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Boston By the 1970s, the city's economy boomed after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this time period. This boom continued into the mid-1980s and later began again. Boston has the second largest skyline in the Northeast (after New York) in terms of the number of buildings reaching a height of over 500 feet (150 m). Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital,  COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital lead the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as Boston University, the Harvard Medical School, Northeastern University, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Berklee College of Musicand Boston Conservatory attract students to the area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 overdesegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s. HP Pavilion dv6-3019tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1984, the City of Boston gave control of the Columbia Point public housing complex to a private developer, who redeveloped and revitalized the property from its rundown and dangerous state into an attractive residential mixed-income community called Harbor Point Apartments, which opened in 1988 and was completed by 1990. It was the first federal housing project to be converted to private, mixed-income housing in the United States, and served as a model for the federal HUD HOPE VI public housing revitalization program that began in 1992.[53]HP G42-364LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  Gateway MX6447 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 21st century, the city has become an intellectual, technological, and political center. It has, however, experienced a loss of regional institutions,[55] which included the acquisition of The Boston Globe by The New York Times, and the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was acquired byCharlotte-based Bank of America in 2004. Boston-based department stores Jordan Marsh and Filene's have both been merged into the Cincinnati–based Macy's. Boston has also experienced gentrification in the latter half of the 20th century,[56] with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s.[26] Compaq Presario C571NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Living expenses have risen, and Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United States,[57] and was ranked the 99th most expensive major city in the world in a 2008 survey of 143 cities.[58] Despite cost of living issues, Boston ranks high on livability ratings, ranking 36th worldwide in quality of living in 2011 in a survey of 221 major cities.[59]Gateway NV55C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Owing to its early founding, Boston is very compact. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 89.6 square miles (232.1 km2)—48.4 square miles (125.4 km2) (54.0%) of land and 41.2 square miles (106.7 km2) (46.0%) of water. Boston is the country's third most densely populated city that is not a part of a larger city'smetropolitan area.[60] HP Pavilion dv4-1204tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This is largely attributable to the rarity of annexation by New England towns. Boston is surrounded by the "Greater Boston" region and is bordered by the cities and towns of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville,Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy. The Charles River separates Boston proper from Cambridge, Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown. To the east lies Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (BHINRA). SONY PCG-6S2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This includes part of the city's territory, specifically Calf Island, Gallops Island, Great Brewster Island, Green Island, Little Brewster Island, Little Calf Island, Long Island, Lovells Island, Middle Brewster Island, Nixes Mate, Outer Brewster Island, Rainsford Island, Shag Rocks, Spectacle Island, The Graves, and Thompson Island. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy and the town ofMilton.[61]  FUJITSU CA49008-0271 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett, and Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor separate East Boston from Boston proper.[62] Boston's official elevation, as measured at Logan International Airport, is 19 ft (5.8 m) above sea level.[63] The highest point in Boston is Bellevue Hill at 330 feet (100 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is at sea level.[64] Boston is the only state capital in the contiguous United States with an ocean coastline.[65]HP Envy 17-1050eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Much of the Back Bay and South End neighborhoods are built on reclaimed land—all of the earth from two of Boston's three original hills, the "Trimountain", was used as landfill material. Pemberton Hill, which would become Pemberton Square in theGovernment Center neighborhood, and Mount Vernon, were leveled completely. HP Mini 110-1116NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Only Beacon Hill—the smallest of the three original hills—remains partially intact; only half of its height was cut down for landfill. Tremont Street is named after the three hills. The downtown area and immediate surroundings consist mostly of low-rise brick or stone buildings, with many older buildings in the Federal style.  Toshiba Portege R835 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Several of these buildings mix in with modern high-rises, notably in the Financial District, Government Center, the South Boston waterfront, and Back Bay, which includes many prominent landmarks such as theBoston Public Library, Christian Science Center, Copley Square, Newbury Street, and New England's two tallest buildings—theJohn Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.[66]HP Pavilion G72-a10EV Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent weather forecast beacon—the color of the illuminated light gives an indication of weather to come: "steady blue, clear view; flashing blue, clouds are due; steady red, rain ahead; flashing red, snow instead". (In the summer, flashing red indicates instead that a Red Soxgame has been rained out.) Smaller commercial areas are interspersed among single-family homes and wooden/brick multi-family row houses. HP Pavilion dv6-3340et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Currently, the South End Historic District remains the largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood in the U.S.[67] Along with downtown, the geography of South Boston was particularly impacted by the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project (or the "Big Dig"). The unstable reclaimed land in South Boston posed special problems for the project's tunnels. In the downtown area, the CA/T Project allowed for the removal of the unsightly elevated Central Artery and the incorporation of new green spaces and open areas. HP Pavilion dv2610us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston Common, located near the Financial District and Beacon Hill, is the oldest public park in the United States.[69] Along with the adjacent Boston Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to encircle the city. Jamaica Pond, part of the Emerald Necklace, is the largest body of freshwater in the city. Franklin Park, which is also part of the Emerald Necklace, is the city's largest park and houses the Franklin Park Zoo.[70] ACER Aspire 5710Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another major park is the Esplanade, located along the banks of the Charles River. The Hatch Shell, an outdoor concert venue, is located adjacent to the Charles River Esplanade. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with the major parks and beaches located near Castle Island (not part of the BHINRA, and connected to the mainland); in Charlestown; and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines. SONY Vaio VGN-BZAAPS Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston is sometimes called a "city of neighborhoods" because of the profusion of diverse subsections. There are 21 official neighborhoods in Boston used by the city.[71] These neighborhoods include: Allston/Brighton, Back Bay, Bay Village, Beacon Hill, Charlestown, Chinatown/Leather District, Dorchester, Downtown/Financial District, East Boston, Fenway/Kenmore, Hyde Park, Jamaica Plain, Mattapan, Mission Hill, North End, Roslindale,Roxbury, South Boston, South End, West End, and West Roxbury. SONY VGN-CS118E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston has a climate that is continental in nature but with maritime influences owing to its coastal location, a phenomenon common to coastal southern New England. The climate is either classified as a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), using the −3 °C (26.6 °F) isotherm of the original Köppen scheme, or ahumid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm preferred by some climatologists.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Summers are typically warm, rainy, and humid, while winters are cold, windy, and snowy. Spring and fall are usually mild, but conditions are widely varied, depending on wind direction and jet stream positioning. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore affect Boston, minimizing the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of 73.7 °F (23.2 °C). The coldest month is January, with a mean of29.3 °F (−1.5 °C). Periods exceeding 90 °F (32.2 °C) in summer and below 10 °F (−12.2 °C) in winter are not uncommon but rarely extended, with about 13 days per year seeing the former extreme,[72] and the most recent subzero reading occurring on January 24, 2011.[73] Extremes have ranged from −18 °F (−28 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 104 °F (40 °C) on July 4, 1911.[73]HP Pavilion dv9890ep Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston's coastal location on the North Atlantic, although it moderates temperatures, also makes the city very prone toNor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain.[74] The city averages 42.5 inches (1,080 mm) of precipitationa year, with 43.1 inches (109 cm) of snowfall a year. Snowfall increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city (especially north and west of the city)—away from the warming influence of the ocean.[75] Most snowfall occurs from December through March. There is usually little or no snow in April and November, and snow is rare in May and October.[76][77] APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch A1151 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Fog is somewhat common, particularly in spring and early summer, and the occasional tropical storm or hurricane can threaten the region, especially in early autumn. Due to its situation along the North Atlantic, the city is often subjected to sea breezes, especially in the late spring, when water temperatures are still quite cold and temperatures at the coast can be more than 20 °F (11 °C) colder than a few miles inland, sometimes dropping by that amount near midday.[78][79]SONY Vaio VGN-TX5XN/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From May to September, the city experiences thunderstorms that are occasionally severe; large hail, damaging winds and heavy downpours accompany such severe events. Although downtown Boston has never been struck by a violent tornado, the city itself has seen its fair share of tornado warnings, but damaging storms are more common to areas north, west, and northwest of the city. Toshiba UDQF2RH51C1N Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to the 2000 United States Census,[92] there were 589,141 people, 239,528 households, and 115,212 families residing in the city. When including the Greater Boston region, rather than just the city itself, the total is approximately 4.5 million. Boston's population density was 12,166 people per square mile (4,697/km2). There were 251,935 housing units at an average density of 5,203 per square mile (2,009/km2). The 2010 U.S. Census population count for the city was 617,594,[6] SONY Vaio VGN-NR430DP Laptop CPU Cooling Fan a 4.8% increase over 2000. During weekdays, the population of Boston can grow during the daytime to over 1.2 million, and can reach as many as 2 million during special events. This fluctuation of people is caused by hundreds of thousands of suburban residents who travel to the city for work, education, health care, and special events.[93]HP Pavilion dv5-1140us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the city, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 16.2% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.[94]  SONY Vaio VGN-C15GP/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There were 239,528 households, of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 27.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.9% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.17.[94]HP Pavilion dv7-4113tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The median income for a household in the city was $39,629, and the median income for a family was $44,151. Males had a median income of $37,435 versus $32,421 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,353. 19.5% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 25.6% of those under the age of 18 and 18.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[95]HP Pavilion dv9850eb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1950, whites represented 94.7% of Boston's population.[96] From the 1950s to the end of the 20th century, the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in the city declined; in 2000, non-Hispanic whites made up 49.5% of the city's population, making the city majority-minority for the first time. However, in recent years the city has experienced significant gentrification, in which affluent whites have moved into formerly non-white areas. In 2006, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that non-Hispanic whites again formed a slight majority.  HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan But as of 2010, in part due to the housing crash, as well as increased efforts to make more affordable housing more available the minority population has rebounded. This may also have to do with an increased Latino population and more clarity surrounding U.S. Census statistics, which indicate a Non-Hispanic White population of 47 percent (some reports give slightly lower figures).[97][98][99]ACER Aspire 4755G Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan People of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population, followed by Italians, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indian ancestry are another sizable group, at 6.4%,[101] about half of whom are of Haitian ancestry. Some neighborhoods, such as Dorchester, HP G62-b30SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan have received an influx of people of Vietnamese ancestry in recent decades. Neighborhoods such as Jamaica Plain and Roslindale have experienced a growing number of Dominican Americans. The city and greater area also has a large immigration population of South Asians, including the tenth-largest Indian community in the country, with an estimated 62,598 Indians.[102]SONY VAIO VGN-AW35GJ Laptop Keyboard The city also has a sizable Jewish population with an estimated 25,000 Jews within the city and 227,000 within the Boston metro area; the number of congregations in Boston is estimated at 22.[103][104] The adjacent communities ofBrookline and Newton are both approximately one-third Jewish.[103]SONY VAIO VGN-AW21M Laptop Keyboard The "Boston accent" is widely parodied in the U.S. and the Kennedy family is often associated with it, though the Kennedys' speech is generally considered more an idiosyncratic mix of various accents such as Boston Brahmin.[105][106][107] It is non-rhotic (i.e., drops the "r" sound at the end of syllables unless the next syllable starts with a vowel) and traditionally uses a "broad a" in certain words, so "bath" can sound like "bahth".[108] Boston English has many dialect words, such as "frappe", meaning "milkshake made with ice cream" (as opposed to other milkshakes).[109] The accent originated in the non-rhotic speech of 17th century East Anglia and Lincolnshire.[110]SONY VAIO VGN-FS115M Laptop Keyboard The city has seen a great reduction in violent crime since the early 1990s. Boston's low crime rate over the past decade or so has been credited to the Boston Police Department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the United States Attorney and District Attorney's offices. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle". Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000).[111] SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard In the 2000s (decade), however, the annual murder count has fluctuated by as much as 50% compared with the year before, with 60 murders in 2002, followed by just 39 in 2003, 64 in 2004, and 75 in 2005. Although the figures are nowhere near the high-water mark set in 1990, the aberrations in the murder rate have been unsettling for many Bostonians and have prompted discussion over whether the Boston Police Department should reevaluate its approach to fighting crime.[111][112][113]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7132 Laptop Keyboard Encompassing $363 billion, the Greater Boston metropolitan area has the sixth-largest economy in the country and 12th-largest in the world.[115] Boston's colleges and universities have a significant effect on the regional economy, with students contributing an estimated $4.8 billion annually to the city's economy.[116] Boston's schools are major employers and attract industries to the city and surrounding region. Boston is home to a number of technology companies and is a hub forbiotechnology, with the Milken Institute rating Boston as the top life sciences cluster in the country.[117]Boston also receives the highest absolute amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States.[118]GATEWAY M-6883u Laptop Keyboard Tourism comprises a large part of Boston's economy. In 2004, tourists spent $7.9 billion and made the city one of the ten-most-popular tourist locations in the country.[17] Because of Boston's status as a state capital and the regional home of federal agencies, law and government are another major component of the city's economy.[17] The city is also a major seaport along the United States' East Coast and is also the oldest continuously operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere.[119]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Some of the other important industries are financial services, especially mutual funds and insurance.[17] Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston one of the top financial cities in the United States. The city is home to the regional headquarters of Bank of America and Sovereign Bank, and it is a center for venture capital firms. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is based in the city. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard A 2008 study ranked Boston among the top 10 cities in the world for a career in finance.[120] Boston is a printing and publishing center —Houghton Mifflin is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's Press, Beacon Press, and Little, Brown and Company. Pearson PLC publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to three major convention centers—the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, and theSeaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. HP G42-164LA Laptop Keyboard Some of the major companies headquartered within the city are the Liberty Mutual insurance company, Gillette (now owned by Procter & Gamble), and New Balance. Boston is also home to management consulting firms The Boston Consulting Group and Bain & Company, as well as the private equity group Bain Capital.[121] Other major companies are located outside the city, especially along Route 128,[122] which serves as the center of the region's high-tech industry. In 2006, Boston and its metropolitan area ranked as the fourth-largest cybercity in the United States with 191,700 high-tech jobs. Only NYC Metro, DC Metro, and Silicon Valley have larger high-tech sectors.[123]HP Pavilion DV6-1011tx Laptop Keyboard Boston is classified as an "incipient global city" by a 2004 study group at Loughborough University in England.[124] Classified as an Alpha-global city by GaWCstudies, comparable to Vienna, Dublin, or Istanbul, Boston is placed among the top 30 cities in the world.[citation needed]HP Mini 110-3138tu Laptop Keyboard Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-rhoticEastern New England accent known as Boston English, and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, salt, and dairy products. Irish Americans are a major influence on Boston's politics and religious institutions. Boston also has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang.[125]Lenovo 3000 Y510a 15303 Laptop Keyboard The city has a number of ornate theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre. Renowned performing-arts organizations include the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, Boston Early Music Festival, Boston Lyric Opera Company, OperaBoston, Boston Baroque, and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States).[127] The city is also a major center for contemporary classical music, HP G56-127NR Laptop Keyboard with a number of performing groups, some of which are associated with the city's conservatories and universities. These include Boston Modern Orchestra Project, Boston Musica Viva, Calluthumpian Consort, and Dinosaur Annex. There are also many major annual events such as First Night, which occurs on New Year's Eve, the annual Boston Arts Festival at Christopher Columbus Waterfront Park, Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints, and several events during the Fourth of July period. These events include the week-long Harborfest festivities[128] and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River.[129]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Boston is also one of the birthplaces of the hardcore punk genre of music. Boston musicians have contributed significantly to this music scene over the years (see also Boston hardcore). Boston neighborhoods were home to one of the leading local third wave ska and ska punk scenes in the 1990s, led by bands such as The Mighty Mighty Bosstones and The Allstonians DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard The 1980s' hardcore punk-rock compilation This Is Boston, Not L.A. highlights some of the bands that built the genre. Several nightclubs, such as The Channel, Bunnratty's in Allston, and The Rathskeller, were renowned for showcasing both local punk-rock bands and those from farther afield. All of these clubs are closed. Many were razed or converted during recent gentrification.[130]HP Pavilion dv6-2170us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Because of the city's prominent role in the American Revolution, several historic sites relating to that period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line of bricks embedded in the ground. The city is also home to several prominent art museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. In December 2006, the Institute of Contemporary Art moved from its Back Bay location to a new contemporary building designed byDiller Scofidio + Renfro located in the Seaport District. Toshiba Satellite P300-19P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University of Massachusetts Boston campus on Columbia Point houses the John F. Kennedy Library. The Boston Athenaeum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States),[131]Boston Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show Cheers), Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Boston has been a noted religious center from its earliest days. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston serves nearly 300 parishes and is based in theCathedral of the Holy Cross (1875) in the South End, while the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts, with the Cathedral Church of St. Paul (1819) as its episcopal seat, serves just under 200 congregations. Two Protestant faiths are headquartered in Boston: Unitarian Universalism, with its headquarters on Beacon Hill, and the Christian Scientists, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard headquartered in Back Bay at the Mother Church (1894). The oldest church in Boston is King's Chapel, the city's first Anglican church, founded in 1686 and converted to Unitarianism in 1785. Other notable churches include Christ Church (better known as Old North Church, 1723), the oldest church building in the city, Trinity Church (1733), Park Street Church (1809), First Church in Boston (congregation founded 1630, building raised 1868), Old South Church (1874), Jubilee Christian Church and Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on Mission Hill (1878).[citation needed]TOSHIBA P205-S6267 Laptop Keyboard The Boston Globe and the Boston Herald are two of Boston's major daily newspapers. The city is also served by other publications such as The Boston Phoenix,Boston magazineThe Improper BostonianBoston's Weekly Dig, and the Boston edition of MetroThe Christian Science Monitor, headquartered in Boston, was formerly a worldwide daily newspaper but ended publication of daily print editions in 2009, switching to continuous online and weekly magazine format publications.[132] The Boston Globe also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools. The newspaper Teens in Print or T.i.P. is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year.[133]HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard The city's growing Latino population has given rise to a number of local and regional Spanish-language newspapers. These include El Planeta (owned by The Boston Phoenix), El Mundo, and La SemanaSiglo21, with its main offices in nearby Lawrence, is also widely distributed.[citation needed]HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Boston has the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the Boston radio market being the eleventh largest in the United States.[134] Several major AMstations include talk radio WRKO 680 AM, sports/talk station WEEI 850 AM, and news radio WBZ 1030 AM. A variety of FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPRstations WBUR and WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB (Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (M.I.T.), WZBC (Boston College),WMFO (Tufts University), WBRS (Brandeis University), WTBU (Boston University, campus and web only), WRBB (Northeastern University) and WMLN (Curry College). DELL 1R28D Laptop Keyboard The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the seventh largest in the United States.[135] The city is served by stations representing every major American network, including WBZ 4 and its sister station WSBK 38 (the former with CBS, the latter an independent, nonaffiliated station), WCVB 5 (ABC), WHDH 7 (NBC), WFXT 25 (Fox), WUNI 27 (Univision), WBIN 50 (MyNetworkTV), and WLVI 56 (The CW). Boston is also home to PBS station WGBH 2, a major producer of PBS programs, which also operates WGBX 44. Most Boston television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton along theRoute 128 corridor.[136]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Boston Red Sox, a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball in 1901, play their home games atFenway Park, near Kenmore Square in the Fenway section of Boston. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional American sports leagues, ACER Aspire 3003WLCi Laptop Keyboard encompassing Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League.[138] Boston was also the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the AL Champion Boston Americans and the NL champion Pittsburgh Pirates.[139][140] HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard Persistent reports that the team was known in 1903 as the "Boston Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded.[141] Boston's first professional baseball team was the Red Stockings, one of the charter members of the National Association in 1871, and of the National League in 1876. The team played under that name until 1883, under the name Beaneaters until 1911, and under the name Braves from 1912 until they moved to Milwaukee after the 1952 season. Since 1966 they have played in Atlanta as the Atlanta Braves.[142]DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard The TD Garden formerly called the FleetCenter and originally called the Boston Garden is adjoined to North Station and is the home of three major league teams: the Boston Blazers of the National Lacrosse League, the 2011 Stanley Cup champion Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League; and the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association. The arena seats 18,624 for basketball games and 17,565 for ice hockey games. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey Leagueand an Original Six franchise.[143] APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard The Boston Celtics were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA.[144] The Celtics have the distinction of having won more championships than any other NBA team, with seventeen.[145]SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard While they have played in suburban Foxborough since 1971, the New England Patriots were founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, changing their name in 1971 to better reflect its status as New England's team. A charter member of the American Football League, the team joined the National Football League in 1970. The team has won the Super Bowl three times, in 2001, 2003, and 2004.[146] They shareGillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. The Boston Breakers of Women's Professional Soccer, which formed in 2009, play their home games at Harvard Stadium in Allston.[147]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard Boston's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Four NCAA Division I members play their games in the city—Boston College (Atlantic Coast Conference), Boston University (America East Conference), Harvard University (Ivy League), and Northeastern University (Colonial Athletic Association). HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Of the four, only Boston College participates in college football at the highest level, the Football Bowl Subdivision. Harvard participates in the second-highest level, theFootball Championship Subdivision. Boston University and Northeastern University do not have football teams. All but Harvard belong to the Hockey East conference; Harvard belongs to the ECAC in hockey. The hockey teams of these four universities meet every year in a four-team tournament known as the "Beanpot Tournament", which is played at the TD Garden over two Monday nights in February.[148]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-FS01UK Laptop Keyboard Boston Marathon One of the best known sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the 42.195-kilometre (26.219 mi) run from Hopkinton to Copley Square in the Back Bay which is the world's oldest annual marathon run.[149] It is run on Patriots' Day in April and always coincides with a Red Sox home baseball game that starts at 11:05 am, the only MLB game all year to start before noon local time.[150] Another major event held annually in the city is the Head of the Charles Regattarowing competition on the Charles River.[151]HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Boston has a strong mayor – council government system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers. The mayor is elected to a four-year term by plurality voting. The mayor of Boston is Thomas Menino. He was elected in 1993 and was reelected in 2009 for a fifth term, the longest in Boston history. Boston City Council is elected every two years. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard There are nine district seats, each elected by the residents of that district through plurality voting, and four at-large seats. Each voter casts up to four votes for at-large councilors, with no more than one vote per candidate. The candidates with the four highest vote totals are elected. The president of the city council is elected by the councilors from within themselves. The school committee for the Boston Public Schools is appointed by the mayor.[153] The Boston Redevelopment Authority and the Zoning Board of Appeals (a seven-person body appointed by the mayor) share responsibility for land-use planning.[154]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Boston Public Health Commission, and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)—play a role in the life of Bostonians. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard The city has several properties relating to the United States federal government, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building.[155] Boston also serves as the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit and of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts; Boston is the headquarters of theFederal Reserve Bank of Boston (the First District of the Federal Reserve). SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Representation in Congress Federally, Boston is part of Massachusetts's 8th and 9th congressional districts,[156] represented respectively by Mike Capuano, elected in 1998, and Stephen Lynch, elected in 2001; both are Democrats. The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat John Kerry, elected in 1984. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Republican Scott Brown, who was elected in 2010 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of long-time Democratic senatorTed Kennedy. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard Boston's reputation as a higher education center derives in large part from the teaching and research activities of more than 100 colleges and universities located in the Greater Boston Area, with more than 250,000 students attending college in Boston and Cambridge alone.[158] Within the city,Boston University exudes a large presence as the city's fourth-largest employer,[159] and maintains a campus along the Charles River on Commonwealth Avenue and its medical campus in the South End. Northeastern University,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard another large private university, is located in the Fenway area, and is particularly known for its Engineering, Business and Health Science schools and cooperative education program. Suffolk University, the third largest university in Boston, is located in the Beacon Hill area, and is known for itslaw school and business school.[160][161]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Boston College, a private Catholic Jesuit university, whose original campus was located in the South End, straddles the Boston (Brighton)-Newton border, with planned expansions further into Brighton.[162] Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts Boston, located on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two public community colleges. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Boston has several smaller private colleges and universities. Emmanuel College, Massachusetts College of Art and Design,Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wheelock College, and Wentworth Institute of Technology are founding members of the Colleges of the Fenway and are located adjacent to Northeastern University. New England School of Law, a small private law school located in the theater district, was originally established as America's first all female law school.[163] Emerson College, a small private college with a strong reputation in the fields of performing arts, journalism, writing, and film, is located near Boston Common. HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard Boston is also home to several conservatories and art schools, including The Art Institute of Boston (Lesley University),Massachusetts College of Art, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), and the New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).[164] Other conservatories include theBoston Conservatory, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts and Berklee College of Music. HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard Several universities located outside Boston have a major presence in the city. Harvard University, the nation's oldest, is located across the Charles River in Cambridge. Its business and medical schools are in Boston, and there are plans for additional expansion into Boston's Allston neighborhood.[165] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard which originated in Boston and was long known as "Boston Tech", moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916. Tufts Universityadministers its medical and dental school adjacent to the Tufts Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to both a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children. Tufts' main campus, including the renowned Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, is located just north of the city in Somerville and Medford. HP Mini 110-3001tu Laptop Keyboard Boston Public Schools, the oldest public school system in the U.S., enrolls 57,000 students from pre-kindergarten to grade 12.[18] The system operates 145 schools, which includes Boston Latin School (the oldest public high school in the United States, established in 1635) which, along with Boston Latin Academy andJohn D. O'Bryant School of Math & Science, are highly prestigious public exam schools admitting students in the 7th and 9th grades only and serving grades 7–12), DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard English High (the second oldest public high school, established 1821), and the Mather School (the oldest public elementary school, established in 1639).[18]In 2002, Forbes Magazine ranked the Boston Public Schools as the best large city school system in the country, with a graduation rate of 82%.[166] In 2005, the student population within the school system was 45.5% Black or African American, HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard 31.2% Hispanic or Latino, 14% White, and 9% Asian, as compared with 24%, 14%, 49%, and 8% respectively for the city as a whole.[167][168] The city also has private, parochial, and charter schools and approximately 3000 students of racial minorities attend Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard The Longwood Medical and Academic Area is a region of Boston with a concentration of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital Boston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School,Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard School of Dental Medicine,  Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.[169] Massachusetts General Hospital is near the Beacon Hill neighborhood, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospitalnearby. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center is in Brighton Center of Boston's Brighton neighborhood.New England Baptist Hospital is in Mission Hill. Boston has Veterans Affairs medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods.[170] The Boston Public Health Commission, an agency of the Massachusetts government, oversees health concerns for Boston residents.[171]Toshiba GB0506PHV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many of Boston's medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area and in Massachusetts General Hospital are well-known research medical centers affiliated with Harvard Medical School.[172] Tufts Medical Center (formerly Tufts-New England Medical Center), located in the southern portion of the Chinatown neighborhood, SONY Vaio VPC-EB11GD/BI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan is affiliated with Tufts University School of Medicine. Boston Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicineas well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area;[173] it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the United States.[174]  Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Water supply and sewage-disposal services are provided by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission.[175] The Commission in turn purchases wholesale water and sewage disposal from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The city's water comes from the Quabbin Reservoir and the Wachusett Reservoir, which are about 65 miles (105 km) and 35 miles (56 km) west of the city respectively.[176] Boston's tap water has been ranked among the best in the country,[177]  HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and Boston is one of five cities in the country with tap water pure enough to be exempt from Environmental Protection Agency filtration requirements.[178] NSTAR is the exclusive electricity distributor to the city, though due to deregulation, customers have a choice of electric generation companies. ACER eMachines E625 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Natural gas is distributed by National Grid plc (originally KeySpan, the successor company to Boston Gas); only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier.[179] Municipalsteam services are provided by Veolia Energy North America and its subsidiary Trigen Energy Corporation;[180][181] which comprise the original assets of the defunct Boston Heating Company.[182][183]HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, Bell Atlantic, and earlier, the Bell System, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. Cable television is available from Comcast and RCN, with broadband Internet access provided by the same companies in certain areas. A variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines.[184] Galaxy Internet Services (GIS) has also moved to the forefront to deploy municipal Wi-Fi broadband Internet throughout areas of the city of Boston.[185]HP G42-230US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Logan International Airport, located in the East Boston neighborhood, handles most of the scheduled passenger service for Boston.[186] Surrounding the city are three major general aviation relievers: Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field in Bedford, to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. T. F. Green Airport serving Providence, Rhode Island, and Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, also provide scheduled passenger service to the Boston area. SONY Vaio VPC-EB3HGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Downtown Boston's streets were not organized on a grid, but grew in a meandering organic pattern from early in the 17th century. They were created as needed, and as wharves and landfill expanded the area of the small Boston peninsula.[187] Along with several rotaries, roads change names and lose and add lanes seemingly at random. By contrast, streets in the Back Bay,East Boston, the South End, and South Boston do follow a grid system. Compaq Presario V3839tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston is the eastern terminus of cross-continent I-90, which in Massachusetts runs along the Massachusetts Turnpike. Originally known as the Circumferential Highway, Route 128 carries I-95 over a portion of its route west and north of the city. U.S. 1 and I-93 run concurrently north to south through the city from Charlestown to Dorchester, joined byMassachusetts Route 3 after the Zakim Bridge over the Charles River. The elevated portion of the Central Artery, which carried these routes through downtown Boston, was replaced with the O'Neill Tunnel during the Big Dig, substantially completed in early 2006.  IBM ThinkPad T41 2687 Laptop Keyboard With nearly a third of Bostonians using public transit for their commute to work, Boston has the fourth-highest rate of public transit usage in the country.[188] The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operates what was the first underground rapid transit system in the United States and is the fourth busiest rapid transit system in the country,[19]HP G61 Laptop Keyboard having been expanded to 65.5 miles (105 km) of track,[189] reaching as far north as Malden, as far south as Braintree, and as far west as Newton—collectively known as the "T". The MBTA also operates the nation's seventh busiest bus network, as well as water shuttles, and the nation's busiest commuter rail network outside of New York City or Chicago, totaling over 200 miles (320 km),[189] extending north to the Merrimack Valley, west to Worcester, and south to Providence and North Kingstown, Rhode Island. The MBTA lines are color coded as orange, green, red, blue, silver and purple. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Chicago lines originate at South Station and stop at Back Bay. Fast Northeast Corridor trains, which serve New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston.[190] Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeasterservice to Maine originates at North Station.[191]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Nicknamed "The Walking City", Boston hosts more pedestrian commuters than do other comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as the compactness of the city and large student population, 13% of the population commutes by foot, making it the highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities.[192] In 2011, Walk Scoreranked Boston the third most walkable city in the United States.[193][194]HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard Bicycle commuters and programs Between 1999 and 2006, Bicycling magazine named Boston as one of the worst cities in the U.S. for cycling three times;[195]regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting.[196] In September 2007, Mayor Menino started a bicycle program called Boston Bikes with a goal of improving bicycling conditions by adding bike lanes, racks, and offering bikeshare programs. In 2008, as a consequence the same magazine put Boston on its list of its "Five for the Future" list as a "Future Best City" TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard for biking,[197][198] and Boston's bicycle commuting percentage increased from 1% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2009.[199] The bikeshare program, called Hubway, launched in late July 2011,[200]logging more than 140,000 rides before the close of its first season.[201] In tandem with the program, police announced intention to step up enforcement of traffic laws, both on drivers and bikers,[202] as part of an effort to improve safety and ameliorate the city's growing clash between bikers and motorists.[203][204][205] The neighboring cities of Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline all intend to sign on to the Hubway program for launch in summer 2012.[206] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University[4] (informally Johns HopkinsJHU, or just Hopkins) is a private research universitybased in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[5] Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as the first president on February 22, 1876.[6]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-203AU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university

is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities. SONY Vaio VGN-NW26M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years.[7] As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins,[8] and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.[9]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland.[10] At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,[11] was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.[12]FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor. Toshiba Satellite L350-14F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. ACER Aspire 5739G-6959 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the nameJohn.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."[13] APPLE MacBook 13 inch MA701LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of JohnHopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."[14]HP 493001-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of theUniversity of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "TToshiba Satellite P100-434 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicistHenry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris;[15] the economistRichard T. Ely; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901. Toshiba Satellite L300D-10Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv6-2120es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerousscholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878. HP Envy 14-3017nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose.  HP 6820s Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard projects, and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing educationprograms and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-Americanstudent, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi.[17] ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients."[18] Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."[18]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions. The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.[19]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[20] They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.[20]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students. The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.[21]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard he first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are here. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown into the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians.[35] JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee.[41] The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.[42]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years.[48] The average GPA of enrolled freshmen is 3.74SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[57] It is ranked #1 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings.[58] The 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #17 internationally (#15 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy.[59] In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[60] HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[61][62][63] Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[64] #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,[65] ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008,[66] and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[67]HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine#2[68] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1[69] in the nation. TheSchool of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions.[70] The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences.[71] DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[72] Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008.[73] The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.[74]HP G62-b36EO Laptop Keyboard The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical& Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences andInternational Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.[75][76]HP G62-b15EL Laptop Keyboard The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.[citation needed]TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[77] Although no formal rankings exist formusic conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and theCurtis Institute. HP Pavilion dv6-3210us Laptop Keyboard Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor.[78] Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.[79]SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard

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Tufts University Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state ofMassachusetts. The university is organized into ten schools,[3] including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and the French Alps. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all of its disciplines[4] and is well known for its internationalism and study abroad programs.[5] Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard In 1852, Tufts College was founded by Christian Universalists who worked for years to open a non-sectarian institution of higher learning.[6] Charles Tufts donated the land for the campus on Walnut Hill, the highest point in Medford, saying that he wanted to set a "light on the hill." The name was changed to Tufts University in 1954, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard although the corporate name remains "the Trustees of Tufts College." After more than a century, Tufts was a small New England liberal arts college. The French-American nutritionist Jean Mayer became president of Tufts in the late 1970s and, through a series of rapid acquisitions, transformed the school into an internationally renowned research university.[7] It is known as both a Little Ivy and a "New Ivy" and consistently ranks among the nation's top schools. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard In the 1840s, the Universalist church wanted to open a college in New England, and in 1852, Charles Tufts donated 20 acres to the church to help them achieve this goal. Charles Tufts had inherited the land, a barren hill which was one of the highest points in the Boston area, called Walnut HIll, and when asked by a family member what he intended to do with the land, he said "I will put a light on it." His 20 acre donation (then valued at $20,000) is still at the heart of Tufts' now 150 acre campus, straddling Somerville and Medford.  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard It was also in 1852 that theCommonwealth of Massachusetts chartered Tufts College, noting the college should promote "virtue and piety and learning in such of the languages and liberal and useful arts as shall be recommended." Having been one of the biggest influences in the establishment of the College, Hosea Ballou II became the first president in 1853, and College Hall, the first building on campus, was completed the following year. That building now bears Ballou's name.[8] The campus opened in August 1854. The divinity school was organized in 1867.[9]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard P. T. Barnum was one of the earliest benefactors of Tufts College, and the Barnum Museum of Natural History was constructed in 1884 with funds donated by him to house his collection of animal specimens and the stuffed hide of Jumbo the elephant, who would become the university's mascot. The building stood until April 14, 1975, when fire gutted Barnum Hall, destroying the entire collection. HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard On July 15, 1892, the Tufts Board of Trustees voted "that the College be opened to women in the undergraduate departments on the same terms and conditions as men." At the same meeting, the trustees voted to create a graduate school faculty and to offer the Ph.D. degree in biology and chemistry. Tufts expanded in the 1930s with the opening of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the first graduate school of international affairs in the United States and a collaboration with Harvard University. Eventually, Fletcher lost its affiliation with Harvard. In 1955, continued expansion was reflected in the change of the school's name to Tufts University.[10]HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard During World War II, Tufts College was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[11] Due to travel restrictions imposed by World War II, the Boston Red Sox conducted spring training for the 1943 Major League season at Tufts College.[12]HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard The university experienced tremendous growth during the presidency of Jean Mayer (1976–1992).[13] Mayer was, by all accounts, some combination of "charming, witty, duplicitous, ambitious, brilliant, intellectual, opportunistic, generous, vain, slippery, loyal, possessed of an inner standard of excellence, and charismatic."[14] Mayer established Tufts' veterinary, nutrition, and biomedical schools and acquired the Grafton and Talloires campuses, at the same time lifting the university out of its dire financial situation by increasing the size of the endowment by a factor of 15.[13]HP Mini 110-3001tu Laptop Keyboard Under President Larry Bacow, Tufts started a capital campaign in 2006 with the goal of raising $1.2 billion to implement full need-blind admission by 2011.[15][16] As of December 10, 2010 the campaign raised $1.14 billion.[17] Tufts received the largest donations in its history since 2005, including a $136 million bequest to its endowment upon the dissolution of a charitable trust set up by 1911 alumnus Frank C. Doble,[18][19] a $100 million gift from eBay founderPierre Omidyar to establish the Omidyar-Tufts Microfinance Fund,[20] and a number of $40 million-plus gifts to specific schools.[21][22][23]DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard On November 30, 2010, the university announced that Anthony P. Monaco, formerly of Oxford, would become its thirteenth president.[24] Monaco's inauguration took place on October 21, 2011.[25]HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard Tufts' main campus is located on Walnut Hill in Medford, about 5 miles (8.0 km) from Boston. This campus houses all undergraduates in Arts & Sciences and Engineering, the graduate programs at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and all of the graduate programs in Arts & Sciences and Engineering. While the majority of the campus is in Medford, the Somerville line intersects it, placing parts of the lower campus in Somerville and leading to the common terms "Uphill" and "Downhill." Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard Many points on the hill have noted views of the Boston skyline, particularly the patio on the Tisch Library roof. It has been ranked one of the prettiest college campuses in America. The offices of the president, the provost, and several vice presidents and deans are located in Ballou Hall, and administrative offices occupy the surrounding neighborhoods and nearby Davis Square, where Tufts makes payments in lieu of taxes on some of its tax-exempt (educational) properties.[26]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Tufts has a satellite campus in Talloires, France at the Tufts European Center, a former Benedictine priory built in the 11th century. The priory was purchased in 1958 by Donald MacJannet and his wife Charlotte and used as a summer camp site for several years before the MacJannets gave the campus to Tufts in 1978. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Each year the center hosts a number of summer study programs, and enrolled students live with local families. There are programs for American high school students during the month of July, as well as a 6-week program for Tufts undergraduates that extends from the middle of May until the end of June. The site is frequently the host of international conferences and summits, most notably the Talloires Declaration which united 22 universities toward a goal of sustainability.[27]TOSHIBA P205-S6267 Laptop Keyboard Each school has its own faculty and is led by a dean appointed by the president and the provost with the consent of the Board of Trustees. In addition, the university is affiliated with the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and the New England Conservatory. Toshiba GB0506PHV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The School of Arts and Sciences and the School of Engineering are the only schools that award both undergraduate and graduate degrees. The Jackson College for Women, established in 1910 as a coordinate college adjacent to the Tufts campus, was integrated with the College of Liberal Arts in 1980, but is recognized in the formal name of the undergraduate arts and sciences division, the "College of Liberal Arts and Jackson College." Undergraduate women in arts and sciences continued to receive their diplomas from Jackson College until 2002. SONY Vaio VPC-EB11GD/BI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service was founded in 2000 "to educate for active citizenship" with the help of a $10 million gift fromeBay founder Pierre Omidyar and his wife Pam. The school was renamed in 2006 after a $40 million gift from Jonathan Tisch. It has been called the "most ambitious attempt by any research university to make public service part of its core academic mission."[28] Tisch College does not grant degrees; the college facilitates and supports a wide range of community service, civic engagement programs, research, and teaching initiatives across the university.  Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Under the purview of the School of Arts and Sciences is the Experimental College, a non-degree-granting entity created in 1964 as a proving ground for innovative, experimental, and interdisciplinary curricula and courses. It offers the opportunity for students to take for-credit courses with non-academic practitioners in a variety of fields, and also from upper-level undergraduates who have a chance to design and teach their own courses. Another successful component of the Ex College is EPIIC, a year-long program begun in 1985 to immerse students in a global issue, which culminates in an annual symposium of scholars and experts from the field.  HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tufts' undergraduate school is ranked #15 in Forbes' list of America's Best Colleges among universities and #32 among all educational institutions.[36] Washington Monthly's annual list of best colleges ranked Tufts #25 in the nation.[37] According to U.S. News & World Report's 2013 college rankings, Tufts ranks #28 in the nation with high school guidance counselors rankings Tufts #22 in the nation.[38][39] Foreign Policy ranks Tufts' Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy #4 in the world for International Relations.[40ACER eMachines E625 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan U.S. News ranks Tufts as #51 for engineering among schools that grant PhD degrees, slightly ahead of nearby Worcester Polytechnic Institute.[41] In 2010, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed Tufts at #53 in the world.[42] The university ranks #101 in Shanghai Jiao Tong University's 2009 Academic Ranking of World Universities[43] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and 174th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[44] Tufts' Medical School and Research Institute are ranked #33 and #44, respectively, according to U.S. News & World Report's 2010 rankings of Best Medical Schools in primary care and research,[45] and the Sackler School likewise ranks #56 in their rankings of Best Graduate Schools, Biological Sciences.[46] The Boston School of Occupational Therapy, an entry-level masters program within the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences at Tufts, ranks "#5" in U.S. News & World Report's Best Occupational Therapy Programs.[47]HP G42-230US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tufts is counted among the "Little Ivies" and was named by Newsweek as one of the "25 New Ivies."[48] In The Princeton Review's 2010–2011 "Best 363 Colleges," Tufts was ranked #14 for the happiest students and its study abroad program was ranked #3 in the country.[49][50] According to the October 2010 rankings compiled by The Chronicle of Higher Education, SONY Vaio VPC-EB3HGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Tufts ranked 12th in the country (tied with both Harvard and Johns Hopkins) with 17 Fulbright scholars.[51] Tufts also ranks #20 among medium-sized schools for the number of Teach for Americavolunteers it produces.[52] Tufts is also tied for second (tied with Dartmouth College and the University of Pennsylvania) for the number of undergraduate alumni who are current Fortune 100 CEOs.[53] Because of its continual growth as an institution, Tufts was ranked as the 5th "hottest school" of the decade from 2000-2010.[54]Compaq Presario V3839tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 2013 U.S. News & World Report college rankings, Tufts ranked as one of the top 20 most selective schools among national universities in the United States.[55] For the class of 2016, Tufts accepted 18.8% of 19,130 applicants,[56] an all-time low.[57] For the matriculating class of 2016, 91% of incoming freshmen rank in the top 10% of their high school class (up one percent from the previous year).[24][58] Tufts expects approximately thirty eight percent of its admitted students to enroll.[59] The most common overlap schools are Brown University, Dartmouth College, Cornell University, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Pennsylvania, and Georgetown University.[60] IBM ThinkPad T41 2687 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, Dean of Arts and Sciences Robert Sternberg added experimental criteria to the application process for undergraduates to test "creativity and other non-academic factors," including inviting applicants to submit YouTube videos to supplement their application.[61] Calling it the "first major university to try such a departure from the norm," Inside Higher Ed also notes that Tufts continues to consider the SAT and other traditional criteria.[62][63]HP G61 Laptop Keyboard Tufts competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference—the NESCAC—in NCAA Division III. Their mascot is the Jumbo, which is the only college mascot to appear in Webster's Dictionary. The mascot comes from P. T. Barnum's circus, as Barnum was one of the original trustees of Tufts College. According to legend, Jumbo the Elephant heroically jumped in front of a train, sacrificing himself to save a younger elephant from dying. Jumbo's stuffed skin was donated to the school, HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard and was displayed until a fire destroyed the body. Now, a statue of the elephant is a prominent landmark on the quad, near Barnum Hall, the Biology building. Tufts men's lacrosse team won the school's first ever NCAA team championship in 2010, beatingSalisbury State University in the championship game. They lost in 2011 to Salisbury in the championship.[64]DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard Tufts alumni in the government sector include Kostas Karamanlis, former Prime Minister of Greece; Shashi Tharoor, former United Nations Under-Secretary General and Indian Minister; Scott Brown, Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts; Bill Richardson, Democratic Governor of New Mexico; and Peter DeFazio, Democratic United States Representative from Oregon. Graduates who have found success in business include Pierre Omidyar, eBay founder; Roy Raymond, founder ofVictoria's Secret; HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard Laura Lang, CEO of Time Inc; Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase; John Bello, SoBe Beverages founder; Jeff Kindler, Former CEO of Pfizer;Jonathan Tisch, CEO of Loews Hotels; Ellen J. Kullman, CEO of DuPont; and Andy Fastow, Former CFO of Enron. Other notable alumni include President Lyndon B. Johnson, Michelle Kwan, Olympic medallist and World Champion figure skater from the United States; Rainn Wilson, American actor and comedian; Tracy Chapman, American singer/songwriter; and Peter Gallagher, American actor. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard In media, alumni include David Faber (CNBC), anchor at CNBC; Meredith Vieira, journalist and TV personality; Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr., The New York Timespublisher; Lew Rockwell, founder of Ludwig von Mises Institute; and Gregory Maguire, novelist. Such alumni have been known to write characters as students of Tufts or a thinly-veiled substitute, such as the title characters of Two Guys and a Girl and the lead character of Christopher Golden's Body of Evidence mystery novels. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Fictional alumni include the title character on Crossing Jordan, Alex Welch from the novella The Odd Saga of the American and a Curious Icelandic Flock,[72] and Dr. Jennifer Melfi on The Sopranos. Elaine Benes from Seinfeld claims that she attended Tufts, calling it her "safety school." In the 2009 The Simpsonsepisode "Bart Gets a 'Z'," Bart's substitute teacher announces to the class that he received his Master's in teaching from Tufts. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-203AU Laptop CPU Cooling Fangraduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's degrees and Ph.D. degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.[1][2] A distinction is typically made between graduate schools (where courses of study do not provide training for a particular profession) and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business,engineering, ministry or law. SONY Vaio VGN-NW26M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g., the UK and Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in some English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, India, New Zealand, and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students" (in both American and British English), or often in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates andprofessional degrees. FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Producing original research is often a significant component of graduate studies, including the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. The term "graduate school" is primarily North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not usually refer to medical school (whose students are called "medical students"), and only occasionally refers to law school or business school. (The latter types of programs are often collectively termed professional schools). Toshiba Satellite L350-14F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although graduate school programs are distinct experiences from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction (in Australia, the United States, and other countries) is often offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments that teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is rare for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level. At the Ph.D. level, though, ACER Aspire 5739G-6959 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is typically required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions designate separate graduate versus undergraduate staff and denote other divisions (often called School of X, e.g., diplomacy)  APPLE MacBook 13 inch MA701LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies (CAGS) or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures (ACES). The Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, and the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies.[3] Its mandate is to promote, advance, and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision, funding, and professional development. HP 493001-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Graduate students may take out student loans, but instead they often work as teaching or research assistants. Students often agree, as a condition of acceptance to a programme, not to devote more than twelve hours per week to work or outside interests. Various universities in Canada have different policies in terms of how much funding is available. This funding may also be different within a university in each of the disciplinesToshiba Satellite P100-434 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For Masters students, funding is generally available to first-year students whose transcripts reflect exceptionally high grades; this funding can also be obtained in the second year of studies. Funding for Ph.D. students comes from a variety of sources, and many universities waive tuition fees for doctoral candidates (This may also occur for masters students of some universities). Funding is available in the form of scholarships, bursaries and other awards, both private and public. Toshiba Satellite L300D-10Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Requirements for completion Both master's and doctoral programs may be done by coursework or research or a combination of the two, depending on the subject and faculty. Most faculties require both, with the emphasis on research, and with coursework being directly related to the field of research. HP Pavilion dv6-2120es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Master's candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages. Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis. HP Envy 14-3017nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ph.D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph.D. candidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese language.  HP 6820s Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master's and Ph.D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German for German literature, for example), but if this is the case, an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French. Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Admission to a master's program generally requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).  Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Admission to a doctoral program typically requires a master's degree in a related field, sufficiently high grades, recommendations, samples of writing, a research proposal, and typically an interview with a prospective supervisor. Requirements are often set higher than those for a master's program. In exceptional cases, a student holding an honours BA with sufficiently high grades and proven writing and research abilities may be admitted directly to a Ph.D. program without the requirement to first complete a master's. Many Canadian graduate programs allow students who start in a master's to "reclassify" into a Ph.D. program after satisfactory performance in the first year, bypassing the master's degree. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering graduate school; in the case of master's degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one's research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph.D.s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master's research. ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard Master's degrees can be completed in one year but normally take at least two; they typically may not exceed five years. Doctoral degrees require a minimum of two years but frequently take much longer, although not usually exceeding six years. The écoles doctorales ("Doctoral Schools") are educational structures similar in focus to graduate schools, but restricted at PhD level. These schools have the responsibilities of providing students with a structured doctoral training in a disciplinary field. The field of the school is related to the strength of the university : while some have two or three schools (typically "Arts and Humanities" and "Natural and Technological Sciences"), others have more specialized schools (History, Aeronautics, etc.). SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Admission to a doctoral program requires a master's degree, both research-oriented and disciplinary focused. High marks are required (typically a très bienhonour, equating a cum laude), but the acceptance is linked to a decision of the School Academical Board. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard A large share of the funding offered to junior researchers is channeled through the école doctorale, mainly in the shape of three-years "Doctoral Fellowships" (contrats doctoraux). These fellowships are awarded after submitting a biographical information, undergraduate and graduate transcripts where applicable, letters of recommendation, and research proposal, then an oral examination by an Academical Committee. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard The establishment of Graduiertenkollegs in Germany started in the early 1990s funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the German Research Foundation. Unlike the American model of graduate schools, a Graduiertenkolleg consists only of a PhD programme. In contrast with the traditional German apprentice model of pursuing a PhD, a Graduiertenkolleg aims to provide young researchers with a structured doctoral training within an excellent research environment. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard A Graduiertenkolleg typically consists of 20-30 doctoral students, about half of whom are supported by stipends from the DFG or another sponsor. The research programme is usually narrowly defined around a specific topic and has an interdisciplinary aspect. The programme is set up for a specific period of time (up to nine years if funded by the DFG). The official English translation of the term Graduiertenkolleg is Research Training Group. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In 2006, a different type of graduate school, termed Graduiertenschule, was established by the DFG as part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative. They are thematically much broader than the focused Graduiertenkollegs and consist often of 100-200 doctoral students. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Admission While most graduate programs will have a similar list of general admission requirements, the importance placed on each type of requirement can vary drastically between graduate schools, departments within schools, and even programs within departments. The best way to determine how a graduate program will weigh admission materials is to ask the person in charge of graduate admissions at the particular program being applied to. Admission to graduate school requires a bachelor's degree. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard High grades in one's field of study are important—grades outside the field less so. The Graduate Record Examination standardized test is required by almost all graduate schools, while other additional standardised tests (such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Tests) scores may be required by some institutions or programs.[4][5] In addition, good letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors are often essential,[6] as strong recommendation letters from mentors or supervisors of undergraduate research experience provide evidence that the applicant can perform research and can handle the rigors of a graduate school education. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Within the sciences and some social sciences, previous research experience may be important;[4][7] within most humanities disciplines, an example of academic writing normally suffices. Many universities require a personal statement (sometimes called Statement of purpose or Letter of Intent), which may include indications of the intended area(s) of research;[5] how detailed this statement is or whether it is possible to change one's focus of research depends strongly on the discipline and department to which the student is applying. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard In some disciplines or universities, graduate applicants may find it best to have at least one recommendation from research work outside of the college where they earned their Bachelor's degree;[citation needed] however, as with previous research experience, this may not be very important in most humanities disciplines. SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Some schools set minimum GPAs and test scores below which they will not accept any applicants;[8] this reduces the time spent reviewing applications. On the other hand, many other institutions often explicitly state that they do not use any sort of cut-offs in terms of GPA or the GRE scores. Instead, they claim to consider many factors, including past research achievements, the compatibility between the applicant's research interest and that of the faculty, the statement of purpose and the letters of reference, as stated above. Some programs also require professors to act as sponsors. Finally, applicants from non-English speaking countries often must take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).[9]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard At most institutions, decisions regarding admission are not made by the institution itself but the department to which the student is applying. Some departments may require interviews before making a decision to accept an applicant.[5] Most universities adhere to the Council of Graduate Schools' Resolution Regarding Graduate Scholars, Fellows, Trainees, and Assistants, which gives applicants until April 15 to accept or reject offers that contain financial support.[10] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master's or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master's programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation ("ABD," for "all but dissertation") often receive master's degrees and an additional master's called a Master of Philosophy (MPhil), or a Candidate of Philosophy (C.Phil.) degree. The master's component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.[4] In some departments, acomprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student's background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences, and relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Most graduate students perform teaching duties, often serving as graders and tutors. In some departments, they can be promoted to Lecturer status, a position that comes with more responsibility. Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework, and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master's and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard and defense of their research. This is called the master's thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master's degree programs do not require a master's thesis, focusing instead primarily on course work or on "practicals" or "workshops". Such "real-world" experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution, and under faculty supervision. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.[4] Programs often require a Qualifying Examination("Quals"), a PhD Candidacy Examination ("Candidacy"), or a General Examination ("Generals"), designed to ensure students have a grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations ("Specials"), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline. If these examinations are held orally, HP G62-b36EO Laptop Keyboard they may be known colloquially as "orals". For some social science and many humanities disciplines, where graduate students may or may not have studied the discipline at the undergraduate level, these exams will be the first set, and be based either on graduate coursework or specific preparatory reading (sometimes up to a year's work in reading). HP G62-b15EL Laptop Keyboard In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming, and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the thesis. Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master's level, which allows the student to leave with a master's without having completed a master's thesis. HP Pavilion dv6-3210us Laptop Keyboard SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research. Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between four and eight years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Though there is substantial variation among universities, departments, and individuals, humanities and social science doctorates on average take somewhat longer to complete than natural science doctorates. These differences are due to the differing nature of research between the humanities and some social sciences and the natural sciences, and to the differing expectations of the discipline in coursework, languages and length of thesis. SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard However, time required to complete adoctorate also varies according to the candidate's abilities and choice of research. Some students may also choose to remain in a program if they fail to win an academic position, particularly in disciplines with a tight job market; by remaining a student, they can retain access to libraries and university facilities, while also retaining an academic affiliation, which can be essential for conferences and job-searches. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time. However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably. TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard Competition for jobs within certain fields, such as the life sciences, is so great that almost all students now enter a second training period after graduate school called a postdoctoral fellowship. In total most life scientists will invest 12–14 years in low paid training positions and only 14% will obtain tenure track jobs (Miller McCune, the real science gap). The average age at which life scientists obtain their first R01 grant to conduct independent research is now 42. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In some disciplines, doctoral programs can average seven to ten years. Archaeology, which requires long periods of research, tends towards the longer end of this spectrum. The increase in length of degree is a matter of great concern for both students and universities, though there is much disagreement on potential solutions to this problem. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph.D. students, as well as a tuition waiver. The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and especially to competition among the elite universities for graduate students.  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one's work. Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard rarely allow the student to work on their own research. Science PhD students can apply for individual NRSA fellowships from the NIH or fellowships from private foundations. US universities often also offer competitive support from NIH-funded training programs. One example is the Biotechnology Training Program – University of Virginia. DELL PM425 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Departments often have funds for limited discretionary funding to supplement minor expenses such as research trips and travel to conferences. A few students can attain funding through dissertation improvement grants funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), or through similar programs in other agencies. Many students are also funded as lab researchers by faculty who have been funded by private foundations or by the NSF, National Institutes of Health (NIH),  HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan or federal "mission agencies" such as the Department of Defense or the Environmental Protection Agency. The natural sciences are typically well funded, so that most students can attain either outside or institutional funding, but in the humanities, not all do. Some humanities students borrow money during their coursework, then take full-time jobs while completing their dissertations. Students in the social sciences are less well funded than are students in the natural and physical sciences, but often have more funding opportunities than students in the humanities, particularly as science funders begin to see the value of social science research. HP G62-b51ST Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Funding differs greatly by departments and universities; some universities give five years of full funding to all Ph.D. students, though often with a teaching requirement attached; other universities do not. However, because of the teaching requirements, which can be in the research years of the Ph.D., even the best funded universities often do not have funding for humanities or social science students who need to do research elsewhere, whether in the United States or overseas.[citation needed] Such students may find funding through outside funders such as private foundations, such as the German Marshall Fund or the Social Science Research Council (SSRC). ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to U.S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees.[12] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan International students often have unique financial diffulties such as high costs to visit their families back home, support of a family not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is expensive by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, and surveillance fees under the Student and Exchange Visitor Program of the United States Department of Homeland Security.[13]) Compaq Presario CQ61-406SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At many universities, graduate students are employed by their university to teach classes or do research. While all graduate employees are graduate students, many graduate students are not employees. MBA students, for example, usually pay tuition and do not have paid teaching or research positions. In many countries graduate employees have collectively organized labor unions in order to bargain a contract with their university. In Canada, for example, almost all graduate employees are members of a CUPE local.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the United States there are many graduate employee unions at public universities, the Coalition of Graduate Employee Unions lists 25 recognized unions at public universities on its website. Private universities, however, are covered under the National Labor Relations Act rather than state labor laws and until 2001 there were no recognized unions at private universities. HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many graduate students see themselves as akin to junior faculty, but with significantly lower pay.[citation needed] Many graduate students feel that teaching takes time that would better be spent on research, and many point out that there is a vicious circle in the academic labor economy. Institutions that rely on cheap graduate student labor have no need to create expensive professorships, so graduate students who have taught extensively in graduate school can find it immensely difficult to get a teaching job when they have obtained their degree. FUJITSU CA49008-0790 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many institutions depend heavily on graduate student teaching: a 2003 report by agitators for a graduate student union at Yale,[14] for instance, claims that "70% of undergraduate teaching contact hours at Yale are performed by transient teachers: graduate teachers, adjunct instructors, and other teachers not on the tenure track." The state of Michigan leads in terms of progressive policy regarding graduate student unions with five universities recognizing graduate employee unions: Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, theUniversity of Michigan, Wayne State University, and Western Michigan University. HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The United Auto Workers (under the slogan "Uniting Academic Workers") and the American Federation of Teachers are two international unions that represent graduate employees. Private universities' administrations often oppose their graduate students when they try to form unions, arguing that students should be exempt from labor laws intended for "employees". HP Pavilion dv7-4012tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In some cases unionization movements have met with enough student opposition to fail. At the schools where graduate employees are unionized, which positions are unionized vary. Sometimes only one set of employees will unionize (e.g. teaching assistants, residential directors); at other times, most or all will. Typically, fellowship recipients, usually not employed by their university, do not participate. Toshiba Satellite A100-644 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan When negotiations fail, graduate employee unions sometimes go on strike. While graduate student unions can use the same types of strikes that other unions do, they have also made use of teach-ins, work-ins, marches, rallies, and grade strikes. In a grade strike, graduate students refuse to grade exams and papers and, if the strike lasts until the end of the academic term, also refuse to turn in final grades. Another form of job action is known as "work-to-rule", in which graduate student instructors work exactly as many hours as they are paid for and no more. ASUS G51JX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Mont Cenis (Italian: Moncenisio) is a massif and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie in France which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps. The pass connects Lanslebourg-Mont-Cenis in France in the northwest with Susa in Italy in the southeast. It was used as part of the border between the two countries until the 1947 Treaty of Paris, but is now located completely in France.  HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A road over the pass was built between 1803 and 1810 by Napoleon. A Fell mountain railway system, named after its inventor John Fell and worked by English engine-drivers, was opened alongside the road in 1868, but was dismantled in 1871, on the opening of the Mont Cenis Tunnel. For the railway through the tunnel see Fréjus Rail Tunnel. DELL Latitude E4300 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This tunnel (highest point 1295 m / 4249 ft) is really 27.4 km 17 miles west of the pass, below the Col du Fréjus. From Chambéry the line runs up the Isère valley, but soon bears through that of the Arc or the Maurienne past Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne to Modane (98.2 km / 61 mi from Chambéry). The tunnel is 13 km in length, and leads toBardonecchia, some way below which, at Oulx the line joins the road from the Col de Montgenèvre. HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Thence the valley of the Dora Riparia is followed to Turin (103.8 km / 64.5 mi from Modane). The carriage road mounts the Arc valley for 25.7 km / 16 mi from Modane to Lanslebourg, whence it is 12.9 km / 8 mi to the hospice, a little way beyond the summit of the pass. The descent lies through the Cenis valley to Susa (49.9 km / 37 mi from Modane) where the road joins the railway. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard To the southwest of the Mont Cenis is the Little Mont Cenis (2184.2 m / 7166 ft) which leads from the summit plateau (in Italy) of the main pass to the Etache valley on the French slope and so to Bramans in the Arc valley. Boston (pronounced i/ˈbɒstən/ or locally /ˈbɔːstən/) is the capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its largest city,[12] and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was named Boston by early settlers fromBoston, Lincolnshire in England. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region.[13] SONY Vaio VGN-NW235F/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city proper, covering 48.43 square miles (125.43 square km), had an estimated population of 625,087 in 2011 according to theU.S. Census,[7] making it the 21st largest in the country.[6] Boston is also the anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area called Greater Boston, home to 4.5 million people and the tenth-largest metropolitan area in the country.[9] Greater Boston as a commuting region[14] is home to 7.6 million people, making it the fifth-largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States.[10][15]IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded the city on the Shawmut Peninsula.[16] The city thrived, becoming the largest in British America and the third largest city in the British Empire (behind London and Bristol). During the late 18th century, Boston was the location of several major events during the American Revolution, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Several early battles of the American Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, /hp-g62t-350-cto-cpu-fan.html">HP G62t-350 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan occurred within the city and surrounding areas. Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. After American independence was attained Boston became a major shipping port and manufacturing center,[16] and its rich history helps attract many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone attracting over 20 million every year.[17] The city was the site of several firsts, including the United States' first public school, Boston Latin School (1635),[18] and the first subwaysystem in the United States (1897).[19]Gateway MA1 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is an international center of higher education and a center for medicine.[20] The city's economic base includes research, manufacturing, finance, and biotechnology.[21] As a result, the city is a leading finance center, ranking 12th in the Z/Yen top 20 Global Financial Centers.[22] The city was also ranked number one for innovation, both globally and in North America,[23] for a variety of reasons.[24][25] Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United States,[26] though it remains high on world livability rankings, ranking third in the US and 36th globally.[27]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E8E/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston was founded on September 7, 1630,[28] by Puritan colonists from England.[16] The Puritans of theMassachusetts Bay Colony are sometimes confused with the Pilgrims, who founded Plymouth Colony ten years earlier in what is today Bristol County, Plymouth County, and Barnstable County, Massachusetts. The two groups, which differed in religious practice, are historically distinct. The separate colonies were not united until the formation of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1691.[citation needed]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Shawmut Peninsula was connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus and was surrounded by the waters of Massachusetts Bayand the Back Bay, an estuary of the Charles River. Several prehistoric Native American archaeological sites that were excavated in the city have shown that the peninsula was inhabited as early as 5000 BC.[29] Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine,  HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan but later renamed the town after Boston in Lincolnshire, England, from which several prominent colonists had emigrated. Massachusetts Bay Colony's original governor, John Winthrop, gave a famous sermon entitled "A Model of Christian Charity", popularly known as the "City on a Hill" sermon, which espoused the idea that Boston had a special covenant with God. (Winthrop also led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, which is regarded as a key founding document of the city.)  HP Pavilion dv7-3155el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Puritan ethics molded a stable and well-structured society in Boston. For example, shortly after Boston's settlement, Puritans founded America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635),[18] and America's oldest school in continuous existence, Roxbury Latin School (1645). Over the next 130 years, Boston participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their native allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British North America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid 18th century.[30]ACER Aspire 6920-602G16 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 1770s, British attempts to exert more-stringent control on the thirteen colonies—primarily via taxation—led to the American Revolution.[16] The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles—including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston—occurred in or near the city. SONY Vaio VPC-EA35FB/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During this period, Paul Revere made his famous midnight ride. After the Revolution, Boston had become one of the world's wealthiest international trading ports because of the city's consolidated seafaring tradition. Exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco.[31] During this era, descendants of old Boston families were regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites; they were later dubbed the Boston Brahmins.[32] SONY Vaio VPC-EB47GM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Embargo Act of 1807, adopted during the Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812 significantly curtailed Boston's harbor activity. Although foreign trade returned after these hostilities, Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and by the mid-19th century, the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance. Until the early 20th century, IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers and was notable for its garment production and leather-goods industries.[17] A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region made for easy shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads facilitated the region's industry and commerce. From the mid-19th to late 19th century, Boston flourished culturally. It became renowned for its rarefied literary culture and lavish artistic patronage.  DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Boston also became a center of the abolitionist movement.[35] The city reacted strongly to theFugitive Slave Law of 1850,[36] which contributed to President Franklin Pierce's attempt to make an example of Boston after the Burns Fugitive Slave Case.[37][38]SONY Vaio VGN-NR21M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its physical size by land reclamation—by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront[44] —a process thatWalter Muir Whitehill called "cutting down the hills to fill the coves". The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century. Beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 ha) mill pond that later became theHaymarket Square area. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, the West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown. After The Great Boston Fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost 600 acres (2.4 km2) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Also, the city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury(1868), Dorchester (including present day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury(including present day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).[45][46] Other proposals, for the annexation of Brookline, Cambridge,[47] and Chelsea,[48][49] have been unsuccessful. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard On January 15, 1919, in the North End neighborhood, a large molasses storage tank burst, and a wave of molasses rushed through the streets at an estimated 35 miles per hour (56 km/h), killing 21 and injuring 150. The event has entered local folklore, known as The Boston Molasses Disaster.[50]HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard By the early and mid-20th century, the city was in decline as factories became old and obsolete, and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere.[16] Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA), which was established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition was met with vociferous public opposition.[51] SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard BRA subsequently reevaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of Government Center. In 1965, the first Community Health Center in the United States opened, the Columbia Point Health Center, in the Dorchester neighborhood. It mostly served the massiveColumbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in 1953. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center.[52]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 1822,[39] the citizens of Boston voted to change the official name from "the Town of Boston" to "the City of Boston", and on March 4, 1822, the people of Boston accepted the charter incorporating the City.[40] At the time Boston was chartered as a city, the population was about 46,226, while the area of the city was only 4.7 square miles (12 km2).[40] In the 1820s, Boston's population began to swell, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard especially following the Irish potato famine. By 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.[41] In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians,[42] French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settle in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants—HP 496121-001 Laptop Keyboard Italians inhabited the North End, Irish dominated South Boston and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Irish and Italianimmigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community,[43] and since the early 20th century, the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics—prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald.[32]HP NSK-H7A01 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5998 Laptop Keyboard DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard

