussles and jail sentences for an increasing number of company directors.[43] HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Finance companies aren't the only ones being investigated by the SFO. In 2012 SFO chief Adam Feeley said "We opened 40 new investigations in the last financial year, the most cases the SFO has ever taken on in a year, none of them were finance companies.[44] We do have a problem [with financial crime], it's endemic in every sector of business, HP G42-415DX Keyboard

it exists in the public sector, it's a transnational problem and it's not getting any smaller." In November 2012, the SFO began investigating Ross Asset Management (RAM), possibly New Zealand's largest ever Ponzi scheme, after receivers revealed that only $10m had been recovered of the $450 million which had been invested.[45] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard

The following month it was reported that the Financial Markets Authority (FMA) was investigating the role of financial advisors who recommended their clients put money into the scheme. Investor spokesman Bruce Tichbon said some investors had already started legal action against authorised advisors who put them into RAM.  HP Mini 210-1109TU Keyboard

The SFO also warns of a rise in "affinity crimes", where in the wake of the collapse of finance companies run by strangers there is a trend for people to feel their trust is better placed in people they know. One such case was that of Jacqui Bradley who in 2012 was convicted on 75 fraud charges relating to a Ponzi scheme that stripped $15.5 million off 28 victims – many of them her personal friends.[47] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard

Another case was that of Anthony Allison, a stockbroker who was jailed for 4 years after stealing $1.1 million from friends and clients to fund his lavish lifestyle. Allison offered to take care of the finances of family friends and wealthy clients he met through the Parnell Tennis Club and then plundered their bank accounts. HP Pavilion G6-1227TU Keyboard

A study by tax lecturer, Dr Lisa Marriott, of Victoria University has found there is 150 times more tax fraud in New Zealand than welfare fraud[49] – but those who commit welfare fraud are more likely to go to prison.[50] She examined three years of tax evasion and welfare fraud and found that welfare fraud was also significantly more likely to be prosecuted than tax fraud – despite substantially greater losses from the latter. HP AEUT5U00010 Keyboard

In 2010 alone, tax evaders cheated the country of between $1 billion and $6 billion, while welfare fraud cost only $39 million. In 2012, 714 people were convicted for defrauding taxpayers of $23.4million.[51]

The total amount owed back to the Government from welfare fraud was about $106 million because most of those convicted were only able to pay back very small amounts.[52] HP Mini 110-3004tu Keyboard

SONY V072078BS1 Keyboard

The average amount stolen by welfare fraudsters was $70,000, and those found guilty had a 60 per cent chance of being jailed. For tax evaders the average fraud was $270,000, but those found guilty had only a 22 per cent chance of being jailed. For example, a welfare fraudster who stole $148,000 – at the upper end of the scale for welfare fraud – received 18 months in prison.SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Keyboard

A woman who received an extra $51,000 over five years from Work and Income was given a 12-month prison term.[53] Meanwhile, a tax cheat who failed to pay $222,000 in tax – at the lower end of the prosecution scale – got eight months' home detention and 250 hours' community service. In 2012 Antoinette Cherrington, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

a Bay of Islands businesswoman pleaded guilty to 59 charges relating to the non-payment of $109,358 in tax and was sentenced to home detention and community work.[54] Another tax cheat who avoided paying $500,000 was only sentenced to 12 months' home detention.[50]

Marriott found that public attitudes towards tax evasion were indulgent, sometimes admiring, while beneficiaries were considered "scroungers or cheats". ACER Extensa 5635Z Keyboard

Commenting on the results of the study, Revenue Minister Peter Dunne. “I don't think that's fair.”[55] Auckland Action Against Poverty spokeswoman Sarah Thompson said: "We have a cult of prejudice against beneficiaries. This research shows not only is that belief unfounded, but it's wrong. Tax evaders are ripping off the country to a much greater extent than beneficiaries are." Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

The term ‘police corruption’ has been used to describe a range of unethical or illegal activities: bribery; excessive use of force; fabrication and destruction of evidence; racism; and, favouritism or nepotism. Police corruption generally involves an abuse of power – what is corrupted is the ‘special trust’ invested in the police. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 Keyboard

Corruption in the police service is not necessarily about money but may still involve unethical or illegal behaviour for personal gain – such as the kudos of gaining a conviction or the possibility of promotion.[citation needed]

One example of police corruption in New Zealand was that of Arthur Allan Thomas. HP Pavilion DV7-3060us Keyboard

Thomas was convicted twice for murdering Harvey and Jeanette Crewe after two detectives, Bruce Hutton and Len Johnston, planted a cartridge case in the garden of the house where the murders were committed to secure a conviction against him.[56] Author Chris Birt, who spent 37 years studying the Crewe murders, believes that Hutton and Johnston 'were not alone'.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E120 Keyboard

He says Hutton was pressured by the head of the national Criminal Investigation Branch, Bob Walton, to come up with a "solution" to the murders.[57]

Former police inspector, Ross Meurant, who searched the Crewe's property at the time (and failed to find a cartridge) says he was also pressured by Walton to change his evidence at the Royal Commission which was held into the case nine years later. IBM 42T3671 Keyboard

Meurant says: "It's true that New Zealand is largely free of blatant corruption – such as kickbacks, bribes and inducements for the personal gain of officers – but in its place has emerged a corruption of zealousness; where police break the law to put someone behind bars because of the belief within police that they know what is best for society."[ HP 519265-001 Keyboard

This is sometimes known as 'noble cause corruption’ when police commit an offence believing the end justifies the means.The environment of New Zealand is characterised by unique flora and fauna and a variety of landforms contained within a small island nation. Historically having an isolated and endemic ecosystem far into modernity,  SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

the arrival of first the Maori and then later European settlers began to have significant impacts on this system, with the intentional and unintentional introduction of new species and plants which often overwhelmed their natural competitors, leading to a significant loss of native ecology and biodiversity, especially in areas such as bird life.TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 Keyboard

Today, most parts of New Zealand are heavily modified by the effects of logging, agriculture and general human settlement, though large areas have also been placed under protection, combined in many cases with efforts to protect or regenerate native ecosystems (aided by the fact that especially the South Island of New Zealand has only a very low population density). DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

The biota of New Zealand is one of the most unusual on Earth, due to its long isolation from other continental landmasses. Its affinities are derived in part from Gondwana, from which it separated 82 million years ago, some modest affinities with New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island, both of which are part of the same continental plate as New Zealand and in part from Australia.SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R Keyboard

More recently a component has been introduced by humans. New Zealand's biodiversity exhibits high levels of endemism, both in itsflora and fauna. Until recently the islands had no native terrestrial mammals except for bats (although mammals did exist in New Zealand until 19 million years ago), the main component of the fauna being insects and birds. HP Pavilion dv6-3045eo Keyboard

Its flora is dominated by Gondwanan plants, comprising historically of forests, most famously the giant kauri. New Zealand has developed a national Biodiversity Action Plan to address conservation of considerable numbers of threatened flora and fauna within New Zealand.

As with many other countries there are a number of environmental organizations that are working towards addressing various environmental issues in New Zealand.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

The move to carry out genetic engineering in New Zealand is opposed by environmentalists on economic and environmental grounds and the release of genetically modified organisms now has a strict regulatory regime under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act.

Mining in New Zealand often encounters opposition from environmentalists. DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

Coal mining in the West Coast Region is of concern and there are plans to start theCypress Mine, the Escarpment Mine Project, the Mt William North Mining Project, as well as issues at the long established Stockton Mine. Lignite mining in theSouthland Region is also encountering opposition.[11] Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is also of concern. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

A proposed soapstone mine in the Cobb Valley has also raised environmental concerns.[12]

Water pollution in New Zealand is an ongoing issue. Fish and Game, a statutory government body, started a dirty dairying campaign to highlight water pollution due to dairy farming. It led to the creation in 2003 of the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord, ACER Aspire 2920-5A2G25Mi Keyboard

a voluntary agreement between Fonterra, Ministry for the Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and regional councils. A 2009 study showed that the Manawatu River was found that the river had the highest gross primary production (GPP) compared to 300 rivers and streams in the Western world.[13] ACER AEZU2R00010 Keyboard

High GPP rates are an indication of poor ecological health and can lead to variousenvironmental issues.The management of waste in New Zealand has become more regulated to reduce associated environmental issues.Deforestation in New Zealand is now of negligible concern since logging indigenous forest on public land has ceased and it requires a permit to be carried out on privately owned land. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-215DX Keyboard

In the past 800 years of human occupation New Zealand has lost 75% of its forests due to deliberately lit fires and land clearance.

Biodiversity of New Zealand is rich and diverse but in serious decline.

Migration to New Zealand began with Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, then uninhabited, about 1250 to 1280.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Keyboard

European migration provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, America, & Asia.

Polynesians in the South Pacific were the first to discover the landmass of New Zealand. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Keyboard

Eastern Polynesian explorers had settled in New Zealand by approximately the thirteenth century CE with most evidence pointing to an arrival date of about 1280. Their arrival gave rise to the Māori culture and the Māori language, both unique to New Zealand, although very closely related to analogues in other parts of Eastern Polynesia.  ASUS F6VE Keyboard

Evidence from Wairau Bar and the Chatham islands shows that the Polynesian colonists maintained many parts of their east Polynesian culture such as burial customs for at least 50 years. Especially strong resemblances link Māori to the languages and cultures of the Cook and Society Islands, which after the 2010 Otago University archaeological research of Wairau Bar, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

are regarded as the most likely places of origin. Moriori settled the Chatham Islands during the 15th century from SE South Island of New Zealand.

Due to New Zealand's geographic isolation, several centuries passed before the next phase of settlement, the arrival of Europeans.SONY VAIO VGN NR298E Keyboard

Only then did the original inhabitants need to distinguish themselves from the new arrivals, using the adjective "māori" which means "ordinary" or "indigenous" which later became a noun although the term New Zealand native was common until about 1890. Māori thought of their tribe (iwi) as a nation.[citation needed] In neolithic times there was no pan Māori organization.[ HP Mini 210 Keyboard

Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain on his arrival in 1769. The establishment of British colonies in Australia from 1788 and the boom in whaling and sealing in the Southern Ocean brought many Europeans to the vicinity of New Zealand, with some deciding to settle. Whalers and sealers were often itinerant and the first real settlers were missionaries and traders in the Bay of Islands area from 1809. Acer eMachines E732 Keyboard

By 1830 there was a population of about 800 non Māori which included a total of about 200 runaway convicts and seamen who often married into the Māori community.[citation needed] The seamen often lived in New Zealand for a short time before joining another ship a few months later. HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard

In 1839 there were 1100 Europeans living in the North Island. Regular outbreaks of extreme violence mainly between Māori hapu, known as the Musket Wars, resulted in the deaths of between 20,000 and 50,000 Māori up until 1843. Violence against European shipping, cannibalism and the lack of established law and order made settling in New Zealand a risky prospect. TOSHIBA NSK-T4D01 Keyboard

By the late 1830s many Māori were nominally Christian and had freed many of the Māori slaves that had been captured during the Musket Wars. By this time, many Māori, especially in the north, could read and write Māori and to a lesser extent English.

European migration has resulted in a deep legacy being left on the social and political structures of New Zealand. HP 405963-001 Keyboard

Early visitors to New Zealand included whalers, sealers, missionaries, mariners, and merchants, attracted to natural resources in abundance. They came from the Australian colonies, Great Britain and Ireland, Germany (forming the next biggest immigrant group after the British and Irish),[1] France, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, The United States, and Canada. SAMSUNG Q35 Keyboard

In 1840 representatives of the British Crown signed the Treaty of Waitangi with 240 Māori chiefs throughout New Zealand, motivated by plans for a French colony at Akaroa and land purchases by the New Zealand Company in 1839. Britishsovereignty was then proclaimed over New Zealand in May 1840. HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee Keyboard

Following the formalising of sovereignty, the organised and structured flow of migrants from Great Britain and Ireland began. Government-chartered ships like the clipper Gananoque and the Glentanner carried immigrants to New Zealand. SONY VAIO VGN NR185E Keyboard

Typically clipper ships left British ports such as London and travelled south through the central Atlantic to about 43 degrees south to pick up the strong westerly winds that carried the clippers well south of South Africa and Australia. Ships would then head north once in the vicinity of New Zealand. ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard

The Glentanner migrant ship of 610 tonnes made two runs to New Zealand and several to Australia carrying 400 tonne of passengers and cargo. Travel time was about 3 to 3 1/2 months to New Zealand. Cargo carried on the Glentanner for New Zealand included coal, slate, lead sheet, wine, beer, cart components, salt, soap and passengers' personal goods. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

On the 1857 passage the ship carried 163 official passengers, most of them government assisted. On the return trip the ship carried a wool cargo worth 45,000 pounds.[2] In the 1860s discovery of gold started a gold rush in Otago. By 1860 more than 100,000 British and Irish settlers lived throughout New Zealand. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The Otago Association actively recruited settlers from Scotland, creating a definite Scottish influence in that region, while the Canterbury Association recruited settlers from the south of England, creating a definite English influence over that region.[3] In the 1860s most migrants settled in the South Island due to gold discoveries and the availability of flat grass covered land for pastoral farming. HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

The low number of Māori(about 2,000) and the absence of warfare gave the South Island many advantages .It was only when the New Zealand wars ended that The North Island again became an attractive destination.In the 1870s the MP Julius Vogel borrowed millions of pounds from Britain to help fund capital development such as a nationwide rail system, HP 606013-001 CPU Fan

lighthouses, ports and bridges and encouraged mass migrantion from Britain. By 1870 the non-Māori population reached over 250,000.Other smaller groups of settlers came from Germany, Scandinavia, and other parts of Europe as well as from China and India, but British and Irish settlers made up the vast majority, and did so for the next 150 years. HP COMPAQ KSB05105HA CPU Fan

Between 1881 and the 1920s, the New Zealand Parliament passed legislation that intended to limit Asiatic migration to New Zealand, and prevented Asians from naturalising.[5] In particular, the New Zealand government levied a poll tax on Chinese immigrants up until the 1930s. New Zealand finally abolished the poll tax in 1944. HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

Large numbers of Dalmatians fled from the Austro- Hungarian empire to settle in New Zealand around 1900. They settled mainly in West Auckland and often worked to establish vineyards and orchards or worked on gum fields in Northland.An influx of Jewish refugees from central Europe came in the 1930s. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPU Fan

Many of the persons of Polish descent in New Zealand arrived as orphans via Siberia and Iran during World War II.With the various agencies of the United Nations dealing with humanitarian efforts following the Second World War, New Zealand accepted about 5,000 refugees and displaced persons from Europe, and more than 1,100 Hungarians between 1956 and 1959 (see Refugee migration into New Zealand). DELL MD538 CPU Fan

The post-WWII immigration included more persons from Greece, Italy, Poland and the former Yugoslavia.

New Zealand limited immigration to those who would meet a labour shortage in New Zealand. To encourage those to come, the government introduced free and assisted passages in 1947, a schema expanded by the National Party administration in 1950. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

However, when it became clear that not enough skilled migrants would come from the British Isles alone, recruitment began in Northern European countries. New Zealand signed a bilateral agreement for skilled migrants with the Netherlands, and a large number[clarification needed] of Dutch immigrants arrived in New Zealand. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Others came in the 1950s from Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Austria to meet needs in specialised occupations.

By the 1960s, the policy of excluding people based on nationality yielded a population overwhelmingly European in origin. By the mid-1960s, a desire for cheap unskilled labour led to ethnic diversification.  HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

In the 1950s and 1960s, New Zealand encouraged migrants from the South Pacific. The country had a large demand for unskilled labour in the manufacturing sector. As long as this demand continued, migration was accepted from the South Pacific, and many temporary workers overstayed their visas. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

From 1977 to 1980 dawn raids were carried out by police to remove overstayers most were Pacific islanders. In May 2008, Massey University economist Dr Greg Clydesdale released to the news media an extract of a report, Growing Pains, Evaluations and the Cost of Human Capital, which saw Pacific Islanders as "forming an underclass".[6] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The report, written by Dr Clydesdale for the Academy of World Business, Marketing & Management Development 2008 Conference in Brazil, and based on data from various government departments, provoked highly controversial debate. Pacific Islands community leaders and academic peer reviewers strongly criticised the report, while a provisional review was lodged by Race Relations Commissioner Joris de Bres.[7][8] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

A record number of migrants arrived in the 1970s; 70,000, for example, during 1973–1974. While these numbers represent many ethnicities, New Zealand had an underlying preference[citation needed] for migrants from "traditional sources", namely Britain, Europe and Northern America, due to similarities of language and culture. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Along with New Zealand adopting a radical direction of economic practice, Parliament passed a new Immigration Act into law in 1987. This would end the preference for migrants from Britain, Europe or Northern America based on their race, and instead classify migrants on their skills, personal qualities, and potential contribution to New Zealand economy and society. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ CPU Fan

The introduction of the points-based system came under the National government, which pursued this policy-change even more than the previous Labour Party administration. This system resembled that of Canada, and came into effect in 1991. Effectively the New Zealand Immigration Service ranks the qualities sought in the migrants and gives them a priority using a points-based scale.HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

As of 2009 this framework continues to control immigration, however from 2010 the new Immigration Act will replace all protocols and procedures.The Government published the results of an immigration review in December 2006.Regulations provide that immigrants must be of good character. SONY Vaio VGN-BX760PS5 CPU Fan

This policy resulted in a wide variety of ethnicities in New Zealand, with people from over 120 countries represented. Between 1991 and 1995 the numbers of those given approval grew rapidly: 26,000 in 1992; 35,000 in 1994; 54,811 in 1995. The minimum target for residency approval was set[by whom?] at 25,000. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

The number approved was almost twice what was targeted. The Labour-led governments of 1999–2008 made no change to the Immigration Act 1987, although some changes were made[by whom?] to the 1991 policy. In particular, the minimum IELTS level for skilled migrants was raised[by whom?]from 5.5 to 6.5 in 2002, following concerns that immigrants who spoke English as a second language encountered difficulty getting jobs in their chosen fields.[1 HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

3] Since then, migration from Britain and South Africa has increased, at the expense of immigration from Asia. However, a study-for-residency programme for foreign university students has mitigated this imbalance somewhat.[citation needed]

By 2005, New Zealand accepted 60% of the applicants under the Skilled/Business category that awarded points for qualifications and work experience, or business experience and funds they had available.  HP 550 CPU Fan

From 1 Aug 2007, NZD$2.5 million is the minimum for the Active Investor Migrant Category .

Changes to the point system have also given more weight to job offers as compared to educational degrees. Some Aucklanders cynically joke that most taxi drivers in Auckland tend to be highly qualified engineers or doctors who are unable to then find jobs in their fields once in the country. HP Pavilion dv7-3170ep CPU Fan

In 2004–2005 Immigration New Zealand set a target of 45,000, representing 1.5% of the total population. However, the net effect was a population decline, since more left than arrived. 48,815 arrived, and overall the population was 10,000 or 0.25% less than the previous year. Overall though, New Zealand has one of the highest populations of foreign born citizens. IBM 26R8197 CPU Fan

In 2005, almost 20% of New Zealanders were born overseas, one of the highest percentages of any country in the world. The Department of Labour’s sixth annual Migration Trends report shows a 21 per cent rise in work permits issued in the 2005/06 year compared with the previous year. Nearly 100,000 people were issued work permits to work in sectors ranging from IT to horticulture in the 2005/06 year. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

This compares with around 35,000 work permits issued in 1999–2000. Around 52,000 people were approved for permanent New Zealand residence in 2005/06. Over 60 per cent were approved under the skilled or business categories.

New Zealand accepts 750 refugees per year mandated by the United Nations. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5831 CPU Fan

As part of the Pacific Access Category, 650 citizens come from Fiji, Tuvalu, Kiribati, and Tonga. 1,100 Samoan citizens come under the Samoan Quota scheme. Once resident, these people can apply to bring other family members to New Zealand under the Family Sponsored stream. Any migrant accepted under these schemes receives permanent residency in New Zealand.  IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

Effective in New Zealand from 4 May 2007, the Immigration Advisers Licensing Act[15] requires anyone providing immigration advice to be licensed. It also established the Immigration Advisers Authority to manage the licensing process, both in New Zealand and offshore.

From 4 May 2009 it became mandatory for immigration advisers practising in New Zealand to be licensed.  APPLE 661-4952 CPU Fan

The introduction of mandatory licensing for New Zealand-based immigration advisers was designed to protect migrants from unscrupulous operators and provide support for licensed advisers.

The licensing managed by the Immigration Advisers Authority Official website establishes and monitors industry standards and sets requirements for continuedprofessional development.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

As an independent body, the Authority can prosecute unlicensed immigration advisers. Penalties include up to seven years imprisonment and/or fines up to $NZ100,000 for offenders, as well as the possibility of court-ordered reparation payments. It can refer complaints made against licensed advisers to an Independent Tribunal. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Immigration advisers who work offshore but give advice about New Zealand immigration matters must obtain a license by 4 May 2010. The Immigration Advisers Authority does not handle immigration applications or inquiries. These are managed by Immigration New Zealand.

Statements by the government in the mid 2000s emphasised that New Zealand must compete for its share of skilled and talented migrants, and David Cunliffe, HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

the former immigration minister, has argued that New Zealand was "in a global race for talent and we must win our share".[16] With this in mind, a bill (over 400 pages long) was prepared[by whom?] which was sent[by whom?] to parliament in April 2007. It follows a review of the immigration act. The bill aims to make the process more efficient, and achieves this by giving more power to immigration officers. HP Pavilion dv9230us CPU Fan

Rights of appeal were to be streamlined into a single appeal tribunal. Furthermore, any involvement of the Human Rights Commission in matters of immigration to New Zealand would be removed (Part 11, Clause 350).

The new Immigration Act, which passed into law in 2009 replacing the 1987 Act, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Series CPU Fan

is aimed to enhance border security and improve the efficiency of the immigration services. Key aspects of the new Act include the ability to use biometrics, a new refugee and protection system, a single independent appeals tribunal and a universal visa system. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

As of March 2012, a draft paper leaked to the New Zealand Labour Party shows Immigration New Zealand is planning to create a two-tier system which will favour wealthy immigrants over poor ones who speak little or no English. This means that applications from parents sponsored by their higher income children, or those who bring a guaranteed income or funds, would be processed faster than other applications. IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 CPU Fan

As in most other countries, immigration is a highly contentious issue and has provoked fierce debate from time to time in New Zealand.[citation needed]

The political party New Zealand First has frequently criticised immigration on economic, social and cultural grounds. APPLE MG62090V1-Q020-S99 CPU Fan

New Zealand First leader Winston Peters has several occasions characterised the rate of Asian immigration into New Zealand as too high; in 2004, he stated: "We are being dragged into the status of an Asian colony and it is time that New Zealanders were placed first in their own country."[20] On 26 April 2005, he said: HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

"Māori will be disturbed to know that in 17 years' time they will be outnumbered by Asians in New Zealand", an estimate disputed by Statistics New Zealand, the government's statistics bureau. Peters quickly rebutted that Statistics New Zealand has underestimated the growth-rate of the Asian community in the past.[21] HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

In April 2008, deputy New Zealand First party leader Peter Brown drew widespread criticism after voicing similar views and expressing concern at the increase in New Zealand's ethnic Asian population: "We are going to flood this country with Asian people with no idea what we are going to do with them when they come here."[22 Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

"The matter is serious. If we continue this open door policy there is real danger we will be inundated with people who have no intention of integrating into our society. The greater the number, the greater the risk. They will form their own mini-societies to the detriment of integration and that will lead to division, friction and resentment." TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Keyboard,TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Keyboard,HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard

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New Zealand has a market economy that depends greatly on international trade, mainly with Australia, the European Union, theUnited States, China, South Korea and Japan. It has only small manufacturing and high-tech sectors, being strongly focused on tourism and primary industries such as agriculture. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

Free-market reforms over recent decades have removed many barriers toforeign investment, and the World Bank in 2005 praised New Zealand as being the most business-friendly country in the world, before Singapore.

Traditionally, New Zealand's economy was built on a narrow range of primary products, such as wool, meat and dairy products.SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Keyboard

As an example, from approximately 1920 to the late 1930s, the dairy export quota was usually around 35% of the total exports, and in some years made up almost 45% of all New Zealand's exports.[16] Due to the high demand for these primary products – such as the New Zealand wool boom of 1951 – New Zealand enjoyed a high standard of living. ACER TravelMate 2800 Series Keyboard

However, commodity prices for these exports declined, and New Zealand lost itspreferential trading position with the United Kingdom in 1973, due to the latter joining the European Economic Community. Partly as a result, from 1970 to 1990, the relative New Zealand GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power declined from about 115% of the OECD average to 80%.Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

New Zealand's economy has been based on a foundation of exports from its very efficient agricultural system. Leading agricultural exports include meat, dairy products, forest products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and wool. New Zealand was a direct beneficiary of many of the reforms achieved under the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations, with agriculture in general and the dairy sector in particular enjoying many new trade opportunities in the long term. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge S420 Keyboard

The country has substantial hydroelectric power and sizeable reserves of natural gas, much of which is exploited due primarily to major Keynesian import substitution-oriented industrial projects (See Think Big). Leading manufacturing sectors are food processing, metal fabrication, and wood and paper products. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420S Keyboard

Some manufacturing industries, many of which had only been established in a climate of import substitution with high tariffs and subsidies, such as car assembly, have completely disappeared, and manufacturing's importance in the economy is in a general decline.

Since 1984, the New Zealand government has undertaken major economic restructuring (known first as Rogernomics and thenRuthanasia), Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420 Keyboard

moving an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access toward a more industrialised, free-market economy that can compete globally. This growth has boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420i Keyboard

Per-capita GDP has been moving up towards the levels of the big West European economies since the trough in 1990, but the gap remains significant. New Zealand's heavy dependence on trade leaves its growth prospects vulnerable to economic performance in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420S Keyboard

Between 1984 and 1999, a number of measures of New Zealand's economic and social capital showed a steady decline: the youth suicide rate grew sharply into one of the highest in the developed world;[18] the number of food banks increased dramatically;[19] marked increases in violent and other crime were observed;[20] the number of New Zealanders estimated to be living in poverty grew by at least 35% between 1989 and 1992;[21] SONY VGN-FE11M Keyboard

and health care was especially hard-hit, leading to a significant deterioration in health standards among working and middle-class people.[22]

Between 1985 and 1992, New Zealand's economy grew by 4.7% during the same period in which the average OECD nation grew by 28.2%.[23] ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Keyboard

From 1984 to 1993 inflation averaged 9% per year, New Zealand's credit rating dropped twice, and foreign debt quadrupled.[21] Between 1986 and 1993, the unemployment rate rose from 3.6% to 11%.

The New Zealand economy has recently been perceived as successful. However, the generally positive outlook includes some challenges.  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard

New Zealand income levels, which used to be above much of Western Europe prior to the deep crisis of the 1970s, have never recovered in relative terms. For instance, the New Zealand nominal GDP per capita is about 80% that of the United States. Income inequality has increased greatly, implying that significant portions of the population have quite modest incomes.  HP 516884-001 Keyboard

Further, New Zealand has a very large current account deficit of 8–9% of GDP. Despite this, its public debt stands at 33.7% (2011 est.)[25] of the total GDP, which is small compared to many developed nations. However, between 1984 and 2006, net foreign debt increased 11-fold, to NZ$182 billion, NZ$45,000 for each person.[13] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard

The combination of a modest public debt and a large net foreign debt reflects that most of the net foreign debt is held by the private sector. At 31 June 2012, gross foreign debt was NZ$256.4 billion, or 125.3% of GDP.[26] At 31 March 2012, net foreign debt was NZ$141.65 billion or 104.4% of GDP.[27]

New Zealand's persistent current-account deficits have two main causes.  HP Pavilion DV7-2177cl Keyboard

The first is that earnings from agricultural exports and tourism have failed to cover the imports of advanced manufactured goods and other imports (such as imported fuels) required to sustain the New Zealand economy.[citation needed] Secondly, there has been an investment income imbalance or net outflow for debt-servicing of external loans. SONY VAIO VPC-F12 Keyboard

The proportion of the current account deficit that is attributable to the investment income imbalance (a net outflow to the Australian-owned banking sector) grew from one third in 1997 to roughly 70% in 2008.

Historically, New Zealand had a highly protected, regulated and subsidised economy. HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Keyboard

This stemmed at least partly from trends started in the first half of the 20th century, when the Liberal Government and later the First Labour Government introduced social security systems with, for the time, very wide-ranging scope (from state pensions to unemployment benefits and free education and health care), while also regulating industry, mandating trade unionism and industrial arbitration. SONY VAIO VGN-NW35E/W Keyboard

Imports were also heavily regulated. While called "welfare statism" by some,[29]it was accepted that until at least the 1950s both main parties (Labour and National) generally supported this trend, even though critics pointed to negative effects on the general economy and argued that increasing emigration could be blamed to a large degree on these policies.[30] TOSHIBA Satellite M640-BT2N23 Keyboard

By the 1960s, the New Zealand economy's terms of trade began to decline. This was largely due to the decline in export receipts from the United Kingdom, which in 1955 took 65.3 percent of New Zealand's exports. By the year ended June 1973, during which Britain formally entered the European Economic Community, this had fallen to 26.8 percent. DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

By the year ended June 1990 its share had fallen to 7.2 percent and in the year ended June 2000 its share was 6.2 percent.[31]

To a substantial degree, the economic restrictions remained in place or were even sometimes extended in the early second half of the 20th century. However, reforms in the 1980s and early 1990s were then to turn this situation into its opposite. SONY VGN-FE41S Keyboard

Between 1984 and 1995, successive New Zealand governments enacted policies of economic deregulation informed by microeconomics. The policies aimed to liberalise the economy and were notable for their very comprehensive coverage and innovations. Specific polices included: floating the exchange rate; establishing an independent reserve bank; TOSHIBA 6037B0028502 Keyboard

performance contracts for senior civil servants; public sector finance reform based on accrual accounting; tax neutrality; subsidy-free agriculture; and industry-neutral competition regulation. Economic growth was resumed in 1991. New Zealand was changed from a somewhat closed and centrally controlled economy to one of the most open economies in the OECD.[32]  DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

Since 1984, government subsidies including agricultural subsides were eliminated; import regulations were liberalised; the exchange rate was floated; and controls on interest rates, wages, and prices were removed; and marginal rates of taxation were reduced. Tight monetary policy and major efforts to reduce the government budget deficit brought the inflation rate down from an annual rate of more than 18% in 1987.  HP Pavilion DV7-2173cl Keyboard

The deregulation of government-owned enterprises in the 1980s and 1990s reduced government's role in the economy and permitted the retirement of some public debt.

Deregulation created a very business-friendly regulatory framework. A 2008 study and survey ranked it 99.9% in "Business freedom", and 80% overall in "Economic freedom", Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 Keyboard

noting amongst other things that it only takes 12 days to establish a business in New Zealand on average, compared with a worldwide average of 43 days. Other indicators measured were property rights, labour market conditions, government controls and corruption, the last being considered "next to non-existent" in the Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal study.[33] ACER Aspire 1690 Keyboard

According to the Heritage Foundation, New Zealand has the strongest private property rights in the world, scoring 95 on a scale of 100.

In its 'Doing Business 2008' survey, the World Bank (which in that year rated New Zealand as the second-most business-friendly country worldwide), ranked New Zealand 13th out of 178 in the business-friendliness of its hiring laws.[34]  HP 519265-001 Keyboard

The 1990s liberalisations also have been blamed for a number of significant negative effects. One of them was the leaky homes crisis, where the liberalisation of building standards (in the expectation that market forces would assure quality) led to many thousands of severely deficient buildings (mostly residential homes and apartments) being constructed over a period of a decade. The costs of fixing the damage has been estimated at over NZ$11 billion. FUJITSU Lifebook E8210 Keyboard

Economic growth, which had slowed in 1997 and 1998 due to the negative effects of the Asian financial crisis and two successive years of drought, rebounded in 1999. A low New Zealand dollar, favourable weather, and high commodity prices boosted exports, and the economy is estimated to have grown by 2.5% in 2000. HP Pavilion DV7-3183cl Keyboard

Growth resumed at a higher level from 2001 onwards due primarily to the lower value of the New Zealand dollar, which made exports more competitive. The return of substantial economic growth led the unemployment rate to drop from 7.8% in 1999 to 3.4% in late 2005, the lowest rate in nearly 20 years. FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard

Although New Zealand enjoyed low unemployment rates in the years immediately prior to the financial crisis beginning in 2007, subsequent unemployment rose.

New Zealand's large current account deficit, which stood at more than 6.5% of GDP in 2000, has been a constant source of concern for New Zealand policymakers and hit 9% as of March 2006. Compaq Presario CQ62-358TU Keyboard

The rebound in the export sector is expected to help narrow the deficit to lower levels, especially due to decreases in the exchange rate of the New Zealand dollar during 2008.

New Zealand's economy has been helped by strong economic relations with Australia. Australia and New Zealand are partners in "Closer Economic Relations" (CER), which allows for free trade in goods and most services. TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard

Since 1990, CER has created a single market of more than 25 million people, and this has provided new opportunities for New Zealand exporters. Australia is now the destination of 19% of New Zealand's exports, compared to 14% in 1983.[citation needed] Both sides have also agreed to consider extending CER to product standardisation and taxation policy. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard

New Zealand initiated a free trade agreement with Singapore in September 2000 which was extended in 2005 to include Chile and Brunei and is now known as the P4 agreement. New Zealand is seeking other bilateral/regional trade agreements in the Pacific area.

US goods and services have been competitive in New Zealand, though the then-strong US dollar created challenges for US exporters in 2001.  HP Pavilion DV6-1350us Keyboard

The market-led economy offers many opportunities for US exporters and investors. Investment opportunities exist in chemicals, food preparation, finance, tourism, and forest products, as well as in franchising. The best sales prospects are for medical equipment, information technology, and consumer goods.  HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard

On the agricultural side, the best prospects are for fresh fruit, snack foods, specialised grocery items (e.g. organic foods), and soybean meal. A number of US companies have subsidiary branches in New Zealand. Many operate through local agents, with some joint venture associations. The United States Chamber of Commerce is active in New Zealand, with a main office in Auckland and a branch committee in Wellington. ASUS F6VE Keyboard

However, as of the 2010s, China is now New Zealand's second-largest trading partner, behind Australia.[36][37] On 17 June 2010, Xi Jinping, China's vice-president, travelled to Auckland, New Zealand for a three-day visit, along with more than 100 senior business leaders.[38]

New Zealand welcomes and encourages foreign investment without discrimination. DELL NSK-DB301 Keyboard

The Overseas Investment Commission (OIC) must, however, consent to foreign investments that would control 25% or more of businesses or property worth more than NZ$50 million. Restrictions and approval requirements also apply to certain investments in land and in the commercial fishing industry. In practice, OIC approval requirements have not hindered investment. HP Pavilion dv6-3057tx Keyboard

OIC consent is based on a national interest determination, but no performance requirements are attached to foreign direct investment after consent is given. Full remittance of profits and capital is permitted through normal banking channels.

This free investment by foreign capital has also been criticised. DELL Vostro PP38L Keyboard

Groups like Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa (CAFCA) consider that New Zealand's economy is substantially overseas-owned, noting that direct ownership of New Zealand companies by foreign parties increased from $9.7 billion in 1989 to $83 billion in 2007 (an over 700% increase), while 41% of the New Zealand sharemarket valuation is now overseas-owned, compared to 19% in 1989. HP Pavilion DV7-3057nr Keyboard

Around 7% of all New Zealand agriculturally productive land is also foreign-owned. CAFCA considers that the effect of such takeovers has generally been negative in terms of jobs and wages.

Prior to the economic shocks which occurred upon Britain's joining the EEC in the 1970s and closing as a primary New Zealand export market, measured unemployment in New Zealand was very low. TOSHIBA Satellite l20-135 Keyboard

In 1959 and 1960, for example, the country was officially at full employment.[39] One Labour party representative recently joked in a speech that the Prime Minister of the day knew the name of every unemployed person.[40]

Between 1985 and 2012, New Zealand's unemployment rate averaged 6.29%. Toshiba Satellite L30-10X CPU Fan 

After the stock market crash of 1989, unemployment began to rise reaching an all-time high of 11.20% in September 1991.[41] By 2007, it had dropped again and the rate stood at 3.5% (December 2007), its lowest level since the current method of surveying began in 1986. This gave the country the 5th-best ranking in the OECD (with an OECD average at the time of 5.5%). Toshiba Satellite A300-21H CPU Fan

The low numbers correlated with a robust economy and a large backlog of job positions at all levels.[42] Unemployment numbers are not always directly comparable between OECD nations, as they do not all keep labour market statistics in the same way.

The percentage of the population employed also increased in recent years, to 68.8% of all inhabitants, SONY Vaio VGN-FS415M CPU Fan

with full-time jobs increasing slightly, and part-time occupations decreasing in turn. The increase in the working population percentage is attributed to increasing wages and higher costs of living moving more people into employment.[42] The low unemployment also had some disadvantages, with many companies unable to fill jobs. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca CPU Fan

From 2008, mainly as a result of the global financial crisis, unemployment numbers began to rise, with job losses especially high amongst women.[43] In the last quarter of 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 6.9% from a 13-year high. This now makes New Zealand the 14th lowest among developed nations, below Canada's 7.2% and above Israel's 6.7%.HP Pavilion dv9547cl CPU Fan

As of 2010, New Zealand had the second-lowest personal tax burden in the OECD, once all compulsory effects (such as superannuation and other mandatory deductions) were included in the tax-take. Only Mexico's citizens had a higher percentage-wise "take home" proportion of their salaries.[45]

There is an ongoing political debate between left- and right-leaning political parties as to whether further lowering taxes is appropriate. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

One of the most contentious questions is whether to adjust the relative tax burden of the highest-income earners.

New Zealand is the highest-ranked (i.e. least corrupt) country on the Transparency International corruption perceptions index (CPI) of 2011.[46] However, the validity of this index is disputed by those who investigate such matters. IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan

Adam Feeley, chief executive of the Serious Fraud Office says fraud is widespread in New Zealand and there are fundamental misconceptions about New Zealand's ranking as one of the world's least corrupt countries.[47] International auditors, PricewaterhouseCooper (PwC), agree. Toshiba Satellite P300 CPU Fan

In 2011 PwC conducted a survey on Global Economic Crime which found that 50% of New Zealand organisations (both public and private) had experienced an economic crime in the previous 12 months. This gave New Zealand the 4th highest level of fraud out of the 78 countries surveyed.

Australia avoided technical recession due to a number of factors: the country's low levels of public debt allowed government stimulus spending; HP Pavilion dv7-4283cl CPU Fan

its proximity to the booming Chinese economy and the related mining boom kept growth ticking over throughout the worst of the global conditions. In fact, sources such as the IMF and theReserve Bank of Australia had predicted Australia was well positioned to weather the crisis with minimal disruption, sustaining more than 2% GDP growth in 2009 (as many Western nations went into recession). HP COMPAQ 2510P Series CPU Fan

In the same year the World Economic Forum ranked Australia's banking system the fourth best in the world, while the Australian dollar's 30% drop was seen as a boon for trade, shielding the country from the crisis and helping to slow growth and consumption.[1][2]

Some analysts had predicted the continuing decline of trade in 2009 could put the economy into recession for the first time in 17 years.[3HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea CPU Fan

] However these initial fears were proved largely unfounded as the Australian economy avoided recession and the unemployment rate peaked at a much lower rate than had been predicted.

New Zealand Institute of Economic Research's quarterly survey showing New Zealand's economy contracted 0.3 percent in the first quarter of 2008 and Treasury figures suggested the economy also contracted in the June quarter putting New Zealand in a technical recession.[4IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

] The Treasury says the economy could recover in the second half of the year under the impact of high dairy prices boosting farmer incomes and cuts to personal tax rates, which come into effect on Oct. 1.[5] About 23 financial companies in New Zealand have filed for bankruptcy in a year. Housing starts in New Zealand fell 20 percent in June, the lowest levels since 1986.[6] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Excluding apartments, approvals dropped 13 percent from May. Approvals in the year ended June fell 12 percent from a year earlier. Second-quarter approvals dropped 19 percent. The figures suggest a decrease in construction and economic growth. House sales fell 42 percent in June from a year earlier.[7] HP Pavilion dv6-2057eo CPU Fan

The New Zealand Treasury concluded that the country's economy had contracted for a second quarter based on economic indicators, putting New Zealand in a recession.[8] New Zealand's central bank cut rates by half a percent arguing the economy was in recession.[9] New Zealand's GDP declined by 0.2 percent in the second quarter putting the country in its first recession in a decade.[10] HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr CPU Fan

The economy emerged from recession in mid-2009, with the second-quarter GDP report showing the economy grew by 0.1 per cent on the March quarter.

The table below display all national recessions appearing in 2006-2013 (for the 71 countries with available data), according to the European recession definition, IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan

saying that a recession occurred whenever seasonally adjusted real GDP contracts quarter on quarter, through minimum two consecutive quarters. Only 11 out of the 71 listed countries with quarterly GDP data (Poland, Slovakia, Moldova, India, China, South Korea, Indonesia, Australia, Uruguay, Colombia and Bolivia) escaped a recession in this time period. Toshiba Satellite A100-02M CPU Fan

The few recessions appearing early in 2006-07 are commonly never associated to be part of the Great Recession, which is illustrated by the fact that only two countries (Iceland and Jamaica) were in recession in Q4-2007.

One year before the maximum, in Q1-2008, only six countries were in recession (Iceland, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and New Zealand). ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

The number of countries in recession was 25 in Q2‑2008, 39 in Q3‑2008 and 53 in Q4‑2008. At the steepest part of the Great Recession in Q1‑2009, a total of 59 out of 71 countries were simultaneously in recession. The number of countries in recession was 37 in Q2‑2009, 13 in Q3‑2009 and 11 in Q4‑2009. One year after the maximum, in Q1‑2010, only seven countries were in recession (Greece, Croatia, Romania, Iceland, Jamaica, Venezuela and Belize).  Toshiba Satellite P300-1FN CPU Fan

The recession data for the overall G20-zone (representing 85% of all GWP), depict that the Great Recession existed as a global recession throughout Q3‑2008 until Q1‑2009.

Subsequent follow-up recessions in 2010‑2013 were confined to Belize, El Salvador, Paraguay, Jamaica, Japan, Taiwan, New Zealand and 24 out of 50 European countries(including Greece).  HP G42-415DX CPU Fan

As of October 2013, only seven out of the 71 countries with available quarterly data (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Belize and El Salvador), were still in ongoing recessions.[12][13] The many follow-up recessions hitting the European countries, are commonly referred to as being direct repercussions of the European sovereign‑debt crisis.  HP Pavilion dv7-4177nr CPU Fan

Corruption manifests in different arenas of life in different ways, and can affect the corporate sector, public sector, individual politicians, political parties and governments. Transparency International generally defines corruption as "the abuse of entrusted power for private gain"[1] usually through bribery or kickbacks. HP 580718-001 CPU Fan

A broader definition of corruption encompasses undue influence over public policies, institutions, laws and regulations by vested private interests at the expense of the public interest.[2] Corruption is often associated with fraud, which generally involves the deceitful use of documents or information for financial gain.  ACER Aspire One A110-1834 CPU Fan

However, fraud can occur at any level of an organisation and does not necessarily require the abuse of power.

Transparency International uses a Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) to compare levels of economic crime in different countries and has consistently ranked New Zealand as one of the least corrupt countries in the world.  Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

However the rankings are primarily based on opinion surveys rather than empirical evidence – and Transparency acknowledges that corruption is "to a great extent a hidden activity that is difficult to measure".[3] Notwithstanding the subjectivity of its corruption scale, it has ranked New Zealand as one of the least corrupt out of 183 countries since 2003. SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan

Staff at the Serious Fraud Office work at the corporate coalface and see how fraud and corruption manifest in New Zealand. In the past 12 months, the SFO has successfully pursued charges or convictions against eight finance companies and targeted $2.2 billion worth of fraud. They achieved a 100% conviction rate.[5] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Based on his experience, SFO chief Adam Feeley says: “Crime, fraud, corruption, call it what you will, is a growing part of organisational reality. We are socially, ethnically and financially – in terms of rich and poor in our society – a very different country than we were a few years ago and, particularly since the global financial crisis.”[6] HP Pavilion tx2510us CPU Fan

Feeley believes that most company boards ignore what he sees as a growing problem in New Zealand in the mistaken belief that their internal auditing processes will deal with it. In reality, internal audits pick up only 2% of fraud cases in New Zealand[7] and, in the past five years, were unable to prevent 13 cases of staff theft at Work and Income totalling more than $180,000.[8]  ACER Aspire 7112WSMi CPU Fan

Adam Feeley points out that only 44% of the top 50 NZX companies even have formal policies prohibiting bribery. By comparison, in Britain 72% of the top 100 companies have such policies. In Europe the figure is 57% and in the US 69%. Only 16% of NZX companies have a code of ethics that is rated 'Advanced' by Corporate Analysis Enhanced Responsibility (CAER), the Australia-based centre for ethical research. Toshiba GDM610000277 CPU Fan

Feeley says there are fundamental misconceptions about New Zealand's ranking as one of the world's least corrupt countries. And that 'incorrect' perception is part of the reason directors feel so smug about resisting formalised anti-corruption and values-based corporate policies.[6] He dismisses the significance of Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index that ranks New Zealand as the world's least corrupt nation.  HP Pavilion dv7-6107tx CPU Fan

“All that survey tells us is how people feel about life here. How they feel and what is actually happening are quite different things. The CPI is nothing more than a perception.” Feeley points to the results of a more recent survey conducted by the SFO which found only 37% of New Zealanders think we are 'largely free' of serious fraud and corruption. And 60% think those who commit financial crime are not held to account.[6] Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

Nick Paterson, general manager of the fraud and corruption unit at the Serious Fraud Office, also believes there is a gap between New Zealanders perceptions of corruption and the reality. Paterson says there is a particular potential for corruption around tender processes and general procurement of services – citing the case of sacked Accident Compensation Corporation property manager Malcolm David Mason. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The SFO began an investigation into Mason when former ACC Minister Nick Smith questioned a lease ACC signed for a new office in Nelson costing $346,320 a year – two and half times more than what the corporation was previously paying. Mason subsequently pleaded guilty to three charges of bribery and corruption after admitting he took a bribe of $160,000, and a $9000 Singapore holiday for disclosing confidential government information to a businessman who profited from it.[9] TOSHIBA Mini NB 300 Series Keyboard

One of the difficulties in measuring the extent of procurement bribery is in defining what behaviour crosses the line – especially in the private sector. In the public sector there are usually guidelines and codes of conduct. Paterson says: "It's where you draw that line and it varies from organisation to organisation in the private sector... In the public sector there is zero tolerance and taking it to prosecution is required."[10] SONY VGN-FE28H Keyboard

Although fraud cases generally go to court, Paterson says there has been a lack of bribery and corruption cases before the courts, and thinks that may be because the issue has not been taken seriously. He points out that New Zealand is a party to the OECD's Anti-Bribery Convention – but an OECD review in 2010 noted we had no nominated lead agency to head the battle against corruption and bribery. DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard

In 2009 PricewaterhouseCooper (PwC) conducted a survey on Global Economic Crime. It revealed that "42% of New Zealand organisations (public and private) have suffered from an economic crime in the previous 12 months, with an average loss of almost $492,000."[11] In 2011, another PwC survey found the figure had risen to almost 50%.[12] HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard

PwC says this is a particularly high proportion and is significantly above the global average of 34%.[13] It gives New Zealand the fourth highest level of fraud out of the 78 countries surveyed. In 2011, 4% of New Zealanders also admitted to paying a bribe – which is twice as high as the rate in Australia and four times the United Kingdom's rate.[14] TOSHIBA Equium A100 Series Keyboard

Accountancy firm Deloittes is more concerned about the potential for fraud for the growing number of New Zealand and Australian companies with offshore operations. It notes that in 1970, nearly all of New Zealand's export trade was with countries like the UK, US and Australia all of which have low levels of corruption. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard

However in 2011, less than 50% of trade went to these countries, as more and more goes to countries with high levels of corruption in both business and government.[15] In 2012 Deloittes conducted a Bribery and Corruption Survey which found almost half of organisations with offshore operations have never conducted a corruption risk assessment and that 80% do not regard foreign bribery and corruption as a significant risk to their business.[1DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

6] It concluded that exposure to bribery and corruption is on the rise in New Zealand but the risks are not being addressed.[17]

Barry Jordan, head of the forensics team at Deloitte has never bought into the idea that New Zealand is free of corruption. ACER Aspire 7736ZG Keyboard

He says many corporations are reluctant to report fraud or corruption for fear of damaging their brand and private sector cases often never make it into the media because such cases are settled internally.

In 2011 the Auditor General released the results of its own survey on fraud awareness in New Zealand's public sector. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard

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However, some clubs based outside Belfast thought that the IFA largely favoured Ulster-based clubs in such matters as selection for the national team. In 1921, following an incident in which, despite an earlier promise, the IFA moved an Irish Cup semi-final replay from Dublin to Belfast.HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan


Dublin-based clubs broke away to form the Football Association of the Irish Free State. Today the southern association is known as the Football Association of Ireland (FAI). Despite being initially blacklisted by the Home Nations' associations, the FAI was recognised by FIFA in 1923 and organised its first international fixture in 1926 (against Italy). HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

However, both the IFA and FAI continued to select their teams from the whole of Ireland, with some players earning international caps for matches with both teams. Both also referred to their respective teams as Ireland.

In 1950, FIFA directed the associations only to select players from within their respective territories and, HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

in 1953, directed that the FAI's team be known only as "Republic of Ireland" and that the IFA's team be known as "Northern Ireland" (with certain exceptions). Northern Ireland qualified for the World Cup finals in 1958 (reaching the quarter-finals), 1982 and 1986. The Republic qualified for the World Cup finals in 1990 (reaching the quarter-finals), Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

1994, 2002 and the European Championships in 1988 and 2012. Across Ireland, there is significant interest in the English and, to a lesser extent, Scottish soccer leagues.

Unlike soccer, Ireland continues to field a single national rugby team and a single association, the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU), governs the sport across the island. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The Irish rugby team have played in every Rugby World Cup, making the quarter-finals in four of them. Ireland also hosted games during the 1991 and the 1999 Rugby World Cups (including a quarter-final). There are four professional Irish teams; all four play in the Magners League (now called the RaboDirect Pro12) and at least three compete for the Heineken Cup. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Irish rugby has become increasingly competitive at both the international and provincial levels since the sport went professional in 1994. During that time, Ulster (1999), Munster (2006and 2008) and Leinster (2009 and 2011)have won the Heineken Cup. In addition to this, the Irish International side has had increased success in the Six Nations Championship against the other European elite sides. Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

This success, including Triple Crowns in 2004, 2006 and 2007, culminated with a clean sweep of victories, known as a Grand Slam, in 2009.[164]

The Ireland cricket team was among the associate nations that qualified for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

It defeated Pakistan and finished second in its pool, earning a place in the Super 8 stage of the competition. The team also competed in the 2009 ICC WorlToshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

d Twenty20 after jointly winning the qualifiers, where they also made the Super 8 stage. Ireland also won the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier to secure their place in the 2011 Cricket World Cup, as well as official ODI status through 2013. Kevin O'Brien scored the fastest century in Word Cup history (113 runs off 63 balls), as Ireland produced one of the great upsets to defeat England by 3 wickets in the 2011 tournamentLenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard


Rugby league in Ireland is governed by Rugby League Ireland, which runs the Irish Elite League, there are currently 20 teams across Ulster, Munster and Leinster.[165] The Irish rugby league team is made up predominantly of players based in Ireland, England and Australia.[166] Ireland reached the quarter-finals of the 2000 Rugby League World Cup as well as reaching the semi finals in the 2008 Rugby League World Cup. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan


Horse racing and greyhound racing are both popular in Ireland. There are frequent horse race meetings and greyhound stadiums are well-attended. The island is noted for the breeding and training of race horses and is also a large exporter of racing dogs.[168] The horse racing sector is largely concentrated in the County Kildare.[169] HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan


Irish athletics has seen a heightened success rate since the year 2000, with Sonia O'Sullivan winning two medals at 5,000 metres on the track; gold at the 1995 World Championships and silver at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Gillian O'Sullivan won silver in the 20k walk at the 2003 World Championships, while sprint hurdler Derval O'Rourke won gold at the 2006 World Indoor Championship in Moscow. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

Olive Loughnane won a silver medal in the 20k walk in the World Athletics Championships in Berlin in 2009.

Ireland has won more medals in boxing than in any other Olympic sport. Boxing is governed by the Irish Amateur Boxing Association. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Michael Carruth won a gold medal and Wayne McCullough won a silver medal in the Barcelona Olympic Games and in 2008 Kenneth Egan won a silver medal in the Beijing Games.[170] Paddy Barnes secured bronze in those games and gold in the 2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships (where Ireland came 2nd in the overall medal table) and 2010 Commonwealth Games. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

Katie Taylor has won gold in every European and World championship since 2005. In August 2012 at the Olympic Games in London Katie Taylor created history by becoming the first Irish woman to win a gold medal in boxing in the 60 kg lightweight.[171]

Golf is very popular and golf tourism is a major industry attracting more than 240,000 golfing visitors annually.[ SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

The 2006 Ryder Cup was held at The K Club in County Kildare.[173] Pádraig Harrington became the first Irishman since Fred Daly in 1947 to win the British Open at Carnoustie in July 2007.[174] He successfully defended his title in July 2008[175] before going on to win the PGA Championship in August.[ DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Harrington became the first European to win the PGA Championship in 78 years and was the first winner from Ireland. Three golfers from Northern Ireland have been particularly successful. In 2010, Graeme McDowell became the first Irish golfer to win the U.S. Open, and the first European to win that tournament since 1970. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Rory McIlroy, at the age of 22, won the 2011 U.S. Open, while Darren Clarke's latest victory was the 2011 Open Championship at Royal St. George's. In August 2012, McIlroy won his 2nd major championship by winning the USPGA Championship by a record margin of 8 shots.