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Tohoku University Tohoku University (東北大学 (東北帝國大學 prior to 1945) Tōhoku daigaku?), abbreviated to Tohokudai (東北大 Tōhokudai?), located in Sendai, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university. It is the third oldest Imperial University in Japan and is a member of the National Seven Universities. It is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, and one of the top fifty universities in the world.[1][2][3]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 2009, Tohoku University had ten colleges within the university, including fifteen departments with graduate students, with a total enrollment of 17,949 students.[4] The university's three core values are "Research First (研究第一主義)," "Open-Door (門戸開放)," and "Practice-Oriented Research and Education (実学尊重)." HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard The origin of the university was Meirin-yokendo (明倫養賢堂 Meirin yōkendō?), which was founded as a medical school in Sendai in 1736. It was reorganized a few times. Later it became Sendai Medical College (仙台医学専門学校 Sendai igaku senmon gakkō?); this was the forerunner of the medical department of the university. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard On June 22, 1907, the university was established under the name Tohoku Imperial University (東北帝國大學 Tōhoku teikoku daigaku?) by the Meiji government as the third Imperial University of Japan, following the Tokyo Imperial University (1877) and the Kyoto Imperial University (1897). From its start, it has advocated "Open-door" policies—it was the first university in Japan to accept female students and foreign students. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard In September 1907, it set up the faculty of Agriculture in Sapporo; the Sapporo Agricultural College (札幌農學校 Sapporo nō gakkō?). It set up the Science Department in 1911, and the Medical Department (formerly the Sendai Medical College) in 1915. In 1918 it ceded the Faculty of Agriculture to Hokkaido Imperial University. It subsequently launched Faculties of Engineering in 1919, and Law and Literature in 1922.[5] ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard In 1947 the university assumed its current name, Tohoku University, acquired a new Faculty of Agriculture. In 1949, the Faculty of Law and Literature was split to form new faculties of Law, Literature, and Economics. A Faculty of Education was added in 1949, Dentistry in 1965, and Pharmacy in 1972. Tohoku has been a national university corporation since April 2004.[5]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Subsequent to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the university was declared closed until further notice, but with a tentative re-opening date of the end of the following April.[6] The Aobayama, Katahira, Amamiya, and Kawauchi campuses are all at least 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from the ocean, towards the mountains, and therefore suffered no damage resulting from the tsunami. No deaths or serious injuries within the faculty and student body were reported on campus grounds. However, earthquake damage lead to the closure of 27 buildings and caused millions of dollars of damage to equipment. Classes have resumed normally since early May 2011 and plans for restoring, reinforcing or replacing damaged buildings are underway. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The radiology department has been actively measuring radiation levels throughout the city of Sendai since the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant meltdown, which is about 100 kilometers south. So far no alarming levels of radiation have been detected. The university has been ranked 6th in 2009 and 7th in 2010 in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai.[13] In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Tohoku as the 5th best university in Japan.[14]HP Compaq NC8430 Laptop Keyboard According to ARWU, Tohoku University was ranked 5th overall in Japan and internationally ranked 20th in the field of Engineering and Technology, and 39th in Natural science in 2009. In the 2011 QS Asian Universities Rankings Tohoku was placed 9th, while in the 2011 QS World University Rankings[32] the university rose to 70th having dropped out of the top 100 in 2010 to 102nd, and having been 97th in the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). HP G61-300CA Laptop Keyboard It was also ranked 49th worldwide according to the Global University Ranking in 2009.[3] Tohoku is one of the top research institutions in Japan. According to Thomson Reuters, Tohoku is the 4th best research university in Japan.[15] Its research excellence is especially distinctive in Materials Science (1st in Japan, 3rd in the world), Physics (2nd in Japan, 10th in the world), Pharmacology & Toxicology (3rd in Japan, 64th in the world) and Chemistry (6th in Japan, 20th in the world).[33]HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard Weekly Diamond also reported that Tohoku has the 11th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research funding per researchers in COE Program.[34] In the same article, it's also ranked 9th in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student. In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Tohoku was placed 3rd (research planning ability 9th//informative ability of research outcome 2nd/ability of business-academia collaboration 2nd) in this ranking.[35]HP Mini 110-3001tu Laptop Keyboard According to the Qs World university rankings on 2012/9 surveyed about the general standards in Engineering&Technology field, Tohoku university was placed 56th (world), 5th(national).[36]As Tohoku University has been emphasizing on 'practical' research, Tohoku got the top place at the number of patents accepted (324) during 2009 among Japanese Universities.[37]DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard National Taiwan University has its origins in the Taihoku Imperial University (台北帝國大學, Taihoku Teikoku Daigaku) founded by Taiwan's Japanese colonial government in 1928 as a member of the imperial university system administered by the Empire of Japan.[5] The school's first president was Taira Shidehara. The Taihoku Imperial University began with a Faculty of Liberal Arts and Law and a Faculty of Science and Agriculture serving 60 students. The university was intended mainly for Japanese nationals; few Taiwanese students were admitted. The Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Engineering were added in 1935 and 1943, respectively.[5]HP Pavilion G60-243CL Laptop Keyboard After World War II the government of the Republic of China reorganized the school as an institution for Chinese-speaking students. The school was renamed National Taiwan University on 15 November 1945 and Lo Tsung-lo was appointed as its president. In 1962, joint projects with the Academia Sinica were initiated. An evening division was established in 1967.[5] Between 1972 and 1975, the Philosophy Department Incident took place during the White Terror period authoritarian rule, resulting in the dismissal of several professors.[6]Compaq Presario CQ62-215TU Laptop Keyboard A new university library opened in 1998.[7] In 1999, the evening division and the Center of Continuing Education merged to form the Division of Continuing Education & Professional Development. Lee Si-Chen, the current president, took office in 2005.[5]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard NTU offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctorate degrees in many disciplines. Students are able to select courses offered by any of the colleges; however, compulsory subjects designated for each major needs to be completed to be awarded a degree. A student must declare a major during college application, some majors are more competitive than others and require a higher national examination score. Traditionally, medicine,electrical engineering, and law are the three most selective majors. Most majors take four years to complete while the dental and the medical degree take six and seven years to finish, respectively. TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard NTU requires most of its undergraduate students to take a mandatory core curriculum, comprising Chinese, freshman English, physical education, and public service. The medical school in addition dictates each of its students to take philosophy and sociology classes as well as seminars in ethics andthanatology. Military training is no longer an obligatory course for male students, but it is a prerequisite if they plan to apply to become officers during their mandatory military service. TOSHIBA P205-S6267 Laptop Keyboard The total number of students, including those enrolled at the School of Professional and Continuing Studies, has grown to over 33,000, including over 17,000 university students and 15,000 graduate students. The university staff and students produced over 5000 research publications in 2010.[8] HP 6820s Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2007, some educators in the United States began to question the impact of rankings on the college admissions process, due in part to the 11 March 2007Washington Post article "The Cost of Bucking College Rankings" [1] by Dr. Michele Tolela Myers (the former President of Sarah Lawrence College). As Sarah Lawrence College dropped its SAT test score submission requirement for its undergraduate applicants in 2003 [2] (thus joining the SAT optional movement forundergraduate admission), Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan SLC does not have SAT data to send to U.S. News for its national survey. Of this decision, Myers states, "We are a writing-intensive school, and the information produced by SAT scores added little to our ability to predict how a student would do at our college; it did, however, do much to bias admission in favor of those who could afford expensive coaching sessions.[1] Currently, Sarah Lawrence is one of only a few American colleges that completely disregard SAT scores in the admission process.[3] Gateway MT6723 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a result of this policy, in the same Washington Post article, Dr. Myers stated that: "I was recently informed by the director of data research at U.S. News, the person at the magazine who has a lot to say about how the rankings are computed, that absent students' SAT scores, the magazine will calculate the college's ranking by assuming an arbitrary average SAT score of one standard deviation (roughly 200 points) below the average score of our peer group. In other words, in the absence of real data, they will make up a number. He made clear to me that he believes that schools that do not use SAT scores in their admission process are admitting less capable students and therefore should lose points on their selectivity index." [1][4]Toshiba GB0506PHV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Myers further stated that "several faculty members and deans suggested that perhaps it was time to stop playing ranking roulette and opt out of the survey." [1]Myers next argued that at the NEAIR 33rd Annual Conference ( North East Association for Institutional Research) in 2006, a talk given by U.S. News, [5]"indicated that if a school stops sending data, the default assumption will be that it performs one standard deviation below the mean on numerous factors for which U.S. News can't find published data. Again, making up the numbers it can't get. The message is clear. Unless we are willing to be badly misrepresented, we had better send the information the magazine wants." [1][4]SONY Vaio VPC-EB11GD/BI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Presidents Letter (dated May 10, 2007), developed by Lloyd Thacker of the Education Conservancy, was sent to college and university presidents in the United States in May 2007, concerning the U.S. News and World Report college rankings. The letter does not ask for a full boycott but rather states that:  Toshiba Satellite A300-M01 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while we believe colleges and universities may want to cooperate in providing data to publications for the purposes of rankings, we believe such data provision should be limited to data which is collected in accord with clear, shared professional standards (not the idiosyncratic standards of any single publication), and to data which is required to be reported to state or federal officials or which the institution believes (in accord with good accountability) should routinely be made available to any member of the public who seeks it.[6] HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Instead, it asks presidents not to participate in the "reputational survey" portion of the overall survey (this section accounts for 25% of the total rank and asks college presidents to give their subjective opinion of other colleges). The letter also asks presidents not to use the rankings as a form of publicity: ACER eMachines E625 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Among other reasons, we believe [...] rankings: imply a false precision and authority that is not warranted by the data they use; obscure important differences in educational mission in aligning institutions on a single scale; say nothing or very little about whether students are actually learning at particular colleges or universities; encourage wasteful spending and gamesmanship in institutions' pursuing improved rankings; overlook the importance of a student in making education happen and overweight the importance of a university's prestige in that process; HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and degrade for students the educational value of the college search process. We ask you to make the following two commitments: 1. Refuse to fill out the U.S. News and World Report reputational survey. 2. Refuse to use the rankings in any promotional efforts on behalf of your college or university, and more generally, refuse to refer to the rankings as an indication of the quality of your college or university."[6]HP G42-230US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Time (often written in all-caps as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City, United States (US). A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, covering Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.[2]SONY Vaio VPC-EB3HGX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 25 million, 20 million of which are in the US. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.[4] The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the Yale Daily News and considered calling the magazine Facts.[5] Hadden was a rather carefree figure, Compaq Presario V3839tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan who liked to tease Luce and saw Time as something important but also fun. That accounts for its tone, which many people still criticize as too light for serious news and more suited to its heavy coverage of celebrities (including politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture. It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazine's cover was of a single person. The first issue ofTime was published on March 3, 1923, featuring on its cover Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the United States House of Representatives;  IBM ThinkPad T41 2687 Laptop Keyboard a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.[6]On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. HP G61 Laptop Keyboard According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen [...] was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc." In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then general manager of Time, later publisher ofLife, for many years president of Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce." HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Around the time they were raising US$100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni like Henry P. Davison, partner of J.P. Morgan & Co., publicity man Martin Egan and J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce and Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc., using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the B.F. Keith theatre chain in New England. DELL Inspiron N4050 Laptop Keyboard However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen," Time Inc.'s second-largest stockholder, according to "Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941". In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time Inc. director and a Time Inc. vice-president. J.P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman & Co., and The New York Trust Company (Standard Oil). HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard By the time of Henry Luce's death in 1967, the Time Inc. stock which Luce owned was worth about US$109 million and yielded him a yearly dividend income of more than US$2.4 million, according to The World of Time Inc: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1960–1989 by Curtis Prendergast. The value of the Larsen family's Time Inc. stock was now worth about $80 million during the 1960s and Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its Executive Committee, DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard before serving as Time Inc.'s vice-chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979 issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both "Time" magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925." Then, according to the same book, "In 1928 [...] Larsen undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine [...] which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States." DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence," according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941, leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's The March of Time radio program was broadcast over CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio – except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. People Magazine was based on Time's People page. SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Time became part of Time Warner in 1989, along with Warner Bros. when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged. Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald in 1988 as Editor-in-Chief and oversaw the transition before Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in 1995.Since 2000, the magazine has been part of AOL Time Warner, which subsequently reverted to the name Time Warner in 2003. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard In 2007, Time moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication. During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a week due to "editorial changes." The changes included the job losses of 49 employees.[7] In 2009 Time announced that they were introducing a personalized print magazine, Mine, mixing content from a range of Time Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.[8]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-203AU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images usingoptical character recognition technology. There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the conversion into digital format. On May 2, Time announced that subscribers to its paper magazines including TimeSports Illustrated and Fortune will have access to the iPad versions of these magazines for no extra charge. European subscribers are excluded from accessing the online version of Time or becoming online subscribers. Only the paper edition is available in Europe. SONY Vaio VGN-NW26M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Time Inc. and Apple have come to an agreement wherein subscribers to Time Inc. magazines will be able to read the iPad versions of those magazines for free, at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital subscription model.[9] The Corps of Cadets (or the Corps) is known as the "Keepers of the Spirit" for its staunch defense of Aggie traditions.[28]The Corps is a link to the early days of Texas A&M's history, when all students were required to be members and receive military training.[29] Although Corps membership became voluntary in 1965,[29] as of 2001 it was the United States' largest uniformed student body outside theservice academies,[30] with an enrollment of 2,318 cadets at the beginning of the 2006–2007 school year.[31]COMPAQ Presario CQ42-228TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Members of the Corps have served in every armed conflict fought by the United States since 1876, and over 225 have served asGenerals or Flag Officers. Many members participate in ROTC programs and earn commissions in the United States Armed Forcesupon graduation.[30] As of fall 2007, the Corps is composed of two Air Force Wings, three Army Brigades, and two Navy and Marine Regiments, in addition to a Task Force of special units and veteran-based outfits, as well as the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, FUJITSU LifeBook S7020 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan whose members may be affiliated with any military branch.[32] Among its notable units is Parson's Mounted Cavalry, the only mounted ROTC unit in the United States.[33] The Ross Volunteer Company, the oldest student-run organization in the state, is the official honor guard for the Governor of Texas.[34][35] The Fish Drill Team, a precision, close-order rifle drill team composed entirely of Corps freshmen, represents the Corps and A&M in local and national competitions. They have won the national championship almost every year since their creation in 1946, and have appeared in several Hollywood productions with prominent roles in the movies A Few Good Men and Courage Under Fire.[36]Toshiba Satellite L350-14F Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Members of the Corps are often referred to as "C.T.s" or "B.Q.s". While these terms originally stood for "Cadet in Training" and "Band Qualified", respectively, they are more commonly and derisively used to abbreviate "Corps Turd" and "Band Queer". Freshmen in the Corps are required to "whip out" to upperclassmen. This tradition requires the freshmen to extend their hand and introduce themselves to the upperclassman. From then on, they are expected to know the name of the person to whom they "whipped out."[37] The tradition applies only to upperclassmen in the Corps, and not to "non-regs", students who are not in the Corps.[38]ACER Aspire 5739G-6959 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of a senior cadet's "most cherished possessions" are his Senior Boots.[39] Only seniors are allowed to wear these knee-high riding boots, and most consider receiving their boots to be a rite of passage.[39] All Senior Boots are custom-made to fit the cadet and are a dark tan to brown color.[40] Students wear their Senior Boots for the first time after Final Review as juniors while saluting the outgoing seniors. Final review is the last activity that Corps members participate in as a unit.  APPLE MacBook 13 inch MA701LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This full military review takes place at the end of the spring semester on Simpson Drill Field, and is in two parts. The entire Corps march past a reviewing stand, which consists of high-ranking military and university officials, for inspection. The Corps then returns to their dorms to change into the uniforms they will wear the following year, with the juniors donning their Senior Boots. The freshmen, sophomores, and juniors then march in formation past the reviewing stand, which is now filled with the senior cadets, saluting their former leaders.[41]HP 493001-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Fightin' Texas Aggie Band (also known as The Noble Men of Kyle, The Pulse of Aggieland or the Aggie Band) is the officialmarching band of Texas A&M University. Composed of over 400 men and women from the school's Corps of Cadets,[42] it is the largest military marching band in the world. The band's complex straight-line marching maneuvers are performed exclusively totraditional marches. Some of these maneuvers are so complex that computer programs used to create marching drills say they can't be performed because they require two people to be in the same place at the same time.[43]Toshiba Satellite P100-434 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since its inception in 1894, its members, known as BQs (for Band Qualified or Band Queer),[44] eat together, sleep in the samedormitories, and practice up to forty hours per week on top of a full academic schedule. The Aggie Band performs at all homefootball games, some away games, and university and Corps functions throughout the year. Other events in which the band participated include inauguration parades for many United States Presidents and Texas Governors, major annual parades across the country, and the dedication ceremony for the George H. W. Bush Presidential Library.[43][45][46]Toshiba Satellite L300D-10Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie football fans call themselves the 12th Man, meaning they are there to support the 11 players on the field. To further symbolize their "readiness, desire, and enthusiasm," the entire student body stands throughout the game.[47] In a further show of respect, the students step "off the wood" (step off of the bleachers onto the concrete) whenever a player is injured or when the band plays the Aggie War Hymn or The Spirit of Aggieland.[48][49] At the end of the Aggie War Hymn, fans sway back and forth, causing the upper deck of the stadium to move.[50] The Aggie War Hymn was named the No. 1 college fight song by USA Today in 1997.[51]HP Pavilion dv6-2120es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 12th Man tradition began in Dallas on January 2, 1922, at the Dixie Classic, the forerunner of the Cotton Bowl Classic. A&M played defending national champion Centre College in the first post-season game in the southwest. In this hard fought game, which produced national publicity, an underdog Aggie team was slowly defeating a team which had allowed fewer than 6 points per game. The first half produced so many injuries for A&M that Coach D. X. Bible feared he wouldn’t have enough men to finish the game. At that moment, he called into the Aggie section of the stands for E. HP Envy 14-3017nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan King Gill, a student who had left football after the regular season to play basketball. Gill, who was spotting players for a Waco newspaper and was not in football uniform, donned the uniform of injured player Heine Weir and stood on the sidelines to await his turn. Although he did not actually play in the game, his readiness to play symbolized the willingness of all Aggies to support their team to the point of actually entering the game. When the game ended in a 22-14 Aggie victory, HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gill was the only man left standing on the sidelines for the Aggies. Gill later said, "I wish I could say that I went in and ran for the winning touchdown, but I did not. I simply stood by in case my team needed me."[52] A statue of E. King Gill stands to the north of Kyle Field to remind Aggies of their constant obligation to preserve the spirit of the 12th Man.[52]TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard In the 1980s, the tradition was expanded as coach Jackie Sherrill created the 12th Man squad. Composed solely of walk-on (non-scholarship) players, the squad would take the field for special teams performances.[52] This squad only allowed one kick return for a touchdown by Texas Tech's Rodney Blackshear.[53] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Sherrill's successor, R. C. Slocum, amended the tradition in the 1990s to allow one walk-on player, wearing the No. 12 jersey, to take the field for special teams plays.[52] The player is chosen based on the level of determination and hard work shown in practices. Coach Dennis Franchione continued Slocum's model, while also keeping an all-walk-on kickoff team that played three times in the 2006 season.[53]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard  TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard 12th Man Towel The 12th Man Towel was created in the fall of 1985 by Rusty Riley and Kyle Harris, then president and vice president of the 12th Man Student Aggie Club respectively, with the help of Gary Leach and Larry Leach, then club secretary and treasurer. The concept was presented to the Aggie Club faculty managers Harry Green Jr., executive director of the 12th Man Foundation, and Jackie Sherrill, Texas A&M University athletic director and head football coach. Once their approval was given, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard Rusty and Kyle found a manufacturer in New York City through a local distributor in Bryan, Texas, and authorization was given to sell the towels on campus by school management and Chic Sell, who had the concession rights in Kyle Field. The first 1,000 towels were purchased and delivered in time for the first home game of the 1985 college football season. Kyle and Rusty, along with a handful of Aggie Club members, sold the towels for $2 each in makeshift booths at strategic locations within Kyle Field. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard It was an immediate success, with all towels being sold at the first game. The A&M Yell Squad initially resisted the towels, claiming the Aggie Club was breaking tradition, but the Battalion staff supported the concept and began a successful selling and media campaign to help the towel gain acceptance throughout the A&M student body. Rusty worked with the Head Yell Leader on accepting the towel and once the Yell Squad accepted it, a press conference was held with Rusty, ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard Coach Sherrill and the Head Yell Leader. As the football season carried on, the 12th Man Towel continued selling in large quantities. The Aggie Club hired students to sell the towels at the MSC and on Aggie Club property, which at the time was located right outside of the main entrance to Kyle Field. The towel also gained a very important supporting cast when Coach Sherrill's 12th man kick-off team squad began carrying them to motivate the student body in the stands. The 1985 regular college football season ended with a home game versus the Texas Longhorns. At that game, a sea of white 12th Man Towels filled the stadium, cheering the Aggies to a 42-10 victory. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard Aggies went on to win the Southwest Conference Title and defeat Auburn in the Cotton Bowl on January 1, 1986, with the 12th Man Towels proudly displayed to a national audience. During the 1988 Cotton Bowl Classic, which A&M played against Notre Dame, another towel was a point of contention. Twice during that game Warren Barhorst, a member of Sherrill's 12th Man Kickoff Team, tackled Heisman Trophy winner Tim Brown, and then grabbed Brown's towel and waved it over his head. An infuriated Brown tackled Barhorst, earning himself a 15-yard unsportsmanlike conduct penalty.[54]HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard Because the students are always waiting for the opportunity to support their team, they are also willing to take the credit for the team's good deeds. A popular Aggie tradition is that "when the team scores, everybody scores."[55] Whenever the Aggies score points during the game, students kiss their dates.[55][56]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Seniors wearing either their Senior boots or Aggie Rings are also encouraged to join the "Boot Line." As the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band leaves the field after their half-time performances, seniors line up at the south end of Kyle Field to welcome the team back onto the field for the second half.[57]SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard Unlike many schools, which have a large group of cheerleaders to rally their fans during sporting events, Texas A&M has five student Yell Leaders. Consisting of three seniors and two juniors, historically all male, the Yell Leaders are elected to their positions annually by the student body.[58] These students do not perform gymnastic feats, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard but instead use hand signals, known as "pass backs", to direct and intensify crowds.[59] After the signals are passed through the crowd, the Yell Leaders give the signal to "hump it", where the crowd leans forward and places their hands on their knees to maximize the noise.[60]The Yell Leaders have a dozen yells that they can choose from depending on the situation. While some yells are designed to praise and motivate the team, others exist solely to make fun of the opposing side.[61]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Students practice the yells at Midnight Yell Practice. Held at Kyle Field at midnight the night before a football game, Midnight Yell is similar to a pep rally. Over 20,000 Aggies attend each session, practicing the yells that will be used in the following day's game and generating an excitement for the game.[5][62] At the conclusion of the yell practice, the stadium lights are extinguished and fans kiss their dates. This is also done as practice, because Aggies are expected to "mug down", or kiss their dates, every time the football team scores on the field.[62][63] Sports Illustrated named Midnight Yell as one of the "100 Things You Gotta Do Before You Graduate."[64]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Aggies practice their yells again after each football game. If the team is victorious, the freshmen in the Corps of Cadets capture the Yell Leaders on Kyle Field and march them across campus to be dunked in Fish Pond. The very wet Yell Leaders then make their way to the YMCA Building, where the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band and members of the crowd join them for a short yell practice in preparation for the next week's game.[62] If the team is "outscored" or "runs out of time" (Aggies never lose), a mini-Yell Practice is held in Kyle Field before the crowd disperses.[57][62]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The most well-known Aggie yell is the simple "Beat the Hell Outta" the opposing school. In writing, this is often abbreviated as BTHO. For the annual game against the University of Texas at Austin, students yell "Beat the Hell Outta t.u."[65] Booing is strongly discouraged, and an upset Aggie will instead hiss their opponents or the referees. If a referee call is especially egregious in the minds of the Aggies, the Yell Leaders will call for the "Horse Laugh," a yell that ends with a stadium wide hissing.[65]Toshiba Satellite A100-644 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After each yell, students make a noise and a hand motion that is known as a wildcat. Each class has a separate wildcat, and students caught "pulling out," or using the wildcat of a higher class, are often forced to do pushups as punishment.[61] Freshmen raise their hands above their heads and yell "AAAA". Sophomores, symbolically pushing back on the seniors, chant "A!" five times, waving their hands up and down in front of the torso with their index fingers extended and thumbs perpendicular. Juniors yell "A! A! A! Whoop!" ASUS G51JX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan wrapping their left hand over their right fist, with both index fingers extended and pointing towards the ground, "shooting the ground" once for each "A" and holding the position on the "whoop!" As a symbol of their expert marksmanship, seniors yell a single "A!" and then "Whoop!" while interlocking their fingers with their index fingers extended and pointed into the air. At the same time, the left foot is raised and tucked behind the right knee. The fingers are interlocked rather than covering the right hand so that the Aggie Ring is visible.[38][66] HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's official mascot is Reveille, now a purebred Rough collie. The first Reveille, a mixed breed dog, was adopted by students in 1931 after they found her on the side of the road. As of 2008, the current mascot is Reveille VIII. She is considered a Cadet General, the highest-ranking member in the Corps of Cadets, and must be addressed by cadets as "Miss Reveille, ma'am."[67]DELL Latitude E4300 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Reveille accompanies her handlers, members of the E-2 unit of the Corps of Cadets, everywhere, including classes.[68] It is a long-held tradition that if Reveille decides to sleep on a cadet's bed, that cadet is required to sleep on the floor.[67] In truth, however, this only applied to the early mascots who were allowed to freely roam the campus. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The contemporary mascots, certainly since the 1980s and likely earlier, are under the constant supervision of the Mascot Corporal and not allowed to freely roam about the cadet's quarters. Another tradition is that if she chooses to bark in class, that session is cancelled.[62] Upon the death of a current or former mascot, a full military funeral is held at Kyle Field, which usually attracts several thousand mourners.[62]HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M also has an unofficial mascot, Ol' Sarge, who is displayed only in graphics.[65] Ol' Sarge is portrayed as a tough-looking corps drill sergeant and is considered one of the many icons representing Texas A&M's long standing military history.[69] The drawing was first seen in the 1940s, when The Battalion ran a caricature of one of the Yell Leaders. That caricature, of a rough and tough military man, quickly became used throughout campus.[70]DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Spirit of '02 The Corps of Cadets marks any Aggie scores during football games by firing The Spirit of '02, a 3-inch M1902 field gun 3-inch (76 mm). Issued to Field Artillery Units of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps between the World Wars, the gun was believed to be one of several that were hidden by Corps members to prevent them from being scrapped during WWII. The Spirit of '02 was found buried in a ditch by students cutting wood for the annual Aggie Bonfire in the fall of 1974. Only the rusted steel rims from the wooden wheels were showing above ground. Students mounted antique wagon wheels on the axles and brought the gun back to a place of honor in the Quad. Cadets later restored the gun, which has been fired to celebrate touchdowns since 1984.[71]SONY Vaio VGN-NR21M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Maroon Out One of Texas A&M's newer traditions is Maroon Out, which began in 1998. The football team had ended their 1997 season with a lopsided defeat to Nebraska in the Big 12 Championship Game. Kyle Valentine, Class of 2000 Junior President and a member within Class Councils, noticed how united the Nebraska fans seemed, all dressed in red. He proposed to Class Councils the idea to "Maroon Out" Kyle Field for the October 10, 1998 rematch against Nebraska by selling a low-cost, high-quality maroon t-shirt. This resulted in the sale of 31,000 Maroon Out shirts, leading to a temporary national shortage of maroon colored t-shirts.[72]DELL PM425 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Aggies defeated Number 2 Nebraska 28-21, the first time in six seasons that Nebraska had lost a regular-season conference game. The Daily Nebraskan noted that "A game that was dubbed a 'maroon-out' for Texas A&M fans proved to be lights out for Nebraska. The fans dressed themselves in maroon T-shirts in an attempt to wash out the red and white that opponents have gotten used to. It worked."[73] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since then, one football game each season is dubbed an official Maroon Out and discounted maroon t-shirts are for sale for fans. Through 2010, Texas A&M has been 7-6 in Maroon Out games, beating 6 teams ranked in the Top 25, despite being the underdog in each of the games.[74] The basketball team has a similar tradition, called a "White Out," where fans are encouraged to wear white t-shirts.[75]HP G62-b51ST Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Perhaps the most memorable Maroon Out moment was not maroon at all. After the events of September 11, 2001, five Aggie students wished to help honor America. They decided to ask the attendees of the next A&M football game, which would be held at Kyle Field on September 22, 2001, to wear patriotic colors. ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The colors would be divided by deck, with the upper deck wearing red, the middle deck wearing white, and the lower deck in blue. Within a five-day period the students had contracted with several printers to create special t-shirts which read "Standing for America" and the date. Despite initial concerns about not being able to sell enough shirts to be effective, the students sold about 70,000 of these shirts, raising over $150,000 for the relief efforts.[76][77]Compaq Presario CQ61-406SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie Bonfire Aggie Bonfire was a long-standing tradition at Texas A&M University as part of a college rivalry with the University of Texas at Austin, known as t.u. by Texas A&M students. For ninety years, Texas A&M students built and burned a large bonfire on campus each fall. Known within the Aggie community simply as Bonfire, the annual fall event symbolized the students' "burning desire to beat the hell outta t.u."[78] The bonfire was traditionally lit around Thanksgiving in conjunction with the festivities surrounding the annual college football game between the schools.[79]Toshiba Satellite L350-15V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first on-campus Aggie Bonfire was burned in 1909, and the tradition continued for the next 90 years.[79] For almost two decades, Bonfire was constructed from debris and pieces of wood that Aggies "found," including lumber intended for a dormitory that students appropriated in 1912.[80] The event became school-sanctioned in 1936, and, for the first time, students were provided with axes, saws, and trucks and pointed towards a grove of dead trees on the edge of town.[79] In the following years the Bonfire became more elaborate, and in 1967 the flames could be seen 25 miles (40 km) away. In 1969, the stack set the world record at 111 feet (30 m) tall.[79][81]TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While the Bonfires of the 1960s were constructed in five to ten days, working primarily in daylight, by the late 1970s a more elaborate construction schedule had been implemented.[78] Construction began in late October with "Cut", with several weekends devoted to cutting down the logs with axes.[78][82] The logs were brought to campus during "Load."[82] ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In early November, crews began "Stack", a three-week period in which the logs were wired together and Bonfire took shape. Near the end of stack, known as "Push", students worked around the clock in rotating shifts.[82] Although between two and five thousand students participated in the construction of Bonfire each year, most of them were unable to devote themselves full-time to the task, and many worked only one or two shifts.[78] While participating, the students wore "grodes," old t-shirts, jeans, and boots. By tradition, grodes were either not washed until after Bonfire burned or not washed at all.[83]HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1978, Bonfire shifted to a wedding-cake style, in which upper stacks of logs were wedged on top of lower stacks. The structure was built around a fortified centerpole, made from two telephone poles.[82] Although tradition stated that if Bonfire burned through midnight A&M would win the following day's game, with the introduction of the wedding cake design Bonfire began to fall very quickly, sometimes burning for only 30 or 45 minutes.[4]FUJITSU CA49008-0790 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At 2:42 AM on November 18, 1999, the partially completed Aggie Bonfire, standing 40 feet (10 m) tall and consisting of about 5000 logs, collapsed during construction. Of the 58 students and former students working on the stack, 12 were killed and 27 others were injured.[82] On November 25, 1999, the date that Bonfire would have burned, Aggies instead held a vigil and remembrance ceremony. Over 40,000 people, including former President George H.W. Bush and his wifeBarbara and then-Texas governor George W. Bush and his wife Laura, lit candles and observed up to two hours of silence at the site of the Bonfire collapse.[84]The Bonfire Memorial was officially dedicated on November 18, 2004.[85]HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bonfire was postponed until 2002 in order to restructure it to make it safer. Delays in the development of a safety plan and a high estimated cost (mainly due to liability insurance), led A&M president Ray Bowen to postpone Bonfire indefinitely.[86] Despite the university's refusal to allow Bonfire to take place on campus, since 2002 a non-university sanctioned Bonfire has burned annually.[87] Known as Student Bonfire, theHP Pavilion dv7-4012tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Every November, in the week of the football game against the University of Texas, the senior class gathers together for Elephant Walk. The seniors link arms and "wander aimlessly" through campus.[89] The University of Texas game was always the last football game of the regular season, so Elephant Walk has come to symbolize the end of the seniors' "usefulness" to the 12th Man and the passing of the torch to the junior class.[90] In a reference to Elephant Walk, seniors in their last semester of study are often called "dead elephants."[38] TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S7422 Laptop Keyboard Elephant Walk began in 1926, when a group of students decided to take one last walk around campus to remember their experiences at the school. Because they walked single file, with a hand on the shoulder of the person in front, an observer remarked that they "looked like elephants, about to die."[90] The day now begins at Kyle Field with a yell practice and speaker, and then the senior yell leaders lead the class through campus.[91] Leaders of the graduating class also announce the class gift at Elephant Walk.[92]HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M provides many opportunities for students to participate in volunteer and service activities. Students at Texas A&M originated The Big Event, the largest one-day student-run service project in the nation.[93] The annual event began in 1983 after the Texas A&M Student Government Association passed a resolution encouraging students to show their gratitude to the community by giving of their time.[93][94] From its beginnings of six individual students wanting to contribute back to the local community, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard The Big Event has expanded to allow over thirteen thousand students to participate in over 1400 jobs, such as raking leaves, painting houses, and trimming trees.[95] The concept for The Big Event has spread throughout the nation, and as of 2007, 71 schools across the nation participate each year including 1 middle school, 2 high schools, and 68 universities.[96][97][98][99] The 2008 Big Event attracted 10,600 students who worked a record number of 1,000 jobs.[100]SONY Vaio VGN-NW235F/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggies also participate annually in Replant, a one-day environmental service. In 2006, 1,000 students participated, planting 250 trees in three public parks. The event

has been an annual tradition since 1991, when the Texas A&M Environmental Issues Committee began planting trees to replace those that had been cut down for Bonfire. Although Bonfire has been officially disbanded, Replant continues. Its goals are now to beautify the Bryan-College Station area and to "creat[e] harmony between students and the residents."[101] IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2000, the group planted twelve live oak trees at the Texas A&M Polo Grounds in memory of the twelve victims of the 1999 Bonfire collapse. That year the group was awarded the Community Forestry Award from the Texas Forest Service.[102] The group provides their own trees, grown at the Texas A&M Riverside campus in Bryan, Texas and has its own Student Government committee.[103]HP G62t-350 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Gateway MA1 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Corps of Cadets annually conducts the March to the Brazos, a 14 miles (20 km) round-trip road march that serves as both a ceremony to transfer leadership as well as a fundraiser for the March of Dimes. The Corps hold various fundraisers and solicits donations throughout the year. On a Saturday morning, generally in April, each year, all members of the Corps gather at the Quadrangle, near their dormitories, and march en masse across campus and down Highway 60 to Texas A&M's Animal Science Teaching, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E8E/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Research & Extension Complex near the east bank of the Brazos River. There, the cadets learn who will fill each leadership position for the following year. The current seniors are allowed to ride a bus back to campus while the newly promoted cadets lead their outfits back to campus.[104] The event is the largest and most successful student-run fundraising event in the United States for the March of Dimes.[105] In its first 27 years, from 1977 through 2003, the event raised a combined US$1.3 million.[105]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many students believe that they will do well on exams if they make an offering to Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross. Ross, the president of Texas A&M in the 1890s, is credited with saving the school from closure. Affectionately known as "Sully," many believe him to be "the embodiment of Aggie Spirit and tradition."[106] A&M legend states that Ross would often tutor students, and as payment would accept only a penny for their thoughts. At exam time his statue, located in Academic Plaza, is often covered in pennies.[107] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Another spot in Academic Plaza is also believed to be lucky. Tradition says that if a couple walks together under the branches of the Century Tree, one of the oldest trees on campus, they will eventually marry. If the proposal takes place under the Century Tree, the marriage is supposed to last forever.[108][109][110] HP Pavilion dv7-3155el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For much of its first 100 years, Texas A&M was a small, all-male, military academy. The school became coeducational in the 1960s, and membership in the Corps of Cadets became voluntary. In military tradition, privileges are meted out as one climbs the ranks, and Texas A&M has several such traditions. The most obvious are the uniforms worn by the Corps of Cadets. Corps members wear different uniforms for each year, culminating in the prized Senior boots.[66]ACER Aspire 6920-602G16 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Vocabulary is also restricted by class. Freshmen may not say the word Pisshead, a nickname for sophomores.[44] Juniors are known as "Serge Butts", so neither freshmen nor sophomores can say any form of either word. Juniors are also the first class to be allowed to say "Whoop!" Seniors, known as "Zips" for the black and gold braid on their garrison caps, which resembles a zipper, have reserved the word elephant and all forms of the words "death," "dying," "shoot," or "reload" in reference to the traditions surrounding Elephant Walk.[38] However, saying the phrases "pass away," "decease," "fire," "load again," etc., are all acceptable substitutes. SONY Vaio VPC-EA35FB/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Students caught "pulling out", or saying words that are reserved for other classes, are forced to "push."[38][111]Traditionally, this means the students must do a "class set" of pushups, one for each year of their class. The Class of 1945 did only 45 pushups and an extra pushup has been added for each subsequent year; the Fighting Texas Aggie Class of 2012 now does 112.[111] Pulling out privileges of the class directly above is considered "Good Bull", but pulling out two classes or more is "Bad Bull."[38] Members of the Corps of Cadets generally take privileged words more seriously than non-regstudents.[78] SONY Vaio VPC-EB47GM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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Texas A&M University Texas A&M University (often referred to as A&M or TAMU) is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas, United States. It is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System, the sixth-largest university in the United States and the largest university in Texas.[12][13] Texas A&M's designation as a land, sea, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard andspace grant institution reflects a broad range of research with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and theOffice of Naval Research. The school ranks in the top 20 American research institutes in terms of funding and has made notable contributions to such fields as animal cloning and petroleum engineering. SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard The first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876[14] as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. Originally, the admission was limited to white males and education consisted of agricultural and military techniques. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder, in the 1960s A&M desegregated, ACER KB.I170A.083 Laptop Keyboard became coeducational, and dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963. The letters "A&M", originally short for "Agricultural and Mechanical", are retained only as a link to the university's past. The school's students, alumni, and sports teams are known as "Aggies".SONY 53010BE22-203-G Laptop Keyboard The main campus is one of the largest in America, spanning 5,500 acres (22 km2),[1][15] and includes the George Bush Presidential Library. Approximately one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has approximately 800 officially recognized student organizations. Many students also observe the traditions of Texas A&M University, which govern daily life as well as special occasions, including sports events. On July 1, 2012, the school joined theSoutheastern Conference. HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard A&M operates two branches: Texas A&M at Qatar and Texas A&M University at Galveston. Working with agencies such as the Texas AgriLife Research and Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in over 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes. Texas A&M has awarded over 320,000 degrees, including 70,000 graduate and professional degrees. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard As a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of three public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets. The U.S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of Texas A&M in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life".[16] In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education,[17] the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, then known as Texas A.M.C.[16]Brazos County donated 2,416 acres (10 km2) near Bryan, Texas, for the school's campus.[16]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Classes began on October 4, 1876, with 40 students and 6 faculty members. Admission was limited to white males, and all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training.[18] Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas.[19] Though originally envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.M.C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System.[16]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A.M.C. In 1891, Texas A&M was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, and well-respectedConfederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A&M "to learn to be like Ross".[20] During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring.[20] After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school.[20]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester.[21] At the same On March 26, 1960, Major General James Earl Rudder, class of 1932, became the 16th president of the college.[28] Rudder's tenure (1959–1970) marked a critical turning point in the school's history. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Under his leadership, Texas A&M underwent a dramatic expansion in terms of its physical plant construction, but more importantly, it diversified and expanded its student body by admitting women and minorities. The Corps of Cadets became voluntary. In the face of growing student activism during the 1960s, Rudder worked diligently to ensure that school continue to fulfill its mission of providing a quality education for all Aggies. By his death in 1970, Rudder had overseen the growth of the school from 7,500 to 14,000 students from all 50 states and 75 nations.[29][30]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard In 1963, the 58th Legislature of Texas approved of Rudder's changes, and officially renamed the school "Texas A&M University",[29] specifying that the "A" and the "M" were purely symbolic, reflecting the school's past, and no longer stood for "Agricultural and Mechanical".[16] In the following 35 years, Texas A&M more than tripled its enrollment from 14,000 students to over 45,000.[15]DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard Much of the legislative work allowing the expansion of Texas A&M and the admission of women was pushed by State Senator William T. "Bill" Moore, who served from 1949 to 1981. Known as "the Bull of the Brazos" and "the father of the modern Texas A&M University", Moore was a Bryan attorney and businessman originally fromWheelock in Robertson County. He also taught economics at TAMU prior to his entry into World War II.[31]SONY VAIO PCG-F60/BP Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M became one of the first four universities given the designation sea-grant for its achievements in oceanography and marine resources development in 1971. In 1989, the university earned the title space-grant by NASA, to recognize its commitment to space research and participation in the Texas Space Grant Consortium.[32]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5248 Laptop Keyboard