The west coast of Ireland, Lahinch and Donegal Bay in particular, have popular surfing beaches, FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

being fully exposed to the Atlantic Ocean. Donegal Bay is shaped like a funnel and catches west/south-west Atlantic winds, creating good surf, especially in winter. Since just before the year 2010, Bundoran has hosted European championship surfing. Scuba diving is increasingly popular in Ireland with clear waters and large populations of sea life, particularly along the western seaboard. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

There are also many shipwrecks along the coast of Ireland, with some of the best wreck dives being in Malin Head and off the County Cork coast.

With thousands of lakes, over 14,000 kilometres (8,700 mi) of fish bearing rivers and over 3,700 kilometres (2,300 mi) of coastline, Ireland is a popular angling destination. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

The temperate Irish climate is suited to sport angling. While salmon and trout fishing remain popular with anglers, salmon fishing in particular received a boost in 2006 with the closing of the salmon driftnet fishery. Coarse fishing continues to increase its profile. Sea angling is developed with many beaches mapped and signposted, and the range of sea angling species is around 80. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan


Food and cuisine in Ireland takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in the island's temperate climate and from the social and political circumstances of Irish history. For example, whilst from the Middle Ages until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century the dominant feature of the Irish economy was the herding of cattle, the number of cattle a person owned was equated to their social standing.[ HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Thus herders would avoid slaughtering a milk-producing cow.[180]

For this reason, pork and white meat were more common than beef and thick fatty strips of salted bacon (or rashers) and the eating of salted butter (i.e. a dairy product rather than beef itself) have been a central feature of the diet in Ireland since the Middle Ages.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter (not unlike the practice of the Maasai) was common[181] and black pudding, made from blood, grain (usually barley) and seasoning, remains a breakfast staple in Ireland. All of these influences can be seen today in the phenomenon of the "breakfast roll".FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan


The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced cuisine thereafter. Great poverty encouraged a subsistence approach to food and by the mid-19th century the vast majority of the population sufficed with a diet of potatoes and milk.[182] A typical family, consisting of a man, a woman and four children, would eat 18 stone (110 kg) of potatoes a week.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Consequently, dishes that are considered as national dishes represent a fundamental unsophistication to cooking, such as the Irish stew, bacon and cabbage, boxty, a type of potato pancake, or colcannon, a dish of mashed potatoes and kale or cabbage.[180] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan


Since the last quarter of the 20th century, with a re-emergence of wealth in Ireland, a "New Irish Cuisine" based on traditional ingredients incorporating international influences[183] has emerged.[184] This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish (especially salmon, trout, oysters, mussels and other shellfish), HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

as well as traditional soda breads and the wide range of hand-made cheeses that are now being produced across the country. The potato remains however a fundamental feature of this cuisine and the Irish remain the highest per capita[180] consumers of potatoes in Europe. An example of this new cuisine is "Dublin Lawyer": lobster cooked in whiskey and cream.[ Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Traditional regional foods can be found throughout the country, for example coddle in Dublin or drisheen in Cork, both a type of sausage, or blaa, a doughy white bread particular to Waterford.

Ireland once dominated the world's market for whiskey, producing 90% of the world's whiskey at the start of the 20th century. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

However, as a consequence of bootleggers during the prohibition in the United States (who sold poor-quality whiskey bearing Irish-sounding names thus eroding the pre-prohibition popularity for Irish brands)[186] and tariffs on Irish whiskey across the British Empire during the Anglo-Irish Trade War of the 1930s,[187] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

sales of Irish whiskey worldwide fell to a mere 2% by the mid-20th century.[188] In 1953, an Irish government survey, found that 50 per cent of whiskey drinkers in the United States had never heard of Irish whiskey.[189]

Irish whiskey, as researched in 2009 by the CNBC American broadcaster, remains popular domestically and has grown in international sales steadily over a few decades.[ Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Typically CNBC states Irish whiskey is not as smoky as a Scotch whisky, but not as sweet as American or Canadian whiskies.[190] Whiskey forms the basis of traditional cream liqueurs, such as Baileys, and the "Irish coffee" (a cocktail of coffee and whiskey reputedly invented at Foynes flying-boat station) is probably the best-known Irish cocktail. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan


Stout, a kind of porter beer, particularly Guinness, is typically associated with Ireland, although historically it was more closely associated with London. Porter remains very popular, although it has lost sales since the mid-20th century to lager. Cider, particularly Magners (marketed in the Republic of Ireland as Bulmers), is also a popular drink.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Red lemonade, a soft-drink, is consumed on its own and as a mixer, particularly with whiskey.

Ireland is an island in northwest Europe in the north Atlantic Ocean whose main geographical features include low central plains surrounded by a ring of coastal mountains. The highest peak is Carrauntoohil (Irish: Corrán Tuathail), which is 1,041 metres (3,415 ft) above sea level. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The western coastline is rugged, with many islands, peninsulas, headlands and bays. The island is bisected by the River Shannon, which at 386 km (240 mi) with a 113 km (70 mi) estuary is the longest river in Ireland and flows south from County Cavan in Ulster to meet the Atlantic just south of Limerick. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

There are a number of sizeable lakes along Ireland's rivers, of which Lough Neagh is the largest.

Politically, the island consists of the state, Ireland, with jurisdiction over about five-sixths of the island; and Northern Ireland, a constituent country of the United Kingdom, with jurisdiction over the remaining sixth. HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Located west of the island of Great Britain, it is located at approximately 53°N 8°WCoordinates: 53°N 8°W. It has a total area of 84,421 km2 (32,595 sq mi).[1] It is separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and from mainland Europe by the Celtic Sea. Ireland and Great Britain, together with nearby islands, are known collectively as the British Isles; HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

as the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland, the alternative term Britain and Ireland is increasingly preferred.

The oldest known Irish rock is about 1.7 billion years old and is found on Inishtrahull Island off the coast of County Donegal.[3][4] and also at Annagh Head in north west County Mayo.[5] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In other parts of Donegal, scientists have discovered rocks that began life as glacial deposits, demonstrating that at this early period, part of what was to become Ireland was in the grip of an ice age. However, because of the effects of later upheavals, it is almost impossible to sequence these early rock layers correctly. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


About 600 million years ago, at the end of the Precambrian super-eon, the Irish landmass was divided in two, with one half on the western side of the Iapetus Ocean in Laurentia and the other on the eastern side in the micro-continent Avalonia, both at a latitude of around 80° South, close to what is now northwest Africa.[6] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From the evidence of fossils found at Bray Head in County Wicklow, Ireland was below sea level at this time.

Over the next 50 million years, these two parts drifted towards each other, eventually uniting about 440 million years ago. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Fossils discovered near Clogherhead, County Louth, show the coming together of shoreline fauna from both sides of the original dividing ocean. The mountains of northwest Ireland were formed during the collision, as was the granite that is found in locations in Donegal and Wicklow. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Irish landmass was now above sea level and lying near the equator, and fossil traces of land-based life forms survive from this period. These include fossilised trees from Kiltorcan, County Kilkenny, widespread bony fish and freshwater mussel fossils and the footprints of a four-footed amphibian preserved in slate on Valentia Island, County Kerry. Old Red Sandstone also formed at this time. HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Between 400 million and 300 million years ago, northwest Europe – including Ireland – sank beneath a warm, calcium-rich sea. Great coral reefs formed in these waters, eventually creating the limestone that still makes up about 65 per cent of the rock mantle of the island. As the waters receded, tropical forests and swamps flourished. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The resulting vegetable debris eventually formed coal, most of which was later eroded. This period, known as the Carboniferous period, ended with further tectonic movement which saw Ireland drift further northward. The resulting pressure created those Irish mountain and hill ranges that run in a northeast to southwest direction. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


By 250 million years ago, Ireland was at the latitude of present-day Egypt and had a desert climate. It was at this time that most of the coal and sandstone were eroded. The thinner layers of limestone in the south of the country were also partially affected by this erosion. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The limestone that was exposed by the disappearance of its sandstone mantle was affected by carbon dioxide and other factors resulting in a karstic landscape that can still be seen in the Burren in County Clare. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Shortly after this period, organic debris in the seas around Ireland began to form the natural gas and petroleum deposits that now play an important role in the economy of Ireland. Then, about 150 million years ago, Ireland was again submerged, this time in a chalky sea that resulted in the formation of chalk over large parts of the surface.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Traces of this survive under the basalt lava that is found in parts of the north.

About 66 million years ago, the volcanic activity that formed this lava began. The Mourne Mountains and other mountains in the northern part of the island formed as a result of this activity.[8] Climatic conditions at this time were warm and vegetation thrived. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Vegetable debris in the Antrim depression formed deposits of brown coal or lignite which remain untouched down to the present time. The warm conditions produced high rainfall that accelerated processes of erosion and the formation of karstic landscape forms.

By 25 million years ago, Ireland was close to assuming its present position. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The long period of erosion had resulted in considerable soil formation and most of the rock mantle was covered. In areas with good drainage, the covering consisted of brown or grey soil, while in poorly drained areas the black clay tended to dominate. As the climate cooled, soil formation slowed down, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and a flora and fauna that would, millions of years later, be familiar to the first human inhabitants began to emerge. By about three million years ago, the present landscape of Ireland had more or less formed.

Since about 1.7 million years ago, the earth has been in the grip of a cycle of warm and cold stages and these have, inevitably, affected Ireland. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The earliest evidence we have for this effect comes from the period known as the Ballylinian Warm Stage, some half a million years ago. At this time, most of what are now considered to be native Irish trees were already established on the island. The action of the ice during the cold stages was the major factor in bringing the Irish landscape to its current form. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Obvious impacts of the ice on the landscape include the formation of glacial valleys such as Glendalough in Wicklow and of corries, or glacial lakes. The depositing of mounds of debris under the melting ice created drumlins, a common feature of the landscape across the north midlands.[ SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Streams also formed under the ice and the material deposited by these formed eskers (Irish eiscir). The greatest of these, the Esker Riada, divides the northern and southern halves of the island and its ridge once served as the main highway connecting the east and west coasts.[11] About one half of the coastline consists of a low lying dune pasture land known as Machair. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The large central lowland is of limestone covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, with widespread bogs and lakes. The Bog of Allen is one of the largest bogs.[12] The coastal mountains vary greatly in geological structure. In the south, the mountains are composed of old red sandstone with limestone river valleys. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In Galway, Mayo, Donegal, Down and Wicklow, the mountains are mainly granite, while much of the northeast of the country is a basalt plateau. An area of particular note is the Giant's Causeway, in Antrim, a mainly basalt formation caused by volcanic activity between 50–60 million years ago.[13] HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The basalts were originally part of the great Thulean Plateau formed during the Paleogene period.[14]

The soils of the north and west tend to be poorly drained peats and gleys, including peaty podzols. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In contrast, in the south and east the soils are free-draining brown earths and brown and grey-brown podzols. This is reflected in the rainfall distribution on the island, with the poorly drained regions being those with the highest rainfalls.

An unusual environment is present in north County Clare, in an area known as the Burren. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This karst-like landscape consists of limestone bedrock, with little or no soil in the inner-most areas. There are numerous sinkholes, where surface water disappears through the porous rock surface, and extensive cave systems have been formed in some areas. The Pol an Ionain cave, near Doolin, is the site of one of the world's longest known free-hanging stalactites. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Ireland consists of a mostly flat low-lying area in the midlands, ringed by mountain ranges such as (beginning in County Kerry and working counter-clockwise) the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, Comeragh Mountains, Blackstairs Mountains, Wicklow Mountains, the Mournes, Glens of Antrim, Sperrin Mountains, FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

Bluestack Mountains, Derryveagh Mountains, Ox Mountains, Nephinbeg Mountains and the Twelve Bens/Maumturks group. Some mountain ranges are further inland in the south of Ireland, such as the Galtee Mountains, the highest inland range,[16] Silvermine and Slieve Bloom Mountains. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

The highest peak is Carrauntoohil, 1,038 m (3,405 ft) high,[17] is in the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, a range of glacier-carved sandstone mountains in County Kerry, in the southwest of the island. The mountains are not high – only three peaks are over 1,000 m (3,281 ft)[17] and another 457 exceed 500 m (1,640 ft).  SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard


The main river in Ireland is the River Shannon, 386 km (240 mi), the longest river in either Ireland or Great Britain, which separates the boggy midlands of Ireland from the West of Ireland. The river develops into three lakes along its course, Lough Allen, Lough Ree, and Lough Derg. Of these, Lough Derg is the largest.[17] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

The River Shannon enters the Atlantic Ocean after Limerick city at the Shannon Estuary. Other major rivers include the River Liffey, River Lee, River Blackwater, River Nore, River Suir, River Barrow, River Bann, River Foyle, River Erne, and River Boyne. (See the list of rivers in Ireland.)

Lough Neagh, in Ulster,[17] is the largest lake in Ireland and the UK. FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

Legend has it that a giant, Fionn mac Cumhail, was fighting with another in Scotland, and enraged, scooped out a lump of earth, which he threw. It fell into the Irish Sea, creating the Isle of Man, while the hole filled up with water to become Lough Neagh. Other large lakes include Lough Erne and Lough Corrib. HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard


Beginning with County Donegal, Lough Swilly separates one side of the Inishowen peninsula. Lough Foyle on the other side, is one of Ireland's larger inlets, situated between County Donegal and County Londonderry.[19] Further round the coast is Belfast Lough, between County Antrim and County Down.[20] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

Also in County Down is Strangford Lough, actually an inlet partially separating the Ards peninsula from the mainland. Further down the coast, Carlingford Lough is situated between Down and County Louth.[20]

Dublin Bay is the next sizeable inlet, while the eastern coast of Ireland is mostly uniform until Wexford Harbour at the mouth of the River Slaney.[21ACER Aspire 5710 Laptop Keyboard

] On the southern coast, Waterford Harbour is situated at the mouth of the River Suir[22] (into which the other two of the Three Sisters (River Nore and River Barrow) flow). The next major inlet is Cork Harbour, at the mouth of the River Lee, in which Great Island is situated.

Dunmanus Bay, Bantry Bay, Kenmare estuary and Dingle Bay are all inlets between the peninsulas of County Kerry. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

North of these is the Shannon Estuary. Between north County Clare and County Galway is Galway Bay. Clew Bay is located on the coast of County Mayo, south of Achill Island, while Broadhaven Bay, Blacksod Bay and Sruth Fada Conn bays are situated on the north west part of Connaught in North Mayo. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Killala Bay is on the north east coast of Mayo. Donegal Bay is a major inlet between County Donegal and County Sligo.

Malin Head is the most northerly point in Ireland,[23] while Mizen Head is one of the most southern points, hence the term "Malin head to Mizen head" (or the reverse) is used for anything applying to the island of Ireland as a whole. HP G42-365LA Laptop Keyboard

Carnsore Point is another extreme point of Ireland, being the southeastern most point of Ireland. Further along the coast is Hook Head while the Old Head of Kinsale in is one of many headlands along the south coast of Ireland.

Loop Head is the headland at which County Clare comes to a point on the west coast of Ireland, TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

with the Atlantic on the north, and further inland on the south, the Shannon estuary. Hag's Head is another headland further up Clare's north/western coastline, with the Cliffs of Moher along the coastline north of the point.Erris Head is the northwesternmost point of Connacht.

Achill Island, in the northwest, is the largest island off Ireland's coast. HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

The island is inhabited, and is connected to the mainland by a bridge.[24] Some of the next largest islands are the Aran Islands, off the coast of southern Connacht, host to an Irish-speaking community, or Gaeltacht. Valentia Island off the Iveragh peninsula is also one of Ireland's larger islands, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

and is relatively settled, as well as being connected by a bridge at its southeastern end. Omey Island, off the coast of Connemara is a tidal island.

Some of the best-known peninsulas in Ireland are in County Kerry; the Dingle peninsula, the aforementioned Iveragh peninsula and the Beara peninsula.  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

The Ards peninsula is one of the larger peninsulas outside Kerry. The Inishowen peninsula in County Donegal includes Ireland's most northerly point, Malin Head and several important towns including Buncrana on Lough Swilly, Carndonagh and Moville on Lough Foyle.  GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard

Ireland's most northerly land feature is Inishtrahull island, off Malin Head. Rockall Island may deserve this honour but its status is disputed, being claimed by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Denmark (for the Faroe Islands) and Iceland. The most southerly point is the Fastnet Rock. TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard


Ireland's climate is temperate,[25] though significantly warmer than almost all other locations at similar latitude, such as Poland (on mainland Europe) or Newfoundland (on the opposite edge of the Atlantic), due to the warming influence of the North Atlantic drift. The prevailing wind blows from the southwest, breaking on the high mountains of the west coast.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Rainfall is therefore a particularly prominent part of western Irish life, with Valentia Island, off the west coast of County Kerry, getting almost twice as much annual rainfall as Dublin on the east (1,400 mm or 55.1 in vs. 762 mm or 30.0 in). Across the country, about 60% of the annual rainfall occurs between August and January. COMPAQ Presario CQ40 laptop keyboard


January and February are the coldest months of the year, and mean daily air temperatures fall between 4 and 7 °C (39.2 and 44.6 °F) during these months. July and August are the warmest, with mean daily temperatures of 14 to 16 °C (57.2 to 60.8 °F), whilst mean daily maximums in July and August vary from 17 to 18 °C (62.6 to 64.4 °F) near the coast, to 19 to 20 °C (66.2 to 68.0 °F) inland. Packard Bell Easynote LM82 laptop keyboard

The sunniest months are May and June, with an average of five to seven hours sunshine per day.[26] Though extreme weather events in Ireland are comparatively rare when compared with other countries in the European Continent, they do occur. Explosive Atlantic depressions, occurring mainly in the months of December, January and FebruaryTOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

, can occasionally bring winds of up to 160 km/h or 99 mph to Western coastal counties; while the summer months, and particularly around late July/early August, sudden and violent thunderstorms can develop, more especially, but not exclusively, across midland and western areas of the country. SONY VAIO VGN-NW50JB laptop keyboard


The table shows mean climate figures for the Dublin Airport weather station over a thirty-year period. Climate statistics based on the counties of Northern Ireland vary slightly but are not significantly different.

From an administrative viewpoint, 20 of the counties in the republic are units of local government. ASUS F9E laptop keyboard

The other six have more than one local council area, producing a total of 34 county-level authorities. Tipperary has two ridings, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, originally established in 1838 and renamed in 2001.The cities of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford have city councils and are administered separately from the counties bearing those names. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 laptop keyboard

The remaining part of County Dublin is split into Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal, and South Dublin.Electoral areas in Ireland (the state), called constituencies in accordance with Irish law, mostly follow county boundaries. Maintaining links to the county system is a mandatory consideration in the re-organisation of constituency boundaries by a Constituency Commission. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard


In Northern Ireland, a major re-organisation of local government in 1973 replaced the six traditional counties and two county boroughs (Belfast and Derry) by 26 single-tier districts,[33] which, apart from Fermanagh cross the traditional county boundaries. The six counties and two county-boroughs remain in use for purposes such as Lieutenancy. HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

In November 2005, proposals were announced which would see the number of local authorities reduced to seven.[34] The island's total population of approximately 6 million people is concentrated on the east coast, particularly in Dublin and Belfast and their surrounding areas.

Ireland has 12,000 km² (4,633 miles²) of bogland, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

consisting of two distinct types, blanket bogs and raised bogs. Blanket bogs are the more widespread of the two types. They are essentially a product of human activity aided by the moist Irish climate. Blanket bogs formed on sites where Neolithic farmers cleared trees for farming.  ACER Aspire One A150-BGc laptop keyboard

As the land so cleared fell into disuse, the soil began to leach and become more acidic, producing a suitable environment for the growth of heather and rushes. The debris from these plants accumulated and a layer of peat formed. One of the largest expanses of Atlantic blanket bog in Ireland is to be found in County Mayo.  SONY VAIO VGN-NW11S/S laptop keyboard


Raised bogs are most common in the Shannon basin. They formed when depressions left behind after the ice age filled with water to form lakes. Debris from reeds in these lakes formed a layer at the bottom of the water. This eventually choked the lakes and raised above the surface, forming raised bogs.[39] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


Since the 17th century, peat has been cut for fuel for domestic heating and cooking and it is called turf when so used. The process accelerated as commercial exploitation of bogs grew. In the 1940s, machines for cutting turf were introduced and larger-scale exploitation became possible. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In the Republic, this became the responsibility of a semi-state company called Bord na Móna. In addition to domestic uses, commercially extracted turf is used in a number of industries, especially electricity generation[40] though peat is being combined with biomass for dual-firing electricity generation.[41] HP AESP7U00110 laptop keyboard


In recent years, the high level of bog being destroyed by cutting has raised environmental concerns. The problem is particularly acute for raised bogs as they yield a higher-grade fuel than blanket bogs. Plans are now in place in both the Republic and Northern Ireland to conserve most of the remaining raised bogs on the island. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


Offshore exploration for natural gas began in 1970.[43] The first major discovery was the Kinsale Head gas field in 1971.Next was the smaller Ballycotton gas field in 1989,[43] and the Corrib gas field in 1996.Exploitation of the Corrib project has yet to get off the ground because the controversial proposal to refine the gas onshore, FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

rather than at sea has been met with widespread opposition. Gas from these fields is pumped ashore and used for both domestic and industrial purposes. The Helvick oil field, estimated to contain over 28 million barrels (4,500,000 m3) of oil, is a 2000 discovery.Ireland is the largest European producer of zinc with three operating zinc-lead mines at Navan, Galmoy and Lisheen.  SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

Other mineral deposits with actual or potential commercial value include gold, silver, gypsum, talc, calcite, dolomite, roofing slate, limestone aggregate, building stone, sand and gravel.[47]

In May 2007 the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources (now replaced by the Department of Communications, TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

Energy and Natural Resources) reported that there may be volumes over 130 billion barrels (2.1×1010 m3) of petroleum and 50 trillion cubic feet (1,400 km3) of natural gas in Irish waters[48] – worth trillions of Euro, if true. The minimum 'guaranteed' amount of oil in the Irish Atlantic waters is 10 billion barrels (1.6×109 m3), worth over €450 billion. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4110 laptop keyboard

There are also areas of petroleum and natural gas on shore, for example the Lough Allen basin, with 9.4 trillion cubic feet (270 km3) of gas and 1.5 billion barrels (240,000,000 m3) of oil, valued at €74.4 billion. Already some fields are being exploited, such as the Spanish Point field, with 1.25 trillion cubic feet (35 km3) of gas and 206 million barrels (32,800,000 m3) of oil, valued at €19.6 billion. Packard Bell Easynote TK81 laptop keyboard

The Corrib Basin is also quite large, worth anything up to €87 billion, while the Dunquin gas field contains 25 trillion cubic feet (710 km3) of natural gas and 4.13 billion barrels (657,000,000 m3) of petroleum.

In March 2012 the first commercial oil well was drilled 70 km off the Cork coast by Providence Resources. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

The Barryroe oil well is yielding 3500 barrels per day, at current oil prices at $120 a barrel Barryroe oil well is worth in excess of €2.14bn annually.

The climate of Ireland can be summed up as being mild, moist and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

It is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system, a classification it shares with most of northwest Europe.The country receives generally warm summers and mild winters. It is considerably warmer than other areas on its latitude, because it lies in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, and as a result is warmed by the North Atlantic Current all year. SONY VAIO PCG-F23 laptop keyboard


The influence of the North Atlantic Current also ensures the coastline of Ireland remains ice-free throughout the winter—unlike for example the Sea of Okhotsk and the Labrador Sea which are at a similar latitude. The climate in Ireland does not experience extreme weather, with tornadoes and similar weather features being rare.  Lenovo 63Y0047 laptop keyboard


Ireland, as a whole, experiences a lack of temperature extremes compared to other areas of similar latitudes. Summers are generally warm and winters are mild. There is a regional variation, with inland areas being cooler in winter and warmer in summer than their coastal counterparts.

The warmest areas are found along the southwest coast. TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

Valentia Island, County Kerry has the highest annual mean temperature, at 10.4 °C (50.7 °F).[2]

The coldest areas are found inland. Clones, County Monaghan and Mullingar, County Westmeath both have the lowest annual mean temperature, at 8.8 °C (47.8 °F).[3][4] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4110 laptop keyboard


The highest temperature ever recorded in Ireland was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) at Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny on 26 June 1887. The lowest temperature was −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) at Markree Castle, County Sligo on 16 January 1881.[5]

Extreme heat and cold are both rare throughout the country. Packard Bell Easynote TK81 laptop keyboard

Summer temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) usually once or twice every decade (2013, 2006, 2005, 2003, 1995, 1990, 1989, 1983, 1976 and 1975 are recent examples), although they commonly reach the high 20s °C (low 80s °F) most summers, while severe freezes occur only occasionally in winter, with temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F) being very uncommon, and temperatures below freezing uncommon in many coastal areas. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard


Mean daily winter temperatures vary from 4.0 °C (39.2 °F) to 7.6 °C (45.7 °F), and mean daily summer temperatures vary from 15 °C (59 °F) to 20 °C (68.0 °F).

Air frost occurs frequently in the winter, with most areas seeing over 40 days of air frost every year. In northern areas, air frost occurs on average 10.2 days every January, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

the month in which air frost occurs most frequently.[6] Along the coast, air frost occurs less regularly. In the Sperrins and the Glens of Antrim air frost occurs around 80 days a year.[7] The pattern is similar with ground frost, with on average around 100 days of ground frost in the lowlands and over 140 in the mountains.[8]  SONY VAIO PCG-F23 laptop keyboard


Frost is rarer along the coast, in urban areas and also in western and southern areas.

Roches Point, County Cork receives the least number of days with air frost, with an average of 7.0 days with air frost recorded annually.Kilkenny, County Kilkenny receives the most amount of days with air frost, with an average of 53.0 days with air frost recorded annually.[10] Lenovo 63Y0047 laptop keyboard


In Dublin, Dublin Airport records air frost on average 24.3 days per year, while Casement Aerodrome (which is further inland) records air frost on average 41.3 days per year.

The sunniest months are May and June. During these months sunshine duration averages between 5 and 6½ hours per day over most of the country. HP Pavilion DV6-1000 laptop keyboard

The south-east gets the most sunshine, averaging over 7 hours a day in early summer. December is the dullest month with an average daily sunshine ranging from about 1 hour in the north to almost 2 hours in the south-east. Over the year as a whole most areas get an average of between 3¼ and 3¾ hours of sunshine each day.  SONY Vaio PCG-K45 laptop keyboard

 Irish skies are completely covered by cloud roughly half of the time.

The sunniest part of the island is the south-east coast. Rosslare, County Wexford is the sunniest area, and receives on average 4.38 hours of sunshine per day (1,598.41 hours per year)

The dullest, i.e., least sunny, part of the island is generally in the west and northwest of the country. However, Birr, SONY VGN-FE790 laptop keyboard

County Offaly, in the midlands, is the dullest station, receiving on average 3.2 hours of sunshine per day, considerably less than the stations at Malin Head in the North or Belmullet in the West.[15] Inland areas tend to receive less sunshine than coastal areas due to the convective development of clouds over land.  HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

Cloud develops because of vertical air currents caused by thermal heating of the ground.

Rainfall is the most common form of precipitation on the island, and is extremely common throughout Ireland, although some parts of the west coast receive over four times as much rain as the east coast. HP Pavilion dv6-3124tx laptop keyboard

Rainfall in Ireland normally comes from Atlantic frontal systems which travel north-east over the Island, bringing cloud and rain. Most of the eastern half of the country has between 750 and 1,000 mm (29.5 and 39.4 in) of rainfall in the year. Rainfall in the west generally averages between 1,000 and 1,250 mm (39.4 and 49.2 in). SONY VGN-FE790 laptop keyboard

In many mountainous districts rainfall exceeds 3,000 mm (118.1 in) per year. The wettest months almost everywhere are December and January. April is the driest month generally, but in many southern parts June is the driest. HP Mini 110-3007tu Laptop Keyboard


The average number of "wet days" (days with more than 1 mm (0.039 in) of rain) ranges from about 151 days a year along the east and south-east coasts, to about 225 days a year in parts of the west.

The wettest weather station is Valentia Island, County Kerry, which receives 1,430.1 mm (56.30 in) of rain per year, on average.[2] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard


The driest weather station is Casement Aerodrome, County Dublin, which receives 711.4 mm (28.01 in) of rain per year, on average.[12]

The weather station with the highest number of "wet days" is Belmullet, County Mayo with 193 days per year,[18] while the station with the lowest number of "wet days" is Dublin Airport, County Dublin with 128 days per year. HP Pavilion dv4t-1400 CTO Laptop Keyboard


Severe cold weather is uncommon in Ireland with the majority of winter precipitation coming in the form of rain. Although hills and mountainous regions in the country can see up to 30 days of snowfall annually, most low lying regions of the island only see a few days of lying snow per year (from December to March inclusive), or may see no snow at all during some winters. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

However, in recent winters, there has been a significant increase in prolonged "cold snaps", in which heavy snow does fall across Ireland for several weeks, often causing disruption to traffic and services across Ireland. Consequently, there have been increased calls to prepare the country for snow and ice, ASUS K012462A1 Laptop Keyboard

including the distribution of grit, salt, and other snow-treatable minerals. In late 2011, the Irish Government set up "Winter-Ready", in order to prepare the country for such severe weather.[20]

Due to the volatility of Ireland's weather (which is mainly because of the influence of the Atlantic Ocean,  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift, as well as Ireland's Northerly latitude and vulnerability to Siberian/Arctic winds) weather during the Winter months is very variable and difficult to predict, with the aforementioned factors making both extremely low temperatures and relatively mild temperatures possible. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard


The snowiest weather station is Clones, County Monaghan; which receives, on average, nearly 30 days of snow and/or sleet per year. Of these, 10.8 days have snow lying at 09:00.[3]

The least snowy weather station is Valentia Island, County Kerry; which receives, on average, 5.6 days of snow and/or sleet per year. Of these, 0.8 days have snow lying at 09:00. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard


Generally, the coast tends to be windier than inland areas; and the west tends to be windier than the east.

The station with the highest mean wind speed is Malin Head, County Donegal; averaging at 16.3 kn (30.2 km/h; 18.8 mph). Malin Head also receives the most gale force winds, recording them on average 66.0 days per year.[21] HP G61-406SA Laptop Keyboard


The station with the lowest mean wind speed is Kilkenny, County Kilkenny; averaging at 6.5 kn (12.0 km/h; 7.5 mph).[10]

The station that records the least amount of gale force winds is Birr, County Offaly; recording them on average 1.2 days per year.[24]

The highest wind speed ever recorded in Ireland was 327 km/h (203 mph; 177 kn) at Kilkeel, County Down on 12 January 1974.  HP G61-406SA Laptop Keyboard


Tornadoes are very rare in Ireland, with around less than ten reported every year - mostly in August.

Irish cuisine is a style of cooking originating from Ireland or developed by Irish people. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The cuisine takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in its temperate climate. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced Ireland's cuisine thereafter and, as a result, is often closely a

ssociated with Ireland. Representative Irish dishes include Irish stew, bacon and cabbage, potato, boxty, coddle, and colcannon. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard


There are many references to food and drink in Irish mythology and early Irish literature such as the tale of Fionn mac Cumhaill and the Salmon of Knowledge[1] The old stories also contain many references to banquets, although these may well be greatly exaggerated and provide little insight into everyday diets. Honey seems to have been widely eaten and used in the making of mead. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard

There are also many references to fulacht fiadh, which may have been sites for cooking deer, consisting of holes in the ground which were filled with water. The meat was placed in the water and cooked by the introduction of hot stones. Many fulacht fiadh sites have been identified across the island of Ireland, and some of them appear to have been in use up to the 17th century. SONY Vaio PCG-K315B Laptop Keyboard


Excavations at the Viking settlement in the Wood Quay area of Dublin have produced a significant amount of information on the diet of the inhabitants of the town. The main meats eaten were beef, mutton, and pork. Domestic poultry and geese as well as fish and shellfish were also common, as was a wide range of native berries and nuts, especially hazel. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The seeds of knotgrass and goosefoot were widely present and may have been used to make a porridge.

From the Middle Ages, until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century, the dominant feature of the rural economy was the herding of cattle. The meat produced was mostly the preserve of the gentry and nobility. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

The poor generally made do with milk, butter, cheese, and offal, supplemented with oats and barley. The practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter (similar to the practice of the Maasai) was not uncommon. Black pudding is made from blood, grain, (usually barley) and seasoning, and remains a breakfast staple food in Ireland. HP Pavilion dv6-3136ee laptop keyboard


Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. The potato was introduced into Ireland in the second half of the 16th century, initially as a garden crop. It eventually came to be the main food crop of the poor. As a food source, the potato is extremely valuable in terms of the amount of energy produced per unit area of crop. HP Pavilion dv6-3136ee laptop keyboard

The potato is also a good source of many vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C when fresh.

Potatoes were widely cultivated, but in particular by those at a subsistence level; the diet of this group of this period consisted mainly of potatoes supplemented with buttermilk. Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Potatoes were also fed to pigs, to fatten them prior to their slaughter at the approach of the cold winter months. Much of the slaughtered pork would have been cured to provide ham and bacon that could be stored over the winter. HP Pavilion DV6-1350us laptop keyboard


Fresh meat was generally considered a luxury except for the most affluent until the late 19th century and chickens were not raised on a large scale until the emergence of town grocers in the 1880s allowed people to exchange surplus goods, like eggs, and for the first time purchase a variety food items to diversify their diet. HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard


The reliance on potatoes as a staple crop meant that the people of Ireland were vulnerable to poor potato harvests. Consequently several famines occurred throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The first Great Famine of 1739 was the result of extreme cold weather but the famine of 1845 to 1849 (see Great Irish Famine) was caused by potato blight which spread throughout the Irish crop which consisted largely of a single variety, the Lumper. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca laptop keyboard

During the famine approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland.

In the 21st century, the usual modern selection of foods common to Western culture has been adopted in Ireland. Common meals include pizza, curry, Chinese food, and lately, Lenovo 63Y0011 laptop keyboard

some West African dishes and East European (especially Polish) dishes have been making an appearance, as ingredients for these and other cuisines have become more widely available.

In tandem with these developments, and led by Myrtle Allen,[3] the last quarter of the 20th century saw the emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways. HP 519265-001 laptop keyboard

This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish (especially salmon and trout), oysters, mussels and other shellfish, traditional soda bread, the wide range of cheeses that are now being made across the country, and, of course, the potato. Traditional dishes, such as Irish stew, coddle, the Irish breakfast, SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

and potato bread have enjoyed a resurgence in popularity. Schools like the Ballymaloe Cookery School have emerged to cater for the associated increased interest in cooking.

Fish and chips take-away is popular. The first fish and chips were sold in Dublin in the 1880s by an Italian immigrant from San Donato Val di Comino, Giuseppe Cervi. TOSHIBA PK13CW10200 laptop keyboard

His wife Palma would ask customers 'Uno di questa, uno di quella?' This phrase (meaning 'one of this, one of the other') entered the vernacular in Dublin as 'one and one', which is still a common way of referring to fish and chips in the city.[4]

In much of Ulster (especially Northern Ireland and County Donegal), fish and chips are usually known as a 'fish supper'.  DELL NSK-DJ301 laptop keyboard


The proliferation of fast food has led to increasing public health problems, including obesity, where it was reported that as many as 327,000 Irish children are now obese or overweight and in response the Irish Government is now considering introducing a "Fast Food Tax".[5] Government efforts to combat obesity have also included television advertising campaigns and education programmes in schools. ACER TravelMate 3020 laptop keyboard


The eating of seafood, particularly shellfish has always been very popular in Ireland, especially in coastal cities like Galway and Dublin. Such is the impact of shellfish in Irish culture that in Dublin the fish seller is celebrated in the traditional folk song Molly Malone and in Galway the international Galway Oyster Festival is held every September.[10 DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


] An example of an Irish shellfish dish is Dublin Lawyer (lobster cooked in whiskey and cream).[11] Salmon and cod are perhaps the two most common types of fish eaten. Carrageen moss and Dulse (both types of red algae) are commonly used in Irish seafood dishes. Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard,HP Pavilion dv4-1318tu laptop keyboard,HP Mini 210-1107TU laptop keyboard

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Ireland Ulster-Scots: Airlann or Airlan [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic to the west of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the North Channel, the Irish Sea and St Georges Channel, and after which it is the largest island of the British Isles archipelago. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan


Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, which covers the remaining area and is located in the north-east of the island. The population of Ireland is about 6.4 million. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan


The island's geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild but changeable oceanic climate, which avoids extremes in temperature. Thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, compared with a European average of 35%.[8][9] There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland.

Prehistoric Ireland saw the arrival of humans after 8000 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century and lasted until the early 17th century. Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

The island was converted to Christianity from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest. This led to colonisation of Ireland by settlers from Britain. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, and was extended during the 18th century. In 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

creating the Irish Free State, which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades, and Northern Ireland which remained a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973, both parts of Ireland joined the European Economic Community. Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan


Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature and, to a lesser degree, science and education. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed for example through Gaelic games, Irish music, and the Irish language. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

The culture of the island has also many features shared with Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, rugby, horse racing and golf.

During the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time. Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe. By 12,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Later, around 5600 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe.[ Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

There is no evidence of any humans being in Ireland before Mesolithic people arrived by boat from Britain between 8000 BC and 7000 BC.[11]

From about 4500 BC Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, a housing culture (similar to those of the same period in Scotland) and stone monuments. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

A more advanced agriculture was to develop. At the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day County Mayo, is an extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world,[12] dating from not long after this period. Consisting of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls, the fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

Wheat and barley were the principal crops imported from the Iberian Peninsula.

The Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel, harnessing oxen, HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

weaving textiles, brewing alcohol, and skilful metalworking, which produced new weapons and tools, along with fine gold decoration and jewellery, such as brooches and torcs. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Britain, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

western France and Iberia, and that this is where Celtic languages developed. This contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture.

During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island of Ireland became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies. Today there is more than one school of thought on how this occurred in Ireland.

The long standing traditional view, once widely accepted, is that Celtic language, SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Ogham script and culture were brought to Ireland by waves of invading or migrating Celts from mainland Europe. This theory draws on the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Christian pseudo-history of Ireland along with the presence of Celtic culture, language and artefacts found in Ireland such as Celtic bronze spears, shields, torcs and other finely crafted Celtic associated possessions. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The theory holds that there were four separate Celtic invasions of Ireland. The Priteni were said to be the first, followed by the Belgae from northern Gaul and Britain. Later, Laighin tribes from Armorica (present-day Brittany) were said to have invaded Ireland and Britain more or less simultaneously. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Lastly, the Milesians (Gaels) were said to have reached Ireland from either northern Iberia or southern Gaul.[18] It was claimed that a second wave named the Euerni, belonging to the Belgae people of northern Gaul, began arriving about the sixth century BC. They were said to have given their name to the island.[ FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan


Another more recent theory put forth that has gained archaeological historian credence is that of cultural diffusion of the Celtic culture and language into Ireland. It is proposed that Celticisation of Ireland may have been the culmination of a long process of social and economic interaction between Ireland and Britain and adjacent parts of Continental Europe. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan


The theory was put forth partly due to a current lack of archeological evidence for the large-scale Celtic immigration element in this period although it is accepted that these type of movements are notoriously difficult to identify. However many archeological proponents of this alternate theory hold that migration of smaller groups HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

of Celts to Ireland was most likely and that the degree of traffic may have been sufficiently regular to constitute a "migration stream" but that invasion is not at the heart of the proposed social process of Insular Celticisation. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Historical linguists are sceptical that this method alone could account for the absorption of the Celtic language and a number state that an assumed processional view of Celtic linguistic formation is 'an especially hazardous exercise'. Genetic linage investigation into the area of Celtic migration to Ireland has led to findings that showed no large HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

significant differences in mitochondrial DNA between Ireland and large areas of continental Europe in contrast to parts of the Y-chromosome pattern. When taking both into account a recent study drew the conclusion that modern Celtic speakers in Ireland could be thought of as European HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

"Atlantic Celts" showing a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia rather than substantially central European.

The earliest written records of Ireland come from classical Greco-Roman geographers. Ptolemy in his Almagest refers to Ireland as Mikra Brettania (Little Britain), FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

in contrast to the larger island, which he called Megale Brettania (Great Britain).[24] In his later work, Geography, Ptolemy refers to Ireland as Iouernia and to Great Britain as Albion. These "new" names were likely to have been the local names for the islands at the time. The earlier names, in contrast, were likely to have been coined before direct contact with local peoples was made.[25] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan


The Romans would later refer to Ireland by this name too in its Latinised form, Hibernia,[26] or Scotia.[27] Ptolemy records sixteen nations inhabiting every part of Ireland in 100 AD.[28] The relationship between the Roman Empire and the kingdoms of ancient Ireland is unclear. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

However, a number of finds of Roman coins have been made, for example at the Iron Age settlement of Freestone Hill near Gowran and Newgrange.[29]

Ireland continued as a patchwork of rival kingdoms but, beginning in the 7th century AD, a concept of national kingship gradually became articulated through the concept of a High King of Ireland. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Medieval Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of High Kings stretching back thousands of years but modern historians believe the scheme was constructed in the 8th century to justify the status of powerful political groupings by projecting the origins of their rule into the remote past.[30] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan


The High King was said to preside over the provincial kingdoms that together formed Ireland. All of these kingdoms had their own kings but were at least nominally subject to the High King. The High King was drawn from the ranks of the provincial kings and ruled also the royal kingdom of Meath, with a ceremonial capital at the Hill of Tara. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The concept only became a political reality in the Viking Age and even then was not a consistent one.[31] Ireland did have a culturally unifying rule of law: the early written judicial system, the Brehon Laws, administered by a professional class of jurists known as the brehons.[32] However, a united kingdom of Gaelic Ireland was never achieved. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan


The Chronicle of Ireland records that in 431 AD Bishop Palladius arrived in Ireland on a mission from Pope Celestine I to minister to the Irish "already believing in Christ."[33] The same chronicle records that Saint Patrick, Ireland's best known patron saint, arrived the following year. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

There is continued debate over the missions of Palladius and Patrick but the consensus is that they both took place[34] and that the older druid tradition collapsed in the face of the new religion.[35] Irish Christian scholars excelled in the study of Latin and Greek learning and Christian theology. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

In the monastic culture that followed the Christianisation of Ireland, Latin and Greek learning was preserved in Ireland during the Early Middle Ages in contrast to elsewhere in Europe, where the Dark Ages followed the decline of the Roman Empire.

The arts of manuscript illumination, metalworking and sculpture flourished and produced treasures such as the Book of Kells,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

ornate jewellery and the many carved stone crosses[37] that still dot the island today. A mission founded in 563 on Iona by the Irish monk Saint Columba began a tradition of Irish missionary work that spread Christianity and learning to Scotland, England and the Frankish Empire on Continental Europe after the fall of Rome.[38] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

These missions continued until the late Middle Ages, establishing monasteries and centres of learning, producing scholars such as Sedulius Scottus and Johannes Eriugena and exerting much influence in Europe. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan


From the 9th century, waves of Viking raiders plundered Irish monasteries and towns.[39] These raids added to a pattern of raiding and endemic warfare that was already deep-seated in Ireland. The Vikings also were involved in establishing most of the major coastal settlements in Ireland: Dublin, Limerick, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Cork, Wexford, Waterford, and also Carlingford, Strangford, Annagassan, Arklow, Youghal, Lough Foyle and Lough Ree.

On 1 May 1169, an expedition of Cambro-Norman knights with an army of about six hundred landed at Bannow Strand in present-day County Wexford. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It was led by Richard de Clare, called Strongbow due to his prowess as an archer.[41] The invasion, which coincided with a period of renewed Norman expansion, was at the invitation of Dermot Mac Murrough, the king of Leinster.[42]

In 1166, Mac Murrough had fled to Anjou, France, following a war involving Tighearnán Ua Ruairc, of Breifne, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and sought the assistance of the Angevin king, Henry II, in recapturing his kingdom. In 1171, Henry arrived in Ireland in order to review the general progress of the expedition. He wanted to re-exert royal authority over the invasion which was expanding beyond his control. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Henry successfully re-imposed his authority over Strongbow and the Cambro-Norman warlords and persuaded many of the Irish kings to accept him as their overlord, an arrangement confirmed in the 1175 Treaty of Windsor.

The invasion was legitimised by the provisions of the Papal Bull Laudabiliter, issued by Adrian IV in 1155. HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The bull encouraged Henry to take control in Ireland in order to oversee the financial and administrative reorganisation of the Irish Church and its integration into the Roman Church system.[43] Some restructuring had already begun at the ecclesiastical level following the Synod of Kells in 1152.[ Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There has been significant controversy regarding authenticity of Laudabiliter,[45] and there is no general agreement as to whether the bull was genuine or a forgery.[

In 1172, the new pope, Alexander III, further encouraged Henry to advance the integration of the Irish Church with Rome. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Henry was authorised to impose a tithe of one penny per hearth as an annual contribution. This church levy, called Peter's Pence, is still extant in Ireland as a voluntary donation. In turn, Henry accepted the title of Lord of Ireland which Henry conferred on his younger son, John Lackland, in 1185. This defined the Irish state as the Lordship of Ireland. HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

When Henry's successor died unexpectedly in 1199, John inherited the crown of England and retained the Lordship of Ireland.

Over the century that followed, Norman feudal law gradually replaced the Gaelic Brehon Law so that by the late 13th century the Norman-Irish had established a feudal system throughout much of Ireland. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Norman settlements were characterised by the establishment of baronies, manors, towns and the seeds of the modern county system. A version of the Magna Carta (the Great Charter of Ireland), substituting Dublin for London and Irish Church for Church of England, was published in 1216 and the Parliament of Ireland was founded in 1297. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


From the mid-14th century, after the Black Death, Norman settlements in Ireland went into a period of decline. The Norman rulers and the Gaelic Irish elites intermarried and the areas under Norman rule became Gaelicised. In some parts, a hybrid Hiberno-Norman culture emerged. In response, the Irish parliament passed the Statutes of Kilkenny in 1367. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These were a set of laws designed to prevent the assimilation of the Normans into Irish society by requiring English subjects in Ireland to speak English, follow English customs and abide by English law.By the end of the 15th century central English authority in Ireland had all but disappeared and a renewed Irish culture and language, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

albeit with Norman influences, was dominant again. English Crown control remained relatively unshaken in an amorphous foothold around Dublin known as The Pale and under the provisions of Poynings' Law of 1494, the Irish Parliamentary legislation was subject to the approval of the English Parliament.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The title of King of Ireland was re-created in 1542 by Henry VIII, then King of England, of the Tudor dynasty. English rule of law was reinforced and expanded in Ireland during the latter part of the 16th century, leading to the Tudor conquest of Ireland. A near complete conquest was achieved by the turn of the 17th century, following the Nine Years' War and the Flight of the Earls. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


This control was further consolidated during the wars and conflicts of the 17th century, which witnessed English and Scottish colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland, the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite War. Irish losses during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (which, in Ireland, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

included the Irish Confederacy and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland) are estimated to include 20,000 battlefield casualties. 200,000 civilians are estimated to have died as a result of a combination of war-related famine, displacement, guerrilla activity and pestilence over the duration of the war. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A further 50,000[Note 1] were sent to slavery in the West Indies. Some historians estimate that as much as half of the pre-war population of Ireland may have died as a result of the conflict.[51]

The religious struggles of the 17th century left a deep sectarian division in Ireland. Religious allegiance now determined the perception in law of loyalty to the Irish King and Parliament. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After the passing of the Test Act 1672, and with the victory of the forces of the dual monarchy of William and Mary over the Jacobites, Roman Catholics and nonconforming Protestant Dissenters were barred from sitting as members in the Irish Parliament. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Under the emerging penal laws Irish Roman Catholics and Dissenters were increasingly deprived of various and sundry civil rights even to the ownership of hereditary property. Additional regressive punitive legislation followed 1703, 1709 and 1728. This completed a comprehensive systemic effort to materially disadvantage Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

while enriching a new ruling class of Anglican conformists.[52] The new Anglo-Irish ruling class became known as the Protestant Ascendancy.

An extraordinary climatic shock known as the "Great Frost" struck Ireland and the rest of Europe between December 1739 and September 1741, after a decade of relatively mild winters. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The winters destroyed stored crops of potatoes and other staples and the poor summers severely damaged harvests.[53] This resulted in the famine of 1740. An estimated 250,000 people (about one in eight of the population) died from the ensuing pestilence and disease.[54] The Irish government halted export of corn and kept the army in quarters but did little more.[ APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Local gentry and charitable organisations provided relief but could do little to prevent the ensuing mortality.

In the aftermath of the famine, an increase in industrial production and a surge in trade brought a succession of construction booms. HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The population soared in the latter part of this century and the architectural legacy of Georgian Ireland was built. In 1782, Poynings' Law was repealed, giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since 1495. The British government, however, still retained the right to nominate the government of Ireland without the consent of the Irish parliament. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


In 1798, members of the Protestant Dissenter tradition (mainly Presbyterian) made common cause with Roman Catholics in a republican rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen, with the aim of creating an independent Ireland. Despite assistance from France the rebellion was put down by British and Irish government and yeomanry forces. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1800, the British and Irish parliaments both passed Acts of Union that, with effect from 1 January 1801, merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain to create a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

The passage of the Act in the Irish Parliament was ultimately achieved with substantial majorities, having failed on the first attempt in 1799. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to contemporary documents and historical analysis, this was achieved through a considerable degree of bribery, with funding provided by the British Secret Service Office, and the awarding of peerages, places and honours to secure votes. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Thus, Ireland became part of an extended United Kingdom, ruled directly by a united parliament at Westminster in London, though resistance remained, as evidenced by Robert Emmet's failed Irish Rebellion of 1803.

Aside from the development of the linen industry, Ireland was largely passed over by the industrial revolution, HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

partly because it lacked coal and iron resources and partly because of the impact of the sudden union with the structurally superior economy of England,[59] which saw Ireland as a source of agricultural produce and capital.

The Great Famine of the 1840s caused the deaths of one million Irish people and over a million more emigrated to escape it.[ HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By the end of the decade, half of all immigration to the United States was from Ireland. The period of civil unrest that followed until the end of the 19th century is referred to as the Land War. Mass emigration became deeply entrenched and the population continued to decline until the mid-20th century. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Immediately prior to the famine the population was recorded as 8.2 million by the 1841 census.[63] The population has never returned to this level since.[64] The population continued to fall until 1961 and it was not until the 2006 census that the last county of Ireland (County Leitrim) to record a rise in population since 1841 did so.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The 19th and early 20th centuries saw the rise of modern Irish nationalism, primarily among the Roman Catholic population. The pre-eminent Irish political figure after the Union was Daniel O'Connell. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprise result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

O'Connell spearheaded a vigorous campaign that was taken up by the Prime Minister, the Irish-born soldier and statesman, the Duke of Wellington. Steering the Catholic Relief Bill through Parliament, aided by future prime minister Robert Peel, ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Wellington prevailed upon a reluctant George IV to sign the Bill and proclaim it into law. George's father had opposed the plan of the earlier Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger, to introduce such a bill following the Union of 1801, fearing Catholic Emancipation to be in conflict with the Act of Settlement 1701.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Daniel O'Connell led a subsequent campaign, for the repeal of the Act of Union, which failed. Later in the century, Charles Stewart Parnell and others campaigned for autonomy within the Union, or "Home Rule". Unionists, especially those located in Ulster, were strongly opposed to Home Rule, which they thought would be dominated by Catholic interests.[  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After several attempts to pass a Home Rule bill through parliament, it looked certain that one would finally pass in 1914. To prevent this from happening, the Ulster Volunteers were formed in 1913 under the leadership of Edward Carson.[66]

Their formation was followed in 1914 by the establishment of the Irish Volunteers, whose aim was to ensure that the Home Rule Bill was passed.  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Act was passed but with the "temporary" exclusion of the six counties of Ulster that would become Northern Ireland. Before it could be implemented, however, the Act was suspended for the duration of the First World War. The Irish Volunteers split into two groups.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The majority, approximately 175,000 in number, under John Redmond, took the name National Volunteers and supported Irish involvement in the war. A minority, approximately 13,000, retained the Irish Volunteers' name, and opposed Ireland's involvement in the war. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The failed Easter Rising of 1916 was carried out by the latter group in alliance with a smaller socialist militia, the Irish Citizen Army. The British response, executing fifteen leaders of the Rising over a period of ten days and imprisoning or interning more than a thousand people, turned the mood of the country in favour of the rebels. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Support for Irish republicanism increased further due to the ongoing war in Europe, as well as the Conscription Crisis of 1918.[67]

The pro-independence republican party, Sinn Féin, received overwhelming endorsement in the general election of 1918, and in 1919 proclaimed an Irish Republic, setting up its own parliament (Dáil Éireann) and government.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Simultaneously the Volunteers, which became known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA), launched a three-year guerrilla war, which ended in a truce in July 1921 (although violence continued until June 1922, mostly in Northern Ireland).[67]

In December 1921, the Anglo-Irish Treaty was concluded between the British Government and representatives of the Second Dáil. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It gave Ireland complete independence in its home affairs and practical independence for foreign policy, but an opt-out clause allowed Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom, which it immediately exercised as expected. Additionally, an oath of allegiance to the King was to be taken.[68] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Disagreements over these provisions led to a split in the nationalist movement and a subsequent civil war between the new government of the Irish Free State and those opposed to the treaty, led by Éamon de Valera. The civil war officially ended in May 1923 when de Valera issued a cease-fire order. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


During its first decade the newly formed Irish Free State was governed by the victors of the civil war. When de Valera achieved power, he took advantage of the Statute of Westminster and political circumstances to build upon inroads to greater sovereignty made by the previous government. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The oath was abolished and in 1937 a new constitution was adopted.[67] This completed a process of gradual separation from the British Empire that governments had pursued since independence. However, it was not until 1949 that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland.  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The state was neutral during World War II, but offered clandestine assistance to the Allies, particularly in the potential defence of Northern Ireland. Despite being neutral, approximately 50,000[70] volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war, four being awarded Victoria Crosses. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


German Intelligence was also active in Ireland.[71] German intelligence operations effectively ended in September 1941 when police made arrests on the basis of surveillance carried out on the key diplomatic legations in Ireland, including that of the United States. To the authorities counterintelligence was a fundamental line of defence. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With a regular army of only slightly over seven thousand men at the start of the war, and with limited supplies of modern weapons, the state would have had great difficulty in defending itself from invasion from either side of the conflict.