World Wars era

Many Texas A&M graduates served during World War I. By 1918, 49% of all graduates of the college were in military service, more than any other school.[16] In early September 1918, the entire senior class enlisted, with plans to send the younger students at staggered dates throughout the next year. Many of the seniors were fighting in France when the war ended two months later.[22]  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Over 1,200 former students served as commissioned officers. After the war, Texas A&M grew rapidly and became nationally recognized for its programs in agriculture, engineering, and military science.[16] The first graduate school was organized in 1924 and the school awarded its first PhD in 1940.[16] In 1925, Mary Evelyn Crawford Locke became the first female to receive a diploma from Texas A&M, although she was not allowed to participate in the graduation ceremony.[23] The following month the Board of Directors officially prohibited all women from enrolling.[21]APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA897X A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many Aggies again served in the military during World War II, with the college producing 20,229 combat troops. Of those, 14,123 Aggies served as officers, more than any other school and more than the combined total of the United States Naval Academy and theUnited States Military Academy.[24] During the war, 29 A&M graduates reached the rank of general.[16]HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard At the start of WWII, Texas A&M was selected as one of six engineering colleges to participate in the Electronics Training Program, a 10-month activity of 12-hour study days to train Navy personnel who were urgently needed to maintain the new, highly complex electronic equipment such asradar. These colleges provided the Primary School, HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard wherein the key topics of the first two years of a college electrical engineering curriculum were condensed into three months. The instructional effort at College Station was developed and led by Frank Bolton, EE department head and future Texas A&M president. At a given time, some 500 Navy students were on the campus, a significant fraction of the then-years enrollment. Students graduating from the Primary Schools then went to a Secondary School, one of which was at Ward Island, Texas (the future location of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi).[25]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Enrollment soared after the war as many former soldiers used the G.I. Bill to further their education.[26] In 1948, the state Legislature formally recognized Texas A&M as a separate university system from the University of Texas System, codifying the de facto arrangement between the schools.[27]HP G62-b36EO Laptop Keyboard In 1997, the school became the home of the George Bush Presidential Library. Operated by the National Archives and Records Administration, it is one of thirteen American presidential libraries. Former President George Bush remains actively involved with the university, frequently visiting the campus and participating in special events.[33][34]HP G62-b15EL Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M received national media attention on November 18, 1999, when Aggie Bonfire, a ninety-year-old student tradition, collapsed during construction. Twelve current and former students died and twenty-seven others were injured. The accident was later attributed to improper design and poor construction practices.[35] The victims' family members filed six lawsuits against Texas A&M officials, the student Bonfire leaders, and the university. Half of the defendants settled their portion of the case in 2005,[36] and a federal appeals court dismissed the remaining lawsuits against the university in 2007.[37]TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard With strong support from Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin, the Association of American Universitiesinducted Texas A&M in May 2001, on the basis of the depth of the university's research and academic programs.[38] In December 2006, university President Robert Gates resigned from his position to become the U.S. Secretary of Defense.[39] Elsa Murano became his replacement in January 2008, but later resigned in June 2009[40] and was replaced by R. Bowen Loftin. HP Pavilion dv6-3210us Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M left the Big 12 Conference for the Southeastern Conference on July 1, 2012.[41] This ended Texas A&M's scheduled NCAA athletic competitions with formerSouthwest Conference rivals, UT Austin, Baylor, and Texas Tech, for the foreseeable future. SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard In the fall 2008 semester, Texas A&M was the seventh largest American university with an enrollment of 48,039 students pursuing degrees in 10 academic colleges. The student body represents all 50 US states and 130 foreign countries. Texas residents account for 86% of the student population, and 28.9% are either of international origin or members of ethnicminority groups. The student body consists of 46.8% women and 53.2% men.[42]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Although Texas A&M is a secular institution, its student body has a reputation for being religious and conservative. According to a 2005 student survey published in the Princeton Review, Texas A&M ranked 13th highest in the category "students pray on a regular basis".[43] Four years later, the Princeton Review ranked Texas A&M the eighth most socially conservativecampus in the nation.[44] The Princeton Review also ranked the university in 2012 as the "10th least friendly" college in the United States for LGBT people, and the least friendly among public schools.[45]SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard The university consistently ranks among the top ten public universities each year in enrollment of National Meritscholars.[46] According to the College Board, the fall 2008 entering freshman class consisted of 54% students in the top 10% of their high school graduating class, 86% in the top quarter, and 99% in the top half.[47] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Seventy-four percent of these students took the SAT. The middle 50% of the freshmen had average scores as follows: in critical reading, 520–630, math, 560–670, and in writing 500–610. Twenty-six percent of the incoming freshmen took the ACT, with the middle 50% scoring between a 23 and 29.[48] About 80 percent of the student body receives about $420 million in financial aid annually.[49]TOSHIBA PK130260100 Laptop Keyboard In the fall 2008 semester, the Dwight Look College of Engineering had the largest enrollment of 20.5%. The College of Liberal Arts and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences followed, enrolling 15% and 14% of the student body, respectively. The College of Education and Human Development enrolls 12%, andMays Business School enrolled about 11%. Colleges with less than 10% enrollment included the College of Architecture, the College of Science, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, the College of Geosciences, and the College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. Approximately 8% of the student body had not declared a major.[42]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In the 2011 U.S. News and World Report ranking of public universities, Texas A&M is listed 19th; among "national universities" the school is 58th.[58][Note 2] According to The Washington Monthly criteria, which considers research, community service, and social mobility, Texas A&M ranks second nationally.[59] The John Templeton Foundation listed Texas A&M as one of the thirty-five American college programs that "communicate[s] the values of honesty, trust, respect, responsibility, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard integrity, and fairness in the classroom".[60] The 2011 Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked the school as the 23rd best-value public university on the basis of in-state tuition, and the 35th best-value public university on the basis of out-of-state tuition.[61] After conducting a survey of leading employment recruiters, the Wall Street Journalranked Texas A&M 2nd nationally, as "most likely to help students land a job in key careers and professions".[62][63] In 2009 the National Science Foundation has recognized Texas A&M as one of the top 20 research institutions.[64] TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard Internationally, the university is also well-regarded. Newsweek International ranked Texas A&M as the 77th university globally on the basis of "openness and diversity" as well as "distinction in research".[65] In a comparison of educational quality, faculty quality, and research output, Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranked Texas A&M 53rd in the Americas[66]  HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and 88th internationally.[67] The Times Higher Education Supplement listed Texas A&M 60th among the world's top 100 technology universities, 24th among America's topbiomedicine universities, and 50th among North America's top 50 universities.[68] The 2011 QS World University Rankings[69] ranked the university 158th overall in the world, 40 places up from 2010. HP G62-b51ST Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M has an endowment valued at more than $5 billion, which ranks fourth among U.S. public universities and 10th overall.[70] Apart from revenue received from tuition and research grants, the university, as part of the Texas A&M University System (TAMUS), is partially funded from two endowments. The smaller endowment, totaling $1.17 billion in assets, is run by the private Texas A&M Foundation.[4] A larger sum is distributed from the Texas Permanent University Fund (PUF). ACER Aspire 5742Z Laptop CPU Cooling Fan TAMUS holds a minority stake (one-third) in this fund; the remaining two-thirds belongs to the University of Texas system. As of 2006, the PUF ending net asset value stood at $10.3 billion; $400.7 million was distributed to the two university systems in fiscal year 2007.[71][72] Combined, the total endowment for the TAMUS stands at $7.0 billion, as of 2011.[4]Compaq Presario CQ61-406SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Texas A&M University system, in 2006, was the first to explicitly state in its policy that technology commercialization was a criterion that could be used for tenure. Passage of this policy was intended to give faculty more academic freedom and strengthen the university's industry partnerships.[73][74] Texas A&M works with both state and university agencies on various local and international research projects to forge innovations in science and technology that can have commercial applications. Toshiba Satellite L350-15V Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This work is concentrated in two primary locations–Research Valley and Research Park. Research Valley, an alliance of educational and business organizations, consists of 11,400 acres (50 km2) with 2,500,000 square feet (232,000 m2) of dedicated research space. An additional 350 acres (1 km2), with 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of research space, is located in Research Park.[75] Among the school's research entities are the Texas Institute for Genomic Medicine, the Texas Transportation Institute, the Cyclotron Institute, the Institute of Biosciences and Technology, and the Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology.[76]TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2011 with $705 million Texas A&M ranked in the top 20 universities for research expenditures; third behind only MIT and UC Berkeley for universities without medical schools.[70] In 2004, Texas A&M System faculty and research submitted 121 new inventions and established 78 new royalty-bearing licensing agreements; the innovations resulted in income of $8 million. The Texas A&M Technology Licensing Office filed for 88 patents for protection of intellectual property in 2004.[77] ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Spearheaded by the College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M scientists created the first cloned domestic animal, a cat named 'cc', on December 22, 2001.[78]Texas A&M was also the first academic institution to clone each of six different species: cattle, a Boer goat, pigs, a cat, a deer and a horse.[79]HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2004, Texas A&M joined a consortium of universities to build the Giant Magellan Telescope in Chile. Estimated to be the largest optical telescope ever constructed, the facility will have seven mirrors, each with a diameter of 8.4 meters (9.2 yd). This will give the telescope the equivalent of a 24.5 meters (26.8 yd) primary mirror and will be ten times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope. Construction is slated to be complete in 2016.[80]FUJITSU CA49008-0790 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As part of a collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, Texas A&M completed the first conversion of a nuclear research reactor from using highly enriched uranium fuel (70%) to utilizing low-enriched uranium (20%). The eighteen-month project ended on October 13, 2006, after the first ever refueling of the reactor, thus fulfilling a portion of U.S. President George W. Bush’s Global Nuclear Threat Reduction Initiative.[81]HP G50-116CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M has participated in over 500 research projects in over 80 countries and leads the Southwestern United States in annual research expenditures. The university conducts research on every continent and has formal research and exchange agreements with 100 institutions in 40 countries.[82] Texas A&M ranks 13th among U.S. research universities in exchange agreements with institutions abroad and student participation in study abroad programs,[83] and has strong research collaborations with the National Natural Science Foundation of China and many leading universities in China.[82]HP Pavilion dv7-4012tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M owns three international facilities, a multipurpose center in Mexico City, Mexico, the Soltis Research and Education Center near the town of San Isidro, Costa Rica, and the Santa Chiara Study Abroad Center in Castiglion Fiorentino, Italy.[84][85] In 2003, over 1,200 Aggie students, primarily undergraduates, studied abroad.[86] Marine research occurs an the University's branch campus, Texas A&M University at Galveston.[87]Toshiba Satellite A100-644 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's Center for International Business Studies is one of 28 supported by the U.S. Department of Education.[88] The university is also one of only two American universities in partnership with CONACyT, Mexico's equivalent of the National Science Foundation, to support research in areas including biotechnology, telecommunications, energy, and urban development.[89] In addition, the university is the home of "Las Americas Digital Research Network", an online architecture network for 26 universities in 12 nations, primarily in Central and South America.[90]ASUS G51JX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's College Station campus, one of the largest in America, spans 5,200 acres (21 km2) plus 350 acres (1 km2) for Research Park.[1][15] The university is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area located within Brazos County in the Brazos Valley (Southeast Central Texas) region, an area often referred to as "Aggieland".[91] According the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2008, the population of Brazos County is estimated at 175,122.[92] Money Magazine, in 2006, named College Station the most educated city in Texas,  HP Pavilion dv6995la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the 11th most educated American city, due largely to the presence of the university and the size and scope of its research.[93] Aggieland is centrally located within 200 miles (320 km) of 3 of the 10 largest cities in the US and 75% of the Texas and Louisiana populations (approximately 13 million people). The area's major roadway is State Highway 6, and several smaller state highways and Farm to Market Roads connect the area to larger highways such as Interstate 45.[94]DELL Latitude E4300 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The campus is bisected by a railroad track operated by Union Pacific.[95] The area east of the tracks, known as Main Campus, includes buildings for the colleges of engineering, architecture, geosciences, science, education and liberal arts. Dormitories, as well as the main dining centers and many campus support facilities, are also on Main Campus. Notable buildings on Main Campus include Kyle Field, Sterling C. Evans Library, the Academic Building, Harrington Hall,  TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S7422 Laptop Keyboard the Memorial Student Center, the Administration Building, Rudder Tower, Albritton Bell Tower, and the Bonfire Memorial.[96] To the west of the railroad tracks lies West Campus, which includes most of the sports facilities, the business school, agricultural programs, life sciences, the veterinary college, the political science and economics school, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, the George Bush Presidential Library and two schools within the Texas A&M Health Science Center. Research Park, the area of West Campus along Kimbrough Boulevard, includes many research facilities.[97]HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Outside the main campus, the institution formally includes two additional branch campuses: Texas A&M at Qatar located in Education City in Doha, Qatar devoted to engineering disciplines[98] and Texas A&M University at Galveston in Galveston, Texas, devoted to marine research and host to the Texas Maritime Academy.[87]All degrees at the Qatar campus are granted by the university's Dwight Look College of Engineering.[99]SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M also maintains Texas A&M Riverside Campus, an extension of the main campus, located 10 miles (16 km) to the northwest. Unlike Galveston and Qatar, this extension is only a research facility.[citation needed]SONY Vaio VGN-NW235F/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the 2006 fall semester, 20.5 percent of the student body lived on campus in one of two distinct housing sections located on opposite ends of campus.[8] Both the Northside and Southside areas contain student dormitories, also known as residence halls. While some halls are single-sex, others are co-educational. Usually students of different genders live on alternate floors, although some halls are segregated by room or suite.[100] IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Residence hall styles vary. Many halls offer only indoor access to individual rooms, but other halls locate room entrances on an outdoor balcony. Room sizes vary by building. Halls with larger rooms include en-suite or private bathrooms, while halls with smaller rooms have a common bathroom on each floor. Several halls include a "substance-free" floor, where residents pledge to avoid bringing alcohol, drugs, or cigarettes into the hall.[101]HP G62t-350 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Northside consists of 17 student residence halls, including the 3 university honors dorms.[102] Two of the university honors dorms are freshman only. The halls are located near local entertainment district Northgate, and offer convenient access to campus dining establishments: Sbisa Dining Hall, The Underground and Bernie's Cafe. The demolition of Moore Hall, Crocker Hall, and McInnis Hall is scheduled for August 2011.[103] A $58 million 600-bed residence hall will replace the demolished halls that have accommodated roughly the same number. Some halls (particularly Walton) have unofficially claimed tables within the Sbisa Dining Hall and many halls congregate for dinner at a specific time each weekday.[104]Gateway MA1 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Several of the residence halls located on Southside are reserved for members of the Corps of Cadets. Non-corps halls in this area center around the Commons, a hub for activities and dining.[105] Southside has two Learning Living Communities, which allow freshmen to live in a cluster with other students who share common interests.[106]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E8E/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Facilities for the Corps of Cadets are located in the Quadrangle, or "The Quad", an area consisting of dormitories, Duncan Dining Hall, and the Corps training fields.[107] The Corps Arches, a series of 12 arches that "[symbolize] the spirit of the 12th Man of Texas A&M", mark the entrance to the Quadrangle.[108] All cadets, except those who are married or who have had previous military service, must live in the Quad with assigned roommates from the same unit and graduating class. Reveille, the Aggie mascot, lives with her handlers in the Quadrangle.[109]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M is one of six United States Senior Military Colleges. The schools' Corps of Cadets (or the Corps) is one of the largest uniformed student bodies outside the service academies. Many members participate in ROTC programs and earn commissions in the United States Armed Forces upon graduation. Members of the Corps have served in every armed conflictfought by the United States since 1876. There were 20,229 Aggies who served in WWII, of these, 14,123 served as officers, more than any other school, including the combined totals of the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy. Since 1876, 225 Aggies have served as generals or Flag Officers.[110] HP 606609-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Until 1965, Corps membership was mandatory. The Corps welcomed female members in the fall of 1974,[111] and as of spring 2012, the co-ed Corps boasts an enrollment of more than 2000 cadets.[112] The Corps is composed of three Air Force Wings, three Army Brigades, two Navy and Marine Regiments, as well as the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, whose members may be affiliated with any military branch.[113] Parson's Mounted Cavalry is the only mounted ROTC unit in the United States.[114] The Ross Volunteer Company, the oldest student-run organization in the state HP Pavilion dv7-3155el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan , is the official honor guard for the Governor of Texas.[115] The Fish Drill Team, a precision, close-order rifle drill team composed entirely of Corps freshmen, represents the school in local and national competitions. They have won the national championship almost every year since their creation in 1946, and have appeared in several Hollywood productions, with prominent roles in the movies A Few Good Men and Courage Under Fire.[116]ACER Aspire 6920-602G16 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, the world's largest precision military marching band, provides music for University functions and presents intricate halftime performances at football games.[115] Some band drills are so complicated that they require band members to step between each other's feet to complete the maneuvers.[117] These drills must be drawn by hand as computer marching programs have returned errors; their calculations require two people to be in the same spot at the same time.[118]SONY Vaio VPC-EA35FB/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M has over 800 student organizations, including academic, service, religious, Greek, and common interest organizations. Orientation programs encourage students to become involved in campus activities and organizations from the beginning.[119] An April 2005 campus survey found that 74% of the students were currently involved with at least one organization and that 88% participated in a campus organization in the past.[120] SONY Vaio VPC-EB47GM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of the oldest student organizations is the Singing Cadets, founded in 1893. Known as the "Voice of Aggieland", the Singing Cadets are an all-male choral group with about 70 members not affiliated with the Corps of Cadets. The group travels nationally and has completed several international tours; most recently, South Africa in 2010.[121]IBM 91P9252 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M Hillel, the oldest Hillel organization in the United States, was founded in 1920 at the original college. The organization occurred three years before the national Hillel Foundation was organized at University of Illinois.[122][123]  DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan GLBT Aggies is the descendant organization of Gay Student Services (GSS), the only student organization to ever successfully sue the institution for official recognition.[124] In the decision Gay Student Services v. Texas A&M University the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals held that the First Amendment required public universities to recognize student organizations aimed at gay students.[125]SONY Vaio VGN-NR21M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Graduate Student Council, founded in 1995, serves as the student government for Texas A&M University’s graduate and professional students. It is a council representing all TAMU graduate students with a purpose to improve graduate students’ academic, living and social experiences. The GSC represents student’s concerns and is their liaison with the University Administration.[126]DELL PM425 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Students exercise at the Student Rec Center, a three-story facility encompassing 373,000 square feet (34,650 m2), which includes exercise equipment, athletic courts, an indoor running track, a rock-climbing tower, and one of the top competitive pools and diving wells in America. The Rec Center also organizes intramural sports throughout the year.[127]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Some national service organizations originated at A&M. Aggie students founded the largest one-day student-run service project in America known as The Big Event. The annual service project allows students to give back to their community by assisting local residents.[128] The organization CARPOOL, a student run, safe ride program has provided over 179,000 free rides (as of January 2011) to Aggies unable to transport themselves home. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard ts organizers also assist other universities in establishing similar programs.[129][130] In addition, the Corporation for National and Community Service listed A&M among the 500 academic institutions in the 2005–06 President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll.[131] The Student Government Association (SGA), one of A&M's largest organizations, consists of over 1,300 student members in 3 branches, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard Media The Princeton Review ranked The Battalion, founded in 1893, as the 5th best college newspaper in America in 2010.[133] Students also publish a secondary school newspaper, the Maroon Weekly.[134] The Aggieland, formerly known as The Olio and The Longhorn, is one of America's largest college yearbooks in number of pages and copies sold.[135][136] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The university houses the public broadcasting stations: KAMU-TV, a PBS member station since 1970, KAMU-FM an NPR affiliate since 1977,[137] and the student-run KANM, "the college station of College Station".[138] W5AC broadcast the first live, play-by-play broadcast of a college football game, at Kyle Field, in November 1921. The game, played in Dallas between Aggies and University of Texas, ended in a scoreless tie.[139]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard The Texas A&M culture is a product of the university's founding as a rural military and agricultural school. Although the school and surrounding community have grown, and military training is no longer required, the school's history has instilled in students "the idealized elements of a small-town life: community, tradition, loyalty, optimism, and unabashed sentimentality."[140] HP 496121-001 Laptop Keyboard Texas Monthly posits that Texas A&M students' respect for school traditions and values is the university's greatest strength.[141] Some of the school traditions date to the 1890s, while others have been introduced more recently. These traditions help current and former students to cultivate the Aggie Spirit, a sense of loyalty and respect for the school.[142] They dictate many aspects of student life, including how to greet others (using the official school greeting "Howdy!"),[143] how to act at an A&M sporting event, and, in many cases, what words a student may use in conversation.[144]HP NSK-H7A01 Laptop Keyboard The most visible tradition among seniors and former students is the wearing of the Aggie Ring, whose design has been relatively unchanged since its introduction in 1894.[145] Students may order a ring after completing 90 credit hours of coursework, including at least 45 hours at A&M, or after graduation. Graduate students may receive a ring after 75% of their graduate coursework is completed or after the acceptance of their dissertation or thesis.[146]  TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5998 Laptop Keyboard Though unsanctioned by the University, many students "dunk" their newly acquired Aggie Rings into a pitcher of beer and quickly chug the entire pitcher to "earn" the ring. Some students dunk their rings in alternative substances, including ice cream or nonalcoholic beverages.[147]DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard In keeping with the idea that all current and former students comprise a family, Aggies have created two traditions to honor members of the Aggie family who have died. Aggie Muster is held annually on the anniversary of the Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, to honor any current and former student who died during the previous year. Over 300 Musters are held around the world,  lENOVO IdeaPad G550 Laptop Keyboard with the largest taking place at Reed Arena on the Texas A&M University campus.[148] All Muster ceremonies feature the Roll Call for the Absent. As the names of the deceased Aggies are called, a family member or friend answers "Here" and lights a candle, to symbolize that although their loved one is not present in body, his or her spirit will shine forever.[149][150]The event received worldwide attention during World War II, when 25 Aggies "mustered" during the battle for the island ofCorregidor.[151]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Students who die while enrolled at Texas A&M are also honored at Silver Taps, a ceremony held, when necessary, on the first Tuesday of the month. This tradition began as a memorial for former Texas A&M president Lawrence Sullivan Ross.[152] On the day of the ceremony, flags fly half-staff and notices are posted throughout campus. HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard At 10:15 pm the lights around campus are extinguished and hymns chime from Albritton Tower while students and faculty collect in the Academic Plaza. Following a 21-gun salute by the Ross Volunteer Firing Squad, six buglers play an A&M version of the song Taps, Silver Taps, three times from the dome of the school's Academic Building: once to the north, the south and to the west. The song is not played to the east symbolizing that the sun will never rise on that Aggie again.[150]Dell Vostro 3700 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie football fans are called the 12th Man. The meaning is that they support the 11 players on the field and, moreover, are willing to enter the game if necessary. To further symbolize their "readiness, desire, and enthusiasm," the entire student body stands throughout the game.[153] The tradition began on January 2, 1922, at the Dixie Classic where A&M played Centre College. A&M had so many injuries in the first half of the game that Coach Dana X. Bible feared he wouldn’t have enough men to finish the game. Compaq Presario CQ61-312TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He called into the stands for E. King Gill, a reserve who had left football after the regular season to play basketball. Although he did not actually play, his readiness symbolized the willingness of all Aggies to support their team to the point of actually entering the game. A&M won 22–14, but E. King Gill was the only man left standing on the sidelines for the Aggies.[154] In recent decades, the 12th Man is represented on the field by a walk-on player who wears the No. 12 jersey and participates in kick-offs.[155]HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 12th Man uses a variety of school yells, rather than cheers, to support Aggie teams. Each year the student body elects five students to serve as the Yell Leaders.[156] At midnight before each home football game at Kyle Field or at a predesignated location at away games, the fans gather together to practice the yells for the next day's game.[143][157] Led by the Yell Leaders, and the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, the Twelfth Man files into the stadium to participate in Midnight Yell Practice to practice yells, sing the War Hymn, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad T61 8895 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and joke about their opponents. At the conclusion of the yell practice, the stadium lights are extinguished and fans kiss their dates. This is also done as practice, because Aggies are expected to "mug down", or kiss their dates, every time the football team scores on the field.[157][158] Sports Illustrated named Midnight Yell as one of the "100 Things You Gotta Do Before You Graduate."[159]SONY Vaio VPC-EB11FM/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Almost every year since 1909, A&M students have built a large bonfire to celebrate their "burning desire to beat the hell outta" the University of Texas.[160]Aggie Bonfire was traditionally lit around Thanksgiving in conjunction with the festivities surrounding the annual college football game between the schools.[161] Though it began as a trash pile,[162] HP Pavilion dv7t-3100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie Bonfire evolved into a massive six-tiered structure, the world record being held at 109 feet (30 m).[161][163] After the collapse of the 1999 structure, causing the death of 11 students and one former student, the university suspended Bonfire indefinitely, but the tradition continues off-campus without direct University involvement, sanction, or participation.[164][165]HP Mini 110-3100ew Laptop Keyboard The Aggies are a member of the Southeastern Conference in all sports as of July 1, 2012.[166][167] Previously a charter member of the Southwest Conference until its dissolution in 1996, A&M competed in the Big 12 Conference until June 30, 2012. The school's 20 sports teams are known as the Aggies, and the school's colors are maroon and white.[168] As of April 2011, Aggies have earned 138 Southwest and Big 12 conference regular-season and tournament titles and 11 team national championships.[169]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The women's soccer team, formed in 1993, earned 15 consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances from 1995 to 2009, advancing at least as far as the round of 16 in seven of the last eight appearances.[170] The women's volleyball team earned 12 consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances from 1993 to 2004, advancing past the first round each time.[171][172] In 2004 Sports Illustrated on Campus ranked Olsen Field "the best college baseball venue".[173] Sports Illustrated ranked the university 46th, in a 2002 analysis of "America's Best Sports College[s]"[174] and College Station the 9th best college sports town.[175]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard A&M's archrival is the University of Texas. In 2004, sporting events between the Aggies and Longhorns became known as theLone Star Showdown. The most-watched event in the rivalry is the annual football game held the day of Thanksgiving.[176][177]Other rivalries include Texas Tech, Baylor University, and the rHP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1894, the football team has won 18 Southwest Conference championships, 3 Big 12 South Division championships, 1 Big 12 championship, and 1 national championship.[182] The team has appeared in 30 bowl games, winning 13,[183] and has produced 41 first Team All-Americans, 5 Academic All-Americans, and 2 Heisman Trophy winners, John David Crow and Johnny Manziel, in 1957 and 2012 respectively.[184] Twenty-one Aggies currently play in the NFL.[185][186]HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard Since 1904, home football games have been played at Kyle Field, a stadium with a current capacity of 83,002.[187] In 2004, CBS SportsLine.com ranked Kyle Field the top football stadium while Sporting News ranked it fourth.[188][189] The same year Sports Illustrated on Campus ranked an A&M football weekend the third best college football experience.[190]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1912, the men's basketball team won 11 Southwest Conference championships and 2 Southwest Conference Tournament championships. The team has appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 6 times and in theNCAA Tournament 11 times, of which 3 resulted in Sweet Sixteen appearances, the highest round to which the Aggies have advanced.[191] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The women's basketball team has 1 Southwest Conference Tournament championship,1 regular season Big 12 Conference championship and 2 Big 12 Tournament championships, most recently in 2011. The women have advanced to 8 NCAA Tournament appearances, winning the National Championship in 2011. They have also competed in the WNIT twice, winning that tournament in 1995.[192]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The men's basketball team was coached by head coach Mark Turgeon for four years until he left for the head coaching position at the University of Maryland.[193] The current head basketball coach is Billy Kennedy; he is entering his second season and leading the Aggies into the Southeastern Conference. The women's team has been coached by Gary Blair since 2003.[194] Home games are played at the 12,989-seat Reed Arena.[195] G. Rollie White Coliseum, formerly the home of the volleyball and basketball teams, hosted basketball games before Reed Arena opened in 1998.[196]HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard With over 280,000 former students,[197] A&M has one of the largest and most active alumni groups in America. Many Aggies have attained local, national, and international prominence.[198] Jorge Quiroga and Martin Torrijos have served as heads of statefor Bolivia and Panama, respectively, and Rick Perry is the current Governor of Texas and 2012 US Presidential candidate. Robert Gates, Secretary of Defense in the George W. Bush and Obama administrations,is a past president of the university. Congressmen Joe Barton, Bill Flores, Jeb Hensarling, and Louie Gohmert, and former Austin, Texas, mayor Will Wynn are all graduates.[199]HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Aggies made their mark on the gridiron with Houston Texans head coach Gary Kubiak, title-winning coach Gene Stallings,Houston Oilers defensive tackle Ray Childress, Heisman Trophy winners John David Crow and Johnny Manziel, Heisman runner-up, legislator, and actor John Kimbrough, punt returner Dante Hall, offensive tackle Richmond Webb, Detroit Lions defensive end and punter Yale Lary, former Dallas Cowboys assistant coach and former player Dat Nguyen,  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard punter Shane Lechler, and defensive end Ty Warren.[200][201] Paul "Bear" Bryant coached at A&M where "survivors" of his grueling football practice camp atJunction, Texas were nicknamed named The Junction Boys.[202][203] Other famous Aggie athletes include Randy Barnes, indoor/outdoor shotput world record holder, baseball standouts Chuck Knoblauch and Wally Moon; along with Stacy Sykora, Libero for the USA national volleyball team.[201]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Aggies have also made a mark on pop culture. Robert Earl Keen and Lyle Lovett, who often strummed their guitars on the porch of their Northgate home, have become popular country singers.[204] William A. Pailes and Michael E. Fossum became NASA astronauts.[205]Rip Torn is a veteran of the silver screen[201] and Neal Boortz is a nationally syndicated talk show host with the sixth largest listening audience in the United States.[206][207] Wen Ho Lee, a doctoral graduate of A&M, became the subject of a 1999 espionage investigation; though arrested, charges were dropped in 2000.[208]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard Many Aggies have become business leaders, particularly in the fields of energy, construction, communications, and chemistry. Current leaders include Jack Whiteside, President of Barnes & Click, Inc.;[209] Lowry Mays, chairman and CEO of Clear Channel Communications;[201] George P. Mitchell, chairman and CEO, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp.;[199] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard H. B. Zachry, President of the H.B. Zachry Company; John Zachry, CEO of Zachry Corp.; David Zachry, President of Zachry Corp.;[210] Khalid A. Al-Falih, President and CEO of Saudi Aramco;[211] Stephen M. Johnson, Chairman, President and CEO of McDermott International, Inc. and Eduardo Castro-Wright, CEO of Wal-Mart Stores USA.[212]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Because of A&M's military roots, many Aggies have become leaders in the armed forces, and were featured in the 1943 propaganda filmWe've Never Been Licked.[213] George H. Gay, Jr., was the sole survivor of Torpedo Squadron 8 in the Battle of Midway.[214] Lieutenant General Jay

T. Robbins became a fighter ace in World War II with 22 aerial victories.[215] TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard Major General Robert B. Williams led World War II raid on the Schweinfurt ball bearing factories.[216] General Bernard Adolph Schriever, known as "the architect of the Air Force’s ballistic missile and military space program", became the namesake of Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.[217][218] GeneralMichael Moseley is a former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force.[219]Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard Current and former students at Texas A&M University, nicknamed Aggies after the school's agricultural roots,[2] are known for their loyalty and respect for theiralma mater.[1] They cultivate "the Aggie Spirit" through "an almost religious devotion to the traditions" of the school, some over 100 years old.[3] As Texas Monthly noted, "Every Aggie is a self-appointed guardian of the Aggie spirit, eternally on the alert for signs of slippage."[1] To Aggies, Texas A&M is "not just a university but a...family,...defined and united by a unique culture."[4] The school song is titled The Spirit of Aggieland, and proclaims in its first verse that the "spirit can ne'er be told."[1]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard The Texas A&M culture is a product of the university's founding as a rural military and agricultural school. Although the school and surrounding community have grown, and military training is no longer required, the school's history has instilled in students "the idealized elements of a small-town life: community, tradition, loyalty, optimism, and unabashed sentimentality."[4] This respect for Aggie traditions and values is the university's greatest strength.[1]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Many of these traditions are part of what Aggies call "The Other Education", activities designed to make students well-rounded and "moral, ethical people".[5]Students who attend Texas A&M feel "that they receive 'more' from Texas A&M than just the knowledge one acquires from the formal classroom and books."[6]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard Freshmen are introduced to these traditions and to the Aggie spirit at Fish Camp, an optional four-day retreat held in Palestine, Texas during the summer.[5]Current students organize and run Fish Camp, leading sessions on the Aggie Spirit, school yells, and other school traditions so that new students can "begin the process of feeling part of the extended Aggie family."[1][5] Fish Camp began in 1954 as a simple camping trip involving several new students and Gordon Gay, a former Student Activities director.[7] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard The program has since evolved to accommodate approximately 70% of incoming freshmen; over 5,600 Texas A&M students attended in 2008. The program has been emulated by several schools, including Virginia Tech.[8] In 1987, Texas A&M established a parallel orientation for summer and fall transfer students called T-Camp.[9] Howdy Camp also serves as a campus orientation program. Modeled after T-Camp and Fish Camp, it is intended for freshman and transfer students who enter A&M in the spring semester.[10] Students who choose not to participate in The Other Education are known on campus as "2 Percenters," because going to class is only a small portion of experiencing Texas A&M.[11]DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard Rather than end a conversation with "goodbye", many conversations between Aggies end with "gig 'em", usually accompanied by athumbs up. This tradition began at a 1930 Midnight Yell Practice held before the football game against the Texas Christian University Horned Frogs. In an attempt to excite the crowd, Pinky Downs, a 1906 Texas A&M graduate and member of the school's Board of Regents, asked "What are we going to do to those Horned Frogs?"[13] Using a term for frog hunting, he answered his own question, "Gig 'em, Aggies!"[13]HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard For emphasis, he made a fist with the thumb extended. The phrase and hand signal proved popular, and it became the first hand sign of the Southwest Conference.[13] Gig 'em is also the name of one of the school yells, which is used during football kickoffs.[14]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The university's traditions council recognizes another possible origin for the expression. The word "gig" is used in the US Army to indicate an infraction of the uniform code, and the A&M cadets used the same vocabulary. New cadets would quickly learn to fear being "gigged" during inspection for having unshined shoes, unpolished brass, or a non-aligned "gig line".[15]Toshiba Satellite A105-S2716 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Aggie Ring