Large-scale emigration marked the 1950s and 1980s, but beginning in 1987 the economy improved, and the 1990s saw the beginning of substantial economic growth. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This period of growth became known as the Celtic Tiger.[73] The Republic's real GDP grew by an average of 9.6% per annum between 1995 and 1999,[74] in which year the Republic joined the euro. In 2000 Ireland was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.[ HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Social changes followed quickly on the heels of economic prosperity, ranging from the 'modernisation' of the annual parade in Dublin to mark the principal national holiday of Saint Patrick's Day (17 March), to the decline in authority of the Catholic Church. The financial crisis that began in 2008, dramatically ended this period of boom. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

GDP fell by 3% in 2008 and by 7.1% in 2009, the worst year since records began (although earnings by foreign-owned businesses continued to grow).[76] The state has since experienced deep recession, with unemployment, which doubled during 2009, remaining above 14% in 2012. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Northern Ireland was created as a division of the United Kingdom by the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and until 1972 it was a self-governing jurisdiction within the United Kingdom with its own parliament and prime minister. Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, was not neutral during the Second World War and Belfast suffered four bombing raids in 1941. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Conscription was not extended to Northern Ireland and roughly an equal number volunteered from Northern Ireland as volunteered from the south. One, James Joseph Magennis, received the Victoria Cross for valour.

Although Northern Ireland was largely spared the strife of the civil war, in decades that followed partition there were sporadic episodes of inter-communal violence. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Nationalists, mainly Roman Catholic, wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic, whereas unionists, mainly Protestant, wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom. The Protestant and Catholic communities in Northern Ireland voted largely along sectarian lines, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

meaning that the Government of Northern Ireland (elected by "first-past-the-post" from 1929) was controlled by the Ulster Unionist Party. Over time, the minority Catholic community felt increasingly alienated with further disaffection fuelled by practices such as gerrymandering and discrimination in housing and employment.[ Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


In the late 1960s, nationalist grievances were aired publicly in mass civil rights protests, which were often confronted by loyalist counter-protests.[81] The government's reaction to confrontations was seen to be one-sided and heavy-handed in favour of unionists. Law and order broke down as unrest and inter-communal violence increased.[82] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Northern Ireland government requested the British Army to aid the police, who were exhausted after several nights of serious rioting. In 1969, the paramilitary Provisional IRA, which favoured the creation of a united Ireland, emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the "British occupation of the six counties".HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Other groups, on both the unionist side and the nationalist side, participated in violence and a period known as the Troubles began. Over 3,600 deaths resulted over the subsequent three decades of conflict.[83] Owing to the civil unrest during the Troubles, the British government suspended home rule in 1972 and imposed direct rule. T HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

here were several unsuccessful attempts to end the Troubles politically, such as the Sunningdale Agreement of 1973. In 1998, following a ceasefire by the Provisional IRA and multi-party talks, the Good Friday Agreement was concluded as a treaty between the British and Irish governments, annexing the text agreed in the multi-party talks. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The substance of the Agreement (formally referred to as the Belfast Agreement) was later endorsed by referendums in both parts of Ireland. The Agreement restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of power-sharing in a regional Executive drawn from the major parties in a new Northern Ireland Assembly, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with entrenched protections for the two main communities. The Executive is jointly headed by a First Minister and deputy First Minister drawn from the unionist and nationalist parties. Violence had decreased greatly after the Provisional IRA and loyalist ceasefires in 1994 and in 2005 the ProvisionalCompaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and an independent commission supervised its disarmament and that of other nationalist and unionist paramilitary organisations.[84]

The Assembly and power-sharing Executive were suspended several times but were restored again in 2007. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In that year the British government officially ended its military support of the police in Northern Ireland (Operation Banner) and began withdrawing troops. On 27 June 2012, Northern Ireland's deputy first minister and former IRA commander, Martin McGuinness, shook hands with Queen Elizabeth II in Belfast, symbolising reconciliation between the two sides. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Politically, the island is divided between Ireland (a sovereign state also called the Republic of Ireland) and Northern Ireland (a constituent country of the United Kingdom). They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area.

Both Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 and as a consequence there is free movement of people, goods, services and capital across the border.

The Republic of Ireland is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminister model with a written constitution and a popularly elected president who has mostly ceremonial powers. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Government is headed by a prime minister, the Taoiseach, who is appointed by the President on the nomination of the lower house of parliament, the Dáil. Members of the government are chosen from both the Dáil and the upper house of parliament, the Seanad. Its capital is Dublin. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ireland today ranks amongst the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita[85] and in 2011 was ranked the seventh most developed nation in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index.[86] A period of rapid economic expansion from 1995 onwards became known as the Celtic Tiger period, was brought to an end in 2008 with an unprecedented financial crisis and an economic depression in 2009. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom with a local executive and assembly which exercise devolved powers. The executive is jointly headed by the first and deputy-first minister, with the ministries being allocated in proportion with each party's representation in the assembly. Its capital is Belfast. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Ultimately political power is held by the UK government, from which Northern Ireland has gone through intermittent periods of direct rule during which devolved powers have been suspended. Northern Ireland elects 18 of the UK House of Commons' 650 MPs. The Northern Ireland Secretary is a cabinet level post in the British government. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Along with England and Wales and Scotland, Northern Ireland forms one of the three separate legal jurisdictions of the UK, all of which share the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom as their court of final appeal. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The North/South Ministerial Council is an institution through which ministers from the Government of Ireland and the Northern Ireland Executive agree all-island policies. At least six of these policy areas must have an associated all-island "implementation bodies" and at least six others must be implemented separately in each jurisdiction. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The implementation bodies are: Waterways Ireland, the Food Safety Promotion Board, InterTradeIreland, the Special European Union Programmes Body, the North/South Language Body and the Foyle, Carlingford and Irish Lights Commission. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference provides for co-operation between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the United Kingdom on all matter of mutual interest, especially Northern Ireland. In light of Ireland's particular interest in the governance of Northern Ireland, HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

"regular and frequent" meetings co-chaired by the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs and the UK Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, dealing with non-devolved matters to do with Northern Ireland and non-devolved all-Ireland issues, are required to take place under the establishing treaty. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The North/South Inter-Parliamentary Association is a joint parliamentary forum for the island of Ireland. It has no formal powers but operates as a forum for discussing matters of common concern between the respective legislatures.

Despite the two jurisdictions using two distinct currencies (the euro and pound sterling),  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

a growing amount of commercial activity is carried out on an all-island basis. This has been facilitated by the two jurisdictions' shared membership of the European Union, and there have been calls from members of the business community and policymakers for the creation of an "all-island economy" to take advantage of economies of scale and boost competitiveness.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Ireland has an ancient industry based on peat (known locally as "sod" or "turf") as a source of energy for home fires. A form of biomass energy, this source of heat is still widely used in rural areas. In cities, heat is generally supplied by heating oil, although some urban suppliers distribute "sods of turf" as "smokeless fuel." HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


An area in which the island operates as a single market is electricity.[88] For much of their existence electricity networks in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were entirely separate. Both networks were designed and constructed independently post partition. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However, as a result of changes over recent years they are now connected with three interlinks[89] and also connected through Great Britain to mainland Europe. The situation in Northern Ireland is complicated by the issue of private companies not supplying Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE) with enough power.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the Republic of Ireland, the ESB has failed to modernise its power stations and the availability of power plants has recently averaged only 66%, one of the worst such rates in Western Europe. EirGrid is building a HVDC transmission line between Ireland and Great Britain with a capacity of 500 MW, about 10% of Ireland's peak demand.[90] HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


As with electricity, the natural gas distribution network is also now all-island, with a pipeline linking Gormanston, County Meath, and Ballyclare, County Antrim.[91] Most of Ireland's gas comes through interconnectors between Twynholm in Scotland and Ballylumford, County Antrim and Loughshinny, ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

County Dublin. A decreasing supply is coming from the Kinsale gas field off the County Cork coast[92][93] and the Corrib Gas Field off the coast of County Mayo has yet to come on-line. The County Mayo field is facing some localised opposition over a controversial decision to refine the gas onshore. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Research and development in Ireland in renewable energy such as wind power has increased since 2004. Large wind farms are being constructed in coastal counties such as Cork, Donegal, Mayo and Antrim. The construction of wind farms has in some cases been delayed by opposition from local communities, some of whom overall consider the wind turbines to be unsightly. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Republic of Ireland is also hindered by an ageing network that was not designed to handle the varying availability of power that comes from wind farms. The ESB's Turlough Hill facility is the only power-storage facility in the state.

The island of Ireland is located in the north-west of Europe, between latitudes 51° and 56° N, and longitudes 11° and 5° W. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It is separated from the neighbouring island of Great Britain by the Irish Sea and the North Channel, which has a width of 23 kilometres (14 mi)[95] at its narrowest point. To the west is the northern Atlantic Ocean and to the south is the Celtic Sea, which lies between Ireland and Brittany, in France. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ireland has a total area of 84,421 km2 (32,595 sq mi)[1][96] Ireland and Great Britain, together with many nearby smaller islands, are known collectively as the British Isles. As the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland, the alternate term Britain and Ireland is often used as a neutral term for the islands. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island. The highest of these is Carrauntoohil (Irish: Corrán Tuathail) in County Kerry, which rises to 1,038 m (3,406 ft) above sea level.[97] The most arable land lies in the province of Leinster.[98] Western areas can be mountainous and rocky with green panoramic vistas. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The River Shannon, the island's longest river at 386 km (240 mi) long, rises in County Cavan in the north west and flows 113 kilometres (70 mi) to Limerick city in the mid west.[99]

The island's lush vegetation, a product of its mild climate and frequent rainfall, earns it the sobriquet the Emerald Isle. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Overall, Ireland has a mild but changeable oceanic climate with few extremes. The climate is typically insular and is temperate avoiding the extremes in temperature of many other areas in the world at similar latitudes.[100] This is a result of the moderating moist winds which ordinarily prevail from the South-Western Atlantic. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Precipitation falls throughout the year but is light overall, particularly in the east. The west tends to be wetter on average and prone to Atlantic storms, especially in the late autumn and winter months. These occasionally bring destructive winds and higher total rainfall to these areas, as well as sometimes snow and hail.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The regions of north County Galway and east County Mayo have the highest incidents of recorded lightning annually for the island, with lightning occurring approximately five to ten days per year in these areas.[101] Munster, in the south, records the least snow whereas Ulster, in the north, records the most. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter. Usually around 40 days of the year are below freezing 0 °C (32 °F) at inland weather stations, compared to 10 days at coastal stations. Ireland is sometimes affected by heat waves, most recently in 1995, 2003, 2006 and 2013. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

In common with the rest of Europe, Ireland experienced unusually cold weather during the winter of 2009/10. Temperatures fell as low as −17.2 °C (1 °F) in County Mayo on 20 December[102] and up to a metre (3 ft) of snow in mountainous areas.

The island consists of varied geological provinces. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

the far west, around County Galway and County Donegal, is a medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of Caledonide affinity, similar to the Scottish Highlands. Across southeast Ulster and extending southwest to Longford and south to Navan is a province of Ordovician and Silurian rocks, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

with similarities to the Southern Uplands province of Scotland. Further south, along the County Wexford coastline, is an area of granite

intrusives into more Ordovician and Silurian rocks, like that found in Wales.[103][104] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

In the southwest, around Bantry Bay and the mountains of Macgillicuddy's Reeks, is an area of substantially deformed, but only lightly metamorphosed, Devonian-aged rocks.[105] This partial ring of "hard rock" geology is covered by a blanket of Carboniferous limestone over the centre of the country, giving rise to a comparatively fertile and lush landscape. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

The west-coast district of the Burren around Lisdoonvarna has well-developed karst features.[106] Significant stratiform lead-zinc mineralisation is found in the limestones around Silvermines and Tynagh. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan


Hydrocarbon exploration is ongoing following the first major find at the Kinsale Head gas field off Cork in the mid-1970s.In 1999, economically significant finds of natural gas were made in the Corrib Gas Field off the County Mayo coast. This has increased activity off the west coast in parallel with the "West of Shetland" step-out development from the North Sea hydrocarbon province. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan


The Helvick oil field, estimated to contain over 28 million barrels (4,500,000 m3) of oil, is another recent discovery.

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Denmark has a modern, prosperous and developed mixed market economy, ranking 21st in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and 10th in nominal GDP per capita. A liberalisation of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of mercantilism and further liberalisation in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s.[79] ACER Aspire 7736ZG Keyboard

 [80] Property rights have enjoyed strong protection. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom[81] and the Economic Freedom of the World.[82] The economy has high levels ofinternational trade and Denmark is known as a free trade advocate in the European Union. Denmark is one of the most competitive economies in the world according to World Economic Forum 2008 report, IMD and The Economist.[83] TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard

As a result of its acclaimed "flexicurity" model, Denmark has the most free labour market in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, unemployment compensation is very high (security). The World Bank ranks Denmark as the easiest place in Europe to do business. Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs.[84] HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Keyboard

Denmark has a competitive company tax rate of 25% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates.[85] The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% VAT, in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall tax burden (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) is estimated to be 46% in 2011.[86]

Denmark has a labour force of about 2.9 million. Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world.[87HP 517865-031 Keyboard

] GDP per hour worked was the 13th highest in 2009. Denmark has the world's lowest level of income inequality, according to the World Bank Gini (%),[88] and the world's highest minimum wage, according to the IMF.[89] In July 2013 the unemployment rate was at 6.7%, which was below the EU average of 10.9%.

Denmark's currency, the krone, is pegged at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the ERM.  Lenovo 0A62039 Keyboard

Although a September 2000 referendum rejected adopting the euro,[91] the country in practice follows the policies set forth in the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union and meets the economic convergence criteria needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the parliament are for the euro, but as yet a new referendum has not been held, despite plans;[92] SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R Keyboard

scepticism of the EU among Danish voters has historically been strong. Denmark is known for the Danish cooperative movement within among others farming, thefood industry (Danish Crown), dairy production (Arla Foods), retailing (Brugsen), wind turbine cooperatives and co-housing associations. Many large companies are also headquartered in Denmark, such as: A. P. Moller-Maersk Group (shipping), HP Pavilion dv6-3045eo Keyboard

Vestas (wind turbines), Carlsberg (brewery), Danske Bank (banking), DONG Energy (power and natural gas), ECCO (shoes), H. Lundbeck(pharmaceuticals), Novo Nordisk (pharmaceuticals), Coloplast (pharmaceuticals), Pandora (jewellery), Danfoss (industrial services),Grundfos (pump manufacturer) and Lego Group (toys).  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

Support for free trade is high – in a 2007 poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing.[93] 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. Denmark has the 9th highest export per capita in the world. Denmark's main exports are: industrial production/manufactured goods 73.3% (of which machinery and instruments were 21.4%, and fuels (oil, natural gas), chemicals, etc. 26%);DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

agricultural products and others for consumption 18.7% (in 2009 meat and meat products were 5.5% of total export; fish and fish products 2.9%).[46] Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of paymentssurplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP foreign debt or more than 300 billion DKK.[94] TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

StatBank is the name of a large statistical database maintained by the central authority of statistics in Denmark. Online distribution of statistics has been a part of the dissemination strategy in Denmark since 1985. By this service, Denmark is a leading country in the world regarding electronic dissemination of statistics. There are about 2 million hits every year. ACER Aspire 2920-5A2G25Mi Keyboard

Denmark has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil[95] and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009.[96] Most electricity is produced from coal, but 25–28% of electricity demand is supplied through wind turbines.[97] Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy,ACER AEZU2R00010 Keyboard

and in May 2011 Denmark derived 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion).[98] Denmark is connected by electric transmission lines to other European countries. On 6 September 2012, Denmark launched the biggest wind turbine in the world, and will add four more over the next four years. COMPAQ Presario CQ60-215DX Keyboard

Denmark's electricity sector has integrated energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles in the transport sector.

Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the Great Belt Fixed Link, which connects Zealand and Funen.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Keyboard

It is now possible to drive from Frederikshavn in northern Jutland to Copenhagen on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is DSB for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea are intertwined by various, international ferry links. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Keyboard

Construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link, connecting Denmark and Germany with a second link, will start in 2015.

Copenhagen has a Metro system, the Copenhagen Metro, and the Greater Copenhagen area has an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the S-train. In the four biggest cities - Copenhagen, Århus, Odense, Aalborg - light rail systems are planned to be in operation around 2020.  ASUS F6VE Keyboard

The light rail in Greater Copenhagen will traverse 11 municipalities, providing a much needed corridor fromLyngby in the north to Ishøj in the south .[102] With Norway and Sweden, Denmark is part of the Scandinavian Airlines, andCopenhagen Airport forms the largest hub in Scandinavia. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

Cycling in Denmark is a common form of transport, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000 km[103] and an estimated 7,000 km[104] of segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes, Denmark has a solid bicycle infrastructure.

Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the high registration tax (180%), SONY VAIO VGN NR298E Keyboard

VAT (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. The car fleet has increased by 45% over the last 30 years. In 2007, an attempt was made by the government to favour environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. HP Mini 210 Keyboard

However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars[105] primarily from Germany, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes. The average car age (year 2011) is 9.2 years.

In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Acer eMachines E732 Keyboard

Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world, and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of MAN Diesel engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of Nordic Mobile Telephones, and the now-defunct Danish company DanCall was among the first to develop GSM mobile phones.[10HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard


Danish engineers are world-leading in providing diabetes care equipment and medication products from Novo Nordisk and, since 2000, the Danish biotech companyNovozymes, the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch based bioethanol, has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to cellulosic ethanol.[108] TOSHIBA NSK-T4D01 Keyboard

Medicon Valley, spanning the Øresund Region between Zealand and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest life science clusters, containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area. Danish software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's important programming languages: Anders Hejlsberg, (Turbo Pascal, Delphi, C#); HP 405963-001 Keyboard

Rasmus Lerdorf, (PHP); Bjarne Stroustrup, (C++); David Heinemeier Hansson, (Ruby on Rails); Lars Bak, a pioneer in virtual machines (V8, Java VM, Dart); Lene Vestergaard Hau (physicist), the first person to stop light, leading to advances in quantum computing, nanoscale engineering and linear optics.

After deregulating the labour market in the 1990s, Denmark has one of the most free labour markets among the European countries. SAMSUNG Q35 Keyboard

According to World Bank labour market rankings, the labour market flexibility is at the same levels as the United States. Around 80% of employees belong to unions and the unemployment funds that are attached to them. Labour market policies are mainly determined by negotiations between the workers' unions and employers' unions, and the government only interferes if labour strikes extend for too long.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee Keyboard

Despite the success of the trade unions, a growing number of people make contracts individually rather than collectively, and many (four out of ten employees) are contemplating dropping especially unemployment fund but occasionally even union membership altogether. The average employee receives a benefit at 47% of their wage level if they have to claim benefits when unemployed. SONY VAIO VGN NR185E Keyboard

With low unemployment, very few expect to be claiming benefits at all. The only reason then to pay the earmarked money to the unemployment fund would be to retire early and receive early retirement pay (efterløn), which is possible from the age of 60 provided an additional earmarked contribution is paid to the unemployment fund.[110] ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard

The unemployment rate for December 2007 was 2.7%, for a total of 74,900 persons, a reduction by 112,800 persons—2,400 per month—or 60% since December 2003.[111] The Eurostat unemployment number for August 2008 is 2.9%. Another measure of the situation on the labour market is the employment rate, that is the percentage of people aged 15 to 64 in employment out of the total number of people aged 15 to 64. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The employment rate for Denmark in 2007 was 77.1% according to Eurostat. Of all countries in the world, only Switzerland with 78.% and Iceland with 85.1% had a higher employment rate. Of the employed more than 38% (800,000 people)[112] of the total workforce work in public sector jobs.

The number of unemployed is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000;[113] part-time jobs are included.[114] Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the recession1987–1993.[115] HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the postal services and as bus drivers, and academics.[116] In the fall of 2007, more than 250,000 foreigners are working in the country, of which 23,000 still reside in Germany or Sweden.[117] According to a sampling survey of over 14,000 enterprises from December 2007 to April 2008 39,000 jobs were not filled, a number much lower than earlier surveys, confirming a downturn in the economic cycle.[118] HP 606013-001 CPU Fan

The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. HP COMPAQ KSB05105HA CPU Fan

There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one's home (provided there was any home equity (friværdi)), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0%.[119] In 2011, 13.4% of Denmark's population was reported to live below the poverty line.[120] When adjusted for taxes and transfers, the poverty rate drops from 24% to 6%, one of the lowest of all OECD nations.[121][122] HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

Denmark follows the Nordic model of a mixed economy, characterised by a large welfare state, a high level of public expenditure and a universal social system (including health care), financed by taxes and not by social contributions. The welfare model is accompanied by a taxation system that is both broad based (25% VAT, not including excise, duty and tax) and with a progressive income tax model, HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPU Fan

meaning the more money that is earned, the higher income tax percentage that gets paid (minimum tax rate for adults is 42% scaling to over 60%, except for the residents of Ertholmene that escape the otherwise ubiquitous 8% healthcare tax fraction of the income taxes[123][124]). Other taxes include the registration tax on private vehicles, at a rate of 180%, DELL MD538 CPU Fan

on top of VAT. Lately (July 2007) this has been changed slightly in an attempt to favour more fuel efficient cars but maintaining the average taxation level more or less unchanged.

According to 2012 figures from Statistics Denmark, 89.6% of Denmark's population of over 5,580,516 is of Danish descent (defined as having at least one parent who was born in Denmark and has Danish citizenship).[12HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

6] Many of the remaining 10.4% are immigrants—or descendants of recent immigrants—that came mainly from Turkey, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, South Asia and the Middle East. Of the 10.4%, approximately 200,000 (34%) are of a Western background, and approx. 390,000 (66%) have a non-Western background.[127]

The median age is 41.4 years, with 0.97 males per female. 99% of the population (age 15 and up) is literate. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The fertility rate is 1.73 children born per woman (2013 est.). Despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.23%.[46]

Danish, Faroese, and Greenlandic are the official languages of metropolitan Denmark, the Faroes, and Greenland, respectively; German is an official minority language in the former South Jutland County near the German border.  HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

Danish is spoken throughout the kingdom and is the national language of Denmark. English and German are the most widely spoken foreign languages.[128]

Denmark is frequently ranked as the happiest country in the world in cross-national studies of happiness.[15][129][16] This has been attributed to the country's highly-regarded education and health care systems,[130] and its high level of income equality. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

In January 2014, 78.4%[131] of the population of Denmark were members of the Church of Denmark (Den danske folkekirke), the officially established church, which is Lutheran in tradition.[132] This is down 0.7% compared to the year earlier and 1.3% down compared to two years earlier. Despite the high membership figures, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services.[133][134] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The Constitution states that a member of the Royal Family must be a part of the Church of Denmark, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths.[135][136][137] In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: Roman Catholicism, the Reformed Church and Judaism,[137] although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" byroyal decree. Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition in Denmark, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition.[137]

Denmark's Muslims make up approximately 3% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion.[133][ HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

138] As of 2009 there are nineteen recognised Muslim communities in Denmark.[138][139] As per an overview of various religions and denominations by the Danish Foreign Ministry, other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together.[140]

A new religious group, Forn Siðr, describes itself as a revival of the Norse paganism prevalent in Denmark before Christianisation. It gained state recognition in November 2003.[141] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ CPU Fan

According to a 2010 Eurobarometer Poll,[142] 28% of Danish citizens polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Danish education system provides access to primary school, secondary school and higher education. All college and university education in Denmark is free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enroll in courses. Students in secondary school or higher and aged 18 or above may apply for state educational support grants, known as Statens Uddannelsesstøtte (SU) which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly. SONY Vaio VGN-BX760PS5 CPU Fan

The Education Index lists Denmark 16th in 2011 based on mean years of schooling (of adults) and expected years of schooling (of children).[144]

Primary school is known as the folkeskole. Attendance at primary school is not compulsory, but most Danish children go to primary school for 10 years, from the age of 6 to 16. Whilst attending a primary school is not compulsory, receiving education at primary school-level is and must be provided for nine years. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

There are no final exams, but pupils in primary schools can choose to go to a test when finishing ninth grade. The test is obligatory if further education is to be attended. Pupils can alternatively attend a private independent school (friskole), or a private school (privatskole) – schools that are not under the administration of the municipalities, such as Christian schools or Waldorf schools. HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

Following graduation from primary school, there are several educational opportunities; the Gymnasium (STX) attaches importance in teaching a mix of humanities and science, Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) focuses on scientific subjects and the Higher Commercial Examination Programme emphasizes on subjects in economics.  HP 550 CPU Fan

Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) is similar to Gymnasium (STX), but is one year shorter. For specific professions, there is the vocational education, training young people for work in specific tradesby a combination of teaching and apprenticeship.Danish universities and other higher education institutions offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. HP Pavilion dv7-3170ep CPU Fan

Many programmes may be taught in the English language, the academic lingua franca, in bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, Ph.D.s andstudent exchange programmes.

Along with Sweden and Norway, Denmark has a universal health care system, financed by taxes and not by social contributions. This system is largely financed through local, municipal taxation with integrated funding and provision of health care at the regional level. IBM 26R8197 CPU Fan

It is the most important area of responsibility for the local regions. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of 8 percent (Danish: sundhedsbidrag) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.[71] Denmark spends 9.8 percent of GDP on healthcare. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

The life expectancy in Denmark is 78.6 years, and there is one doctor for every 294 persons in Denmark.

Denmark, like its Scandinavian neighbours, has historically been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. In 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise pornography,[147] and in 2012, Denmark replaced its "registered partnership" laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989,[14Toshiba Satellite A205-S5831 CPU Fan

8][149]with gender-neutral marriage.[150][151] Modesty, punctuality but above all equality are important aspects of the Danish way of life.

The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), Ludwig A. Colding's (1815–88) neglected articulation of the principle ofconservation of energy, and the contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr (1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement.  IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard (1813–55), the short stories of Karen Blixen (penname Isak Dinesen), (1885–1962), the plays of Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry ofPiet Hein (1905–96), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). APPLE 661-4952 CPU Fan

From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars von Trier.

There are three Danish heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in Northern Europe: Roskilde Cathedral, the main burial site for Danish monarchs since the 15th century;  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

Kronborg castle, immortalized in the play Hamlet; and the Jelling stones, carvedrunestones, often called Denmark's "baptismal certificate."

Danish cinema dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of product due largely to funding by the state-supportedDanish Film Institute. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

There have been three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema: erotic melodrama of the silent era; the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s; and lastly, the Dogme 95 movement of the late 1990s, where directors often used hand-held cameras to dynamic effect in a conscious reaction against big-budget studeos. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The Danish filmmaker Carl Th. Dreyer (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors of early cinema.

Other Danish filmmakers of note include Erik Balling, the creator of the popular Olsen-banden films; Gabriel Axel, an Oscar-winner forBabette's Feast in 1987; and Bille August, the Oscar-, Palme d'Or- and Golden Globe-winner for Pelle the Conqueror in 1988. HP Pavilion dv9230us CPU Fan

In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark include Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme movement, and multiple award-winners Susanne Bier andNicolas Winding Refn. Mads Mikkelsen is a world-renowned Danish actor, having starred in films such as King ArthurCasino Royale, the Danish film The Hunt, and currently in the American TV series HannibalIBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Series CPU Fan

Danish mass media and news programming are dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media JP/Politikens Hus and Berlingske Media, between them, control the largest newspapers PolitikenBerlingske Tidende and Jyllands-Posten and major tabloids B.T. and Ekstra Bladet. In television, publicly owned stations DR and TV 2 have large shares of the viewers.[15HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

5] Especially DR is famous for its high quality TV-series often sold to foreign broadcast and often with strong leading female characters like internationally known actresses Sidse Babett Knudsenand Sofie Gråbøl. In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available FM channels, competing only with local stations.

Copenhagen and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions. IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 CPU Fan

The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras.[157] Denmark's most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen, especially remembered for his six symphonies and his Wind Quintet, while the Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of the Danish choreographer August Bournonville. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation. APPLE MG62090V1-Q020-S99 CPU Fan

The modern pop and rock scene has produced a few names of note, including Aqua, D-A-D, The Raveonettes, Michael Learns to Rock, Alphabeat, Kashmir and Mew, among others. All together, Lars Ulrich, the drummer of the band Metallica, has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

More recently, in 2013 Denmark entered the Eurovision Song Contest and won with Emmelie de Forest's song "Only Teardrops". The 2014 contest was hosted in Copenhagen. HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

Denmark's architecture became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance style. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the Baroque style, both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism from France was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th-century National Romantic style.[159] Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including expressionism, best exemplified by the designs of architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and Nordic Classicism, which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as Arne Jacobsen entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalist architecture. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Keyboard

This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including Jørn Utzon's Sydney Opera House and Johan Otto von Spreckelsen's Grande Arche de la Défense in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as Bjarke Ingels to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.[160] TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Keyboard

Danish design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards.

The Danish Porcelain Factory ("Royal Copenhagen") is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Keyboard

Danish design is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous, 20th-century designers and architects such as Børge Mogensen, Finn Juhl, Hans Wegner, Arne Jacobsen,Poul Henningsen and Verner Panton.[161]

Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, Jens Harald Quistgaard (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and Ole Wanscher (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

The first known Danish literature is myths and folklore from the 10th and 11th century. Saxo Grammaticus, normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop Absalon on a chronicle of Danish history (Gesta Danorum). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the Middle Ages. With the Age of Enlightenment came Ludvig Holberg whose comedy plays are still being performed. HP AEUT5U00010 Keyboard

In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough, this movement was championed by Georg Brandes, Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature) and J. P. Jacobsen. Romanticism influenced the renowned writer and poet Hans Christian Andersen, known for his stories and fairy tales, e.g. TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Keyboard

The Ugly DucklingThe Little Mermaid and The Snow Queen. In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Karen Blixen is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are Herman Bang, Gustav Wied, William Heinesen, Martin Andersen Nexø, Piet Hein, Hans Scherfig,Klaus Rifbjerg, Dan Turèll, Tove Ditlevsen, Inger Christensen and Peter Høeg. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 Keyboard

Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who later in his life moved on to join the movement of positivism. Among Kierkegaard's other followers include Jean-Paul Sartre who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, SONY VAIO VGN-FS295XP Keyboard

and Rollo May, who helped create humanistic psychology. Another Danish philosopher of note is Grundtvig, whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.

While Danish art was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany and the Netherlands, IBM 42T3671 Keyboard

the 15th- and 16th-century church frescos, which can be seen in many of the country's older churches, are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters.[162]

The Danish Golden Age, which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism. HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where his students included notable painters such as Wilhelm Bendz, Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen, and Wilhelm Marstrand. The sculpture of Bertel Thorvaldsen was also significant during this period.[163] SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Keyboard

In 1871, Holger Drachmann and Karl Madsen visited Skagen in the far north of Jutland where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful artists' colonies specializing in Naturalism and Realism rather than in the traditional approach favoured by the Academy. Hosted by Michael and his wife Anna, they were soon joined by P.S. Krøyer, Carl Locher and Laurits Tuxen. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Keyboard

All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people.[164] Similar trends developed on Funen with the Fynboerne who included Johannes Larsen, Fritz Sybergand Peter Hansen,[165] and on the island of Bornholm with the Bornholm school of painters including Niels Lergaard, Kræsten Iversen andOluf Høst.[166] HP Envy 15 Keyboard

Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the art in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of Danes in the world of photography today. Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century while both artistic and press photographers made internationally recognised contributions. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard

Today Danish photographers such as Astrid Kruse Jensen and Jacob Aue Sobol are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world.[167]Collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art north of Copenhagen and at the North Jutland Art Museum inAalborg. Notable artists include the Neo-Expressionist Per Kirkeby, Tal R with his wild and colorful paintings,[16SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

8] Olafur Eliasson's space exhibitions[169] andJeppe Hein's installations.

The cuisine of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of Northern Germany, consists mainly of meat and fish. This stems from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters. With 145.9 kg (321.7 lb) of meat per person consumed in 2002, ACER TravelMate 6292 Keyboard

Denmark has the highest consumption of meat per person of any country in the world.[171]

The open sandwiches, known as smørrebrød, which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of ground meats, such as frikadeller (meat balls), HP 519265-001 Keyboard

or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as flæskesteg (roast pork with crackling) or kogt torsk (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark is known for its Carlsberg and Tuborg beers and for its akvavit and bitters although imported wine is now gaining popularity.

Danish chefs, inspired by continental practices, have in recent years developed an innovative series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce.  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

As a result, Copenhagen and the provinces now have a considerable number of highly acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded Michelin stars.

Sports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The national sport is football (soccer). Denmark qualified six times in a row between 1984 and 2004 for the European Championships, and won the Championship in 1992.  DELL FM8 Keyboard

Other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Championships. Notable Danish footballers include Peter Schmeichel, named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish player of all time by the Danish Football Association.[172] DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

In recent years, Denmark has made a mark as a strong cycling nation, with Bjarne Riis winning Tour de France in 1996 and Michael Rasmussenreaching King of the Mountains status in the Tour in 2005 and 2006. In speedway racing Denmark has won several world championships, including the Speedway World Cup in 2006 and 2008.

There is much focus on handball, too. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

The women's national team celebrated great successes during the 1990s. On the men's side, they have won five medals—two gold (in 2008 and 2012) and three bronze (in 2002, 2004 and 2006)—the most that have been won by any team in European Handball Championship history.[173]

Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic;[174SONY VAIO VGN-CR42S Keyboard

] tennis—in which Denmark is successful on a professional level; rugby—the Danish Rugby Union dates back to 1950;[175] rowing—Denmark specialize in light-weight rowing and are particularly known for their light-weight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze Olympic medals;  HP 533549-001 Keyboard

and several indoor sports—especially badminton, table tennis and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark holds World Championships and Olympic medals. Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

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Denmark ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ (Danish: Danmark),[h] officially the Kingdom of Denmark,[i] is a sovereign state inNorthern Europe, located southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom includes two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands andGreenland.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

At 43,094 square kilometres (16,638.69 sq mi),[10] with a population of around 5.6 million inhabitants, Denmark consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and the Danish archipelago of 407 islands,[11] of which around 70 are inhabited. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and atemperate climate. A Scandinavian country, SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Keyboard

Denmark shares strong cultural and historic ties with its neighbours Sweden and Norway. The national language, Danish, is closely related to and mutually intelligible with Swedishand Norwegian.

The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 8th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle forcontrol of the Baltic Sea. ACER TravelMate 2800 Series Keyboard

Denmark was part of the Kalmar Union, established in 1397, ended with Swedish secession in 1523. The following year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway until its dissolution in 1814. Denmark inherited an expansive colonial empire from this union, of which the Faroe Islands and Greenland are remnants. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory; DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

these culminated in the 1830s with a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief, military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. Denmark joined NATO in 1949, relinquishing its historically neutral stance. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

An industrialized exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century, making the basis for the present welfare state model with a highly developed mixed economy.

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, with Margrethe II as queen regnant, organised as aparliamentary democracy. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge S420 Keyboard

The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchywhich had begun in 1660. The Constitution has been revised four times, most recently in 1953. The seat of government is in the capital of Copenhagen. Denmark[b] exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm,devolving political powers to handle internal affairs. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420S Keyboard

Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs. Both the Faroe Islands and Greenland remain outside the Union. It is among the founding members of the Council of Europe, NATO, the Nordic Council, OECD, OSCE, and the United Nations; and is also a part of the Schengen Area. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420 Keyboard

Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks highly in numerous comparisons of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, prosperity and human development.[12][13][14] Denmark is frequently ranked as the happiest country in the world in cross-national studies of happiness.[15][16] The country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility,[17Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420i Keyboard

] a high level ofincome equality,[18] has one of the world's highest per capita income, and has one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.

The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a single kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate.[20][21] Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420S Keyboard

This is centred primarily on the prefix"Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. The issue is further complicated by a number of references to various Dani people in Scandinavia or other places in Europe in Greek and Roman accounts (like Ptolemy, Jordanes, and Gregory of Tours), as well as mediaeval literature (like Adam of Bremen, Beowulf, Widsith, and Poetic Edda). SONY VGN-FE11M Keyboard

Most handbooks derive[22] the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave", Sanskrit dhánu- (धनुस्; "desert").[22] The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see marches), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig.[23] ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Keyboard

The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which arerunestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old (c. 955) and Harald Bluetooth (c. 965). The larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's baptismal certificate (dåbsattest),[24] though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative  "tanmaurk" ([danmɒrk]) on the large stone, and genitive  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard

"tanmarkar" (pronounced [danmarkaɽ]) on the small stone.[25] The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "tani" ([danɪ]), or "Danes", in the accusative.

The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC.[26]  HP 516884-001 Keyboard

Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC.[27] The Nordic Bronze Age (1800–600 BC) in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot.During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC – AD 1), native groups began migrating south, although[27] the first Danish people came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age,[28] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard

in the Roman Iron Age (AD 1–400). The Roman provinces maintainedtrade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard

Historians believe that before the arrival of the precursors to the Danes, who came from the east Danish islands (Zealand) andSkåne and spoke an early form of North Germanic, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by Jutes. They were later invited to Great Britain as mercenaries by Brythonic King Vortigern and were granted the south-eastern territories of Kent, the Isle of Wight among other areas, where they settled.  HP Pavilion DV7-2177cl Keyboard

They were later absorbed or ethnically cleansed by the invading Angles and Saxons, who formed the Anglo-Saxons. The remaining population in Jutland assimilated in with the Danes.

A short note about the Dani in "Getica" by the historian Jordanes is believed by some[who?] to be an early mention of the Danes, one of the ethnic groups from whom modern Danes are descended.[29][30] SONY VAIO VPC-F12 Keyboard

The Danevirke defence structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward and the sheer size of the construction efforts in AD 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.[31][31] A new runic alphabet was first used around the same time and Ribe, the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about AD 700.

From the 8th to the 10th century, the Danes, Norwegians and Swedes, were known as Vikings. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 Keyboard

They colonized, raided, and traded in all parts of Europe. Viking explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century, on the way towards the Faroe Islandsand eventually came across "Vinland" (Land of wine), also known today as Newfoundland, a province in Canada. The Danish Vikings were most active in the British Isles and Western Europe. HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Keyboard

They conquered and settled parts of England (known as the Danelaw) under King Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013, Ireland, and France where they founded Normandy. More Anglo-Saxon pence of this period have been found in Denmark than in England.[32]

As attested by the Jelling stones, the Danes were united and Christianised about 965 by Harald Bluetooth. SONY VAIO VGN-NW35E/W Keyboard

It is believed that Denmark became Christian for political reasons so as not to get invaded by the rising Christian power in Europe, Germania, which was an important trading area for the Danes. In that case Harald built six fortresses around Denmark called Trelleborg and built a further Danevirke. In the early 11th century, Canute the Great won and united Denmark, England, and Norway for almost 30 years.[32] TOSHIBA Satellite M640-BT2N23 Keyboard

Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages, Denmark also included Skåneland (Skåne, Halland, and Blekinge) and Danish kings ruled Danish Estonia, as well as theduchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Most of the latter two now form the state of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.

In 1397, Denmark entered into a personal union with Norway and Sweden, united under Queen Margaret I. DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. However, even from the start Margaret may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark as the clear "senior" partner of the union.[33] Thus, much of the next 125 years of Scandinavian history revolves around this union, with Sweden breaking off and rejoining repeatedly. The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered the city of Stockholm. SONY VGN-FE41S Keyboard

The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and following the Count's Feud civil war, Denmark converted to Lutheranism in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway.

After Sweden permanently broke away from the Kalmar Union in 1523, Denmark tried on two occasions to reassert control over Sweden. The first was in the Northern Seven Years' War which lasted from 1563 until 1570. TOSHIBA 6037B0028502 Keyboard

The second occasion was the Kalmar Warwhen King Christian IV attacked Sweden in 1611 but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing Sweden to return to the union with Denmark. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a war indemnity of 1 million silverriksdaler to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom.[34]  DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt (founded as a rival to Hamburg),Christiania (following a fire destroying the original city of Oslo), Christianshavn, Christianstad, and Christiansand. Christian also constructed a number of buildings, most notably Børsen,  HP Pavilion DV7-2173cl Keyboard

Rundetårn, Nyboder, Rosenborg, a silver mine, and a copper mill. Inspired by the Dutch East India Company, he founded a similar Danish company and planned to claim Ceylon as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire Tranquebar on India's Coromandel Coast. Denmark's large colonial aspirations were limited to a few key trading posts in Africa and India.  Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 Keyboard

In the Thirty Years' War, Christian tried to become the leader of the Lutheran states in Germany but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter.[35] The result was that the Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein was able to invade, occupy, and pillage Jutland, forcing Denmark to withdraw from the war.[36]Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions,  ACER Aspire 1690 Keyboard

but Gustavus Adolphus' intervention in Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining. Swedish armies invaded Jutland in 1643 and claimed Skåne in 1644. According to Geoffrey Parker, "The Swedish occupation caused a drop in agricultural production and a shortage of capital; harvest failure and plague ravaged the land between 1647 and 1651; Denmark's population fell by 20 per cent."  HP 519265-001 Keyboard

In the 1645 Treaty of Brømsebro, Denmark surrendered Halland, Gotland, the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway. In 1657, King Frederick III declared war on Sweden and marched on Bremen-Verden. This led to a massive Danish defeat and the armies of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden conquered both Jutland, FUJITSU Lifebook E8210 Keyboard

Funen, and much of Zealand before signing the Peace of Roskilde in February 1658 which gave Sweden control of Skåne, Blekinge, Trøndelag, and the island of Bornholm. Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having destroyed Denmark completely and in August 1658 he began a two-year long siege of Copenhagen but failed to take the capital. In the following peace settlement, HP Pavilion DV7-3183cl Keyboard

Denmark managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.

Denmark tried to regain control of Skåne in the Scanian War (1675–79) but this attempt was a failure. Following the Great Northern War (1700–21), Denmark managed to restore control of the parts of Schleswig and Holstein ruled by the house of Holstein-Gottorp in 1721 and 1773, respectively. FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard

In the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark originally tried to pursue a policy of neutrality and trade with bothFrance and the United Kingdom and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with Russia, Sweden, and Prussia. The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen in both 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Danish fleet, in the other, burning large parts of Copenhagen. Compaq Presario CQ62-358TU Keyboard

This led to the so-called Danish-British Gunboat War. The British control of the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813, Denmark-Norway went bankrupt. The Danish-Norwegian union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. In the treaty the Danish monarchy "irrevocably and forever" renounced claims to the Kingdom of Norway in favour of the Swedish king. TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard

After the dissolution of the union with Norway, Denmark kept the possessions of Iceland (which retained the Danish monarchy until 1944), the Faroe Islands, andGreenland.[38] As well as these Nordic possessions, Denmark built up an extensive colonial empire during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. At its apex the empire spanned four continents (Europe, North America, Africa and Asia), consisting of the aforementioned Nordic countries; TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard

Danish India from 1620 to 1869; the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850; and the Danish West Indies (the U.S. Virgin Islands) from 1671 to 1917. The empire was sustained by trading posts and plantations , but ultimately a lack of resources had led to its downfall by the early 20th century.

A nascent Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s;  HP Pavilion DV6-1350us Keyboard

after the European Revolutions of 1848, Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. A two-chamber parliament was established. After the Second War of Schleswig in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity.[citation needed] After these events, Denmark pursued a policy of neutrality in Europe.  HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard

Denmark remained neutral during World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism, Denmark refused to consider the return of the area without a plebiscite. The two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March 1920, respectively. ASUS F6VE Keyboard

On 10 July 1920, Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding some 163,600 inhabitants and 3,984 square kilometres (1,538 sq mi). The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every 15 June on Valdemarsdag.

Denmark signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany in 1939. DELL NSK-DB301 Keyboard

Germany's invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940 – code-namedOperation Weserübung – met only two hours of military resistance before the Danish government surrendered. Economic co-operation between Germany and Denmark continued until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and its navy scuttled most of its ships and sent as many of their officers as they could to Sweden. HP Pavilion dv6-3057tx Keyboard

During the war, the government was helpful towards the Danish Jewish minority and the Danish resistance performed a daring rescue operation that managed to get most of them to Sweden and safety shortly before the Germans planned to round up the Danish Jews. Danish doctors refused to treat German citizens fleeing from Germany, which resulted in the deaths of 13,000 people.[40][41] DELL Vostro PP38L Keyboard

Danish citizens volunteered to fight Russia in co-operation with Germany as part of Frikorps Danmark.[42]Iceland severed ties to Denmark and became an independent republic in 1944; in 1948, the Faroe Islands gained home rule.

After World War II, Denmark became one of the founding members of the European Free Trade Association, NATO, and the United Nations. HP Pavilion DV7-3057nr Keyboard

During the 1960s, the EFTA countries were often referred to as the Outer Seven, as opposed to the Inner Six of what was then the European Economic Community (EEC).[43]

In 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, Denmark joined the European Economic Community after a public referendum. The Maastricht Treaty, which involved further European integration, was rejected by the Danish people in 1992; TOSHIBA Satellite l20-135 Keyboard

it was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993, which provided for four opt-outs from European Union policies (as outlined in the 1992 Edinburgh Agreement). The Danes rejected the euro as the national currency in a referendum in 2000. Greenland gained home rule in 1979 and was awardedself-determination in 2009. Toshiba Satellite L30-10X CPU Fan 

Neither Greenland nor the Faroe Islands are members of the European Union, the Faroese having declined membership of the EEC in 1973 and Greenland in 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.

Constitutional change in 1953 led to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Danish throne, and Greenland becoming an integral part of Denmark. Toshiba Satellite A300-21H CPU Fan

The Social Democrats led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century in a country generally known for its liberal traditions. Poul Schlüter then became the first Danish prime minister from the Conservative People's Partyin 1982, leading a centre-right coalition until 1993, when he was succeeded by the Social Democrat Poul Nyrup Rasmussen. SONY Vaio VGN-FS415M CPU Fan

A centre-right coalition, headed by Anders Fogh Rasmussen, came to power in 2001 promising tighter immigration controls. A third successive centre-right leader,Lars Løkke Rasmussen, was prime minister from 2009 to 2011 due to Anders Fogh Rasmussen resigning as Prime Minister of Denmark to become the Secretary General of NATO. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca CPU Fan

The Rasmussen governments were dependent on the right-wing populist Danish People's Party throughout the 2000s to push through legislation, during which time immigration and integration emerged as major issues of public debate. Helle Thorning-Schmidt from the Social Democrats became Denmark's first female prime minister in 2011, ending a decade of centre-right rule. HP Pavilion dv9547cl CPU Fan

Despite its modest size, Denmark has participated in generally UN-sanctioned, and often NATO-led, military and humanitarian operations, including: Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Korea, Egypt, Croatia, Kosovo, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, and Libya.

Located in Northern Europe, metropolitan Denmark[b] consists of the peninsula of Jutland and 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100 square metres (1,100 sq ft) in total).[4HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

4] Of these, 72 are inhabited,[45] with the largest being Zealand and Funen. The island of Bornholm is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; theØresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan

The largest cities with populations over 100,000 are the capital Copenhagen on Zealand; Aarhus and Aalborg in Jutland; and Odense on Funen.The country occupies an area of 43,094 square kilometres (16,638.69 sq mi). The size of the land area cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). Toshiba Satellite P300 CPU Fan

A circle enclosing the same area as Denmark would be 234 kilometres (more than 145 miles) in diameter with a circumferenceof 742 km (461 miles). It shares a border of 68 kilometres (42 mi) with Germany to the south and is otherwise surrounded by 7,314 km (4,545 mi) of tidal shoreline (including small bays and inlets).[47] No location in Denmark is further from the coast than 52 km (32 mi). HP Pavilion dv7-4283cl CPU Fan

On the south-west coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and 2 m (3.28 and 6.56 ft), and the tideline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch.Denmark's northernmost point is Skagen's point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is Gedserpoint (the southern tip of Falster) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; HP COMPAQ 2510P Series CPU Fan

and the easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago Ertholmene 18 kilometres (11 mi) north-east of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is 452 kilometres (281 mi), from north to south 368 kilometres (229 mi).

The country is flat with little elevation; having an average height above sea level of 31 metres (102 ft). HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea CPU Fan

The highest natural point isMøllehøj, at 170.86 metres (560.56 ft). The area of inland water is 700 km2 (270 sq mi).

Phytogeographically, the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands) belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Arctic, Atlantic European, and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of metropolitan Denmark can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests. The Faroe Islands are covered by the Faroe Islands boreal grasslands, while Greenland hosts the ecoregions of Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra and Kalaallit Nunaat low arctic tundra. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Denmark has a temperate climate, characterised by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January and February of 0.0 °C (32.0 °F), and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of 15.7 °C (60.3 °F).[49] Denmark has an average of 121 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of 712 millimetres (28 in) per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest.[49] HP Pavilion dv6-2057eo CPU Fan

Because of Denmark's northern location, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8:45 am and sunset 3:45 pm (standard time), as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:30 am and sunset at 10 pm (daylight saving time).[50]

The Faroe Islands has a mean temperature in January of 4.5 °C (40.1 °F), in July the mean temperature was 10.1 in 2012 and all that year it was 6.7 °C (44.1 °F). HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr CPU Fan

In 2012 the Faroe Islands had 195 days with precipitation and received a total of 1,262 millimetres (50 in) that year.

Denmark has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973.[52] IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan

To mitigate environmental degradation and global warming the Danish Government has signed the following international agreements: Antarctic Treaty; Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol etc.[46]

Copenhagen is the spearhead of the bright green environmental movement in Denmark.[53] Copenhagen's most important environment research institutions are theUniversity of Copenhagen, Toshiba Satellite A100-02M CPU Fan

Copenhagen Business School,[54] Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and the Technical University of Denmark, which Risø is now part of. Leading up to the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference (Copenhagen Summit), the University of Copenhagen held the Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions conference where the need for comprehensive action to mitigate climate change was stressed by the international scientific community. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

Notable figures such as Rajendra K. Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC, Professor Nicholas Stern, author of the Stern Report, and Professor Daniel Kammen all emphasised the good example set by Copenhagen and Denmark in capitalising on cleantech and achieving economic growth while stabilising carbon emissions.

Denmark's green house gas emissions per dollar of value produced has been for the most part unstable since 1990,  Toshiba Satellite P300-1FN CPU Fan

seeing sudden growths and falls. Overall though, there has been a reduction in gas emissions per dollar value added to its market.[55] It lags behind other Scandinavian countries such as Norway[56] and Sweden.

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to ceremonial functions.[58] The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct.[59]  HP G42-415DX CPU Fan

The Danish political system operates under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Denmark. Changes to it require an absolute majority in two consecutive parliamentary terms and majority approval through a referendum (and the referendum majority must constitute at least 40 per cent of the electorate).[60] The Constitution lays out a political system based on the separation of powers into the three branches of government; the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary branches.  HP Pavilion dv7-4177nr CPU Fan

The Economist Intelligence Unit, while acknowledging that democracy is difficult to measure, listed Denmark 4th on itsindex of democracy.[12] Denmark, along with New Zealand, ranks 1st on the Corruption Perceptions Index.

The Folketing is the national Parliament, the supreme legislative body of the kingdom. In theory it has the ultimate legislative authority according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, HP 580718-001 CPU Fan

it is able to legislate on any matter and not bound by decisions of its predecessors. However questions over sovereignty have been brought forward because of Denmark's entry into the European Union. Parliament consists of 175 members elected by proportional majority, plus two members each from Greenland and the Faroe Islands.[62]  ACER Aspire One A110-1834 CPU Fan

Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Parliament may force a single Minister or the entire government to resign.[63]

The Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most Danish post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties.[64]  Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The Prime Minister is formally appointed by the monarch, on the advice of party leaders following an election or collapse of a government. In practice the Prime Minister is chosen through negotiation between the parliament party leaders, customarily with the leader of the largest party in a coalition being appointed. Executive authority is exercised on behalf of the monarch by the Prime Minister and other cabinet ministers who head departments. SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan

The Cabinet, Prime Minister and other Ministers collectively make up the government of Denmark.

Lars Løkke Rasmussen was the Prime minister from April 2009 until September 2011. He headed a right-wing government coalition consisting of Venstre (a conservative liberal party) and the Conservative People's Party, with parliamentary support from the national-conservative Danish People's Party. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Following the September 2011 election the right wing lost to the opposing left-wing coalition, led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt, who on 3 October 2011 formed a new government consisting of theSocial Democrats, the Danish Social Liberal Party and the Socialist People's Party. A second Thornig-Schmidt cabinet was formed on 3 February 2014 when the Socialist People's Party left the government. HP Pavilion tx2510us CPU Fan

Judicial authority remains separate from the executive and legislature and lies with the courts of justice. The Kingdom of Denmark does not have a single unified judicial system – Denmark has one system, Greenland another, and the Faroe Islands a third.[65] However, decisions by the highest courts in Greenland and the Faroe Islands may be appealed to the Danish High Courts. ACER Aspire 7112WSMi CPU Fan

The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in the kingdom.