The most visible way for graduates of Texas A&M to recognize each other is by the Aggie Ring.[3] The Aggie Ring is worn by current and former students, and may be used to distinguish seniors from other students on campus. The first Aggie Ring was designed by E. C. Jonas in 1894, and the design has remained relatively unchanged since; the only major change came when the school's name was changed from the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in 1963.[16]Toshiba Satellite P200-1FT Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Aggie Ring cannot be purchased unless specific requirements are met: a current student must be in good standing with a minimum 2.00 GPA on a 4.00 scale. In addition, the student must have completed 90 hours of coursework, including at least 45 hours at A&M. Graduate students may receive a ring after 75% of their graduate coursework is completed or after the acceptance of their dissertation or thesis. A ring may be purchased upon graduation if a student, either undergraduate or graduate, did not meet these criteria while pursuing the degree. HP Mini 210-2190nr Laptop Keyboard The top of the ring depicts an eagle and shield. The shield at the top of the ring symbolizes protection of the reputation of the alma mater. The thirteen stripes in the shield represent the thirteen original states and symbolize patriotism. The five stars in the shield refer to the facets of student development: mind, body, spirit, emotion, and integrity. The eagle denotes agility, power, and ability.[3] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-122EL Laptop Keyboard On one side of the ring is a large star, borrowed from the seal of the state of Texas. The oak leaves symbolize strength. On the other side of the ring are a cannon, a saber, and a rifle, symbolizing Aggies' preparedness and valor in defending their land. The crossed flags of the United States and Texas symbolize allegiance to both nation and state.[17]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Traditionally, students wear their rings with the class year facing them to signify the fact that their time at A&M is not yet complete. At the annual Ring Dance, or at the end of the student's collegiate career, the student turns his ring around so that the class year faces away, symbolizing readiness to "face the world."[16]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Many students camp outside the Association of Former Students building the night before Ring Day to ensure they will receive their ring early.[3] For decades, though unsanctioned and often discouraged by the University, an unofficial tradition among willing students involves "dunking" the newly acquired Aggie Ring. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The ring is dropped in a pitcher of beer and the student chugs the entire pitcher and catches the ring in his or her teeth. The Dixie Chicken, among other bars, has been one of the more popular venues for dunking Aggie Rings, though it no longer endorses the activity.[18] Some students choose to dunk their rings in alternative substances, including ice cream or nonalcoholic beverages.[5][19]HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard According to the Houston Chronicle, "perhaps the best, most meaningful Aggie tradition of all is one you wish never happened."[20] While students at many schools prize their individuality, "Aggies are all about unity and loyalty. When an Aggie falls, the family comes together to remember."[21] This remembrance occurs annually on April 21 as Aggies observe Muster, a solemn event to honor current and former students who died during the previous year. Over 300 Musters are held around the world, ACER Aspire 5110 Laptop Keyboard with the largest taking place at Reed Arena on the Texas A&M University campus.[22] All Muster ceremonies feature the Roll Call for the Absent. As the names of the deceased Aggies are called, a family member or friend answers "Here," and lights a candle, to symbolize that although their loved one is not present in body, his or her spirit will shine forever.[20][23]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The first Aggie Muster was held June 26, 1883, seven years after the school opened. Rather than a memorial service, the event was intended as a reunion to allow former students to gather and remember their college days.[21] During the day, the alumni also established a "Roll Call for the Absent" to honor their classmates who could not attend. In 1889, the gathering was moved to April 21 and became an official school holiday, set aside for the annual cadet track and field competition. On April 21, 1903, the tradition evolved into a celebration of Texas's victory at the battle of San Jacinto. Gatherings would include field games and banquets so Aggies could reflect on their days in Aggieland.[24]Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard The field day events were cancelled in 1922, although former students were still expected to congregate annually for camaraderie and to remember their fellow Aggies. The March 1923 Texas Aggie urged, "If there is an A&M man in one-hundred miles of you, you are expected to get together, eat a little, and live over the days you spent at the A&M College of Texas." SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard tudents who die while currently enrolled at Texas A&M are also honored at Silver Taps, a ceremony held, when necessary, on the first Tuesday of the month. This tradition began as a memorial for former Texas A&M president Lawrence Sullivan Ross.[26]In the modern incarnation, on the morning of Silver Taps, a small card with the deceased student's name, class, major, and birthdate is placed as a notice at the base of the flagpole in Academic Plaza. At 10:15 p.m., all lights on campus are extinguished, and Albritton Tower begins to chime hymns. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP6003M Laptop Keyboard When the music begins, students gather in silence in front of the statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross at Academic Plaza. At 10:30 pm, the Ross Volunteers march into the plaza and fire a 3-volley salute. Buglers stationed at the top of the Academic Building then play a special rendition of Taps, known as Silver Taps. The song is played three times; once to the north, once to the south, and once to the west. It is never played to the east, "because the sun will never rise on that Aggie again."[23] Once the buglers have finished their tribute, the crowd disperses. Generally, students remain silent until reaching their homes.[23][26][27]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard HP G62-225DX Laptop Keyboard

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Israel Institute of Technology The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (Hebrew: הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל‎) is a public research university in Haifa, Israel. Founded in 1912, Technion is the oldest university in Israel. The university offers degrees in science and engineering, and related fields such as architecture, medicine, industrial management and education. It has 18 academic departments and 52 research centers. Since its founding, it has awarded 95,821 degrees and its graduates are cited to have provided the skills and education behind the creation and protection of the State of Israel.[1][2]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard The university's principal language of instruction is Hebrew, and Technion was the scene of a critical struggle over the language of instruction which helped consolidate Hebrew as the spoken language in the State of Israel.[3] Technion's 616 faculty members include three Nobel Laureates in chemistry. SONY VAIO VGN-FZ21E Laptop Keyboard On December 19, 2011, a bid by a consortium of Cornell University and Technion won a competition to establish a new high-tier applied science and engineering institution in New York City. The competition was established by New York City MayorMichael Bloomberg in order to increase entrepreneurship and job growth in the city's technology sector. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard The winning bid consisted of a 2.1 million square feet state-of-the-art tech campus being built on Roosevelt Island, which will have its first phase completed by 2017, with a temporary off-site campus opening in 2012.[4] The new 'School of Genius' in New York City has been named the Technion Cornell Institute of Innovation (TCII).[5] This is the first time any Israeli university has moved into establishing a center of global advanced research in the United States. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard The President of the Technion is Prof. Peretz Lavie, who was ranked in 2012 by the Israeli national newspaper The Markeras among the country's 100 most influential people.[6] The Technion was conceived in the early 1900s by the German-Jewish fund Ezrah, as a school of engineering and sciences. It was to be the only institution of higher learning in the then Ottoman Palestine, other than the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem (founded in 1907). Its cornerstone was laid in 1912, and studies began 12 years later in 1924. The Technion witnessed Israel's "battle of the languages": an intense debate over the language of instruction. HP 496121-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1923, Albert Einstein visited the Technion. During his visit, he planted a now-famous first palm tree, as an initiative of Nobel tradition. The first palm tree still stands today in front of the old Technion building in Hadar. Einstein founded the first Technion Society, and served as its President upon his return to Germany after his visit to the Technion campus. HP NSK-H7A01 Laptop Keyboard As the university matures, the Technion is increasingly becoming a global example of how investment in higher education can impact the destiny of a young nation.[7][8]Technion City generally refers to the 1.2 square kilometer site located on the pine-covered north-eastern slopes of Mount Carmel. The campus comprises 100 buildings, occupied by thousands of people every day.  TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5998 Laptop Keyboard The Technion has two additional campuses. Its original building in midtown Haifa, in use by the Technion until the mid-1980s, now houses the Israel National Museum of Science, Technology and Space. The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is located in the neighborhood of Bat Galim, adjacent to Rambam Hospital, the largest medical center in Northern Israel. DELL UW739 Laptop Keyboard Recreational activities on the main campus include an olympic-size swimming pool as well as gymnastics, squash and tennis facilities.[9] The Technion Symphony Orchestra and Choir are composed mainly of Technion students and staff. Each term, the Orchestra offers a series of daytime and evening concerts. Films and live performances by leading Israeli artists take place on campus on a regular basis.  lENOVO IdeaPad G550 Laptop Keyboard The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is home to two Nobel Laureates: Prof. Avram Hershko and Prof. Aaron Ciechanover. It is one of four state-sponsored medical schools in Israel. It was founded in 1979 through the philanthropy ofBruce Rappaport and is active in basic science research and pre-clinical medical training in anatomy, HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard biochemistry,biophysics, immunology, microbiology, physiology, and pharmacology.[19] Other facilities on the Faculty of Medicine campus include teaching laboratories, a medical library, lecture halls, and seminar rooms. Academic programs are offered at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine leading to Master of Science (M.S.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard  TOSHIBA Satellite A215-S7422 Laptop Keyboard and Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degrees. It has developed collaborative research and medical education programs with various institutions in medicine and bio-medical engineering including Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Toronto, and Mayo Medical School. The Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Faculty of Medicine offers medical training leading to a M.D. degree to qualified American and Canadian graduates of pre-med programs under the Technion American Medical Students Program (TeAMs).[20]HP Mini 210-1155DX Laptop Keyboard Technion has an impressive track record in technology transfer. Its dedicated office to bridge the transition of scientific and technological discovery to successfully commercialized innovation has been active since 2007 as T3 - Technion Technology Transfer. As of 2011, 424 patents were granted to Technion innovations, with 845 patents pending. T3's partners include incubators, entrepreneurs, private investors, VCs and angel groups. It has strategic partnerships with Microsoft, IBM, Intel,Philips, Johnson & Johnson, Coca Cola, among others. SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard In 2012, the Shanghai Academic Ranking rated the Technion as 78th in its list of the top 100 universities in the world.[26]Also in 2012, the magazine Business Insider ranked Technion among the top 25 engineering schools in the world.[27][28]In 2012, the Center for World University Rankings ranked Technion 51st in the world and third in Israel in its CWUR World University Rankings.[29]HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For national rankings in 2011, Technion was ranked the #2 of universities in Israel by ARWU. In global rankings for that year, Technion was ranked #102-150 by ARWU, #220 by QS,.[30]Technion offers many after-school and summer enrichment courses for young people on subjects ranging from introductory electronics and computer programming to aerospace, architecture, biology, chemistry and physics. Two examples are Scitech[22] and the Math Summer Camp, devoted to number theory.[23]IBM Lenovo ThinkPad T61 8895 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Technion recently set up and orchestrated the Israeli chapter of Engineers Without Borders,[24] which among other projects, installed a network of biogas systems in rural Nepal providing sustainable energy and improved sanitation.[25]SONY Vaio VPC-EB11FM/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Academics Texas A&M University (often referred to as A&M or TAMU) is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas, United States. It is the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System, the sixth-largest university in the United States and the largest university in Texas.[12][13] Texas A&M's designation as a land, sea, HP Pavilion dv7t-3100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan andspace grant institution reflects a broad range of research with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and theOffice of Naval Research. The school ranks in the top 20 American research institutes in terms of funding and has made notable contributions to such fields as animal cloning and petroleum engineering. HP Mini 110-3100ew Laptop Keyboard The first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876[14] as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. Originally, the admission was limited to white males and education consisted of agricultural and military techniques. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard in the 1960s A&M desegregated, became coeducational, and dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963. The letters "A&M", originally short for "Agricultural and Mechanical", are retained only as a link to the university's past. The school's students, alumni, and sports teams are known as "Aggies".ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard The main campus is one of the largest in America, spanning 5,500 acres (22 km2),[1][15] and includes the George Bush Presidential Library. Approximately one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has approximately 800 officially recognized student organizations. Many students also observe the traditions of Texas A&M University, HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard which govern daily life as well as special occasions, including sports events. On July 1, 2012, the school joined theSoutheastern Conference. A&M operates two branches: Texas A&M at Qatar and Texas A&M University at Galveston. Working with agencies such as the Texas AgriLife Research and Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Texas A&M has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in over 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes. Texas A&M has awarded over 320,000 degrees, including 70,000 graduate and professional degrees. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard As a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of three public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets. The U.S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of Texas A&M in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life".[16] In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education,[17] the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, then known as Texas A.M.C.[16]Brazos County donated 2,416 acres (10 km2) near Bryan, Texas, for the school's campus.[16]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard Classes began on October 4, 1876, with 40 students and 6 faculty members. Admission was limited to white males, and all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training.[18] Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas.[19] Though originally envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.M.C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System.[16]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A.M.C. In 1891, Texas A&M was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, and well-respectedConfederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A&M "to learn to be like Ross".[20] HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring.[20] After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school.[20]HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester.[21] At the same time, A&M began expanding its academic pursuits with the establishment of the School of Veterinary Medicine in 1915.[16]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

World Wars era

Many Texas A&M graduates served during World War I. By 1918, 49% of all graduates of the college were in military service, more than any other school.[16] In early September 1918, the entire senior class enlisted, with plans to send the younger students at staggered dates throughout the next year. Many of the seniors were fighting in France when the war ended two months later.[22] Over 1,200 former students served as commissioned officers. After the war, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M grew rapidly and became nationally recognized for its programs in agriculture, engineering, and military science.[16] The first graduate school was organized in 1924 and the school awarded its first PhD in 1940.[16] In 1925, Mary Evelyn Crawford Locke became the first female to receive a diploma from Texas A&M, although she was not allowed to participate in the graduation ceremony.[23] The following month the Board of Directors officially prohibited all women from enrolling.[21]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Many Aggies again served in the military during World War II, with the college producing 20,229 combat troops. Of those, 14,123 Aggies served as officers, more than any other school and more than the combined total of the United States Naval Academy and theUnited States Military Academy.[24] During the war, 29 A&M graduates reached the rank of general.[16]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard At the start of WWII, Texas A&M was selected as one of six engineering colleges to participate in the Electronics Training Program, a 10-month activity of 12-hour study days to train Navy personnel who were urgently needed to maintain the new, highly complex electronic equipment such asradar. These colleges provided the Primary School, wherein the key topics of the first two years of a college electrical engineering curriculum were condensed into three months. The instructional effort at College Station was developed and led by Frank Bolton, TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard EE department head and future Texas A&M president. At a given time, some 500 Navy students were on the campus, a significant fraction of the then-years enrollment. Students graduating from the Primary Schools then went to a Secondary School, one of which was at Ward Island, Texas (the future location of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi).[25]Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard Enrollment soared after the war as many former soldiers used the G.I. Bill to further their education.[26] In 1948, the state Legislature formally recognized Texas A&M as a separate university system from the University of Texas System, codifying the de facto arrangement between the schools.[27]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard University era On March 26, 1960, Major General James Earl Rudder, class of 1932, became the 16th president of the college.[28] Rudder's tenure (1959–1970) marked a critical turning point in the school's history. Under his leadership, Texas A&M underwent a dramatic expansion in terms of its physical plant construction, but more importantly, ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard it diversified and expanded its student body by admitting women and minorities. The Corps of Cadets became voluntary. In the face of growing student activism during the 1960s, Rudder worked diligently to ensure that school continue to fulfill its mission of providing a quality education for all Aggies. By his death in 1970, Rudder had overseen the growth of the school from 7,500 to 14,000 students from all 50 states and 75 nations.[29][30]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard In 1963, the 58th Legislature of Texas approved of Rudder's changes, and officially renamed the school "Texas A&M University",[29] specifying that the "A" and the "M" were purely symbolic, reflecting the school's past, and no longer stood for "Agricultural and Mechanical".[16] In the following 35 years, Texas A&M more than tripled its enrollment from 14,000 students to over 45,000.[15]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Much of the legislative work allowing the expansion of Texas A&M and the admission of women was pushed by State Senator William T. "Bill" Moore, who served from 1949 to 1981. Known as "the Bull of the Brazos" and "the father of the modern Texas A&M University", Moore was a Bryan attorney and businessman originally fromWheelock in Robertson County. He also taught economics at TAMU prior to his entry into World War II.[31]DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M became one of the first four universities given the designation sea-grant for its achievements in oceanography and marine resources development in 1971. In 1989, the university earned the title space-grant by NASA, to recognize its commitment to space research and participation in the Texas Space Grant Consortium.[32]HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1997, the school became the home of the George Bush Presidential Library. Operated by the National Archives and Records Administration, it is one of thirteen American presidential libraries. Former President George Bush remains actively involved with the university, frequently visiting the campus and participating in special events.[33][34]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M received national media attention on November 18, 1999, when Aggie Bonfire, a ninety-year-old student tradition, collapsed during construction. Twelve current and former students died and twenty-seven others were injured. The accident was later attributed to improper design and poor construction practices.[35] The victims' family members filed six lawsuits against Texas A&M officials, the student Bonfire leaders, and the university. Half of the defendants settled their portion of the case in 2005,[36] and a federal appeals court dismissed the remaining lawsuits against the university in 2007.[37]Toshiba Satellite A105-S2716 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With strong support from Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin, the Association of American Universitiesinducted Texas A&M in May 2001, on the basis of the depth of the university's research and academic programs.[38] In December 2006, university President Robert Gates resigned from his position to become the U.S. Secretary of Defense.[39] Elsa Murano became his replacement in January 2008, but later resigned in June 2009[40] and was replaced by R. Bowen Loftin. Toshiba Satellite P200-1FT Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M left the Big 12 Conference for the Southeastern Conference on July 1, 2012.[41] This ended Texas A&M's scheduled NCAA athletic competitions with formerSouthwest Conference rivals, UT Austin, Baylor, and Texas Tech, for the foreseeable future. Dell Vostro 3700 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the fall 2008 semester, Texas A&M was the seventh largest American university with an enrollment of 48,039 students pursuing degrees in 10 academic colleges. The student body represents all 50 US states and 130 foreign countries. Texas residents account for 86% of the student population, and 28.9% are either of international origin or members of ethnicminority groups. The student body consists of 46.8% women and 53.2% men.[42]Compaq Presario CQ61-312TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although Texas A&M is a secular institution, its student body has a reputation for being religious and conservative. According to a 2005 student survey published in the Princeton Review, Texas A&M ranked 13th highest in the category "students pray on a regular basis".[43] Four years later, the Princeton Review ranked Texas A&M the eighth most socially conservativecampus in the nation.[44] The Princeton Review also ranked the university in 2012 as the "10th least friendly" college in the United States for LGBT people, and the least friendly among public schools.[45]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The university consistently ranks among the top ten public universities each year in enrollment of National Meritscholars.[46] According to the College Board, the fall 2008 entering freshman class consisted of 54% students in the top 10% of their high school graduating class, 86% in the top quarter, and 99% in the top half.[47] DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard Seventy-four percent of these students took the SAT. The middle 50% of the freshmen had average scores as follows: in critical reading, 520–630, math, 560–670, and in writing 500–610. Twenty-six percent of the incoming freshmen took the ACT, with the middle 50% scoring between a 23 and 29.[48] About 80 percent of the student body receives about $420 million in financial aid annually.[49]HP Mini 210-2190nr Laptop Keyboard In the fall 2008 semester, the Dwight Look College of Engineering had the largest enrollment of 20.5%. The College of Liberal Arts and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences followed, enrolling 15% and 14% of the student body, respectively. The College of Education and Human Development enrolls 12%, andMays Business School enrolled about 11%. Colleges with less than 10% enrollment included the College of Architecture, the College of Science, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, the College of Geosciences, and the College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. Approximately 8% of the student body had not declared a major.[42] COMPAQ Presario CQ60-122EL Laptop Keyboard In the 2011 U.S. News and World Report ranking of public universities, Texas A&M is listed 19th; among "national universities" the school is 58th.[58][Note 2] According to The Washington Monthly criteria, which considers research, community service, and social mobility, Texas A&M ranks second nationally.[59] The John Templeton Foundation listed Texas A&M as one of the thirty-five American college programs that "communicate[s] the values of honesty, trust, respect, responsibility, integrity, and fairness in the classroom".[60]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The 2011 Kiplinger's Personal Finance ranked the school as the 23rd best-value public university on the basis of in-state tuition, and the 35th best-value public university on the basis of out-of-state tuition.[61] After conducting a survey of leading employment recruiters, the Wall Street Journalranked Texas A&M 2nd nationally, as "most likely to help students land a job in key careers and professions".[62][63] In 2009 the National Science Foundation has recognized Texas A&M as one of the top 20 research institutions.[64]TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Internationally, the university is also well-regarded. Newsweek International ranked Texas A&M as the 77th university globally on the basis of "openness and diversity" as well as "distinction in research".[65] In a comparison of educational quality, faculty quality, and research output, Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranked Texas A&M 53rd in the Americas[66] and 88th internationally.[67]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The Times Higher Education Supplement listed Texas A&M 60th among the world's top 100 technology universities, 24th among America's topbiomedicine universities, and 50th among North America's top 50 universities.[68] The 2011 QS World University Rankings[69] ranked the university 158th overall in the world, 40 places up from 2010. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M has an endowment valued at more than $5 billion, which ranks fourth among U.S. public universities and 10th overall.[70] Apart from revenue received from tuition and research grants, the university, as part of the Texas A&M University System (TAMUS), is partially funded from two endowments. The smaller endowment, totaling $1.17 billion in assets, is run by the private Texas A&M Foundation.[4] A larger sum is distributed from the Texas Permanent University Fund (PUF). ACER Aspire 5110 Laptop Keyboard TAMUS holds a minority stake (one-third) in this fund; the remaining two-thirds belongs to the University of Texas system. As of 2006, the PUF ending net asset value stood at $10.3 billion; $400.7 million was distributed to the two university systems in fiscal year 2007.[71][72] Combined, the total endowment for the TAMUS stands at $7.0 billion, as of 2011.[4]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The Texas A&M University system, in 2006, was the first to explicitly state in its policy that technology commercialization was a criterion that could be used for tenure. Passage of this policy was intended to give faculty more academic freedom and strengthen the university's industry partnerships.[73][74] Texas A&M works with both state and university agencies on various local and international research projects to forge innovations in science and technology that can have commercial applications. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard This work is concentrated in two primary locations–Research Valley and Research Park. Research Valley, an alliance of educational and business organizations, consists of 11,400 acres (50 km2) with 2,500,000 square feet (232,000 m2) of dedicated research space. An additional 350 acres (1 km2), with 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of research space, is located in Research Park.[75] Among the school's research entities are the Texas Institute for Genomic Medicine, the Texas Transportation Institute, the Cyclotron Institute, the Institute of Biosciences and Technology, and the Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology.[76]SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard In 2011 with $705 million Texas A&M ranked in the top 20 universities for research expenditures; third behind only MIT and UC Berkeley for universities without medical schools.[70] In 2004, Texas A&M System faculty and research submitted 121 new inventions and established 78 new royalty-bearing licensing agreements; the innovations resulted in income of $8 million. The Texas A&M Technology Licensing Office filed for 88 patents for protection of intellectual property in 2004.[77]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP6003M Laptop Keyboard Spearheaded by the College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M scientists created the first cloned domestic animal, a cat named 'cc', on December 22, 2001.[78]Texas A&M was also the first academic institution to clone each of six different species: cattle, a Boer goat, pigs, a cat, a deer and a horse.[79]DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard In 2004, Texas A&M joined a consortium of universities to build the Giant Magellan Telescope in Chile. Estimated to be the largest optical telescope ever constructed, the facility will have seven mirrors, each with a diameter of 8.4 meters (9.2 yd). This will give the telescope the equivalent of a 24.5 meters (26.8 yd) primary mirror and will be ten times more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope. Construction is slated to be complete in 2016.[80]HP G62-225DX Laptop Keyboard As part of a collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, Texas A&M completed the first conversion of a nuclear research reactor from using highly enriched uranium fuel (70%) to utilizing low-enriched uranium (20%). The eighteen-month project ended on October 13, 2006 FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M has participated in over 500 research projects in over 80 countries and leads the Southwestern United States in annual research expenditures. The university conducts research on every continent and has formal research and exchange agreements with 100 institutions in 40 countries.[82] Texas A&M ranks 13th among U.S. research universities in exchange agreements with institutions abroad and student participation in study abroad programs,[83] and has strong research collaborations with the National Natural Science Foundation of China and many leading universities in China.[82]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1J1E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M owns three international facilities, a multipurpose center in Mexico City, Mexico, the Soltis Research and Education Center near the town of San Isidro, Costa Rica, and the Santa Chiara Study Abroad Center in Castiglion Fiorentino, Italy.[84][85] In 2003, over 1,200 Aggie students, primarily undergraduates, studied abroad.[86] Marine research occurs an the University's branch campus, Texas A&M University at Galveston.[87]Toshiba Satellite A300-21H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's Center for International Business Studies is one of 28 supported by the U.S. Department of Education.[88] The university is also one of only two American universities in partnership with CONACyT, Mexico's equivalent of the National Science Foundation, to support research in areas including biotechnology, telecommunications, energy, and urban development.[89] In addition, the university is the home of "Las Americas Digital Research Network", an online architecture network for 26 universities in 12 nations, primarily in Central and South America.[90]Toshiba Satellite A40-261 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M's College Station campus, one of the largest in America, spans 5,200 acres (21 km2) plus 350 acres (1 km2) for Research Park.[1][15] The university is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area located within Brazos County in the Brazos Valley (Southeast Central Texas) region, an area often referred to as "Aggieland".[91] According the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2008, the population of Brazos County is estimated at 175,122.[92] Money Magazine, in 2006, SONY VGN-SZ640 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan named College Station the most educated city in Texas, and the 11th most educated American city, due largely to the presence of the university and the size and scope of its research.[93] Aggieland is centrally located within 200 miles (320 km) of 3 of the 10 largest cities in the US and 75% of the Texas and Louisiana populations (approximately 13 million people). The area's major roadway is State Highway 6, and several smaller state highways and Farm to Market Roads connect the area to larger highways such as Interstate 45.[94]SONY Vaio VPC-EB2Z1E/BQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The campus is bisected by a railroad track operated by Union Pacific.[95] The area east of the tracks, known as Main Campus, includes buildings for the colleges of engineering, architecture, geosciences, science, education and liberal arts. Dormitories, as well as the main dining centers and many campus support facilities, are also on Main Campus. Notable buildings on Main Campus include Kyle Field, Sterling C. Evans Library, the Academic Building, Harrington Hall, the Memorial Student Center, the Administration Building,  HP Envy 17-2090eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rudder Tower, Albritton Bell Tower, and the Bonfire Memorial.[96] To the west of the railroad tracks lies West Campus, which includes most of the sports facilities, the business school, agricultural programs, life sciences, the veterinary college, the political science and economics school, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, the George Bush Presidential Library and two schools within the Texas A&M Health Science Center. Research Park, the area of West Campus along Kimbrough Boulevard, includes many research facilities.[97]HP Pavilion dv6-3114et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Outside the main campus, the institution formally includes two additional branch campuses: Texas A&M at Qatar located in Education City in Doha, Qatar devoted to engineering disciplines[98] and Texas A&M University at Galveston in Galveston, Texas, devoted to marine research and host to the Texas Maritime Academy.[87]All degrees at the Qatar campus are granted by the university's Dwight Look College of Engineering.[99]DELL Inspiron 1721 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M also maintains Texas A&M Riverside Campus, an extension of the main campus, located 10 miles (16 km) to the northwest. Unlike Galveston and Qatar, this extension is only a research facility.[citation needed]HP Pavilion dv6-3188la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the 2006 fall semester, 20.5 percent of the student body lived on campus in one of two distinct housing sections located on opposite ends of campus.[8] Both the Northside and Southside areas contain student dormitories, also known as residence halls. While some halls are single-sex, others are co-educational. Usually students of different genders live on alternate floors, although some halls are segregated by room or suite.[100] Residence hall styles vary. ASUS U3S Laptop Keyboard Many halls offer only indoor access to individual rooms, but other halls locate room entrances on an outdoor balcony. Room sizes vary by building. Halls with larger rooms include en-suite or private bathrooms, while halls with smaller rooms have a common bathroom on each floor. Several halls include a "substance-free" floor, where residents pledge to avoid bringing alcohol, drugs, or cigarettes into the hall.[101]DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard Northside consists of 17 student residence halls, including the 3 university honors dorms.[102] Two of the university honors dorms are freshman only. The halls are located near local entertainment district Northgate, and offer convenient access to campus dining establishments: Sbisa Dining Hall, The Underground and Bernie's Cafe. The demolition of Moore Hall, Crocker Hall, HP Pavilion G6-1V71HE Laptop Keyboard and McInnis Hall is scheduled for August 2011.[103] A $58 million 600-bed residence hall will replace the demolished halls that have accommodated roughly the same number. Some halls (particularly Walton) have unofficially claimed tables within the Sbisa Dining Hall and many halls congregate for dinner at a specific time each weekday.[104] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Several of the residence halls located on Southside are reserved for members of the Corps of Cadets. Non-corps halls in this area center around the Commons, a hub for activities and dining.[105] Southside has two Learning Living Communities, which allow freshmen to live in a cluster with other students who share common interests.[106] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Facilities for the Corps of Cadets are located in the Quadrangle, or "The Quad", an area consisting of dormitories, Duncan Dining Hall, and the Corps training fields.[107] The Corps Arches, a series of 12 arches that "[symbolize] the spirit of the 12th Man of Texas A&M", mark the entrance to the Quadrangle.[108] All cadets, except those who are married or who have had previous military service, musHP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard Texas A&M is one of six United States Senior Military Colleges. The schools' Corps of Cadets (or the Corps) is one of the largest uniformed student bodies outside the service academies. Many members participate in ROTC programs and earn commissions in the United States Armed Forces upon graduation. Members of the Corps have served in every armed conflictfought by the United States since 1876. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard There were 20,229 Aggies who served in WWII, of these, 14,123 served as officers, more than any other school, including the combined totals of the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy. Since 1876, 225 Aggies have served as generals or Flag Officers.[110]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Until 1965, Corps membership was mandatory. The Corps welcomed female members in the fall of 1974,[111] and as of spring 2012, the co-ed Corps boasts an enrollment of more than 2000 cadets.[112]HP Pavilion dv6-2144nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Corps is composed of three Air Force Wings, three Army Brigades, two Navy and Marine Regiments, as well as the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, whose members may be affiliated with any military branch.[113] Parson's Mounted Cavalry is the only mounted ROTC unit in the United States.[114] The Ross Volunteer Company, the oldest student-run organization in the state, IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan is the official honor guard for the Governor of Texas.[115] The Fish Drill Team, a precision, close-order rifle drill team composed entirely of Corps freshmen, represents the school in local and national competitions. They have won the national championship almost every year since their creation in 1946, and have appeared in several Hollywood productions, with prominent roles in the movies A Few Good Men and Courage Under Fire.[116] ACER Aspire 3500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, the world's largest precision military marching band, provides music for University functions and presents intricate halftime performances at football games.[115] Some band drills are so complicated that they require band members to step between each other's feet to complete the maneuvers.[117] These drills must be drawn by hand as computer marching programs have returned errors; their calculations require two people to be in the same spot at the same time.[118]ACER Aspire 5741 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M has over 800 student organizations, including academic, service, religious, Greek, and common interest organizations. Orientation programs encourage students to become involved in campus activities and organizations from the beginning.[119] An April 2005 campus survey found that 74% of the students were currently involved with at least one organization and that 88% participated in a campus organization in the past.[120]HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of the oldest student organizations is the Singing Cadets, founded in 1893. Known as the "Voice of Aggieland", the Singing Cadets are an all-male choral group with about 70 members not affiliated with the Corps of Cadets. The group travels nationally and has completed several international tours; most recently, South Africa in 2010.[121]HP Pavilion dv7-4295us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Texas A&M Hillel, the oldest Hillel organization in the United States, was founded in 1920 at the original college. The organization occurred three years before the national Hillel Foundation was organized at University of Illinois.[122][123] GLBT Aggies is the descendant organization of Gay Student Services (GSS), the only student organization to ever successfully sue the institution for official recognition.[124] In the decision Gay Student Services v. Texas A&M University the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals held that the First Amendment required public universities to recognize student organizations aimed at gay students.[125]SONY Vaio VGN-SZ1M/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Graduate Student Council, founded in 1995, serves as the student government for Texas A&M University’s graduate and professional students. It is a council representing all TAMU graduate students with a purpose to improve graduate students’ academic, living and social experiences. The GSC represents student’s concerns and is their liaison with the University Administration.[126]HP Pavilion dv2530er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Students exercise at the Student Rec Center, a three-story facility encompassing 373,000 square feet (34,650 m2), which includes exercise equipment, athletic courts, an indoor running track, a rock-climbing tower, and one of the top competitive pools and diving wells in America. The Rec Center also organizes intramural sports throughout the year.[127]Compaq Presario CQ60-218ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Some national service organizations originated at A&M. Aggie students founded the largest one-day student-run service project in America known as The Big Event. The annual service project allows students to give back to their community by assisting local residents.[128] The organization CARPOOL, a student run, safe ride program has provided over 179,000 free rides (as of January 2011) to Aggies unable to transport themselves home. Compaq Presario CQ60-140ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Its organizers also assist other universities in establishing similar programs.[129][130] In addition, the Corporation for National and Community Service listed A&M among the 500 academic institutions in the 2005–06 President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll.[131]Compaq Presario CQ60-211DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Student Government Association (SGA), one of A&M's largest organizations, consists of over 1,300 student members in 3 branches, 15 committees, and 4 commissions. SGA has changed little since 1972, except its relative position within the official framework of the university.[132]SONY Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Princeton Review ranked The Battalion, founded in 1893, as the 5th best college newspaper in America in 2010.[133] Students also publish a secondary school newspaper, the Maroon Weekly.[134] The Aggieland, formerly known as The Olio and The Longhorn, is one of America's largest college yearbooks in number of pages and copies sold.[135][136] The university houses the public broadcasting stations: KAMU-TV, a PBS member station since 1970, KAMU-FM an NPR affiliate since 1977,[137]HP Pavilion dv6-3211tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and the student-run KANM, "the college station of College Station".[138] W5AC broadcast the first live, play-by-play broadcast of a college football game, at Kyle Field, in November 1921. The game, played in Dallas between Aggies and University of Texas, ended in a scoreless tie.[139] The Texas A&M culture is a product of the university's founding as a rural military and agricultural school. Although the school and surrounding community have grown, and military training is no longer required, the school's history has instilled in students "the  HP Pavilion dv5-1021et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan , tradition, loyalty, optimism, and unabashed sentimentality."[140] Texas Monthly posits that Texas A&M students' respect for school traditions and values is the university's greatest strength.[141] Some of the school traditions date to the 1890s, while others have been introduced more recently. These traditions help current and former students to cultivate the Aggie Spirit, a sense of loyalty and respect for the school.[142] They dictate many aspects of student life, including how to greet others (using the official school greeting "Howdy!"),[143] how to act at an A&M sporting event, and, in many cases, what words a student may use in conversation.[144] TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The most visible tradition among seniors and former students is the wearing of the Aggie Ring, whose design has been relatively unchanged since its introduction in 1894.[145] Students may order a ring after completing 90 credit hours of coursework, including at least 45 hours at A&M, or after graduation. Graduate students may receive a ring after 75% of their graduate coursework is completed or after the acceptance of their dissertation or thesis.[146] Though unsanctioned by the University, many students "dunk" their newly acquired Aggie Rings into a pitcher of beer and quickly chug the entire pitcher to "earn" the ring. Some students dunk their rings in alternative substances, including ice cream or nonalcoholic beverages.[147]ACER AB6505HB-E03 ZL2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Aggie football fans are called the 12th Man. The meaning is that they support the 11 players on the field and, moreover, are willing to enter the game if necessary. To further symbolize their "readiness, desire, and enthusiasm," the entire student body stands throughout the game.[153] The tradition began on January 2, 1922, SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard at the Dixie Classic where A&M played Centre College. A&M had so many injuries in the first half of the game that Coach Dana X. Bible feared he wouldn’t have enough men to finish the game. He called into the stands for E. King Gill, a reserve who had left football after the regular season to play basketball. Although he did not actually play, his readiness symbolized the willingness of all Aggies to support their team to the point of actually entering the game. A&M won 22–14, but E. King Gill was the only man left standing on the sidelines for the Aggies.[154] In recent decades, the 12th Man is represented on the field by a walk-on player who wears the No. 12 jersey and participates in kick-offs.[155]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard The 12th Man uses a variety of school yells, rather than cheers, to support Aggie teams. Each year the student body elects five students to serve as the Yell Leaders.[156] At midnight before each home football game at Kyle Field or at a predesignated location at away games, the fans gather together to practice the yells for the next day's game.[143][157] Led by the Yell Leaders, and the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, the Twelfth Man files into the stadium to participate in Midnight Yell Practice to practice yells, SONY VAIO VPCF123FX/H Laptop Keyboard sing the War Hymn, and joke about their opponents. At the conclusion of the yell practice, the stadium lights are extinguished and fans kiss their dates. This is also done as practice, because Aggies are expected to "mug down", or kiss their dates, every time the football team scores on the field.[157][158] Sports Illustrated named Midnight Yell as one of the "100 Things You Gotta Do Before You Graduate."[159]SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard In keeping with the idea that all current and former students comprise a family, Aggies have created two traditions to honor members of the Aggie family who have died. Aggie Muster is held annually on the anniversary of the Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, to honor any current and former student who died during the previous year. Over 300 Musters are held around the world, SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard with the largest taking place at Reed Arena on the Texas A&M University campus.[148] All Muster ceremonies feature the Roll Call for the Absent. As the names of the deceased Aggies are called, a family member or friend answers "Here" and lights a candle, to symbolize that although their loved one is not present in body, his or her spirit will shine forever.[149][150]The event received worldwide attention during World War II, when 25 Aggies "mustered" during the battle for the island ofCorregidor.[151]HP Mini 110-3018cl Laptop Keyboard Students who die while enrolled at Texas A&M are also honored at Silver Taps, a ceremony held, when necessary, on the first Tuesday of the month. This tradition began as a memorial for former Texas A&M president Lawrence Sullivan Ross.[152] On the day of the ceremony, flags fly half-staff and notices are posted throughout campus. SAMSUNG R45 Laptop Keyboard At 10:15 pm the lights around campus are extinguished and hymns chime from Albritton Tower while students and faculty collect in the Academic Plaza. Following a 21-gun salute by the Ross Volunteer Firing Squad, six buglers play an A&M version of the song Taps, Silver Taps, three times from the dome of the school's Academic Building: once to the north, the south and to the west. The song is not played to the east symbolizing that the sun will never rise on that Aggie again.[150]HP Mini 311-1002TU Laptop Keyboard Almost every year since 1909, A&M students have built a large bonfire to celebrate their "burning desire to beat the hell outta" the University of Texas.[160]Aggie Bonfire was traditionally lit around Thanksgiving in conjunction with the festivities surrounding the annual college football game be