Articles 62 and 64 of the Danish Constitution ensure judicial independence from Government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes and practice.

Danish foreign policy is based on its identity as a sovereign nation in Europe. Toshiba GDM610000277 CPU Fan

As such its primary foreign policy focus is on its relations with other nations as a sovereign independent nation. Denmark has long had good relations with other nations. It has been involved in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states (Estonia,[67] Latvia, and Lithuania) in the Alliance.

The Kingdom of Denmark's armed forces are known as the Danish Defence (Danish: Forsvaret).  HP Pavilion dv7-6107tx CPU Fan

During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence in Denmark employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the Danish Army, 5,300 in the Royal Danish Navy and 6,050 in the Royal Danish Air Force (all including conscripts).

The Danish Emergency Management Agency (Beredskabsstyrelsen) employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Danish Defence Command, Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

the Danish Defence Research Establishment and the Danish Defence Intelligence Service. Furthermore around 55,000 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard (Hjemmeværnet).

The country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. The Danish Defence has around 1,400[68] staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to NATO SNMCMG1. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The three largest contributions are in Afghanistan (ISAF), Kosovo(KFOR) and Lebanon (UNIFIL). Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in Iraq.[69]

Denmark is today pursuing an active foreign policy, where human rights, democracy and other crucial values are to be defended actively. In recent years Greenland and the Faroe Islands have been guaranteed a say in foreign policy issues such as fishing, whaling, and geopolitical concerns. TOSHIBA Mini NB 300 Series Keyboard

Denmark,[b] with a total area (land and water) of 42,972.53 square kilometers (of which Ertholmene 0.39 km2), is divided into five regions (Danish: regioner, singular: region) and a total of 98 municipalities. The regions were created on 1 January 2007 to replace the former counties. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 270 to 98. SONY VGN-FE28H Keyboard

Most municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 people to give them financial and professional sustainability, although a few exceptions were made to this rule.[70]

The most important area of responsibility for regions is the national health service. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard

and the health service is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of eight per cent (Danish: sundhedsbidrag) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.[71] Municipalities and regions are led by directly elected councils, elected every four years. The most recent Danish local elections were held on 19 November 2013. HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard

The easternmost land in Denmark, the Ertholmene archipelago, with a population of 90 (2014) and area of 39 hectares, is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the Ministry of Defence.

The Kingdom of Denmark is a unitary state, however the Faroe Islands and Greenland were granted home rule (political autonomy)[73] TOSHIBA Equium A100 Series Keyboard

in 1948 and 1979 respectively, having previously had the status of counties.[74][75] Extensive powers have been devolved to the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which have their own governments and legislatures and are effectively self-governing in regards to domestic affairs.[75] However, the devolved legislatures are subordinate to the Folketing where the two territories are represented by two seats each. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard

High Commissioners (Danish: Rigsombudsmand) act as representatives of the Danish government in the Faroese Løgting and in the Parliament of Greenland, but they can not vote.[75] The Faroese government is defined to be an equal partner with the Danish government in the act of 2005 (Act on the Faroese authorities acquisition of affairs and fields)[76][77] and the Greenlandic people are defined as a separate people with the right toself-determination. DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

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Historians like Bernard Porter have characterized the mid-Victorian era, (1850-1870) as Britain's 'Golden Years.'.[45] There was peace and prosperity, as the national income per person grew by half. Much of the prosperity was due to the increasing industrialization, especially in textiles and machinery, as well as to the worldwide network of trade and engineering that produce profits for British merchants and experts from across the globe. HP G42-415DX Keyboard

There was peace abroad (apart from the short Crimean war, 1854–56), and social peace at home. Opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement, peaked as a democratic movement among the working class in 1848; its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions and cooperative societies.SONY VAIO PCG-FRV25 Keyboard

The working class ignored foreign agitators like Karl Marx in their midst, and joined in celebrating the new prosperity. Employers typically were paternalistic, and generally recognized the trade unions.[46] Companies provided their employees with welfare services ranging from housing, schools and churches, to libraries, baths, and gymnasia. DELL Inspiron M5030 Keyboard

Middle-class reformers did their best to assist the working classes aspire to middle-class norms of 'respectability.'There was a spirit of libertarianism, says Porter, as people felt they were free. Taxes were very low, and government restrictions were minimal. There were still problem areas, such as occasional riots, especially those motivated by anti-Catholicism. HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Society was still ruled by the aristocracy and the gentry, which controlled high government offices, both houses of Parliament, the church, and the military. Becoming a rich businessman was not as prestigious as inheriting a title and owning a landed estate. Literature was doing well, but the fine arts languished as the Great Exhibition of 1851 showcased Britain's industrial prowess rather than its sculpture, painting or music. Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard

The educational system was mediocre; the capstone universities (outside Scotland) were likewise mediocre.[47] Historian Llewellyn Woodward has concluded:[48]

For leisure or work, for getting or spending, England was a better country in 1879 than in 1815. The scales were less weighted against the weak, against women and children, and against the poor. HP 365485-001 Keyboard

There was greater movement, and less of the fatalism of an earlier age. The public conscience was more instructed, and the content of liberty was being widened to include something more than freedom from political constraint.... Yet England in 1871 was by no means an earthly paradise. DELL Vostro 1014 Keyboard

The housing and conditions of life of the working class in town & country were still a disgrace to an age of plenty.

The Great London Exhibition of 1851 clearly demonstrated Britain's dominance in engineering and industry; that lasted until the rise of the United States and Germany in the 1890s. FUJITSU Lifebook E8210 Keyboard

Using the imperial tools of free trade and financial investment,[49] it exerted major influence on many countries outside Europe, especially in Latin America and Asia. Thus Britain had both a formal Empire based on British rule and an informal one based on the British pound.

One nagging fear was the possible collapse of the Ottoman Empire. TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard

It was well understood that a collapse of that country would set off a scramble for its territory and possibly plunge Britain into war. To head that off Britain sought to keep the Russians from occupying Constantinople and taking over the Bosporous Straits, as well as from threatening India via Afghanistan.[51]  FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard

In 1853, Britain and France intervened in the Crimean War against Russia. Despite mediocre generalship, they managed to capture the Russian port of Sevastopol, compelling Tsar Nicholas I to ask for peace.[52] A second Russo-Ottoman war in 1877 led to another European intervention, although this time at the negotiating table. GATEWAY V030946FS1 US Keyboard

The Congress of Berlin blocked Russia from imposing the harsh Treaty of San Stefano on the Ottoman Empire.[53] Despite its alliance with the French in the Crimean War, Britain viewed the Second Empire of Napoleon III with some distrust, especially as the emperor constructed ironclad warships and began returning France to a more active foreign policy.  SONY 148738121 Keyboard

But after Napoleon's downfall in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, he was allowed to spent his last years exiled in Britain.During the American Civil War (1861–1865), British leaders personally disliked American republicanism and favoured the more aristocratic Confederacy, as it had been a major source of cotton for textile mills.  DELL PVDG3 Keyboard

Prince Albert was effective in defusing a war scare in late 1861. The British people, who depended heavily on American food imports, generally favoured the United States. What little cotton was available came from New York, as the blockade by the US Navy shut down 95% of Southern exports to Britain. I DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

n September 1862, during the Confederate invasion of Maryland, Britain (along with France) contemplated stepping in and negotiating a peace settlement, which could only mean war with the United States. But in the same month, US president Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation. DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

Since support of the Confederacy now meant support for slavery, there was no longer any possibility of European intervention.[54]

Meanwhile the British sold arms to both sides, built blockade runners for a lucrative trade with the Confederacy, and surreptitiously allowed warships to be built for the Confederacy.  DELL Precision M4500 Keyboard

The warships caused a major diplomatic row that was resolved in the Alabama Claims in 1872, in the Americans' favour.

In 1867, Britain united most of its North American colonies as the Dominion of Canada, giving it self-government and responsibility for its own defence, but Canada did not have an independent foreign policy until 1931. HP Pavilion dv6-3040sp Keyboard

Several of the colonies temporarily refused to join the Dominion despite pressure from both Canada and Britain; the last one, Newfoundland, held out until 1949.

The second half of the 19th century saw a huge expansion of Britain's colonial empire in Asia and Africa. HP 519265-001 Keyboard

In the latter continent, there was talk of the Union Jack flying from "Cairo to Cape Town", which only became a reality at the end of World War I. Having possessions on six continents, Britain had to defend all of its empire with a volunteer army, for it was the only power in Europe to have no conscription. Some questioned whether the country was overstretched. HP G42-415DX Keyboard


The rise of the German Empire since 1871 posed a new challenge, for it (along with the United States) threatened to take Britain's place as the world's foremost industrial power. Germany acquired a number of colonies in Africa and the Pacific, but Chancellor Otto von Bismarck succeeded in achieving general peace through his balance of power strategy. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Keyboard

When William II became emperor in 1888, he discarded Bismarck, began using bellicose language, and planned to build a navy to rival Britain's.[56]

Ever since Britain had taken control of South Africa from the Netherlands in the Napoleonic Wars, it had run afoul of the Dutch settlers who further away and created two republics of their own.  HP Mini 210-1109TU Keyboard

The British imperial vision called for control over the new countries and the Dutch-speaking "Boers" (or "Afrikaners") fought back in the War in 1899–1902. Outgunned by a mighty empire, the Boers waged a guerilla war, which gave the British regulars a difficult fight, but weight of numbers, superior equipment, and often brutal tactics eventually brought about a British victory. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard

The war had been costly in human rights and was widely criticised by Liberals in Britain and worldwide. However, the United States gave its support. The Boer republics were merged into Union of South Africa in 1910; it had internal self-government but its foreign policy was controlled by London and was an integral part of the British Empire.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard


Britain in addition to taking control of new territories, developed an enormous power in economic and financial affairs in numerous independent countries, especially in Latin America and Asia. It lent money, built railways, and engaged in trade. The Great London Exhibition of 1851 clearly demonstrated Britain's dominance in engineering, communications and industry; that lasted until the rise of the United States and Germany in the 1890s. HP Pavilion G6-1227TU Keyboard


In 1890-1902 under Salisbury Britain promoted a policy of Splendid isolation with no formal allies.

Part of the agreement which led to the 1800 Act of Union stipulated that the Penal Laws in Ireland were to be repealed and Catholic Emancipation granted. HP AEUT5U00010 Keyboard

However King George III blocked emancipation, arguing that to grant it would break his coronation oath to defend the Anglican Church. A campaign under lawyer and politician Daniel O'Connell, and the death of George III, led to the concession of Catholic Emancipation in 1829, allowing Catholics to sit in Parliament. HP Mini 110-3004tu Keyboard

O'Connell then mounted an unsuccessful campaign for the Repeal of the Act of Union.

When potato blight hit the island in 1846, much of the rural population was left without food because cash crops were being exported to pay rents.British politicians such as the Prime Minister Robert Peel were at this time wedded to the economic policy of laissez-faire, which argued against state intervention of any sort. SONY V072078BS1 Keyboard

While enormous sums were raised by private individuals and charities (American Indians[who?] sent supplies, while Queen Victoria personally gave the present-day equivalent € 70,000), lack of adequate action let the problem become a catastrophe. The class of cottiers or farm labourers was virtually wiped out in what became known in Britain as 'The Irish Potato Famine' and in Ireland as the Great Hunger. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Keyboard


Most Irish people elected as their MPs Liberals and Conservatives who belonged to the main British political parties (note: the poor didn't have a vote at that time). A significant minority also elected Unionists, who championed the cause of the maintenance of the Act of Union. A former Tory barrister turned nationalist campaigner, Isaac Butt, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

established a new moderate nationalist movement, the Home Rule League, in the 1870s. After Butt's death the Home Rule Movement, or the Irish Parliamentary Party as it had become known, was turned into a major political force under the guidance of William Shaw and in particular a radical young Protestant landowner, Charles Stewart Parnell. ACER Extensa 5635Z Keyboard

The Irish Parliamentary Party dominated Irish politics, to the exclusion of the previous Liberal, Conservative and Unionist parties that had existed. Parnell's movement proved to be a broad church, from conservative landowners to the Land League which was campaigning for fundamental reform of Irish landholding, where most farms were held on rental from large aristocratic estates.  Lenovo 45N2106 Keyboard


Parnell's movement campaigned for 'Home Rule', by which they meant that Ireland would govern itself as a region within the United Kingdom, in contrast to O'Connell who wanted complete independence subject to a shared monarch and Crown. Two Home Rule Bills (1886 and 1893) were introduced by Liberal Prime Minister Ewart Gladstone, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E525 Keyboard

but neither became law, mainly due to opposition from the House of Lords. The issue divided Ireland, for a significant unionist minority (largely though by no means exclusively based in Ulster), opposed Home Rule, fearing that a Catholic-Nationalist parliament in Dublin would discriminate against them and would also impose tariffs on industry; HP Pavilion DV7-3060us Keyboard

while most of Ireland was primarily agricultural, six counties in Ulster were the location of heavy industry and would be affected by any tariff barriers imposed.

The Queen gave her name to an era of British greatness, especially in the far-flung British Empire with which she identified. She played a small role in politics, but became the iconic symbol of the nation, the empire, and proper, restrained behaviour.[6 Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E120 Keyboard

2] Her strength lay in good common sense and directness of character; she expressed the qualities of the British nation which at that time made it preeminent in the world. As a symbol of domesticity, endurance and Empire, and as a woman holding the highest public office during an age when middle- and upper-class IBM 42T3671 Keyboard

women were expected to beautify the home while men dominated the public sphere, Queen Victoria's influence has been enduring. Her success as ruler was due to the power of the self-images she successively portrayed of innocent young woman, devoted wife and mother, suffering and patient widow, and grandmotherly matriarch. HP 519265-001 Keyboard


Disraeli and Gladstone dominated the politics of the late 19th century, Britain's golden age of parliamentary government. They long were idolized, but historians in recent decades have become much more critical, especially regarding Disraeli.

Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881), prime minister 1868 and 1874–80, remains an iconic hero of the Conservative Party.  SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Keyboard

He was typical of the generation of British leaders who matured in the 1830s and 1840s. He was concerned with threats to established political, social, and religious values and elites; he emphasized the need for national leadership in response to radicalism, uncertainty, and materialism.[ Lenovo 3000 Y500 Keyboard

He is especially known for his enthusiastic support for expanding and strengthening the British Empire in India and Africa as the foundation of British greatness, in contrast to Gladstone's negative attitude toward imperialism. Gladstone denounced Disraeli's policies of territorial aggrandizement, ACER TravelMate 6292 Keyboard

military pomp, and imperial symbolism (such as making the Queen Empress of India), saying it did not fit a modern commercial and Christian nation. Disraeli drummed up support by warnings of a supposed Russian threat to India that sank deep into the Conservative mindset. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 Keyboard

Disraeli's old reputation as the "Tory democrat" and promoter of the welfare state fell away as historians showed he that Disraeli had few proposals for social legislation in 1874–80, and that the 1867 Reform Act did not reflect a vision Conservatism for the unenfranchised working man.[67] DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

However he did work to reduce class antagonism, for as Perry notes, "When confronted with specific problems, he sought to reduce tension between town and country, landlords and farmers, capital and labour, and warring religious sects in Britain and Ireland—in other words, to create a unifying synthesis." SONY VAIO VGN-CS31S/R Keyboard


William Ewart Gladstone (1809–1898) was the Liberal counterpart to Disraeli, serving as prime minister four times (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886, and 1892–94). His financial policies, based on the notion of balanced budgets, low taxes and laissez-faire, were suited to a developing capitalist society but could not respond effectively as economic and social conditions changed. HP Pavilion dv6-3045eo Keyboard

Called the "Grand Old Man" later in life, he was always a dynamic popular orator who appealed strongly to British workers and lower middle class. The deeply religious Gladstone brought a new moral tone to politics with his evangelical sensibility and opposition to aristocracy. His moralism often angered his upper-class opponents  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Keyboard

 (including Queen Victoria, who strongly favoured Disraeli), and his heavy-handed control split the Liberal party. His foreign policy goal was to create a European order based on cooperation rather than conflict and mutual trust instead of rivalry and suspicion; the rule of law was to supplant the reign of force and self-interest. DELL 0PVDG3 Keyboard

This Gladstonian concept of a harmonious Concert of Europe was opposed to and ultimately defeated by the Germans with a Bismarckian system of manipulated alliances and antagonisms.

Historians portray Conservative prime Minister Lord Salisbury (1830–1903) as a talented leader who was an icon of traditional, aristocratic conservatism.[70] TOSHIBA PK130260100 Keyboard

Robert Blake considers Salisbury "a great foreign minister, [but] essentially negative, indeed reactionary in home affairs".[71] Professor P.T. Marsh’s estimate is more favourable than Blake's, he portrays Salisbury as a leader who "held back the popular tide for twenty years."[72] Professor Paul Smith argues that, ACER Aspire 2920-5A2G25Mi Keyboard

"into the ‘progressive’ strain of modern Conservatism he simply will not fit."[73] Professor H.C.G. Matthew points to "the narrow cynicism of Salisbury".[74] One admirer of Salisbury, Maurice Cowling largely agrees with the critics and says Salisbury found the democracy born of the 1867 and 1884 Reform Acts as "perhaps less objectionable than he had expected—succeeding, through his public persona, in mitigating some part of its nastiness."COMPAQ Presario CQ60-215DX Keyboard

The Victorian era is famous for the Victorian standards of personal morality. Historians generally agree that the middle classes held high personal moral standards (and usually followed them), but have debated whether the working classes followed suit. Moralists in the late 19th century such as Henry Mayhew decried the slums for their supposed high levels of cohabitation without marriage and illegitimate births.  TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 Keyboard

However new research using computerized matching of data files shows that the rates of cohabitation were quote low—under 5%—for the working class and the poor. By contrast in 21st century Britain, nearly half of all children are born outside marriage, and nine in ten newlyweds have been cohabitating. Lenovo 3000 Y500 Keyboard


Queen Victoria died in 1901 and her son Edward VII became king, inaugurating the Edwardian Era, which was characterised by great and ostentatious displays of wealth in contrast to the sombre Victorian Era. With the advent of the 20th century, things such as motion pictures, automobiles, and aeroplanes were coming into use.  ASUS F6VE Keyboard

The new century was characterised by a feeling of great optimism. The social reforms of the last century continued into the 20th with the Labour Party being formed in 1900. Edward died in 1910, to be succeeded by George V, who reigned 1910–36. Scandal-free, hard working and popular, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Keyboard

George V was the British monarch who, with Queen Mary, established the modern pattern of exemplary conduct for British royalty, based on middle-class values and virtues. He understood the overseas Empire better than any of his prime ministers and used his exceptional memory for figures and details, whether of uniforms, politics, or relations, to good effect in reaching out in conversation with his subjects. SONY VAIO VGN NR298E Keyboard

The era was prosperous but political crises were escalating out of control. Dangerfield (1935) identified the "strange death of liberal England" as the multiple crisis that hit simultaneously in 1910–1914 with serious social and political instability arising from the Irish crisis, labor unrest, the women's suffrage movements, and partisan and constitutional struggles in Parliament. HP Mini 210 Keyboard

At one point it even seemed the Army might refuse orders dealing with Northern Ireland.[78] No solution appeared in sight when the unexpected outbreak of the Great War in 1914 put domestic issues on hold.

McKibben argues that the political party system of the Edwardian era was in delicate balance on the eve of the war in 1914. Acer eMachines E732 Keyboard

The Liberals were in power with a progressive alliance of Labour and, off and on, Irish Nationalists. The coalition was committed to free trade (as opposed to the high tariffs the Conservatives sought), free collective bargaining for trades unions (which Conservatives opposed), HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard

an active social policy that was forging the welfare state, and constitutional reform to reduce the power of the House of Lords. The coalition lacked a long-term plan, because it was cobbled together from leftovers from the 1890s. The sociological basis was non-Anglican religion and non-English ethnicity rather than the emerging class conflict emphasized by Labour. TOSHIBA NSK-T4D01 Keyboard


Britain entered the war because of its implicit support for France, which had entered to support Russia, which in turn had entered to support Serbia. Even more important than that chain of links was Britain's determination to honor its commitment to defend Belgium. Britain was loosely part of the Triple Entente with France and Russia, HP 405963-001 Keyboard

which (with smaller allies) fought the Central Powers of Germany, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. After a few weeks the Western Front turned into a killing ground in which millions of men died but no army made a large advance.

The stalemate required an endless supply of men and munitions. By 1916, volunteering fell off, SAMSUNG Q35 Keyboard

the government imposed conscription in Britain (but not in Ireland) to keep up the strength of the Army. After a rough start in industrial mobilisation, Britain replaced prime minister Asquith in December 1916 with the much more dynamic Liberal leader David Lloyd George. The nation now successfully mobilised its manpower, womanpower, industry, finances, HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee Keyboard

Empire and diplomacy, in league with France and the U.S. to defeat the enemy. After defeating Russia, the Germans tried to win in the spring of 1918 before the millions of American soldiers arrived. They failed, and they were overwhelmed and finally accepted an Armistice in November, 1918, that amounted to a surrender.SONY VAIO VGN NR185E Keyboard


Britain eagerly supported the war, but in Ireland the Catholics were restless and plotted a rebellion in 1916. It failed but the brutal repression that followed turned that element against Britain.[80][81][82][83] The economy grew about 14% from 1914 to 1918 despite the absence of so many men in the services; by contrast the German economy shrank 27%. ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Keyboard

The War saw a decline of civilian consumption, with a major reallocation to munitions. The government share of GDP soared from 8% in 1913 to 38% in 1918 (compared to 50% in 1943).[84][85] The war forced Britain to use up its financial reserves and borrow large sums from New York banks. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

After the U.S. entered in April 1917, the Treasury borrowed directly from the U.S. government.

The Royal Navy dominate the seas, almost, but not quite, defeating the smaller German fleet in the only great battle, the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Germany was blockaded and was increasingly short of food. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

It tried to fight back with submarines, despite the risk of war by the powerful neutral power the United States. The waters around Britain were declared a war zone where any ship, neutral or otherwise, was a target. After the liner Lusitania was sunk in May 1915, drowning over 100 American passengers, protests by the United States led Germany to abandon unrestricted submarine warfare. HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

With victory over Russia in 1917 Germany now calculated it could finally have numerical superiority on the Western Front. Planning for a massive spring offensive in 1918, it resumed the sinking of all merchant ships without warning. The US entered the war alongside the Allies (without actually joining them), HP 606013-001 CPU Fan

and provided the needed money and supplies to keep them going. the u-boats were defeated by a convoy system across the Atlantic.

On other fronts, the British, French, Australians, and Japanese seized Germany's colonies. Britain fought the Ottoman Empire, suffering defeats in the Gallipoli Campaign) and in Mesopotamia, while arousing the Arabs who helped expel the Turks from their lands. HP COMPAQ KSB05105HA CPU Fan

Exhaustion and war-weariness were growing worse in 1917, as the fighting in France continued with no end in sight. The German spring offensives of 1918 failed, and with the arrival of the American in summer at the rate of 10,000 a day the Germans realized they were being overwhelmed. Germany agreed to an armistice—actually a surrender—on 11 November 1918. HP 538340-001 CPU Fan


Victorian attitudes and ideals that had continued into the first years of the 20th century changed during World War I. The army had traditionally never been a large employer in the nation, with the regular army standing at 247,432 at the start of the war.[86] By 1918, there were about five million people in the army and the fledgling Royal Air Force, HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPU Fan

newly formed from the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) and the Royal Flying Corps (RFC), was about the same size of the pre-war army. The almost three million casualties were known as the "lost generation," and such numbers inevitably left society scarred; but even so, some people felt their sacrifice was little regarded in Britain, DELL MD538 CPU Fan

with poems like Siegfried Sassoon's Blighters criticising the ill-informed jingoism of the home front.

The war had been won by Britain and its allies, but at a terrible human and financial cost, creating a sentiment that wars should never be fought again. HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

The League of Nations was founded with the idea that nations could resolve their differences peacefully, but these hopes were unfounded. The harsh peace settlement imposed on Germany would leave it embittered and seeking revenge.

At the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Lloyd George, American President Woodrow Wilson and French premier Georges Clemenceau made all the major decisions. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The formed the League of Nations as a mechanism to prevent future wars. They sliced up the losers to form new nations in Europe, and divided up the German colonies and Ottoman holdings outside Turkey. They imposed what appeared to be heavy financial reparations (but with in the event were of modest size).  HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan

They humiliated Germany by forcing it to declare its guilt for starting the war, a policy that caused deep resentment in Germany and helped fuel reactions such as Naziism. Britain gained the German colony of Tanganyika and part of Togoland in Africa, while its dominions added other colonies. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Britain gained League of Nations mandates over Palestine, which had been partly promised as a homeland for Jewish settlers, and Iraq. Iraq became fully independent in 1932. Egypt, which had been a British protectorate since 1882, became independent in 1922, although the British remained there until 1952. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan


In 1912, the House of Lords managed to delay a Home Rule bill passed by the House of Commons. It was enacted as the Government of Ireland Act 1914. During these two years the threat of religious civil war hung over Ireland with the creation of the Unionist Ulster Volunteers opposed to the Act and their nationalist counterparts, the Irish Volunteers supporting the Act. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

The outbreak of World War I in 1914 put the crisis on political hold. A disorganized Easter Rising in 1916 was brutally suppressed by the British, which had the effect of galvanizing Catholic demands for independence. Prime Minister David Lloyd George failed to introduce Home Rule in 1918 and in the December 1918 General Election Sinn Féin won a majority of Irish seats. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Its MPs refused to take their seats at Westminster, instead choosing to sit in the First Dáil parliament in Dublin. A declaration of independence was ratified by Dáil Éireann, the self-declared Republic's parliament in January 1919. An Anglo-Irish War was fought between Crown forces and the Irish Republican Army between January 1919 and June 1921. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ CPU Fan

The war ended with the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921 that established the Irish Free State.[88] Six northern, predominantly Protestant counties became Northern Ireland and have remained part of Britain ever since, despite demands of the Catholic minority to unite with the Republic of Ireland. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Britain officially adopted the name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927.

Historian Arthur Marwick sees a radical transformation of British society resulting from the Great War, a deluge that swept away many old attitudes and brought in a more equalitarian society. SONY Vaio VGN-BX760PS5 CPU Fan

He sees the famous literary pessimism of the 1920s as misplaced, arguing there were major positive long-term consequences of the war to British society. He points to an energized self-consciousness among workers that quickly built up the Labour Party, the coming of partial woman suffrage, and an acceleration of social reform and state control of the economy. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

He sees a decline of deference toward the aristocracy and established authority in general, and the weakening among youth of traditional restraints on individual moral behavior. The chaperone faded away; village druggists sold contraceptives. Marwick says that class distinctions softened, national cohesion increased, and British society became more equal.  HP Pavilion dv7-3065dx CPU Fan


Two major programs that permanently expanded the welfare state passed in 1919 and 1920 with surprisingly little debate, even as the Conservatives dominated parliament. The Housing and Town Planning Act of 1919 set up a system of government housing that followed the 1918 campaign promises of “homes fit for heroes.” HP 550 CPU Fan

HP Pavilion dv7-3170ep CPU Fan

The Addison Act, named after the first Minister of Health Doctor Christopher Addison, required local authorities to survey their housing needs, and start building houses to replace slums. The treasury subsidized the low rents. In England and Wales, 214,000 houses were built, and the Ministry of Health became largely a ministry of housing.[90] IBM 26R8197 CPU Fan


The Unemployment Insurance Act of 1920 passed at a time of very little unemployment. It set up the dole system that provided 39 weeks of unemployment benefits to practically the entire civilian working population except domestic service, farm workers, and civil servants. Funded in part by weekly contributions from both employers and employed, HP Pavilion dv7-6187cl CPU Fan

it provided weekly payments of 15s for unemployed men and 12s for unemployed women. Historian Charles Mowat calls these two laws "Socialism by the back door," and notes how surprised politicians were when the costs to the Treasury soared during the high unemployment of 1921. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5831 CPU Fan


The Lloyd-George coalition fell apart in 1922. Stanley Baldwin, as leader of the Conservative Party (1923–37) and as Prime Minister (in 1923–24, 1924–29 and 1935–37), dominated British politics.[92] His mixture of strong social reforms and steady government proved a powerful election combination,  IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

with the result that the Conservatives governed Britain either by themselves or as the leading component of the National Government. He was the last party leader to win over 50% of the vote (in the general election of 1931). Baldwin's political strategy was to polarize the electorate so that voters would choose between the Conservatives on the right and the Labour Party on the left, squeezing out the Liberals in the middle.[93 APPLE 661-4952 CPU Fan

] The polarization did take place and while the Liberals remained active under Lloyd George, they won few seats and were a minor factor until they joined a coalition with the Conservatives in 2010. Baldwin's reputation soared in the 1920s and 1930s, but crashed after 1945 as he was blamed for the appeasement policies toward Germany,  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan

and as admirers of Churchill made him the Conservative icon. Since the 1970s Baldwin's reputation has recovered somewhat.[94]

Labour won the 1923 election, but in 1924 Baldwin and the Conservatives returned with a large majority.Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan


McKibbin finds that the political culture of the interwar period was built around an anti-socialist middle class, supported by the Conservative leaders, especially Baldwin.

Taxes rose sharply during the war and never returned to their old levels. A rich man paid 8% of his income in taxes before the war, and about a third afterwards. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Much of the money went for the dole, the weekly unemployment benefits. About 5% of the national income every year was transferred from the rich to the poor. Taylor argues most people "were enjoying a richer life than any previously known in the history of the world: longer holidays, shorter hours, higher real wages."[96]HP Pavilion dv9230us CPU Fan


The British economy was lackluster in the 1920s, with sharp declines and high unemployment in heavy industry and coal, especially in Scotland and Wales. Exports of coal and steel fell in half by 1939 and the business community was slow to adopt the new labour and management principles coming from the US, such as Fordism, consumer credit, eliminating surplus capacity, designing a more structured management, and using greater economies of scale.[97IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Series CPU Fan


] For over a century the shipping industry had dominated world trade, but it remained in the doldrums despite various stimulus efforts by the government. With the very sharp decline in world trade after 1929, its condition became critical.[98] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan


Chancellor of the Exchequer Winston Churchill put Britain back on the gold standard in 1925, which many economists blame for the mediocre performance of the economy. Others point to a variety of factors, including the inflationary effects of the World War and supply-side shocks caused by reduced working hours after the war.[99] IBM ThinkPad T60 2637 CPU Fan


By the late 1920s, economic performance had stabilised, but the overall situation was disappointing, for Britain had fallen behind the United States as the leading industrial power. There also remained a strong economic divide between the north and south of England during this period, APPLE MG62090V1-Q020-S99 CPU Fan


with the south of England and the Midlands fairly prosperous by the Thirties, while parts of south Wales and the industrial north of England became known as "distressed areas" due to particularly high rates of unemployment and poverty. HP 535766-001 CPU Fan,HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan, Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

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History of the United Kingdom

The history of the United Kingdom as a unified sovereign state began in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland,[1] into a united kingdom called Great Britain. On this new state the historian Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world...  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

it was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history."[2] A further Act of Union in 1800 added the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

The early years of the unified kingdom of Great Britain were marked by Jacobite risings which ended with defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Keyboard

Later, in 1763, victory in the Seven Years War led to the dominance of the British Empire, which was to be the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. As a result, the culture of the United Kingdom, and its industrial, political, constitutional, educational and linguistic legacy, is widespread. ACER TravelMate 2800 Series Keyboard


In 1922, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Ireland effectively seceded from the United Kingdom to become the Irish Free State; a day later, Northern Ireland seceded from the Free State and became part of the United Kingdom. As a result, in 1927 the United Kingdom changed its formal title to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,"[3] usually shortened to the "United Kingdom", the "UK" or "Britain". DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

Former parts of the British Empire became independent dominions.

In the Second World War, in which the Soviet Union and the US joined Britain as allied powers, Britain and its Empire fought a successful war against Germany, Italy and Japan. The cost was high and Britain no longer had the wealth or the inclination to maintain an empire, so it granted independence to most of the Empire. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

The new states typically joined the Commonwealth of Nations.[4] The United Kingdom has sought to be a leading member of the United Nations, the European Union and NATO, yet since the 1990s large-scale devolution movements in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have brought into question the future viability of this constantly evolving political union. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge S420 Keyboard


The united kingdom of Great Britain came into being on 1 May 1707, as a result of the political union of the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland. The terms of the union had been agreed in the Treaty of Union that was negotiated the previous year and then ratified by the parliaments of Scotland and England each approving Acts of Union. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420S Keyboard


Although previously separate states, England and Scotland had shared monarchs since 1603 when James VI of Scotland become James I of England on the death of the childless Elizabeth I, an event known as the Union of the Crowns. The Treaty of Union enabled the two kingdoms to be combined into a single kingdom with the two parliaments merging into a single parliament of Great Britain. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420 Keyboard

Queen Anne, who reigned from 1702 to 1714, had favoured deeper political integration between the two kingdoms and became the first monarch of Great Britain. The union was valuable to England from a security standpoint, since it meant that Scotland lost the possibility to choose a different monarch on her death, Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420i Keyboard

reducing the chance of a European power using Scotland as a route to invading England.

Although now a single kingdom, certain aspects of the former independent kingdoms remained separate, in line with the terms in the Treaty of Union: Scottish and English law remained separate, as did the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and the Anglican Church of England. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420S Keyboard

England and Scotland also continued to have their own systems of education.

The creation of Great Britain happened during the War of the Spanish Succession, in which just before his death in 1702 William III had reactivated the Grand Alliance against France. His successor, Anne, continued the war. SONY VGN-FE11M Keyboard

The Duke of Marlborough won a series of brilliant victories over the French, England's first major battlefield successes on the Continent since the Hundred Years War. France was nearly brought to its knees by 1709, when King Louis XIV made a desperate appeal to the French people. Afterwards, his general Marshal Villars managed to turn the tide in favour of France. ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Keyboard

A more peace-minded government came to power in Great Britain, and the treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt in 1713–1714 ended the war.

Queen Anne died in 1714, and the Elector of Hanover, George Louis, became king as George I (1714–1727).  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard

He paid more attention to Hanover and surrounded himself with Germans, making him an unpopular king, However he did build up the army and created a more stable political system in Britain and helped bring peace to northern Europe.[6][7] Jacobite factions seeking a Stuart restoration remained strong; they instigated a revolt in 1715–1716.  HP 516884-001 Keyboard

The son of James II planned to invade England, but before he could do so, John Erskine, Earl of Mar, launched an invasion from Scotland, which was easily defeated.[8]

George II (1727–1760) enhanced the stability of the constitutional system, with a government run by Sir Robert Walpole during the period 1730–42.[9] SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard

He built up the first British Empire, strengthening the colonies in the Caribbean and North America. In coalition with the rising power Prussia, defeated France in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), and won full control of Canada.[10]

George III reigned 1760–1820; he was born in Britain, never visited Hanover, and spoke English as his first language.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard

Frequently reviled by Americans as a tyrant and the instigator of the American War of Independence, he was insane off and on after 1788 as his eldest son served as regent.[11] The last king to dominate government and politics, his long reign is noted for losing the first British Empire with a loss in the American Revolutionary War (1783), as France sought revenge for its defeat in the Seven Years War by aiding the Americans.  HP Pavilion DV7-2177cl Keyboard

The reign was notable for the building of a second empire based in India, Asia and Africa, the beginnings of the industrial revolution that made Britain an economic powerhouse, and above all the life and death struggle with the French, the French Revolutionary Wars 1793–1802, ending in a draw and a short truce, and the epic Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), ending with the decisive defeat of Napoleon. SONY VAIO VPC-F12 Keyboard


The era was prosperous as entrepreneurs extended the range of their business around the globe. The South Sea Bubble was a business enterprise that exploded in scandal. The South Sea Company was a private business corporation set up in London ostensibly to grant trade monopolies in South America. HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Keyboard

Its actual purpose was to re-negotiate previous high-interest government loans amounting to £31 million through market manipulation and speculation. It issued stock four times in 1720 that reached about 8,000 investors. Prices kept soaring every day, from £130 a share to £1,000, with insiders making huge paper profits. SONY VAIO VGN-NW35E/W Keyboard

The Bubble collapsed overnight, ruining many speculators. Investigations showed bribes had reached into high places—even to the king. Robert Walpole managed to wind it down with minimal political and economic damage, although some losers fled to exile or committed suicide.

From 1700 to 1850, Britain was involved in 137 wars or rebellions. TOSHIBA Satellite M640-BT2N23 Keyboard

It maintained a relatively large and expensive Royal Navy, along with a small standing army. When the need arose for soldiers it hired mercenaries or financed allies who fielded armies. The rising costs of warfare forced a shift in government financing from the income from royal agricultural estates and special imposts and taxes to reliance on customs and excise taxes and, after 1790, an income tax. DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

Working with bankers in the City, the government raised large loans during wartime and paid them off in peacetime. The rise in taxes amounted to 20% of national income, but the private sector benefited from the increase in economic growth. The demand for war supplies stimulated the industrial sector, particularly naval supplies, SONY VGN-FE41S Keyboard

munitions and textiles, which gave Britain an advantage in international trade during the postwar years.

The French Revolution polarized British political opinion in the 1790s, with conservatives outraged at killing of the king, the expulsion of the nobles, and the Reign of Terror. TOSHIBA 6037B0028502 Keyboard

Britain was at war against France almost continuously from 1793 until the final defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Conservatives castigated every radical opinion in Britain as "Jacobin" (in reference to the leaders of the Terror), warning that radicalism threatened an upheaval of British society.  DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

The Anti-Jacobin sentiment, well expressed by Edmund Burke and many popular writers was strongest among the landed genrty and the upper classes.

The Seven Years' War, which began in 1756, was the first war waged on a global scale, fought in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines and coastal Africa.  HP Pavilion DV7-2173cl Keyboard

The signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763) had important consequences for Britain and its empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power there was effectively ended with the ceding of New France to Britain (leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control) and Louisiana to Spain. Spain ceded Florida to Britain.  Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 Keyboard

 ACER Aspire 1690 Keyboard

In India, the Carnatic War had left France still in control of its enclaves but with military restrictions and an obligation to support British client states, effectively leaving the future of India to Britain. The British victory over France in the Seven Years War therefore left Britain as the world's dominant colonial power.[  HP 519265-001 Keyboard


During the 1760s and 1770s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of opposition to Parliament's repeated attempts to tax American colonists without their consent.[20] Disagreement turned to violence and in 1775 the American Revolutionary War began. FUJITSU Lifebook E8210 Keyboard

In 1776 the Patriots expelled royal officials and declared the independence of the United States of America. After capturing a British invasion army in 1777, the US formed an alliance with France (and in turn Spain aided France), evening out the military balance. The British army controlled only a handful of coastal cities. 1780–81 was a low point for Britain. HP Pavilion DV7-3183cl Keyboard

Taxes and deficits were high, government corruption was pervasive, and the war in America was entering its sixth year with no apparent end in sight. The Gordon Riots erupted in London during the spring of 1781, in response to increased concessions to Catholics by Parliament. In October 1781 Lord Cornwallis surrendered his army at Yorktown, Virginia. FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard

The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, formally terminating the war and recognising the independence of the United States.

The loss of the Thirteen Colonies, at the time Britain's most populous colonies, marked the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,[22] Compaq Presario CQ62-358TU Keyboard

in which Britain shifted its attention to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, had argued that colonies were redundant, and that free trade should replace the old mercantilist policies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal. TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard

The growth of trade between the newly independent United States and Britain after 1783[23] confirmed Smith's view that political control was not necessary for economic success.

During its first 100 years of operation, the focus of the British East India Company had been trade, not the building of an empire in India. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard

Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the British East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the La Compagnie française des Indes orientales, during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s.  HP Pavilion DV6-1350us Keyboard

The British, led by Robert Clive, defeated the French and their Indian allies in the Battle of Plassey, leaving the Company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the size of the territories under its control, either ruling directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force of the Indian Army, 80% of which was composed of native Indian sepoys.  HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard

On 22 August 1770, James Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia[24] while on a scientific voyage to the South Pacific. In 1778, Joseph Banks, Cook's botanist on the voyage, presented evidence to the government on the suitability of Botany Bay for the establishment of a penal settlement, and in 1787 the first shipment of convicts set sail, arriving in 1788. ASUS F6VE Keyboard


At the threshold to the 19th century, Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations.

The British government had somewhat mixed reactions to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, and when war broke out on the Continent in 1792, it initially remained neutral. But the following January, Louis XVI was beheaded. DELL NSK-DB301 Keyboard

This combined with a threatened invasion of the Netherlands by France spurred Britain to declare war. For the next 23 years, the two nations were at war except for a short period in 1802–1803. Britain alone among the nations of Europe never submitted to or formed an alliance with France. HP Pavilion dv6-3057tx Keyboard

Throughout the 1790s, the British repeatedly defeated the navies of France and its allies, but were unable to perform any significant land operations. An Anglo-Russian invasion of the Netherlands in 1799 accomplished little except the capture of the Dutch fleet.

It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: DELL Vostro PP38L Keyboard

Napoleon threatened invasion of Britain itself, and with it, a fate similar to the countries of continental Europe that his armies had overrun.

On 1 January 1801, the Great Britain and Ireland joined to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Events that culminated in the union with Ireland had spanned several centuries. HP Pavilion DV7-3057nr Keyboard

Invasions from England by the ruling Normans from 1170 led to centuries of strife in Ireland and successive Kings of England sought both to conquer and pillage Ireland, imposing their rule by force throughout the entire island. In the early 17th century, large-scale settlement by Protestant settlers from both Scotland and England began, TOSHIBA Satellite l20-135 Keyboard

especially in the province of Ulster, seeing the displacement of many of the native Roman Catholic Irish inhabitants of this part of Ireland. Since the time of the first Norman invaders from England, Ireland has been subject to control and regulation, firstly by England then latterly by Great Britain. Toshiba Satellite L30-10X CPU Fan


After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Irish Roman Catholics were banned from voting or attending the Irish Parliament. The new English Protestant ruling class was known as the Protestant Ascendancy. Towards the end of the 18th century the entirely Protestant Irish Parliament attained a greater degree of independence from the British Parliament than it had previously held. Toshiba Satellite A300-21H CPU Fan

Under the Penal Laws no Irish Catholic could sit in the Parliament of Ireland, even though some 90% of Ireland's population was native Irish Catholic when the first of these bans was introduced in 1691. This ban was followed by others in 1703 and 1709 as part of a comprehensive system disadvantaging the Catholic community, and to a lesser extent Protestant dissenters. SONY Vaio VGN-FS415M CPU Fan

In 1798, many members of this dissenter tradition made common cause with Catholics in a rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen. It was staged with the aim of creating a fully independent Ireland as a state with a republican constitution. Despite assistance from France the Irish Rebellion of 1798 was put down by British forces. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca CPU Fan


Possibly influenced by the War of American Independence (1775–1783), a united force of Irish volunteers used their influence to campaign for greater independence for the Irish Parliament. This was granted in 1782, giving free trade and legislative independence to Ireland. However, the French revolution had encouraged the increasing calls for moderate constitutional reform. HP Pavilion dv9547cl CPU Fan

The Society of United Irishmen, made up of Presbyterians from Belfast and both Anglicans and Catholics in Dublin, campaigned for an end to British domination. Their leader Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763–98) worked with the Catholic Convention of 1792 which demanded an end to the penal laws. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

Failing to win the support of the British government, he travelled to Paris, encouraging a number of French naval forces to land in Ireland to help with the planned insurrections. These were slaughtered by government forces, but these rebellions convinced the British under Prime Minister William Pitt that the only solution was to end Irish independence once and for all. IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan


The legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was brought about by the Act of Union 1800, creating the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland". The Act was passed in both the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland, dominated by the Protestant Ascendancy and lacking representation of the country's Roman Catholic population. Toshiba Satellite P300 CPU Fan

Substantial majorities were achieved, and according to contemporary documents this was assisted by bribery in the form of the awarding of peerages and honours to opponents to gain their votes.[27] Under the terms of the merger, the separate Parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland were abolished, and replaced by a united Parliament of the United Kingdom. HP Pavilion dv7-4283cl CPU Fan

Ireland thus became an integral part of the United Kingdom, sending around 100 MPs to the House of Commons at Westminster and 28 representative peers to the House of Lords, elected from among their number by the Irish peers themselves, except that Roman Catholic peers were not permitted to take their seats in the Lords. HP COMPAQ 2510P Series CPU Fan

Part of the trade-off for the Irish Catholics was to be the granting of Catholic Emancipation, which had been fiercely resisted by the all-Anglican Irish Parliament. However, this was blocked by King George III, who argued that emancipating the Roman Catholics would breach his Coronation Oath. The Roman Catholic hierarchy had endorsed the Union. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea CPU Fan

However the decision to block Catholic Emancipation fatally undermined the appeal of the Union.

During the War of the Second Coalition (1799–1801), Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch colonies (the Netherlands had been a satellite of France since 1796), but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain was forced to return most of the colonies. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, and Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the German city of Hanover (a fief of the British crown). In May 1803, war was declared again. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Napoleon's plans to invade Britain failed due to the inferiority of his navy, and in 1805, Lord Nelson's fleet decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, which was the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars.

The series of naval and colonial conflicts, including a large number of minor naval actions, HP Pavilion dv6-2057eo CPU Fan

resembled those of the French Revolutionary Wars and the preceding centuries of European warfare. Conflicts in the Caribbean, and in particular the seizure of colonial bases and islands throughout the wars, could potentially have some effect upon the European conflict. HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr CPU Fan

The Napoleonic conflict had reached the point at which subsequent historians could talk of a "world war". Only the Seven Years' War offered a precedent for widespread conflict on such a scale.

In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System. IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan

This policy aimed to weaken the British export economy closing French-controlled territory to its trade. The British army remained a minimal threat to France; the British standing army of just 220,000 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars hardly compared to France's army of a million men—Toshiba Satellite A100-02M CPU Fan

in addition to the armies of numerous allies and several hundred thousand national guardsmen that Napoleon could draft into the military if necessary. Although the Royal Navy effectively disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

In addition, France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of Britain.

Many in the French government believed that isolating Britain from the Continent would end its economic influence over Europe and isolate it. Though the French designed the Continental System to achieve this, it never succeeded in its objective.  Toshiba Satellite P300-1FN CPU Fan

Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions from its rapidly expanding new Empire. Britain's naval supremacy meant that France could never enjoy the peace necessary to consolidate its control over Europe, and it could threaten neither the home islands nor nor the main British colonies.  HP G42-415DX CPU Fan


The Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington and his army of British and Portuguese gradually pushed the French out of Spain and in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians, Austrians, and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France.  HP Pavilion dv7-4177nr CPU Fan

After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned, but when he escaped back into France in 1815, the British and their allies had to fight him again. The armies of Wellington and Von Blucher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo.

A key element in British success was its ability to mobilize the nation’s industrial and financial resources and apply them to defeating France. HP 580718-001 CPU Fan

With a population of 16 million Britain was barely half the size of France with 30 million. In terms of soldiers the French numerical advantage was offset by British subsidies that paid for a large proportion of the Austrian and Russian soldiers, peaking at about 450,000 in 1813 ACER Aspire One A110-1834 CPU Fan

] Most important, the British national output remained strong and the well-organized business sector channeled products into what the military needed. The system of smuggling finished products into the continent undermined French efforts to ruin the British economy by cutting off markets.  Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

The British budget in 1814 reached £66 million, including £10 million for the Navy, £40 million for the Army, £10 million for the Allies, and £38 million as interest on the national debt. The national debt soared to £679 million, more than double the GDP. It was willingly supported by hundreds of thousands of investors and tax payers, despite the higher taxes on land and a new income tax. SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan

The whole cost of the war came to £831 million. By contrast the French financial system was inadequate and Napoleon’s forces had to rely in part on requisitions from conquered lands.

Napoleon also attempted economic warfare against Britain, especially in the Berlin Decree of 1806. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

It forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe. All connections were to be cut, even the mail. British merchants smuggled in many goods and the Continental System was not a powerful weapon of economic war.[33] HP Pavilion tx2510us CPU Fan

There was some damage to Britain, especially in 1808 and 1811, but its control of the oceans helped ameliorate the damage. Even more damage was done to the economies of France and its allies, which lost a useful trading partner.[34] Angry governments gained an incentive to ignore the Continental System, which led to the weakening of Napoleon's coalition.  ACER Aspire 7112WSMi CPU Fan


Simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States. The "second war of independence" for the American, it was little noticed in Britain, where all attention was focused on the struggle with France. The British could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in 1814. Toshiba GDM610000277 CPU Fan

American frigates also inflicted a series of embarrassing defeats on the British navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe. A stepped-up war effort that year brought about some successes such as the burning of Washington, but many influential voices such as the Duke of Wellington argued that an outright victory over the US was impossible.[36]  HP Pavilion dv7-6107tx CPU Fan


Peace was agreed to at the end of 1814, but Andrew Jackson, unaware of this, won a great victory over the British at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815 (news took several weeks to cross the Atlantic before the advent of steam ships). Ratification of the Treaty of Ghent ended the war in February 1815. Dell Vostro 3350 CPU Fan

The major result was the permanent defeat of the Indian allies the British had counted upon. The US-Canadian border was demilitarised by both countries, and peaceful trade resumed, although worries of an American conquest of Canada persisted into the 1860s.

Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars a very different country than it had been in 1793. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

As industrialisation progressed, society changed, becoming more urban and less rural. The postwar period saw an economic slump, and poor harvests and inflation caused widespread social unrest. Europe after 1815 was on guard against a return of Jacobinism, and even liberal Britain saw the passage of the Six Acts in 1819, which proscribed radical activities. TOSHIBA Mini NB 300 Series Keyboard

By the end of the 1820s, along with a general economic recovery, many of these repressive laws were repealed and in 1828 new legislation guaranteed the civil rights of religious dissenters.

A weak ruler as regent (1811–20) and king (1820–30), George IV let his ministers take full charge of government affairs, playing a far lesser role than his father, George III. SONY VGN-FE28H Keyboard

The principle now became established that the king accepts as prime minister the person who wins a majority in the House of Commons, whether the king personally favors him or not. His governments, with little help from the king, presided over victory in the Napoleonic Wars, negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed.[37] DELL Latitude E5500 Keyboard

His brother William IV ruled (1830–37), but was little involved in politics. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all the British Empire, and, most important, the Reform Act 1832 refashioned the British electoral system.[38] HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Keyboard

There were no major wars until the Crimean War of 1853–56.[39] While Prussia, Austria, and Russia, as absolute monarchies, tried to suppress liberalism wherever it might occur, the British came to terms with new ideas. Britain intervened in Portugal in 1826 to defend a constitutional government there and recognising the independence of Spain's American colonies in 1824.[ TOSHIBA Equium A100 Series Keyboard

British merchants and financiers, and later railway builders, played major roles in the economies of most Latin American nations.[41] The British intervened in 1827 on the side of the Greeks, who had been waging a war of independence against the Ottoman Empire since 1824.

The Whig Party recovered its strength and unity by supporting moral reforms, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Keyboard

especially the reform of the electoral system, the abolition of slavery and emancipation of the Catholics. Catholic emancipation was secured in the Catholic Relief Act of 1829, which removed the most substantial restrictions on Roman Catholics in Britain.[42]

The Whigs became champions of Parliamentary reform. They made Lord Grey prime minister 1830–1834, and the Reform Act of 1832 became their signature measure. DELL Vostro 3350 Keyboard

It broadened the franchise and ended the system of "rotten borough" and "pocket boroughs" (where elections were controlled by powerful families), and instead redistributed power on the basis of population. It added 217,000 voters to an electorate of 435,000 in England and Wales. ACER Aspire 7736ZG Keyboard

The main effect of the act was to weaken the power of the landed gentry, and enlarge the power of the professional and business middle-class, which now for the first time had a significant voice in Parliament. However, the great majority of manual workers, clerks, and farmers did not have enough property to qualify to vote. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Keyboard

The aristocracy continued to dominate the government, the Army and Royal Navy, and high society.[42] After parliamentary investigations demonstrated the horrors of child labour, limited reforms were passed in 1833.

Chartism emerged after the 1832 Reform Bill failed to give the vote to the working class. HP 9J.N0Y82.H01 Keyboard

Activists denounced the 'betrayal' of the working class and the 'sacrificing' of their 'interests' by the 'misconduct' of the government. In 1838, Chartists issued the People's Charter demanding manhood suffrage, equal sized election districts, voting by ballots, payment of MPs (so poor men could serve), annual Parliaments, and abolition of property requirements. HP 517865-031 Keyboard

Elites saw the movement as pathological, so the Chartists were unable to force serious constitutional debate. Historians see Chartism as both a continuation of the 18th century fight against corruption and as a new stage in demands for democracy in an industrial society.[43]

In 1832 Parliament abolished slavery in the Empire with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.  Lenovo 0A62039 Keyboard

The government purchased the slaves for £20,000,000 (the money went to rich plantation owners who mostly lived in England), and freed the slaves, especially those in the Caribbean sugar islands.

Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 saw Britain reach the zenith of its economic and political power. DELL Vostro A860 Keyboard

Exciting new technologies such as steam ships, railroads, photography, and telegraphs appeared, making the world much faster-paced. Britain again remained mostly inactive in Continental politics, and it was not affected by the wave of revolutions in 1848. The Victorian era saw the fleshing out of the second British Empire. HP Pavilion DV3000 Keyboard

Scholars debate whether the Victorian period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political concerns that have come to be associated with the Victorians—actually begins with her coronation or the earlier passage of the Reform Act 1832. The era was preceded by the Regency era and succeeded by the Edwardian period. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Keyboard


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