tween the schools.[161] Though it began as a trash pile,[162] ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Aggie Bonfire evolved into a massive six-tiered structure, the world record being held at 109 feet (30 m).[161][163] After the collapse of the 1999 structure, causing the death of 11 students and one former student, the university suspended Bonfire indefinitely, but the tradition continues off-campus without direct University involvement, sanction, or participation.[164][165]HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard The Aggies are a member of the Southeastern Conference in all sports as of July 1, 2012.[166][167] Previously a charter member of the Southwest Conference until its dissolution in 1996, A&M competed in the Big 12 Conference until June 30, 2012. The school's 20 sports teams are known as the Aggies, and the school's colors are maroon and white.[168] As of April 2011, Aggies have earned 138 Southwest and Big 12 conference regular-season and tournament titles and 11 team national championships.[169]T HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard he women's soccer team, formed in 1993, earned 15 consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances from 1995 to 2009, advancing at least as far as the round of 16 in seven of the last eight appearances.[170] The women's volleyball team earned 12 consecutive NCAA Tournament appearances from 1993 to 2004, advancing past the first round each time.[171][172] In 2004 Sports Illustrated on Campus ranked Olsen Field "the best college baseball venue".[173] Sports Illustrated ranked the university 46th, in a 2002 analysis of "America's Best Sports College[s]"[174] and College Station the 9th best college sports town.[175]SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard A&M's archrival is the University of Texas. In 2004, sporting events between the Aggies and Longhorns became known as theLone Star Showdown. The most-watched event in the rivalry is the annual football game held the day of Thanksgiving.[176][177]Other rivalries include Texas Tech, Baylor University, and the recently renewed rivalries with the University of Arkansas andLouisiana State University.[178][179][180][181]TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1894, the football team has won 18 Southwest Conference championships, 3 Big 12 South Division championships, 1 Big 12 championship, and 1 national championship.[182] The team has appeared in 30 bowl games, winning 13,[183] and has produced 41 first Team All-Americans, 5 Academic All-Americans, and 2 Heisman Trophy winners, John David Crow and Johnny Manziel, in 1957 and 2012 respectively.[184] Twenty-one Aggies currently play in the NFL.[185][186]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard Since 1904, home football games have been played at Kyle Field, a stadium with a current capacity of 83,002.[187] In 2004, CBS SportsLine.com ranked Kyle Field the top football stadium while Sporting News ranked it fourth.[188][189] The same year Sports Illustrated on Campus ranked an A&M football weekend the third best college football experience.[190]Compaq Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1912, the men's basketball team won 11 Southwest Conference championships and 2 Southwest Conference Tournament championships. The team has appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 6 times and in theNCAA Tournament 11 times, of which 3 resulted in Sweet Sixteen appearances, the highest round to which the Aggies have advanced.[191] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard The women's basketball team has 1 Southwest Conference Tournament championship,1 regular season Big 12 Conference championship and 2 Big 12 Tournament championships, most recently in 2011. The women have advanced to 8 NCAA Tournament appearances, winning the National Championship in 2011. They have also competed in the WNIT twice, winning that tournament in 1995.[192]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard The men's basketball team was coached by head coach Mark Turgeon for four years until he left for the head coaching position at the University of Maryland.[193] The current head basketball coach is Billy Kennedy; he is entering his second season and leading the Aggies into the Southeastern Conference. The women's team has been coached by Gary Blair since 2003.[194] Home games are played at the 12,989-seat Reed Arena.[195] G. Rollie White Coliseum, formerly the home of the volleyball and basketball teams, hosted basketball games before Reed Arena opened in 1998.[196]HP G71-347CL Laptop Keyboard With over 280,000 former students,[197] A&M has one of the largest and most active alumni groups in America. Many Aggies have attained local, national, and international prominence.[198] Jorge Quiroga and Martin Torrijos have served as heads of statefor Bolivia and Panama, respectively, and Rick Perry is the current Governor of Texas and 2012 US Presidential candidate. Robert Gates, Secretary of Defense in the George W. Bush and Obama administrations,is a past president of the university. Congressmen Joe Barton, Bill Flores, Jeb Hensarling, and Louie Gohmert, and former Austin, Texas, mayor Will Wynn are all graduates.[199]TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard Aggies made their mark on the gridiron with Houston Texans head coach Gary Kubiak, title-winning coach Gene Stallings,Houston Oilers defensive tackle Ray Childress, Heisman Trophy winners John David Crow and Johnny Manziel, Heisman runner-up, legislator, and actor John Kimbrough, punt returner Dante Hall, offensive tackle Richmond Webb, Detroit Lions defensive end and punter Yale Lary, former Dallas Cowboys assistant coach and former player Dat Nguyen, punter Shane Lechler, and defensive end Ty Warren.[200][201]HP 381068-001 Laptop Keyboard Paul "Bear" Bryant coached at A&M where "survivors" of his grueling football practice camp atJunction, Texas were nicknamed named The Junction Boys.[202][203] Other famous Aggie athletes include Randy Barnes, indoor/outdoor shotput world record holder, baseball standouts Chuck Knoblauch and Wally Moon; along with Stacy Sykora, Libero for the USA national volleyball team.[201]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Aggies have also made a mark on pop culture. Robert Earl Keen and Lyle Lovett, who often strummed their guitars on the porch of their Northgate home, have become popular country singers.[204] William A. Pailes and Michael E. Fossum became NASA astronauts.[205]Rip Torn is a veteran of the silver screen[201] and Neal Boortz is a nationally syndicated talk show host with the sixth largest listening audience in the United States.[206][207] Wen Ho Lee, a doctoral graduate of A&M, became the subject of a 1999 espionage investigation; though arrested, charges were dropped in 2000.[208]HP 456624-001 Laptop Keyboard Many Aggies have become business leaders, particularly in the fields of energy, construction, communications, and chemistry. Current leaders include Jack Whiteside, President of Barnes & Click, Inc.;[209] Lowry Mays, chairman and CEO of Clear Channel Communications;[201] George P. Mitchell, chairman and CEO, Mitchell Energy and Development Corp.;[199] HP Pavilion dv6-2046ez Laptop Keyboard H. B. Zachry, President of the H.B. Zachry Company; John Zachry, CEO of Zachry Corp.; David Zachry, President of Zachry Corp.;[210] Khalid A. Al-Falih, President and CEO of Saudi Aramco;[211] Stephen M. Johnson, Chairman, President and CEO of McDermott International, Inc. and Eduardo Castro-Wright, CEO of Wal-Mart Stores USA.[212]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Because of A&M's military roots, many Aggies have become leaders in the armed forces, and were featured in the 1943 propaganda filmWe've Never Been Licked.[213] George H. Gay, Jr., was the sole survivor of Torpedo Squadron 8 in the Battle of Midway.[214] Lieutenant General Jay T. Robbins became a fighter ace in World War II with 22 aerial victories.[215]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Major General Robert B. Williams led World War II raid on the Schweinfurt ball bearing factories.[216] General Bernard Adolph Schriever, known as "the architect of the Air Force’s ballistic missile and military space program", became the namesake of Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.[217][218] GeneralMichael Moseley is a former Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force.[219]HP Pavilion dv6-3250us Laptop Keyboard The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives. The Legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. The Legislature is arguably considered the most powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purseto control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and theLieutenant Governor of Texas, but also due to Texas's plural executive.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard The Legislature is the constitutional successor of the Congress of the Republic of Texas since Texas's 1845 entrance into the Union. The Legislature held its first regular session from February 16 to May 13, 1846. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard The Legislature meets in regular session on the second Tuesday in January of each odd-numbered year.[1] The Texas Constitution limits the regular session to 140 calendar days. The lieutenant governor, elected statewide separately from the governor, presides over the Senate, while the Speaker of the House is elected from that body by its members. Both have wide latitude in choosing committee membership in their respective houses and have a large impact on lawmaking in the state.  HP AELX9U00110 Laptop Keyboard Only the Governor may call the Legislature into special sessions, unlike other states where the legislature may call itself into session. The Governor may call as many sessions as he wishes. For example, Governor Rick Perry called three consecutive sessions to address the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting. The Texas Constitution limits the duration of each special session to 30 days; lawmakers may consider only those issues designated by the Governor in his "call," or proclamation convening the special session (though other issues may be added by the Governor during a session). TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Any bill passed by the Legislature takes effect 90 days after its passage unless two-thirds of each house votes to give the bill either immediate effect or earlier effect. The Legislature may provide for an effective date that is after the 90th day. Under current legislative practice, most bills are given an effective date of September 1 in odd-numbered years (September 1 is the start of the state's fiscal year). TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Although members are elected on partisan ballots, both houses of the Legislature are officially organized on a nonpartisan basis, with members of both parties serving in leadership positions such as committee chairmanships. Currently (2011), a majority of the members of each chamber are members of the Republican Party.  HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The traditions of Texas A&M University are a key aspect of the culture of Texas A&M University. Some of the school traditions date to the 1890s, shortly after the opening of the school, while others have been introduced more recently. These traditions help current and former students (Aggies) to cultivate the Aggie Spirit, a sense of loyalty and respect for the school, and dictate many aspects of student life, including how to greet others, how to act at an A&M sporting event, and, in many cases, HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan what words a student may use in conversation. The most visible tradition among seniors and former students is the wearing of the Aggie Ring, whose design has been relatively unchanged since its introduction in 1894. Not all Aggie traditions are recognized by the university, and some, like Bonfire, have been discontinued for safety reasons. Texas Monthly states that the students' respect for school traditions and values is the university's greatest strength.[1]HP Pavilion dv6-2015sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Incoming students are generally first exposed to traditions when they are greeted with the official Texas A&M greeting "Howdy". Since the 1950s, incoming students have been offered orientations, led by current students, which teach the various traditions, songs, and yells in current use. On campus, the Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets is known as the "Keepers of the Spirit" for its staunch defense of Aggie traditions. A subset of the Corps, the Fightin' Texas Aggie Band, is the official marching band of the university.  HP Pavilion dv7-2230es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many school traditions revolve around sporting events, especially football. Before games, university yell leaders host yell practice, similar to other schools' pep rallies. Instead of cheers, students learn yells. Since 1922, students, known as the 12th Man, stand throughout football games, symbolizing their willingness to step in and assist the team. The official mascot, a dog named Reveille, is present at most official university activities, including sporting events. Toshiba Satellite L500-1CQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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Rutgers University Rutgers University /ˈrʌtɡərz/, officially Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is an American publicresearch university and the largest institution for higher education in New Jersey, United States. It was originally chartered as Queen's College in 1766. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard HP G62-225DX Laptop Keyboard It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine Colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. Rutgers was originally a private university affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church and admitted only male students, but evolved into a coeducational public research university. Rutgers is one of only two colonial colleges that later became public universities, the other being the College of William & Mary.[4] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers was designated The State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956.[5] The flagship campus is located in both New Brunswick and Piscataway, with additional campuses in Newark and Camden. The Newark campus was formerly the University of Newark, which merged into the Rutgers system in 1946, and the Camden campus was created in 1950 from the College of South Jersey and the South Jersey Law School.[6]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard The university is the largest state university within New Jersey. The university offers more than 100 distinct bachelor, 100 master, and 80 doctoral and professional degree programs across 175 academic departments, 29 degree-granting schools and colleges, 16 of which offer graduate programs of study.[7]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard

Colonial period

Two decades after the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) was established in 1746, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church.[8][9] Through several years of effort by Rev. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691–1747) and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh (1736–1790), later the college's first president,Queen's College was chartered on November 10, 1766.[8] Established as the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818).[9] The charter was signed and the young college was supported by William Franklin (1730–1813), the last Royal Governor of New Jersey and illegitimate son ofBenjamin Franklin. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard The original charter specified the establishment both of the college, and of an institution called the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.[9] This institution, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959.[9][10] The location of New Brunswick was chosen over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population as well, making the royal charter easier to obtain. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard The original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, liberal, the divinity, and useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church[9][10][11] The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt.[9][10] Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion.[12] When the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes.[9][10]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton (the measure failed by one vote) and later considered relocating to New York City.[9][10] In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, affectionately called "Old Queens" designed by architect John McComb, Jr.[13] The college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, and shared facilities with Queen's College (and the Queen's College Grammar School, as all three institutions were then overseen by the Reformed Church in America).[9][10] During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, and in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre (28,000 m2) tract less than one-half mile (800 m) away.[9][10]FUJITSU Lifebook T4210 Laptop Keyboard fter several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed Rutgers College in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers (1745–1830). According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received 2 donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing.[9][10]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Land-grant college Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry.[9][10] The Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (1880) and divide into the College of Engineering (1914) and the College of Agriculture (1921).[9][10] Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard and the School of Education in 1924.[9][10] With the development of graduate education, and the continued expansion of the institution, the collection of schools became Rutgers University in 1924.[10] Rutgers College continued as a liberal arts college within the university. Later, University College (1945) was founded to serve part-time, commuting students and Livingston College (1969) was created by the Rutgers Trustees, ensuring that the interests of ethnically diverse New Jersey students were met.[9][10]HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard utgers was designated the State University of New Jersey by acts of the New Jersey Legislature in 1945 and 1956.[5] Shortly after, the University of Newark(1935) was merged with Rutgers in 1946, as were the College of South Jersey and South Jersey Law School, in 1950. These two institutions became Rutgers-Newarkand Rutgers-Camden. On September 10, 1970, after much debate, the Board of Governors voted to admit women into Rutgers College.[9][10]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Growth of the University was not without setbacks. In 1967 Rutgers Physics Department had a Centers of Excellence Grant from the NSF which allowed the Physics Department to hire several faculty each year and become a more prominent Institution. These faculty were to be paid by the grant for three years, but after that time any faculty hired with the Associate or Full Professor designation would become tenured.  TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The Governor and the Chancellor forced Rutgers to lose this grant by rejecting these faculty as tenured.. Not too long after this a bond issue arose that would increase financial support at Rutgers and develop Rutgers into a more prestigious University. This Bond was vetoed by the Governor, and when the Bond was turned down, the Chancellor explained that Rutgers University would never be a Princeton.[citation needed] FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1970 the newly formed Rutgers Medical School had achieved a great deal of fame with major faculty members coming from other institutions to be part of this new enterprise. But in 1971 the Governor's Office separated Rutgers Medical School from Rutgers University and made it part of New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, HP G62-b18EO Laptop Keyboard and many faculty left the Medical School, including the dean of the Medical School, Dr. Dewitt Stetten, who later became the Director of the National Institutes of Health. As a result of the separation of the Medical School from Rutgers University, graduate PhD programs that had been started in the medical center were lost, and students had to seek other institutions to finish their degrees. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard Prior to 1982, separate liberal arts faculties existed in the several "residential colleges", (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston, University, and Cook colleges) at Rutgers-New Brunswick. In 1982, under president Edward J. Bloustein, the faculties were centralized into one college, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, but the residential colleges persisted for students, along with disparate standards for admission, good standing, and graduation, as well as a confusing network of bureaucracies. Finally in the fall of 2007, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard the residential colleges and Faculty of Arts and Sciences were merged into the new School of Arts and Sciences with one set of admissions criteria, curriculum and graduation requirements. Cook College changed its name to the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences and shedding the option to major in liberal arts. The merger ended the 241 year history of Rutgers College as a distinct institution. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard DELL Inspiron N4030 Laptop Keyboard In 2012, most of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey rejoined Rutgers University.[14] The [15] Rutgers University has three campuses across the state of New Jersey, with its largest campus located mainly in the City of New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway Township, and two smaller campuses in the cities of Newark and Camden. These campuses comprise 27 degree-granting schools and colleges, offering undergraduate, graduate and professional levels of study. The university is centrally administered from New Brunswick, although Chancellors at the Newark and Camden campuses hold significant autonomy for some academic issues. Rutgers Fact BookHP Mini 210-2190nr Laptop Keyboard The New Brunswick-Piscataway Campus (or Rutgers-New Brunswick) is the largest campus of Rutgers; it is the site of the original Rutgers College. It is spread across six municipalities in Middlesex County, New Jersey, chiefly in the City of New Brunswick and Piscataway Township. It is composed of five smaller campuses, and a few buildings in downtown New Brunswick. The original and historic College Avenue campus is adjacent to downtown New Brunswick, and includes the seat of the University,  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-122EL Laptop Keyboard Old Queens. On the other side of the city, Douglass Campus and Cook Campus are adjacent and intertwined with each other, and are often referred to collectively as the Cook/Douglass Campus. Cook Campus has extensive farms and woods that reach into North Brunswick and East Brunswick Townships. Separated by the Raritan river are Busch Campus, in Piscataway, and Livingston Campus, also mainly in Piscataway but including remote sections of land extending into Edison Township and the Borough of Highland Park. The Rutgers Campus Buses transports students between the various campuses.[17]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard As of the Fall 2010, the New Brunswick-Piscataway campuses include 19 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Communication and Information, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, the School of Engineering, the School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, the Graduate School of Education, the School of Management and Labor Relations, Mason Gross School of the Arts, the College of Nursing, the Rutgers Business School and the School of Social Work. As of 2010, 30,351 undergraduates and 8,561 graduate students (total 38,912) are enrolled at the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus.[2]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The Newark Campus (or Rutgers-Newark), consists of 8 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Newark College of Arts and Sciences, University College, School of Criminal Justice, Graduate School, College of Nursing, School of Public Affairs and Administration, Rutgers Business School and Rutgers School of Law - Newark. As of 2010, 7,479 undergraduates and 4,319 graduate students (total 11,798) are enrolled at the Newark campus.[2]HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard The Camden Campus (or Rutgers-Camden) consists of five undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including: Camden College of Arts and Sciences, University College, Graduate School, Rutgers School of Business - Camden and Rutgers School of Law - Camden. As of 2010, 4,497 undergraduates and 1,661 graduate students (total 6,158) are enrolled at the Camden campus.[2]ACER Aspire 5110 Laptop Keyboard Governance at Rutgers University rests with a Board of Trustees consisting currently of 59 members and a Board of Governorsconsisting of 11 members: 6 appointed by the Governor of New Jersey and 5 chosen by the Board of Trustees.[19][20][21] The trustees constitute chiefly an advisory body to the Board of Governors and are the fiduciary overseers of the property and assets of the University that existed before the institution became the State University of New Jersey in 1945. DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard The initial reluctance of the trustees (still acting as a private corporate body) to cede control of certain business affairs to the state government for direction and oversight caused the state to establish the Board of Governors in 1956.[22] Today, the Board of Governors maintains much of the corporate control of the University. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard The members of the Board of Trustees are voted upon by different constituencies or appointed. "Two faculty and two students are elected by the University Senate as nonvoting representatives. The 59 voting members are chosen in the following way as mandated by state law: 28 charter members (of whom at least three shall be women), SAMSUNG R520 Laptop Keyboard 20 alumni members nominated by the Nominating Committee of the Board of Trustees, and five public members appointed by the governor of the state with confirmation by the New Jersey State Senate. The six members of the Board of Governors appointed by the governor also serve as members of the Board of Trustees. Of the 28 charter seats, three are reserved for students with full voting rights."[23]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP6003M Laptop Keyboard The president of Rutgers University, chosen by and answerable to the Trustees and Governors, sits as an ex-officio member of both governing boards. He, as the chief administrator of the university, is charged with its day-to-day operations. Robert Barchi became president in September 2012.  HP Pavilion dv5-1021et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Administration and facilities Rutgers' facilities across the three campuses include a golf course, botanical gardens, working agricultural, horse, dairy, and sustainable farms, a creamery, an ecological preserve with multiple use trails, television and radio studios, theaters, museums, athletic facilities, helipads, a makerspace, and more. Services provided by the university include Rutgers Police, Emergency Medical Services, an emergency management office, bus and shuttle service, inter- and intra-campus mail, and occupational and environmental health and safety.  TOSHIBA V000120460 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey is a colonial chartered college (1766), a land-grant institution (1864), and astate university (1945/1956).[30] Rutgers is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (1921), and in 1989, became a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of the 62 leading research universities in North America.[31]ACER AB6505HB-E03 ZL2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers-New Brunswick is classified by theCarnegie Foundation as "RU/VH", which stands for Research Intensive University, Very High research activity.[32] Rutgers-Newark is classified by the same organization as "RU/H", meaning Research Intensive University, High research activity andRutgers-Camden is given the classification of "Master's M", signifying the university's inclusion in the Master's Colleges and Universities category as a medium-sized institution.[33]SONY Vaio VPC-EB1J1E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers was ranked 38th nationwide and 54th worldwide in the 2008 Academic Ranking of World Universities by the Institute of Higher Education at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.[34] According to the Washington Monthly's 2006 rankings, Rutgers ranks 53rd in the United States.[35] The Top American Research Universities an annual statistical report by The Center at the University of Florida ranks Rutgers 39th.[36] In the 2009 U.S. News & World Report ranking of American national universities, Rutgers is ranked 64th.[37] Toshiba Satellite A300-21H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2003, the Wall Street Journal conducted a study of the undergraduate institutions that most frequently feed students placements at elite professional and graduate programs, such as Yale and Harvard; Rutgers was ranked 20th in the rankings they compiled for state universities.[38] On a side note, Forbes ranked Rutgers as being the 20th best public university in the United States for "getting rich", as judged by its students' median salaries upon graduation.[39]Toshiba Satellite A40-261 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Eleven of Rutgers' graduate departments are ranked by the National Research Council in the top 25 among all universities:Philosophy (2nd), Geology Ranked 9th Nationally based on NSF funding 9th, Geography (13th), Statistics (17th), English(17th), Mathematics (19th), Art History (20th), Physics (20th), History (20th) Comparative Literature (22nd), French (22nd), and Materials Science Engineering (25th).[40][41][42][43][44]SONY VGN-SZ640 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Rutgers Business School is ranked 39th in the Wall Street Journal's Ranking of Top Business Schools.[45] The Philosophy Department ranked first in 2002–04 tied with New York University and Princeton University, and second in 2004–06 (NYU was first, Princeton 3rd, Oxford 4th) in the Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on Philosophy programs in the English-speaking world.[46][47]SONY Vaio VPC-EB2Z1E/BQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Division of Global Affairs (DGA)[5] Ph.D. program at Rutgers University-Newark was ranked fifth in the nation in the Benchmarking Academic Excellence survey of Top Universities in Social and Behavioral Sciences Disciplines in the combined category of International Affairs and Development for 2006-07.[48] HP Envy 17-2090eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to U.S. News & World Report, in the top 25 among all universities: Food Science (2nd), Library Science (6th),Drama/Theater (12th), Mathematics (16th), English (18th), History (19th, with the subspecialty of African-American History ranked 4th and Women's History ranked 1st), Applied Mathematics (21st) and Physics (24th).[19] Also in the 2006 U.S. News & World Report ranking of Computer Science Ph.D. programs, Rutgers was ranked 29th.[49]HP Pavilion dv6-3114et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On September 13, 2010, the Wall Street Journal ranked Rutgers University #21 in schools whose graduates are top-rated by recruiters.[50] On June 28, 2012 the New Jersey state legislature passed the New Jersey Medical and Health Sciences Education Restructuring Act that will dissolve the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and merge most of its schools, including Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Jersey Medical School and New Jersey Dental School, with Rutgers University forming a new Rutgers School of Biomedical and Health Sciences by July 1, 2013. Members of the Rutgers Board of Governors estimated that the takeover of UMDNJ could "elevate Rutgers’ status to among the top 25 most elite research universities in America."[51]DELL Inspiron 1721 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Admissions and financial aid

U.S. News & World Report considers the New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University to be a "more selective" school in terms of the rigor of its admissions processes.[52] For 2006, 56% of undergraduate applicants were accepted, and average SAT scores of enrolling students ranged from 530–630 on the critical reading section, 560–670 for the mathematics section, and 530-640 for the writing section.[53]HP Pavilion dv6-3188la Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a state university, Rutgers charges two separate rates for tuition and fees depending on whether an enrolled student is a resident of the State of New Jersey(in-state) or not (out-of-state). The Office of Institutional Research and Academic Planning estimates that costs in-state student of attending Rutgers would amount to $18,899 for an undergraduate living on-campus and $22,395 for a graduate student. For an out-of-state student, the costs rise to $26,497 and $27,476 respectively.[2] As of the 2012-2013 academic school year, the cost of attendance for in-state students is $13,073, $26,393 for out-of-state students and $11,412 for Room and Board.[54]ASUS U3S Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate students at Rutgers, through a combination of federal (50%), state (22%), university (22%), and private (6%) scholarship, loans, and grants, received $291,956,597 of financial aid in the 2004–2005 academic year. Of 37,429 undergraduate students at Rutgers, 30,398 (or 81.2%) receive financial aid. During the same period, 73.2%, or 9,604 graduate students out of a population of 13,124, received assistance in the total of $121,269,211 in financial aid sourced chiefly from federal (33%) and university (65%) funds.[2]DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard The Rutgers University library system consists of 26 libraries and centers located on the University's three campuses, housing a collection of over 10.5 million holdings, including 3,656,283 volumes, 4,600,902 microforms, 2,535,892 documents, and subscriptions to 91,078 periodicals and other electronic resources, and ranking among the nation's top research libraries.[55] The American Library Association ranks the Rutgers University Library system as the 44th largest library in the United States in terms of volumes held.[56]HP Pavilion G6-1V71HE Laptop Keyboard The Archibald S. Alexander Library, in New Brunswick, is the oldest and the largest library of the University.[57] It houses several million volumes focusing on an extensive humanities and social science collection.[citation needed] It mainly supports the sort of research done in the School of Arts and Sciences, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning & Public Policy, SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard the Graduate School of Education, the Graduate School of Social Work, and the School of Communication and Information. Alexander Library also maintains a large collection of government documents, which contains United States, New Jersey, foreign, and international government publications.[57] The Library of Science and Medicine on the Busch Campus in Piscataway houses the University's collection in behavioral, biological, earth, and pharmaceutical sciences and engineeringCompaq Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop Keyboard . The LSM also serves as a designated depository library for government publication regarding science, and owns a U.S. patent collection and patent search facility.[58] It was officially established as the Library of Science and Medicine in July 1964 although the beginning of the development of a library for science started in 1962. The LSM currently has two administrative structures since it is a joint library serving both Rutgers and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ). UMDNJ, SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard which was briefly known as Rutgers Medical School, separated from Rutgers in 1970. The current character of the LSM is a university science library also serving a medical school.[59] On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, in addition to Alexander Library, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, including alcohol studies, art history, Chemistry, Mathematical studies, Music, and Physics. Special Collections and University Archives houses the Sinclair New Jersey Collection, manuscript collection, HP Pavilion dv6-2144nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and rare book collection, as well as the University Archives. Although located in the Alexander Library building, Special Collections and University Archives actually comprises a distinct unit unto itself. Also located within the Alexander Library is the East Asian Library which holds a sizable collection of Chinese, Japanese and Korean monographs and periodicals. In Newark, the John Cotton Dana Library, the Institute of Jazz Studies (located within the Dana Library), and the Paul Robeson Library in Camden, serve their respective campuses with a broad collection of volumes. IBM ThinkPad T42 2378 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers is home to the Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science, also known as RUCCS. Researchers in psychology,linguistics, computer science, philosophy, electrical engineering, and anthropology combine resources to advance the study of the mind at this state of the art institution.  ACER Aspire 3500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Waksman, along with graduate student Albert Schatz (1920–2005), discovered streptomycin—a versatile antibiotic that was to be the first applied to cure tuberculosis. For this discovery, Waksman received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1952. ACER Aspire 5741 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers developed water-soluble sustained release polymers, tetraploids, robotic hands, artificial bovine insemination, and the ceramic tiles for the heat shield on the Space Shuttle. In health related field, Rutgers has the Environmental & Occupational Health Science Institute (EOHSI). Rutgers is also home to the RCSB Protein Data bank,[64] 'an information portal to Biological Macromolecular Structures' cohosted with the San Diego Supercomputer Center. This database is the authoritative research tool for bioinformaticists using protein primary, secondary and tertiary structures world wide.'HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers is home to the Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension office, which is run by the Agricultural and Experiment Station with the support of local government. The institution provides research & education to the local farming and agro industrial community in 19 of the 21 counties of the state and educational outreach programs offered through the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Office of Continuing Professional Education. HP Pavilion dv7-4295us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers University Cell and DNA Repository (RUCDR) is the largest university based repository in the world and has received awards worth more than $57.8 million from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). One will fund genetic studies of mental disorders and the other will support investigations into the causes of digestive, liver and kidney diseases, and diabetes.[65]RUCDR activities will enable gene discovery leading to diagnoses, treatments and, eventually, cures for these diseases. RUCDR assists researchers throughout the world by providing the highest quality biomaterials, technical consultation, and logistical support. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ1M/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers-Camden is home to the nation's PhD granting Department of Childhood Studies. This department, in conjunction with the Center for Children and Childhood Studies, also on the Camden campus, conducts interdisciplinary research which combines methodologies and research practices of sociology, psychology, literature, anthropology and other disciplines into the study of childhoods internationally. HP Pavilion dv2530er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers is home to several National Science Foundation IGERT fellowships that support interdisciplinary scientific research at the graduate-level. Highly selective fellowships are available in the following areas: Perceptual Science, Stem Cell Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology for Clean Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Fuels Solutions, and Nanopharmaceutical Engineering. Compaq Presario CQ60-218ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers also maintains the Office of Research Alliances[66] that focuses on working with companies to increase engagement with the university's faculty members, staff and extensive resources on the three campuses. Rutgers University offers a variety of housing options. On the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, students are given the option of on-campus housing in both traditional dorms or apartments. Despite some overcrowding, most students seeking on-campus housing will be accommodated with a space, yet in 2008/2009 students were placed in a nearby hotel. Many Rutgers students opt to rent apartments or houses off-campus within the city of New Brunswick. Similar setups are to be found in Rutgers-Newark and Rutgers-Camden, however a substantial portion of the students on those campuses commute and/or are enrolled on a part-time basis. Compaq Presario CQ60-140ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers University's three campuses are in the culturally-diverse, redeveloping urban areas (Newark, Camden, and New Brunswick) with convenient access to New York City and Philadelphiaby either automobile, Amtrak or New Jersey Transit. US News & World Report ranked Rutgers-Newark the most diverse university campus in the United States.[67] SONY Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Because the area of Rutgers' New Brunswick-Piscataway campus—which is composed of several constituent colleges and professional schools—is sprawled across six municipalities, the individual campuses are connected by an inter-campus bus system. The Rutgers bus system is the second largest bus service in New Jersey, and one of the largest in the country.[68]Compaq Presario CQ60-211DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The school song of Rutgers University is On the Banks of the Old Raritan, written by Howard Fullerton (Class of 1874) in 1873.[10] It is often sung at University occasions, including concerts of the Rutgers University Glee Club, at Convocation and Commencement exercises, and especially at the conclusion of athletic events. The university's fight song is The Bells Must Ring, HP Pavilion dv6-3211tu Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which features the school's spirit chant: "R-U Rah Rah, R-U Rah Rah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah Rutgers Rah! Upstream Red Team, Red Team Upstream, Rah! Rah! Rutgers Rah!." Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement,convocation, and athletic games are: The Bells Must Ring, the Rutgers University fight song.  HP AELX9U00110 Laptop Keyboard Scarlet was made the official school color of Rutgers University in 1900. Initially, students sought to make orange the school color, citing Rutgers' Dutchheritage and in reference to the Prince of Orange. The Daily Targum first proposed that scarlet be adopted in May 1869, claiming that it was a striking color and because scarlet ribbon was easily obtained. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard During the first intercollegiate football game with Princeton on November 6, 1869, the players from Rutgers wore scarlet-colored turbans and handkerchiefs to distinguish them as a team from the Princeton players.[69] Although Rutgers incorporates the colors black and white on their signs, symbols, athletic uniforms as accent colors, scarlet is the one and only color of the university. The current mascot is the Scarlet Knight. In its early days, Rutgers athletes were known as "Queensmen" in reference to the institution's first name, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Queen's College. However, in 1925, the mascot was changed to Chanticleer, a fighting rooster from the medieval fable Reynard the Fox (Le Roman de Renart) which was used by Geoffrey Chaucer's in the Canterbury Tales. However, this mascot was often the subject of ridicule because of its association with "being chicken." In 1955, the mascot was changed to the Scarlet Knight after a campus-wide election.[69] The names (and mascots) of the athletic teams at Rutgers-Newark and Rutgers-Camden are the "Scarlet Raiders" and the "Scarlet Raptors", respectively. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Rutgers' motto, Sol iustitiae et occidentem illustra (translated as "Sun of righteousness, shine upon the West also") is derived from the motto of theUniversity of Utrecht in the Netherlands, which is Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos (translated as "Sun of Justice, shine upon us"). It is a reference to the biblical texts of Malachi 4:2 and Matthew 13:43.[70] This motto appears in the University's seal (pictured above), which is also derived from that of the University of Utrecht, and depicts a multi-pointed sun.[71]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard At Commencement exercises in the Spring, tradition leads undergraduates to break clay pipes over the Class of 1877 Cannon monument in front of Old Queens, symbolizing the breaking of ties with the college, and leaving behind the good times of one's undergraduate years. This symbolic gesture dates back to when pipe-smoking was fashionable among undergraduates, and many college memories were of evenings of pipe smoking and revelry with friends. Unfortunately, in recent years under President McCormick, SONY VAIO VPCF123FX/H Laptop Keyboard the university administration has decided to stop funding this tradition, despite strong outcry from students and alumni.[72]During commencement exercises, graduating seniors walk in academic procession under the Class of 1902 Memorial Gateway (erected in 1904) on Hamilton Street leading to the Voorhees Mall where the ceremonies are held for Rutgers College. Traditionally, students are warned to avoid walking beneath the gate before commencement over a superstition that one who does will not graduate. Due to the new commencement at High Point Solutions Stadium, students are no longer given the opportunity to walk through the gates during commencement. SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard The shield of the Rutgers coat of arms appears on the university gonfalon, and is at the head of all processions. The first quarter bears the arms of Nassau, the House of Orange, and recognizes the Dutch founders. The arms in the upper sinister quarter are those of George III combined with Queen Charlotte's. It was George III who granted the Charter of 1766 to Queen's College, named in honor of Charlotte of Mecklenburg, King George's consort. The arms shown on the sinister half are Queen Charlotte's. The third quarter from the Seal of the State of New Jersey. The fourth quarter is the coat of arms of Colonel Henry Rutgers. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Rutgers University has a student government which controls funding to student groups. The student government is made up of campus councils and professional school councils. Those councils then send representatives to the student assembly as well as the university senate. An example of these campus councils is the University College Council, which represents adult, part-time, and military veteran students. HP Mini 110-3018cl Laptop Keyboard Rutgers hosts over 700 student organizations, covering a wide range of interests. Among the first student groups was the first college newspaper in the United States of America. The Political Intelligencer and New Jersey Adviser began publication at Queen's College in 1783, and ceased operation in 1785.[10] Continuing this tradition is the university's current college newspaper, The Daily Targum, established in 1869, which is the second-oldest college newspaper currently published in the United States, SAMSUNG R45 Laptop Keyboard after The Dartmouth (1843). Both poet Joyce Kilmer and economist Milton Friedman served as editors. Also included are The Medium, Rutgers Entertainment Weekly, Rutgers Centurion, a conservative newspaper, the Rutgers University Glee Club, a male choral singing group established in 1872 (among the oldest in the country), HP Mini 311-1002TU Laptop Keyboard well as the Rutgers University Debate Union. More recently there has been increased national exposure among Rutgers a cappella groups as they have routinely placed well in the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella, including 2010 when The OrphanSporks placed second in the semifinals.[73] Governed by the Rutgers University Student Assembly and funded by student fees, students can organize groups for practically any political ideology or issue, ethnic or religious affiliation, academic subject, activity, or hobby. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers University is home to chapters of many Greek organizations, and a significant percentage of the undergraduate student body is active in Greek life. Several fraternities and sororities maintain houses for their chapters in the area of Union Street (known familiarly as "Frat Row") in New Brunswick, within blocks of Rutgers' College Avenue Campus. Chapters of Zeta Psi and Delta Phi organized at Rutgers as early as 1845. The Alpha Rho chapter of Chi Psi Fraternity, founded at Rutgers College in 1879, HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard was the first fraternity at Rutgers to own a fraternity house, or "Lodge", purchased in 1887. The fraternity today still owns and occupies the same property at 114 College Avenue. Today, there are over 50 fraternities and sororities on the New Brunswick-Piscataway campus, ranging from traditional to historically African-American, Hispanic, Multicultural, and Asian interest organizations.[74] The New Brunswick campus of Rutgers University has a chapter of the only active co-ed Pre-medical Fraternity, Phi Delta Epsilon, as of 2008.[75] Greek organizations are governed by the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Affairs. Twelve organizations maintain chapters in New Brunswick without sanction by the University's administration.[76] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard In the late 19th century, the University banned fraternities because of their unusual hazing practices. This caused them to go underground as secret societies. It also sparked the interest of some students to create their own societies. Cap and Skull was founded at Rutgers before the turn of the 19th to 20th century. Today, Rutgers is well known for 4 of its vocal ensembles: Voorhees Choir (the university's women's ensemble), Kirkpatrick Choir (the university's most selective coed ensemble), Glee Club (the university's most esteemed male ensemble), and University Choir (a larger mixed choir). SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard The center was established in the 1970s as the Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures Program. During the mid-1980s, the program was changed into the Middle Eastern Studies Program and a Major and Minor was officially defined and offered to the University's undergraduate students. The Center's present form was established in 2002 when it became known as the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Students at Rutgers currently have a choice of over 70 different courses offered regularly through the Center.[77]TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers was among the first American institutions to engage in intercollegiate athletics, and participated in a small circle of schools that included Yale University, Columbia University and long-time rival, Princeton University (then called The College of New Jersey). The four schools met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in Manhattan on October 19, 1873 to establish a set of rules governing their intercollegiate competition, and particularly to codify the new game offootball. Though invited, Harvard chose not to attend.[78]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In the early years of intercollegiate athletics, the circle of schools that participated in these athletic events were located solely in the American Northeast. However, by the turn of the 19th to 20th century, colleges and universities across the United States began to participate. In 1864, rowing became the first organized sport at Rutgers. Six mile races were held on the Raritan River among six-oared boats. In 1870, Rutgers held its first intercollegiate competition, against the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, the then top-ranked amateur crew of the time. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard Since the start in 1864, Rutgers has built a strong crew program consisting of heavyweight and lightweight men. Women's crew was added to the program in 1974. Financial support of the Men's crew program was discontinued by the university in 2006, though the Crew continues to compete (funded entirely by Alumni and private support) at a high level in the prestigiousEastern Association of Rowing Colleges conference. The first intercollegiate athletic event at Rutgers was a baseball game on May 2, 1866 against Princeton in which they suffered a 40-2 loss.[10]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard Rutgers University is often referred to as The Birthplace of College Football as the first intercollegiate football game was held on College Field between Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1869 in New Brunswick, New Jersey on a plot of ground where the present-day College Avenue Gymnasium now stands. Rutgers won the game, with a score of 6 runs to Princeton's 4.[10][69][79] According to Parke H. Davis, the 1869 Rutgers football team shared the national title with Princeton.[80] (This game is believed to have been closer to soccer than to modern American football.)[81]HP G71-347CL Laptop Keyboard Since 1866, Rutgers remained unaffiliated with any formal athletic conference and was classified as "independent". From 1946 to 1951, the university was a member of the Middle Three Conference, and from 1958 to 1961, was a member of the Middle Atlantic Conference.[82] In 1978, Rutgers became a member of the Atlantic 10 conference. In 1991, it joined the Big East Conference for football. All sports programs at Rutgers subsequently became affiliated with the Big East in 1995.[83]TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard The first intercollegiate competition in Ultimate Frisbee (now called simply "Ultimate") was held between students from Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1972 to mark the one hundred third anniversary of the first intercollegiate football game. Rutgers won 29–27.[84] The Rutgers Men's Basketball Team was among the "Final Four" and ended the 1976 season ranked fourth in the United States, after an 86–70 loss against the University of Michigan in the semifinals, and a 106–92 loss against UCLA in the consolation round of the 1976 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament.[85]HP 381068-001 Laptop Keyboard Since 1991, Rutgers is a member of the Big East Conference, a collegiate athletic conference consisting of 16 colleges and universities from the East Coast and Midwesternregions of the United States. The Big East Conference is a member of the Bowl Championship Series. Rutgers currently fields 27 intercollegiate sports programs and is a Division I school as sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Rutgers fields thirty teams in NCAA Division I sanctioned sports, including Football, Baseball, Basketball, Crew, Cross Country, Fencing, Field Hockey, Golf, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Soccer, Softball, Tennis, Track and Field, Swimming and Diving,Wrestling, Volleyball.[86]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Since joining the Big East, the Scarlet Knights have won five Big East Conference tournament titles: men's soccer (1997), men's track & field (2005), baseball (2000, 2007), women's basketball (2007). Several other teams have won regular season titles but failed to win the conference's championship tournament.[87]HP 456624-001 Laptop Keyboard Most recently, the Rutgers Scarlet Knights' football team has achieved success on the gridiron after several years of losing seasons, being invited to the Insight Bowl on December 27, 2005 in which they lost 45 to 40 against Arizona State University.[88] This was Rutgers' first bowl appearance since the December 16, 1978 loss against Arizona State, 34–18, at the Garden State Bowl. The 2006 football season also saw Rutgers being ranked within the Top 25 teams in major college football polls. After the November 9, HP Pavilion dv6-2046ez Laptop Keyboard 2006 victory over the #3 ranked, undefeated Louisville Cardinals, Rutgers jumped up to seventh in the AP Poll, eighth in the USA Today/Coaches poll, seventh in the Harris Interactive Poll, and sixth in the Bowl Championship Series rankings. These were Rutgers' highest rankings in the football polls since they were ranked fifteenth in 1961. Rutgers ended the season 11–2 after winning the inaugural Texas Bowl on December 28, 2006, defeating the Wildcats of Kansas State University by a score of 37–10 and finishing the season ranked twelfth in the final Associated Press poll of sportswriters, the team's highest season-ending ranking.[89]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Under Head Coach C. Vivian Stringer, the Women's Basketball program is among the elite programs in the country as they remain consistently ranked in the Top 25, consistently making the NCAA Women's Championship Tournament, and sometimes winning the Big East regular season championship. In 2006-2007, Rutgers won their first ever Big East Conference Tournament Championship. The program has been highly competitive since its inception, winning the 1982 AIAW National Championship, reaching the 2000 Final Four, and reaching the Final Four and national championship game in 2007. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Rutgers maintains athletic rivalries with other collegiate institutions. The university has historic rivalries with Princeton University, Columbia University(formerly King's College), Lafayette College, Lehigh University and New York University originating from the early days of college football. While they maintain this rivalry in other sports, neither of them have met in football since 1980. Rutgers has a basketball rivalry with Seton Hall University,[90] and has developed a growing three-way rivalry with the University of Connecticut and Syracuse University, both fellow Big East Conference members. HP Pavilion dv6-3250us Laptop Keyboard In the fall of 2007, six Rutgers New Brunswick/Piscataway's NCAA Division I sports were discontinued by the University, including men's swimming and diving, men's heavyweight and lightweight crew, men's tennis, and men's and women's fencing. Some continued as club teams, while some were disbanded completely. The University claims this change was due to budget cuts, while others claim it was a politically motivated move designed to protest state's funding changes.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard In November 2012, Rutgers became the latest school to leave the Big East. Syracuse and Pittsburgh have decided to enter the Atlantic Coast Conference, as West Virginia will enter the Big 12 conference, taking effect as of the 2012-2013 season. Rutgers decided to leave the Big East for the Big Ten Conference at a date which has yet to be announced. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard For the August 2005 to May 2006 academic year. Rutgers University had 2,261 full-time and part-time academic faculty members.[2] Among Rutgers notable current and former professors are Alan Prince, Jerry Fodor, Mark Baker, Alan Leslie, Rochel Gelman, John Ciardi, George Hammell Cook, Michael Curtis, Ralph Ellison,Paul Fussell, Robert Trivers, Francis Fergusson, COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Mason W. Gross, Leonid Khachiyan, Michael Lesk, David Levering Lewis, Roy Lichtenstein,Wilson Carey McWilliams, George Segal, Endre Szemerédi, Jerrold Tunnell, and Selman Waksman. During his 20 year tenure at Rutgers, David Levering Lewis (born 1936), a professor in the Department of History was twice awarded the Pultizer Prize for Biography or Autobiography (1994 and 2001) for both volumes of hisbiography of W. E. B. Du Bois (1868–1963) and was also the winner of the Bancroft and Parkman prizes. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Five Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rutgers as either faculty or students (Milton Friedman, Toni Morrison, David A. Morse, Heinrich Rohrer and Selman Waksman). Many members of the faculty at Rutgers have achieved t

op honors in their disciplines, including Michael R. Douglas, a prominent string theorist and the director of the New High Energy Theory Center and winner of the Sackler Prize in theoretical physics in 2000. Jerry Fodor, Zenon Pylyshyn and Stephen Stich were awarded the Jean Nicod Prize in philosophy and cognitive science. SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard Furthermore, Rutgers ranks among the top three public AAU institutions in the overall percentage of women faculty.[91] There have been over 335,000 graduates of Rutgers University.[7] Many alumni remain active through alumni associations—including the Rutgers Alumni Association founded in 1831—annual Reunions and Homecomings, and other events. Rutgers has graduated two Nobel Laureates: Selman A. Waksman (A.B. 1915) in Medicine andMilton Friedman (A.B. 1932) in Economics.[92] Alumni awarded the Pulitzer Prize include Michael Shaara (A.B. 1951), author of The Killer Angels, journalistRichard Aregood (B.A. 1965), Roy Franklin Nichols (A.B. 1918), and Junot Díaz. SONY Vaio VPC-EA3L1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni of Rutgers have had a considerable impact in the arts, including those by two noted modern sculptors, George Segal (M.A. 1963) and Alice Aycock (B.A. 1968). Many notable buildings in Boston (the Copley Plaza Hotel), and New York City including the The Dakota, Plaza Hotel, the Waldorf and Astoria Hotels (demolished in 1929 to make way for the Empire State Building) as well as several of the oldest buildings on the Rutgers University campus in New Brunswick,  HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan were designed by architect Henry Janeway Hardenburgh (A.B. 1871). Poet Joyce Kilmer (Class of 1908), attended Rutgers for two years before transferring toColumbia University, was famous for his poem "Trees" and later died in World War I, and Robert Pinsky (B.A. 1962), was appointed Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1997. Filmmaker and critic Wheeler Winston Dixon (Ph.D. 1982) has written more than twenty five books on film history, theory and criticism, and his collected films are housed at The Museum of Modern Art in New York City. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many Rutgers graduates have gone on to careers in public service, including former U.S. Secretary of State and SenatorFrederick T. Frelinghuysen (A.B. 1836), former U.S. Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary (J.D. 19??), former FBI director Louis Freeh (B.A. 1971), Vice President of the United States Garret A. Hobart (A.B. 1863), and former Representative and SenatorClifford P. Case (A.B. 1925). Among the first students enrolled at Rutgers (when it was Queen's College), Simeon DeWitt (A.B. 1776) HP Pavilion dv6-2015sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan became the Surveyor-General for the Continental Army (1776–1783) during the American Revolution and classmate James Schureman (A.B. 1775), served in the Continental Congress and as a United States Senator. Seven Rutgers graduates have served as Governor of New Jersey: Charles C. Stratton (A.B. 1814), William A. Newell (A.B. 1836; A.M. 1839), George C.  HP Pavilion dv7-2230es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ludlow (A.B. 1850, A.M. 1850), Foster M. Voorhees (A.B. 1876, A.M. 1879), A. Harry Moore (J.D. 1922), Richard Hughes (J.D. 1931), andJames J. Florio (J.D. 1967). Alumnus Joseph P. Bradley (A.B. 1836) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1870–1891) and cast the tie-breaking vote on the bipartisan commission that decided the contested American presidential election in 1876. Toshiba Satellite L500-1CQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni have founded or headed businesses, including Leonor F. Loree (A.B. 1877), President of the Pennsylvania Railroad,Bernard Marcus (B.S. 1951), founder of Home Depot, Ernest Mario (B.S. 1961), former Chief Executive Officer ofGlaxoSmithKline, Duncan McMillan (B.S. 1966), co-founder of Bloomberg L.P., and Barry Schuler (B.A. 1976), ACER Aspire 5742G Laptop CPU Cooling Fan former Chairman and CEO of AmericaOnline (AOL). Marc Milecofsky, aka Marc Ecko, founded the clothing brand Eckō in 1993 and launched a special, limited edition collection[93] that specifically pays homage to the Scarlet Knights,[94] Mary Baglivo (B.A. 1979), Chairman and CEO of the Americas, Saatchi & Saatchi, and Michael H. Fleischner, founder of MarketingScoop.com.[95] Compaq Presario C737EL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Graduates of Rutgers have gone on to make advances in medicine, mathematics and science, most notably Nobel Laureate Selman A. Waksman (B.Sc. 1915), but also including Peter C. Schultz (B.S. 1967), co-inventor of fiber optics, geneticist Stanley N. Cohen (B.Sc. 1956) who pioneered in the field of gene splicing, Louis Gluck (B.S. 1930) the "father of neonatology", and computer pioneer Nathan M. Newmark (B.S. 1948) who won the National Medal of Science. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rutgers alumni have entertained Americans for generations, including actors Paul Robeson, Avery Brooks (B.A. 1973), James Gandolfini (B.A. 1983), Oswald "Ozzie" Nelson (B.A. 1927), Kristin Davis (B.F.A. 1987), and Calista Flockhart (B.F.A. 1988),Natalie Morales (B.A. Journalism & Latin American Studies) American news anchor for NBC's "Today Show"., adult film starsAsia Carrera (B.A. 1996) and Joanna Angel (B.A. 2002), and restaurateur Mario Batali (B.A. 1982). A Springfield, New Jerseyband, Midtown, was also formed by three Rutgers graduates. SONY Vaio VPC-EA290X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In athletics, graduates of Rutgers include Major League Baseball managers Eric Young (B.A 1992) and Jeff Torborg (B.A. 1963);Eddie Jordan (B.A. 1977), former NBA head coach; Sonny Werblin (A.B. 1932), former owner of the New York Jets; and David Stern (B.A. 1963), Commissioner of the National Basketball Association. Toshiba Satellite L500-02H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alumni in the National Football League include Ray Rice (Baltimore Ravens), Brian Leonard (Bengals), Shaun O'Hara (New York Giants), L.J. Smith (Philadelphia Eagles), Clark Harris (Houston Texans), Nate Jones (Denver Broncos), Eric Foster (Indianapolis Colts), Jeremy Zuttah (Tampa Bay Buccaneers),Anthony Davis (San Francisco 49ers), Jason McCourty (Tennessee Titans), Devin McCourty (New England Patriots), Pedro Sosa(Miami Dolphins), and Mohamed Sanu (Cincinnati Bengals).  HP G62-458TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Fictitious alumni include Quincy Magoo (degree unknown, 1903), a lovable cartoon character from the 1950s and 1960s, was among the proudest of Rutgers' "Loyal Sons."[96]The band Looking Glass, who are famous for their 1972 hit "Brandy (You're a Fine Girl)", formed at Rutgers. They were active from 1969-1974.  HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard The Colonial Colleges are nine institutions of higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the United States of America became a sovereign nation after the American Revolution.[1] These nine have long been considered together, notably in the survey of their origins in the 1907 The Cambridge History of English and American Literature.[2] Seven of the nine colonial colleges are part of the Ivy League athletic conference: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Penn, Columbia, Brown, andDartmouth. (The eighth member of the Ivy League, Cornell University, was founded in 1865.) TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard The two colonial colleges not in the Ivy League are now both public universities—The College of William & Mary and Rutgers University, the state university of New Jersey. William & Mary was a private institution from 1693 until just after theAmerican Civil War, when it received some support from the state. It became public in 1906. Rutgers became the State University of New Jersey after World War II. SONY VAIO VGN-CR Series Laptop Keyboard Seven of the nine colonial colleges began their histories as institutions of higher learning de novo (i.e., with no predecessor parent organization). Dartmouth College began operating in 1768 as the collegiate department of Moor's Charity School, a secondary school started in 1754 by Dartmouth founder Eleazar Wheelock. Dartmouth considers its founding date to be 1769, when it was granted a collegiate charter. The University of Pennsylvania began operating in 1751 as a secondary school, the Academy of Philadelphia, and added an institution of higher education in 1755 with the granting of a charter to the College of Philadelphia. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard In 1775, representatives from New Jersey's 13 counties established a Provincial Congress to supersede the Royal Governor. In June 1776, this congress had authorized the preparation of a constitution, which was written within five days, adopted by the Provincial Congress, and accepted by the Continental Congress. The Constitution of 1776 provided for a bicamerallegislature consisting of a General Assembly with three members from each county and a Legislative Council with one member from each county. All state officials, including the governor, were to be appointed by the Legislature under this constitution. The Vice-President of Council would succeed the Governor (who was the President of the Council) if a vacancy occurred in that office. HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Accordingly, the first session of the Legislature convened on August 27, 1776. Legislative politics was defined in the following years by an intense rivalry between the Federalists, and later the Whigs (which dominated South Jersey and Essex, Hudson, and Middlesex Counties), and the Democratic Party (which was prominent in the northwest, the Shore region, and Bergen County).[1][2]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard The New Jersey Constitution of 1844 provided for a direct popular election of the governor, and gave him the power to veto bills passed by the Legislature. The General Assembly was expanded to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the counties based on population. The Legislative Council was renamed the Senate, and was to be composed of one member from each of the state's 19 counties, serving a three-year term. SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard During the Civil War, party allegiance became entrenched. Democrats usually won both houses until the Republicans gained control in 1893. A court ruling obtained by the Republicans provided that members of the General Assembly were to be elected from the counties at-large, rather than from election districts of unequal population. Regardless of any changes, the Legislature met infrequently, had high turnover among its members, and was far from being the most influential or powerful organ of state government.[3]HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard New Jersey adopted its current constitution in 1947. Under this constitution, the governor was given additional veto powers and the ability to serve two terms. Hundreds of independent agencies were consolidated into 20 principal executive departments under the control of the governor. Senators' terms were extended to four years; assemblymen's terms to two years. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 1966, the Senate was expanded from 21 to 40 members and the General Assembly from 60 to 80. Following a United States Supreme Court decision in 1964 and aNew Jersey Supreme Court decision in 1972, the state's legislative districts were reapportioned into the current arrangement. Two more modern developments have also helped shape the Legislature: the increase in importance of legislative committees and the development of longer tenures for the legislative leadership. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard The Legislature has the power to enact laws by a majority vote of both houses, subject to the Governor of New Jersey's ability to veto a bill. A veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. By a three-fifths vote of each house, the Legislature may propose an amendment to the State Constitution. Alternatively, it may propose an amendment by a majority vote two consecutive years. In either case, the referendum is placed on the ballot and must be approved in a referendum to become valid as a part of the constitution. HP Pavilion DV3500 Laptop Keyboard The Legislature is also empowered to ratify amendments to the U.S. Constitution, appoint the State Auditor, judge the elections and qualifications of its members, and institute and conduct impeachment proceedings against State officials. The Senate has the sole authority to confirm or reject gubernatorial nominees for judicial and some executive positions.[5]HP Pavilion DV3505xx Laptop Keyboard The current incarnation of the Legislature is outlined by Article IV ("Legislative") of the New Jersey State Constitution 1947. The Legislature is composed of an 80-member General Assembly, and a 40-member Senate. To become an Assemblyman, an individual must be at least 21 years old, must have resided in the state for the past two years, and must live in the district he represents. To become a Senator, an individual must be 30 years old, have lived in the state for the past four years, and again must live in the district he represents.[6]TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

Elections and terms

Unlike elections for most other state legislatures and for the United States Congress, New Jersey legislative elections are held in November of every odd-numbered year. Assemblymen serve two-year terms, while Senators serve four-year terms, except in the first term of a new decade, which only lasts two years. This "2-4-4" cycle was put into place so Senate elections can reflect changes made to district boundaries following the decennial United States Census. If this cycle were not in place, then the boundaries could at times be up to four years out of date before being used for Senate elections. Under the current system, the boundaries are only ever two years out of date. IBM ThinkPad T42 2379 Laptop Keyboard The New Jersey Constitution provides that each Legislature is constituted for a term of two years, split into two annual sessions. Because the Constitution also specifies that all business from the first year may be continued into the second year, the distinction between the two annual sessions is more ceremonial than actual. The two-year legislative term begins at noon on the second Tuesday in January of each even-numbered year. For example, the two-year term of the 215th Legislative session began on noon on Tuesday, January 10, 2012. At the end of the second year, all unfinished business expires.[7] GATEWAY MT3705 Laptop Keyboard Service in the Legislature is considered part-time, and most legislators have other employment.[8] In New Jersey, legislators may also concurrently hold another elected office at the county or municipal level. The practice, which is frequently referred to as "double dipping", has recently been banned by the Legislature, although the 19 legislators holding multiple offices as of February 1, 2008 were grandfathered into the system.[9]DELL KR737 Laptop Keyboard The members of the New Jersey Legislature are chosen from 40 electoral districts. Each district elects one Senator and two Assemblymen. New Jersey is one of only seven U.S. states (with Arizona, Idaho, Maryland, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington) in which districts for the upper and lower house of the legislature are coterminous. Districts are redefined decennially by the New Jersey Apportionment Commission following each U.S. Census, as provided by Article IV, Section III of the State Constitution. HP Pavilion DV3550ee Laptop Keyboardstate university system in the United States is a group of public universities supported by an individual state, or a similar entity such as the District of Columbia. These systems constitute the majority of public-funded universities in the country. Each state supports at least one such system. IBM MCF-C10AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Federal funded colleges and universities are limited to military personnel and government employees. Members of foreign militaries and governments also attend some schools. These schools include the United States military academies, Naval Postgraduate School, and military staff colleges. A state university system normally means a single legal entity and administration, but may consist of several institutions, each with its own identity as a university. Some states—such as California and Texas—support more than one such system.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW115J/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan State universities get subsidies from their states. The amount of the subsidy varies from university to university and state to state, but the effect is to lower tuition costs below that of private universities. As more and more Americans attend college, and private tuition rates increase well beyond the rate of inflation, admission to state universities is becoming more and more competitive. ACER Aspire 5742ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Consideration of public higher education was included in the earliest westward expansion of the US, with the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which established theNorthwest Territory. It stated: "Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." Ohio University (1804) was the first state school so established in the territory, with the other developing states following suit. On a national basis, the state university system was also assisted by the establishment of the Land-grant universities, under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862 and 1890. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The tradition of publicly funded state colleges began primarily in the southern states, where other private educational institutions were less developed. TheUniversity of Georgia is the country's first chartered public university, established on January 27, 1785 by an act of the General Assembly of Georgia. However, the University of Georgia did not hold classes until 16 years later in the fall of 1801. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, while chartered four years after Georgia in 1789, SONY Vaio VPC-EE31FX/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan was the first state university to hold classes. Classes began at UNC in 1795, and UNC is the only state university to have graduated students in the 18th century. The University of South Carolina was chartered in 1801 and held classes for the first time in 1805. The University of Tennessee was originally chartered as Blount College in 1794, but had a very difficult beginning—graduating only one student—and did not begin receiving the promised state funds until 1807 when it was renamed East Tennessee University. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard The first state university that matches most modern definitions of the term—including a strict secular course of study, offering professional and graduate coursework, and allowing students to select their coursework—was the University of Virginia. Established due to the work of Thomas Jefferson and grounded in his philosophy of a strong secular state, UVA was chartered in 1819 and first held classes in 1825. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Determining which state university was the "first" is further complicated by the case of New Jersey's state university system. Facing the embarrassment of being the only state left that had not established a state university, the New Jersey Legislature decided to commission an already existing private university as its state university, rather than build one from the ground up, as other states had done. Rutgers University, which had previously been a private school affiliated with the Dutch Reformed Church, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard was designated as a state university by acts of the legislature in 1945 and 1956. It became a 'System' with the absorptions of Newark University in 1946 and The College of South Jersey in 1950, becoming Rutgers' Newark and Camden Campuses, respectively. Rutgers was chartered in 1766, nineteen years before The University of Georgia, but did not become The State University of New Jersey for another 179 years.  HP Pavilion G7-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard Castleton State College in Vermont is the oldest state university in New England, chartered in 1787. This was soon followed by the charter of The University of Vermont in 1791. However, neither institution was a "state university" in the modern sense of the term until many decades later. Castleton State began as the Rutland County Grammar School. It did not become a postsecondary institution until the campus became home to the State Normal School in 1867, which was privately owned despite its name, and did not become a state-owned institution until 1912. UVM was chartered as a private institution and did not become a public university until 1865. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard The largest state university system is State University of New York with over 400,000 students.[1] However, the combined enrollment of the University of California, the California State University, and the California Community Colleges systems exceeds 2,300,000 students.[2] Many state universities were founded in the middle 19th century, in particular supported by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890. Many state universities—such as UCLA and Chico State—were founded as normal schools. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Following the Second World War, many state universities were merged with smaller institutions to achieve economies of scale in administration and also to raise the prestige of the degrees granted by some smaller institutions. A prominent example of this is the State University of New York, which is the largest comprehensive system of universities, colleges, and community colleges in the world.[3]TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard During the 1970s, further mergers took place and the concept of a state system was widely adopted. Some states have more than one state university system. For example, California has the University of California (considered top-tier) and the California State University (considered lower tier) as four-year university systems, and the California Community Colleges as its community college system. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard Some states maintain a separate system for state colleges (often specified as community colleges, technical colleges, or junior colleges), that is distinct from their university system. Examples include the California Community Colleges System, the Florida College System, and the Technical College System of Georgia. In these states, colleges focus primarily on awarding two-year associate's degrees and professional certificates, while universities focus on four-year bachelor's degrees and more advanced degrees. HP AETT3U00010 Laptop Keyboard The California Community Colleges System is the largest in the world. In 2009 the Florida College System changed its name from the Florida Community College System, reflecting the fact that some of its colleges now offer four-year degrees. Some of its colleges were designated "state colleges", distinguishing them from community colleges in that they offer more four year degrees than community colleges.[4]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard

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Rice University William Marsh Rice University, commonly referred to as Rice University or Rice, is a private research universitylocated on a 295-acre (1.19 km2) campus in Houston, Texas, United States. The university is situated near the Houston Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard Opened in 1912 after the murder of its namesake William Marsh Rice, Rice is now a preeminent research university with a distinct undergraduate and graduate focus. Its emphasis on education is demonstrated by a small student body and 5:1 student-faculty ratio, among the lowest in the top American universities including the Ivy League.[7] Rice alumni are prominent in every sector of society today. The university has produced 101 Fulbright Scholars, 10 Truman Scholars, 24Marshall Scholars, and 12 Rhodes Scholars.[8][9]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard The university has a very high level of research activity for its size, with $115.3 million in sponsored research funding in 2011.[10] Rice is noted for its applied science programs in the fields of artificial heart research, structural chemical analysis, signal processing, space science, and nanotechnology. It was ranked first in the world in materials science research by the Times Higher Education (THE) in 2010.[11]SONY VAIO VPCF123FX/H Laptop Keyboard The university is organized into eleven residential colleges and eight schools of academic study, including the Wiess School of Natural Sciences, the George R. Brown School of Engineering, the School of Social Sciences, and the School of Humanities. Graduate programs are offered through the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business, School of Architecture,Shepherd School of Music, and Susanne M. Glasscock School of Continuing Studies.[12][13][14] Rice students are bound by the strict Honor Code, which is enforced by a uniquely student-run Honor Council.[15]SONY VAIO VPCF1290X Laptop Keyboard Rice competes in 14 NCAA Division I varsity sports and is a part of Conference USA, often competing with its cross-town rival the University of Houston. Intramural and club sports are offered in a wide variety of activities such as Jiu Jitsu,water polo, and crew. Rice athletes include Lance Berkman, Harold Solomon, Bubba Crosby, along with three Olympians. SONY VAIO VPCF12AFM Laptop Keyboard The history of Rice University began with the untimely demise of Massachusetts businessman William Marsh Rice. Rice made his fortune in real estate, railroad development and cotton trading in the state of Texas. In 1891, Rice decided to charter a free-tuition educational institute in Houston, bearing his name, to be created upon his death, earmarking most of his estate towards funding the project. Rice's will specified the institution was to be a "a competitive institution of the highest grade" and that only white students would be permitted to attend.[16] HP Mini 110-3018cl Laptop Keyboard On the morning of September 23, 1900, Rice was found dead by his valet, and presumed to have died in his sleep. Shortly thereafter, a suspiciously large check made out to Rice's New York City lawyer, signed by the late Rice, was noticed by a bank teller due to a misspelling in the recipient's name. The lawyer, Albert T. Patrick, then announced that Rice had changed his will to leave the bulk of his fortune to Patrick, rather than to the creation of Rice's educational institute. SAMSUNG R45 Laptop Keyboard A subsequent investigation led by the District Attorney of New York resulted in the arrests of Patrick and of Rice's butler and valet Charles F. Jones, who had been persuaded to administer chloroform to Rice while he slept. Rice's friend and personal lawyer in Houston, James A. Baker, Sr., aided in the discovery of what turned out to be a fake will with a forged signature. Jones was not prosecuted since he cooperated with the district attorney, HP Mini 311-1002TU Laptop Keyboard and testified against Patrick. Patrick was found guilty of conspiring to steal Rice's fortune and convicted of murder in 1901, although he was pardoned in 1912 due to conflicting medical testimony.[17]Baker helped Rice's estate direct the fortune, worth $4.6 million in 1904 ($119 million today), towards the founding of what was to be called the Rice Institute. The Board took control of the assets on April 29 of that year. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 1907, the Board of Trustees selected the head of the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy at Princeton University, Edgar Odell Lovett, to head the Institute, which was still in the planning stages. He came recommended by Princeton's president, Woodrow Wilson. In 1908, Lovett accepted the challenge, and was formally inaugurated as the Institute's first president on October 12, 1912. Lovett undertook extensive research before formalizing plans for the new Institute, including visits to 78 institutions of higher learning across the world on a long tour between 1908 and 1909. HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard Lovett was impressed by such things as the aesthetic beauty of the uniformity of the architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, a theme which was adopted by the Institute, as well as the residential college system at Cambridge University in England, which was added to the Institute several decades later. Lovett called for the establishment of a university "of the highest grade," "an institution of liberal and technical learning" devoted "quite as much to investigation as to instruction." [We must] "keep the standards up and the numbers down," declared Lovett. "The most distinguished teachers must take their part in undergraduate teaching, and their spirit should dominate it all."  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard In 1911 the cornerstone was laid for the Institute's first building, the Administration Building, now known as Lovett Hall in honor of the founding president. On September 23, 1912, the anniversary of William Marsh Rice's murder, the William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science, and Art began course work. 48 male and 29 female students were enrolled, paying no tuition, with classes taught by a dozen faculty. Unusually for the time, Rice accepted coeducational admissions. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard Three weeks after opening, a spectacular international academic festival was held in celebration, bringing Rice to the attention of the entire academic world. Four years later, at the first commencement ceremony, 35 bachelor's degrees and one master's degree were awarded. That year, the student body voted to adopt the Honor System, which still exists today. The first doctorate was conferred in 1918. TOSHIBA Satellite 1800-921 Laptop Keyboard During World War II, Rice Institute was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[18]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The Founder's Memorial Statue, a bronze statue of a seated William Marsh Rice, holding the original plans for the campus, was dedicated in 1930, and installed in the central academic quad, facing Lovett Hall. The statue was crafted by John Angel (sculptor).[19] The residential college system proposed by President Lovett was adopted in 1958, with the East Hall residence becoming Baker College, South Hall residence becoming Will Rice College, West Hall becoming Hanszen College, and the temporary Wiess Hall becoming Wiess College. Compaq Presario CQ42-450TU Laptop Keyboard In 1959, the Rice Institute Computer went online. 1960 saw Rice Institute formally renamed William Marsh Rice University. Rice acted as a temporary intermediary in the transfer of land between Humble Oil and Refining Company and NASA,[20] for the creation of NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center (now called Johnson Space Center) in 1962. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JA01 Laptop Keyboard President John F. Kennedy then made a speech[21] at Rice Stadium reiterating that the United States intended to reach the moon before the end of the decade of the 1960s, and "to become the world's leading space-faring nation". The relationship of NASA with Rice University and the city of Houston has remained strong to the present day. HP G71-347CL Laptop Keyboard The original charter of Rice Institute dictated that the university admit and educate, tuition-free, "the white inhabitants of Houston, and the state of Texas". In 1963, the governing board of Rice University filed a lawsuit to allow the university to modify its charter to admit students of all races and to charge tuition. In 1964, Rice officially amended the university charter to desegregate its graduate and undergraduate divisions.[22] The Trustees of Rice University prevailed in a lawsuit to void the racial language in the trust in 1966.[23] TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard Rice began charging tuition for the first time in 1965. In the same year, Rice launched a $33 million ($243 million) development campaign. $43 million ($257 million) was raised by its conclusion in 1970. In 1974, two new schools were founded at Rice, the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management and the Shepherd School of Music. The Brown Foundation Challenge, a fund-raising program designed to encourage annual gifts, was launched in 1976 and ended in 1996 having raised $185 million ($274 million). The Rice School of Social Sciences was founded in 1979. HP 381068-001 Laptop Keyboard On-campus housing was exclusively for men for the first forty years. Jones College was the first women's residence on the Rice campus, followed by Brown College. According to legend, the women's colleges were purposefully situated at the opposite end of campus from the existing men's colleges as a way of preserving campus propriety, which was greatly valued by Edgar Odell Lovett, who did not even allow benches to be installed on campus, fearing that they "might lead to co-fraternization of the sexes".[24] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard The path linking the north colleges to the center of campus was given the tongue-in-cheek name of "Virgin's Walk". Individual colleges became coeducational between 1973 and 1987, with the single-sex floors of colleges that had them becoming co-ed by 2006. By then, several new residential colleges had been built on campus to handle the university's growth, including Lovett College, Sid Richardson College, and Martel College. HP 456624-001 Laptop Keyboard The Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations was held at Rice in 1990. In 1993, the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy was created. In 1997, the Edythe Bates Old Grand Organ and Recital Hall and the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, renamed in 2005 for the late Nobel Prize winner and Rice professor Richard E. Smalley, were dedicated at Rice. In 1999, the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology was created. The Rice Owls baseball team was ranked #1 in the nation for the first time in that year (1999), holding the top spot for eight weeks. HP Pavilion dv6-2046ez Laptop Keyboard In 2003, the Owls won their first national championship in baseball, which was the first for the university in any team sport, beating Southwest Missouri State in the opening game and then the University of Texas and Stanford University twice each en route to the title. In 2008, President David Leebron issued a ten point plan titled "Vision for the Second Century" outlining plans to increase research funding, strengthen existing programs, and increase collaboration.[25] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard The plan has brought about another wave of campus constructions, including the erection the newly renamed Bioscience Research Collaborative[26] building (intended to foster collaboration with the adjacent Texas Medical Center), a new recreational center and renovated basketball stadium, and the addition of two new residential colleges, Duncan College and McMurtry College. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard Beginning in late 2008, the university considered a merger with Baylor College of Medicine, though the merger was ultimately rejected in 2010.[27] Select Rice undergraduates are currently guaranteed admission to Baylor College of Medicine upon graduation as part of the Rice/Baylor Medical Scholars program. According to History Professor John Boles' recent book University Builder: Edgar Odell Lovett and the Founding of the Rice Institute, the first president's original vision for the university included hopes for future medical and law schools. HP Pavilion dv6-3250us Laptop Keyboard Five streets demarcate the campus: Greenbriar Street, Rice Boulevard, Sunset Boulevard, Main Street, and University Boulevard. For most of its history, all of Rice's buildings have been contained within this "outer loop". In recent years, new facilities have been built close to campus, but the bulk of administrative, academic, and residential buildings are still located within the original pentagonal plot of land. The new Collaborative Research Center, all graduate student housing, the Greenbriar building, and the Wiess President's House are located off-campus.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard Rice prides itself on the amount of green space available on campus; there are only about 50 buildings spread between the main entrance at its easternmost corner, and the parking lots and Rice Stadium at the West end. The Lynn R. Lowrey Arboretum, consisting of more than 4000 trees and shrubs (giving birth to the legend that Rice has a tree for every student), is spread throughout the campus. HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard The university's first president, Edgar Odell Lovett, intended for the campus to have a uniform architecture style to improve its aesthetic appeal. To that end, nearly every building on campus is noticeably Byzantine in style, with sand and pink-colored bricks, large archways and columns being a common theme among many campus buildings. Noteworthy exceptions include the glass-walled Brochstein Pavilion, Lovett College with its Brutalist-style concrete gratings, and the eclectic-Mediterranean Duncan Hall.  HP AELX9U00110 Laptop Keyboard Lovett Hall, named for Rice’s visionary first president, is the university’s most iconic campus building. Through its Sallyport arch, new students symbolically enter the university during matriculation and depart as graduates at commencement. Duncan Hall, Rice’s computational engineering building, was designed to encourage collaboration between the four different departments situated there. The building’s colorful Martel Foyer, drawn from many world cultures, was designed by the architect to symbolically express this collaborative purpose. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The campus is organized in a number of quadrangles. The Academic Quad, anchored by a statue of founder William Marsh Rice, includes Ralph Adams Cram's masterpiece, the asymmetrical Lovett Hall, the original administrative building; Fondren Library; Herzstein Hall, the original physics building and home to the largest amphitheater on campus; Sewall Hall for the social sciences and arts; Rayzor Hall for the languages; and Anderson Hall of the Architecture department. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard The Humanities Building, winner of several architectural awards, is immediately adjacent to the main quad. Further west lies a quad surrounded by McNair Hall of the Jones Business School, the Baker Institute, and Alice Pratt Brown Hall of the Shepherd School of Music. These two quads are surrounded by the university's main access road, a one-way loop referred to as the "inner loop". In the Engineering Quad, a trinity of sculptures by Michael Heizer, collectively entitled 45 Degrees, 90 Degrees HP Pavilion dv6-3122sa Laptop CPU Cooling Fan , 180 Degrees, are flanked by Abercrombie Laboratory, the Cox Building, and the Mechanical Laboratory, housing the Electrical, Mechanical, and Earth Science/Civil Engineering departments, respectively. Duncan Hall is the latest addition to this quad, providing new offices for the Computer Science, Computational and Applied Math, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Statistics departments. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Roughly three-quarters of Rice's undergraduate population lives on campus. Housing is divided among eleven residential colleges, which form an integral part of student life at the University (see Residential colleges of Rice University). The colleges are named for university historical figures and benefactors, and while there is wide variation in their appearance, facilities, and dates of founding, are an important source of identity for Rice students, functioning as dining halls, HP Pavilion dv6-2015sg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan residence halls, sports teams, among other roles. Rice does not have or endorse a Greek system, with the residential college system taking its place. Five colleges, McMurtry, Duncan, Martel, Jones, and Brown are located on the north side of campus, across from the "South Colleges", Baker, Will Rice, Lovett, Hanszen, Sid Richardson, and Wiess, on the other side of the Academic Quadrangle. Of the eleven colleges, Baker is the oldest, originally built in 1912, and the twin Duncan and McMurtry colleges are the newest, and opened for the first time for the 2009-10 school year. Will Rice, Baker, and Lovett colleges are undergoing renovation to expand their dining facilities as well as the number of rooms available for students.  HP Pavilion dv7-2230es Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The on-campus football facility, Rice Stadium, opened in 1950 with a capacity of 70,000 seats. After improvements in 2006, the stadium is currently configured to seat 47,000 for football but can readily be reconfigured to its original capacity of 70,000, more than the total number of Rice alumni, living and deceased.[28] The stadium was the site of Super Bowl VIII and a speech byJohn F. Kennedy on September 12, 1962 in which he challenged the nation to send a man to the moon by the end of the decade.[29] TToshiba Satellite L500-1CQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan he recently renovated Tudor Fieldhouse, formerly known as Autry Court, is home to the basketball and volleyball teams. Other stadia include the Rice Track/Soccer Stadium and the Jake Hess Tennis Stadium. A new Rec Center now houses the intramural sports offices and provide an outdoor pool, training and exercise facilities for all Rice students, while athletics training will solely be held at Tudor Fieldhouse and the Rice Football Stadium. ACER Aspire 5742G Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university and Houston Independent School District jointly established The Rice School, a kindergarten through 8th grade public magnet school in Houston.[30] The school opened in August 1994. Through Cy-Fair ISD Rice University offers a credit course based summer school for grades 8 through 12. They also have skills based classes during the summer in the Rice Summer School.  Compaq Presario C737EL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Organization Rice University is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed board of trustees. The board consists of a maximum of 25 voting members who serve four-year terms and is currently chaired by James W. Crownover.[31] The trustees serve without compensation and a simple majority of trustees must reside in Texas, including at least 4 within the greater Houston area.[32] The board of trustees delegates its power by appointing a President to serve as the chief executive of the university. SONY Vaio VPC-EA290X Laptop CPU Cooling Fan David W. Leebron was appointed President in 2004 and succeeded Malcom Gillis who served since 1993. The provost, six vice presidents, and other university officials report to the President. The President is advised by a University Council composed of the Provost, eight members of the Faculty Council, two staff members, one graduate student, and two undergraduate students. The President presides over a Faculty Council which has the authority to alter curricular requirements, establish new degree programs, and approve candidates for degrees.[32] Rice University possesses an endowment of $4.1 billion (as of 2011). SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F/B Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice's undergraduate students benefit from a centralized admissions process, which admits new students to the university as a whole, rather than a specific school (the schools of Music and Architecture are decentralized). Students are encouraged to select the major path that best suits their desires; a student can later decide that they would rather pursue study in another field, or continue their current coursework and add a second or third major. These transitions are designed to be simple at Rice, with students not required to decide on a specific major until their sophomore year of study. Toshiba Satellite L500-02H Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice's academics are organized into six schools which offer courses of study at the graduate and undergraduate level, with two more being primarily focused on graduate education, while offering select opportunities for undergraduate students. Rice offers 360 degrees in over 60 departments. There are 40 undergraduate degree programs, 51 masters programs, and 29 doctoral programs.[12][13] HP G62-458TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate tuition for the 2011-2012 school year is $34,900. $651 is charged for fees, and Rice projects an $800 budget for books and $1550 for personal expenses. Rice students are charged $12,270 for room and board. Per year, the total cost of a Rice University education is $50,171.[3] Faculty members of each of the departments elect chairs to represent the department to each School's dean and the deans report to the Provost who serves as the chief officer for academic affairs.[32]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Rice is a medium-sized, highly residential research university.[33] The majority of enrollments are in the full-time, four-year undergraduate program emphasizing arts & sciences and professions. There is a high graduate coexistence with the comprehensive graduate program and a very high level of research activity.[33] It is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools as well as the professional accreditation agencies for engineering, management, and architecture.[34]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Each of Rice's departments is organized into one of three distribution groups, and students whose major lies within the scope of one group must take at least 12 credit hours of approved distribution classes in each of the other two groups, as well as completing two physical education courses as part of the LPAP (Lifetime Physical Activity Program) requirement. For students who do not pass the university's writing test (administered during the summer before matriculation), a writing class, COMM 103, becomes a requirement. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The majority of Rice's undergraduate degree programs grant B.S. or B.A. degrees. Rice has recently begun to offer minors in areas such as business,[35] energy and water sustainability,[36] and global health.[37]TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard tudent body Rice enrolled 3,001 undergraduates, 897 post-graduate, and 1,247 doctoral students and awarded 1,448 degrees in 2007.[3] Women make up 48% of the undergraduate body and 35% of the professional and post-graduate student body. 51% of undergraduates and 49% of post-graduates hail from Texas but the student body also represented all 50 states, the District of Columbia, two U.S. Territories, and 83 foreign countries.[3]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard 15,133 applications for undergraduate admission were received for the class of 2016 (Fall 2012), 2,230 were admitted (16%), and 942 enrolled.[3] In the class of 2016, 82% of ranked freshmen graduated in the top 5% of their high school class, and the inter-quartile range forSAT was 650-750 for reading and 690-790 for math.[3] 97% of freshmen re-enrolled the subsequent year and 77% of students graduate in 4 years and 90% graduate in 6 years.[39]SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard With tuition of $33,120 for the 2010-2011 school year, Rice awarded $55.8 million in financial aid and 2,139 (71.2%) of undergraduates received some sort of aid.[3] On my honor, I have neither given nor received any unauthorized aid on this (examination, quiz or paper). SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard The Rice Honor Code plays a central role in academic affairs. Almost all Rice exams are unproctored and professors give timed, closed-book exams that students take home and complete at their own convenience. Potential infractions are reported to the student Honor Council, elected by popular vote. The penalty structure is established every year by Council consensus; typically, penalties have ranged from a letter of reprimand to an 'F' in the course and a two semester suspension.[40] HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard During Orientation Week, students must take and pass a test demonstrating that they understand the Honor System's requirements and sign a Matriculation Pledge. On assignments, students affirm their commitment to the Honor Code by writing On my honor, I have neither given nor received any unauthorized aid on this (examination, quiz or paper).[15]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 2012 Rice was ranked 17th among national universities by U.S. News & World Report.[7] In 2012, USNWR ranked the Jones Graduate School of Management 25th. The Brown School of Engineering was ranked 34th in 2011 by USNWR.[59][60] In 2010, Rice was ranked 47th in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 99th internationally (54th nationally) by the Academic Ranking of World Universities.[61][62] Rice University was ranked 115th in 2011 by QS World University Rankings.[63]SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Forbes Magazine ranked Rice University 25th nationally among both liberal arts colleges and universities in 2010.[64] The Princeton Review ranked Rice 1st for "Best Quality of Life" and "Happiest Students" in its 2012 edition[65] and one of the top 50 best value private colleges in its 2011 edition.[66] Rice was ranked 25th among national universities by The Washington Monthly in 2010,[67] and 41st among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[68] In 2011, for the fourth year in a row, HP Pavilion DV3500 Laptop Keyboard Kiplinger's Personal Finance magazine has ranked Rice 4th for best value in private colleges.[69] Consumer's Digest ranked Rice 3rd on the list of top 5 values in private colleges in its June 2011 issue.[70] Fiske Guide to Colleges ranked Rice as one of the top 25 private "best buy" schools in its 2012 edition.[71] In 2011 the Leiden Ranking, which measures the performance of 500 major research universities worldwide, using metrics designed to measure research impact ranked Rice 4th Globally, for effectiveness and contribution of research.[72][73][74]HP Pavilion DV3505xx Laptop Keyboard Situated on nearly 300 acres (1.2 km2) in the heart of Houston’s Museum District and across the street from the city’s Hermann Park, Rice is a green and leafy refuge – an oasis of learning convenient to the amenities of the nation’s fourth-largest city. Rice's campus adjoins Hermann Park, the Texas Medical Center, and a neighborhood commercial center called Rice Village. Hermann Park includes the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Houston Zoo, Miller Outdoor Theatre and an 18-hole municipal golf course. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard Reliant Park, home of Reliant Stadium and the Astrodome, is two miles (3 km) south of the campus. Among the dozen or so museums in the Museum District is the Rice University Art Gallery, open during the school year. Easy access to downtown's theater and nightlife district and to Reliant Park is provided by the Houston METRORail system, with a station adjacent to the campus's main gate. The campus recently joined the Zipcar program with two vehicles to increase the transportation options for students and staff that need that currently don't utilize a vehicle.[75]IBM ThinkPad T42 2379 Laptop Keyboard Although each college is composed of a full cross-section of students at Rice, they have over time developed their own traditions and "personalities". When students matriculate they are randomly assigned to one of the eleven colleges, although "legacy" exceptions are made for students whose siblings or other close relatives have attended Rice. Students generally remain members of the college that they are assigned to for the duration of their undergraduate careers,  GATEWAY MT3705 Laptop Keyboard even if they move off-campus at any point. Students are guaranteed on-campus housing for freshman year and two of the next three years; each college has its own system for determining allocation of the remaining spaces, collectively known as "Room Jacking". Students develop strong loyalties to their college and maintain friendly rivalry with other colleges, DELL KR737 Laptop Keyboard especially during events such as Beer Bike Race and O-Week. Colleges keep their rivalries alive by performing "jacks," or pranks, on each other, especially during O-Week and Willy Week. During Matriculation, Commencement, and other formal academic ceremonies, the colleges process in the order in which they were established. HP Pavilion DV3550ee Laptop Keyboard The Baker 13 is a tradition in which students run around campus wearing nothing but shoes and shaving cream at 10 p.m. on the 13th and the 31st of every month (the 26th on months with fewer than 31 days). The event, long sponsored by Baker College, usually attracts a small number of students, but Halloween night and the first and last relevant days of the school year both attract large numbers of revelers.[77]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard According to the official website, http://rpc.rice.edu/beer-bike/: "Beer Bike is a combination intramural bicycle race and drinking competition dating back to 1957. Ten riders and ten chuggers make up a team. Elaborate rules include details such as a prohibition of "bulky or wet clothing articles designed to absorb beer/water or prevent spilled beer/water from being seen" and regulations for chug can design. Each residential college as well as the Graduate Student Association participates with a men's team, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard a women's team, and alumni (co-ed) team. Each leg of the race is a relay in which a team's "chugger" must chug 24 US fluid ounces (710 ml) of beer or water for the men's division and 12 US fluid ounces (350 ml) for women before the team's "rider" may begin to ride.[78]Participants who both ride and chug are referred to as "Ironmen". Willy Week is a term coined in the 1990s to refer to the week preceding Beer-Bike, a time of general energy and excitement on campus. Jacks (pranks) are especially common during Willy Week; some examples in the past include removing showerheads and encasing the Hanszen guardian." SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard The morning of the Beer Bike race itself begins with what is by some estimations the largest annual water balloon fight in the world. Beer-Bike is Rice's most prominent student event, and for younger alumni it serves as an unofficial reunion weekend on par with Homecoming. The 2009 Beer Bike race was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Bill Wilson, a popular professor and long-time resident associate of Wiess College who died earlier that year. SONY Vaio VPC-EA3L1E/W Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Campus institutions A number of on-campus institutions form an integral part of student life at Rice. Many of these organizations have been operating for several decades. Rice Coffeehouse finds its beginnings in Hanszen College, where students would serve coffee in the Weenie Loft - a study room in the old section's fourth floor. Later, the coffee house moved to the Hanszen basement to accommodate more student patrons. That coffeehouse became known as Breadsticks and Pomegranates. Due to flooding, an unfortunate effect of 1) its location in the basement and 2) the Houston climate, this coffee house closed. Demand for an on-campus Coffeehouse grew and in 1990, the Rice Coffeehouse was founded. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Rice Coffeehouse is a not-for-profit student-run organization serving Rice University and the greater Houston community.[79] Over the past few years,[when?]it has introduced fair-trade and organic coffee and loose-leaf teas.[citation needed] Coffeehouse baristas are referred to as K.O.C.'s, or Keepers of the Coffee. Rice Coffeehouse has also adopted an unofficial mascot, the squirrel, which can be found on t-shirts, mugs, and bumper stickers stuck on laptops across campus. The logo pays tribute to Rice's unusually plump and frighteningly tame squirrel population. SONY Vaio VPC-EE31FX/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Valhalla is a non-profit graduate student pub located under Keck Hall which serves as the social nexus for graduate student life at Rice.[80] It provides the graduate student community and the Rice community as a whole with a family-friendly place to unwind and relax after a long work day,[81] and a comfortable place for graduate students to relax and relate on the woes of graduate research. Additionally, Valhalla plays a pivotal role in many campus traditions including the Baker 13 and Beer Bike. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard It was founded in 1970, but did not get an alcohol license until 1971. The management and all shifts are staffed by graduate students, faculty, staff, and other volunteers, which helps keep prices affordable for the target graduate student clientele. The pub's patrons have expanded beyond graduate students and other members of the local community in recent years, and the pub has become a regular on the annual "Best of Houston" published by the Houston Press, being named the "Best Place to Meet Single Women" in 2004 due to the frequency of intelligent conversation and smart, single women.[82]TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Willy's Pub is Rice's undergraduate pub run by students located in the basement of the Rice Memorial Center. It opened on April 11, 1975, with Rice President Norman Hackerman pouring the first beer. The name was chosen by students in tribute to the university's founder, William Marsh Rice. After the drinking age in Texas was raised in 1986, the pub entered a period of financial difficulties and in April 1995, was destroyed in a fire. The space was gutted but renovated and remains open.[83][84]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Student-run media

Rice has a weekly student newspaper (The Rice Thresher), college radio station (Rice Radio), and campus-wide student television station (RTV5). All three are based out of the RMC student center. In addition, Rice hosts several student magazines dedicated to a range of different topics; in fact, the spring semester of 2008 saw the birth of two such magazines, a literary sex journal called Open and an undergraduate science research magazine entitled Catalyst.  HP Pavilion G7-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard The Rice Thresher[85] is published every Friday and is ranked by Princeton Review as one of the top campus newspapers nationally for student readership. It is distributed around campus, and at a few other local businesses and has a website on the College Publisher network. The Thresher has a small, dedicated staff and is known for its coverage of campus news, open submission opinion page, and the satirical Backpage, which has often been the center of controversy. The newspaper has won several awards at Associated Collegiate Press conferences. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Rice Radio is the student-run radio station. Though most DJs are Rice students, anyone is allowed to apply. It is known for playing genres and artists of music and sound unavailable on other radio stations in Houston, and often, the US. The station takes requests over the phone or online. In 2000 and 2006, Rice Radio won Houston Press' Best Radio Station in Houston.[86][87] In 2003, Rice alum and active Rice Radio DJ DL's hip-hip show won Houston Press' Best Hip-hop Radio Show.[88] SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard On August 17, 2010, it was announced that Rice University had been in negotiations to sell the station's broadcast tower, FM frequency and license to the University of Houston System to become a full-time classical music and fine arts programming station. The new station, KUHA, would be operated as a not-for-profit outlet with listener supporters.[89] The FCC approved the sale and granted the transfer of license to the University of Houston System on April 15, 2011.[90]TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard RTV5 is a student run television network available as channel 5 on campus. RTV5 was created initially as Rice Broadcast Television in 1997; RBT began to broadcast the following year in 1998, and aired its first live show across campus in 1999. It experienced much growth and exposure over the years with successful programs like "Drinking with Phil," a weekly news show, and extensive live coverage in December 2000 of the shut down of Rice Radio by the administration. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard In spring 2001, the Rice undergraduate community voted in the general elections to support RBT as a blanket tax organization, effectively providing a yearly income of $10,000 to purchase new equipment and provide the campus with a variety of new programming. In the spring of 2005, RBT members decided the station needed a new image and a new name: Rice Television 5. The station has recently set about revitalizing its staff roster and campus image; HP AETT3U00010 Laptop Keyboard one of RTV5's most popular shows is the 24 hour show, where a camera and couch placed in the RMC stay on air for 24 hours. One such show is held in fall and another in spring, usually during a weekend allocated for visits by prospective students. RTV5 has a video on demand site at rtv5.rice.edu.[91]SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard The Rice Review, also known as R2, is a yearly student-run literary journal at Rice University that publishes prose, poetry, and creative nonfiction written by undergraduate students, as well as interviews. The journal was founded in 2004 by creative writing professor and author Justin Cronin.[92]DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard The Rice Standard is an independent, student-run variety magazine modeled after such publications as The New Yorker and Harper's. Prior to fall 2009, it was regularly published three times a semester with a wide array of content, running from analyses of current events and philosophical pieces to personal essays, short fiction and poetry. In August 2009, SONY VAIO VGN-CR Series Laptop Keyboard the Standard transitioned to a completely online format with the launch of their redesigned website, ricestandard.org. The first website of its kind on Rice's campus, the Standard now features blog-style content written by and for Rice students. The Rice Standard has around 20 regular contributors, and the site features new content every day (including holidays). FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard Open, a magazine dedicated to "literary sex content," predictably caused a stir on campus with its initial publication in spring 2008. A mixture of essays, editorials, stories and artistic photography brought Open attention both on campus and in the Houston Chronicle.[93] The third annual edition of Open was released in spring of 2010. FUJITSU Amilo Li3910 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice participates in NCAA Division I athletics and is part of Conference USA. Rice was a member of the Western Athletic Conferencebefore joining Conference USA in 2005. Rice is the second-smallest school, measured by undergraduate enrollment, competing in NCAADivision I FBS football, only slightly ahead of Tulsa. Toshiba Satellite L650-1Q2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Rice baseball team won the 2003 College World Series, defeating Stanford, giving Rice its only national championship in a team sport. The victory made Rice University the smallest school in 51 years to win a national championship at the highest collegiate level of the sport. The Rice baseball team has played on campus at Reckling Park since the 2000 season. As of 2010, the baseball team has won 14 consecutive conference championships in three different conferences:  HP Pavilion dv7-4040ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the final championship of the defunct Southwest Conference, all nine championships while a member of the Western Athletic Conference, and five more championships in its first five years as a member of Conference USA. Additionally, Rice's baseball team has finished third in both the 2006 and 2007 College World Series tournaments.  APPLE MG45070v1-Q010-S99 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice now has made six trips to Omaha for the CWS. In 2004, Rice became the first school ever to have three players selected in the first eight picks of the MLB draft when Philip Humber, Jeff Niemann, and Wade Townsend were selected third, fourth, and eighth, respectively. In 2007, Joe Savery was selected as the 19th overall pick. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2006, the football team qualified for its first bowl game since 1961, ending the second-longest bowl drought in the country at the time. On December 22, 2006, Rice played in the New Orleans Bowl in New Orleans, Louisiana against the Sun Belt Conference champion, Troy. The Owls lost 41-17. ACER TravelMate 5720-6560 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The bowl appearance came after Rice had a 14-game losing streak from 2004–05 and went 1-10 in 2005. The streak followed an internally authorized 2003 McKinsey report that stated football alone was responsible for a $4 million deficit in 2002. Tensions remain high between the athletic department and faculty, as a few professors who chose to voice their opinion were in favor of abandoning the football program. Hired in January 2006, new head coach Todd Graham sparked the "Rice Renaissance," SONY Vaio VPC-EA36FM/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba SUNON GB0507PGV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the revival of the Owl football program. David Bailiff replaced Graham and inherits a team poised to continue the success enjoyed in 2006. Sophomore wide receiver Jarett Dillard set an NCAA record in 2006 by catching a touchdown pass in 13 consecutive games and took a 15-game overall streak into the 2007 season. Rice Stadium also serves as the performance venue for the university's Marching Owl Band, or "MOB." Despite its name, the MOB is a scatter band that focuses on performing humorous skits and routines rather than traditional formation marching. HP 610774-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2008, the football team posted a 9-3 regular season, capping off the year with a 38-14 victory over Western Michigan University in the Texas Bowl. The win over Western Michigan marked the Owls' first bowl win in 45 years.  ACER Aspire 5922 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice Owls men's basketball won 10 conference titles in the former Southwest Conference (1918, 1935*, 1940, 1942*, 1943*, 1944*, 1945, 1949*, 1954*, 1970; * denotes shared title). Most recently, guard Morris Almond was drafted in the first round of the 2007 NBA Draft by the Utah Jazz. Rice recently named former Cal Bears head coach Ben Braun as head basketball coach to succeed Willis Wilson, fired after Rice finished the 2007-2008 season with a winless (0-16) conference record and overall record of 3-27. HP Pavilion dv7-3130eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice has been very successful in women's sports in recent years. In 2004-05, Rice sent its women's volleyball, soccer, and basketball teams to their respective NCAA tournaments. In 2005-06, the women's soccer, basketball, and tennis teams advanced, with five individuals competing in track and field. In 2006-07, HP Pavilion dv7-4294nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the Rice women's basketball team made the NCAA tournament, while again five Rice track and field athletes received individual NCAA berths. In 2008, the women's volleyball team again made the NCAA tournament. In 2011 the Women's Swim team won their first conference championship in the history of the university. This was an impressive feat considering they won without having a diving team. IBM MCF-C10AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice's mascot is Sammy the Owl. In previous decades, the university kept several live owls on campus in front of Lovett College, but this practice has been discontinued, due to public pressure over the welfare of the owls. Rice also has a 12-member coed cheerleading squad and an all-female dance team, both of which perform at football and basketball games throughout the year.  SONY Vaio VGN-NW115J/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As of 2011, Rice has graduated 98 classes of students consisting of 51,961 living alumni. Over 100 students at Rice have been Fulbright Scholars, 20 Marshall Scholars, 25 Mellon Fellows, 12 Rhodes Scholars, 6 Udall Scholars, and 65 Watson Fellows, among several other honors and awards. ACER Aspire 5742ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice's distinguished faculty consists of 1 Nobel laureate, 1 Pulitzer Prize award winner, 6 Fulbright Scholars, 29 Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Recipients, 8 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1 member of the American Philosophical Society, 35 Guggenheim Fellowships, 17 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 7 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 5 fellows of the National Humanities Center, and 86 fellows of the National Science Foundation. HP Mini 210-2013tu Laptop Keyboard Alumni of Rice have occupied top positions in business, including George R. Brown, Thomas H. Cruikshank, the former CEO of Halliburton, John Doerr, billionaire and venture capitalist who provided original investments in Google, Amazon.com, Compaq, Netscape, and Sun Microsystems, Howard Hughes, and Fred C. Koch. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In government and politics, Rice alumni include Alberto Gonzales, former Attorney General, Charles Duncan, former Secretary of Energy, William P. Hobby, Jr.,John Kline, and Annise Parker, incumbent Mayor of Houston. HP G62-b12SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many Rice alumni have gone on to successful careers in the humanities such as Larry McMurtry, Pulitzer Prize-winning author and Oscar winning writer ofBrokeback Mountain screenplay, and Candace Bushnell, author of Sex and the City, who attended for three semesters.[94] In science and technology, Rice alumni include 14 NASA astronauts, Robert Curl, Nobel Prize winning discoverer of fullerene, and Robert Woodrow Wilson. HP Pavilion dv7-4101eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Rice athletes include Lance Berkman, Bubba Crosby, Harold Solomon, Frank Ryan, Tommy Kramer, Jose Cruz, Jr., as well as three Olympians. From its first edition in 1971 to 2008, THE was published in newspaper format. On 10 January 2008 the publication was relaunched as a magazine which continues currently. It is published by TSL Education Ltd., which was, until October 2005, a division of News International. HP Pavilion dv6-2055er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The magazine is edited by John Gill. Phil Baty is the editor at large, and is responsible for international coverage. He is also the editor of the annual World University Rankings.The magazine features a fictional satirical column written by Laurie Taylor, the "Poppletonian", which reflects on life at the fictional Poppleton University.[2] ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2011 Times Higher Education was awarded the titles of "Weekly Business Magazine of the Year" and "Media Business Brand of the Year" by the Professional Publishers Association.[3] FUJITSU LifeBook P8020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first is the "Times Higher Education Awards". The 2011 awards took place on 24 November at the Grosvenor House Hotel on London's Park Lane and received a record number of entries across the 18 categories.[6] Seventeen universities were given awards in different categories, with the University of Sheffield being "University of the Year". Tessa Blackstone was given the "Lord Dearing Lifetime Achievement Award".[6]HP Pavilion dv4-1465dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The "Times Higher Education Leadership and Management Awards" (Thelmas) were launched in 2009. The Thelmas were set up to recognise the impact that administrative staff have on the success of higher education institutions.Times Higher Education has been known for publishing the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings, which first appeared in November 2004.  HP G60-120CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On 30 October 2009, Times Higher Education broke with QS and signed an agreement with Thomson Reuters to provide the data for its annual World Rankings. The magazine developed a new rankings methodology in consultation with its readers and its editorial board. Thomson Reuters collects and analyses the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education. The results have been published annually since autumn 2010. QS, which collected and analysed the rankings data for the past six years, no longer has any involvement with Times Higher Education’s World University RankingsAPPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA092LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2004, after having made the team due to a strong spring training performance in which he hit .385 with two home runs and eleven RBIs,[3] Crosby gained a large amount of media and fan attention when, in his first

series against the Chicago White Sox, he hit two home runs with five RBI in first five at bats and made a diving catch.[4]  HP Envy 17-2106tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Notably, the first home run came in his first at bat as a Yankee and the second secured Mike Mussina's 200th career win.[5] Nevertheless, upon the return of outfielder Kenny Lofton from the disabled list, Crosby was sent down to minors from where he would be called up several times. He ultimately received only 53 at bats on the season, hitting .151 overall. He made both the ALDS and ALCS rosters as a reserve outfielder and pinch runner. SONY Vaio VPC-EB23FM/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2005, Crosby performed well in spring training again and made the team for the second year in a row but again found difficulty staying in the majors at the beginning of the season. He was optioned down to the Clippers on July 8, 2005, but returned to the Yankees on August 18. Crosby returned to the Yankees wearing jersey number 18 because his previous number, 19, had been assigned to the newly acquired Al Leiter. HP Pavilion dv7-4113tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Crosby's season made a dramatic turn for the better in the final month of the season, however. After having worked with Don Mattingly to shorten his swing, Crosby finished his 2005 season with the strongest performance of his career, hitting .321 in 23 September games while consistently starting and .345 (20 for 58) over his final 31 games of the season. On September 19, 2005, in his first start of the year against a left-handed pitcher, he hit his career first walk-off home run, against Eric DuBose of the Baltimore Orioles, leading off the bottom of the 9th inning by sending a breaking ball over the right-center field fence.[6]Toshiba Qosmio G30-10E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On October 10, 2005, Crosby, after having started several postseason games, was involved in a collision in Game 5 of the 2005 ALDS against the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. With the Yankees up 2–1, the Angels had runners on first and second with two outs when Adam Kennedy hit a pitch off Mike Mussina deep to right-center. Crosby and right-fielder Gary Sheffield collided while trying to catch the ball, allowing two runs to score to give the Angels a 3–2 lead. The Angels would go on to win the game 5–3 and continue to the ALCS. Crosby finished the season having hit .276 over 76 games. ACER Aspire MS2264 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the offseason, Yankees general manager Brian Cashman initially stated that Crosby would be the Yankees starting center fielder in 2006.[7] Nevertheless, upon the large signing of Johnny Damon in December, he was again put in a reserve role and ceded his number 18 to Damon. Though again made the team's opening roster, he lost almost a month on the 15 Day Disabled list from mid-May to June. After having appeared in 65 games, on August 4, 2006, Crosby was designated for assignment by the Yankees. He cleared waivers on August 9, however, and reported back to the Clippers, remaining in the Yankee organization. He became a 6-year Minor League free agent after the season. HP Pavilion dv7-6000em Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On November 10, 2006, the Cincinnati Reds signed Crosby for the 2007 season.[8] Crosby agreed to a one-year contract that paid $400,000 while he was in the majors, and $75,000 in the minors [1]. By signing him to a Major League deal, Cincinnati protected Crosby on its 40-man roster. But he was not assured a 25-man roster spot for Opening Day 2007, and went to spring training competing for a job as a reserve outfielder. "We're getting a guy that's been on winning teams, that plays the game the right way, that always plays it hard and can play all three outfield positions," Reds general manager Wayne Krivsky said. "We're happy to have him." [9]HP 441316-001 Laptop Keyboard Crosby hit .276 in 16 games in spring training with 1 homer and 7 RBI. The Reds sent Crosby outright to Triple-A Louisville on March 24, 2007. Crosby accepted the demotion, and began the season in Triple-A. [2]"We just felt he was behind a couple of other guys for that spot," Krivsky said.[10] Louisville placed Crosby on the disabled list after 13 games. The diagnosis was left shoulder tendinitis. Conservative treatment was unsuccessful, and on July 20, in Cincinnati, he had season-ending surgery on his shoulder. The Reds granted Crosby free agency in October 2007. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) compiled by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University and now maintained by the Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, has provided annual global rankings of universities since 2003, making it the earliest of its kind. The ranking is funded by the Chinese government and its initial purpose was to measure the gap between Chinese and "world class" universities. ARWU rankings have been cited by The Economist magazine.[1]HP G42-283LA Laptop Keyboard It has been lauded for being "consistent and transparent" based on an article.[2] The education ministers of France, Norway and Denmark traveled to China to discuss and find ways to improve their rankings.[3] ARWU does not rely on surveys and school submissions. Among other criteria, ARWU includes the number of articles published by Natureor Science and the number of Nobel Prize winners and Fields Medalists (mathematics).[4]TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard One of the primary criticisms of ARWU's methodology is that it is biased towards the natural sciences and English language science journals over other subjects.[4]Moreover, the ARWU is known for "relying solely on research indicators", and "the ranking is heavily weighted toward institutions whose faculty or alumni have won Nobel Prizes": it does not measure "the quality of teaching or the quality of humanities."[5]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard From 2004 to 2009 Times Higher Education (THE), a British publication, published the annual Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings in association with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). THE published a table of the top 200 universities and QS ranked approximately 500 online, in book form, and via media partners.[6] On 30 October 2009, THE broke with QS and joined Thomson Reuters to provide a new set of world university rankings, called Times Higher Education World University Rankings. THE has stated that academic opinion will form part of its new offering. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard On 3 June 2010, Times Higher Education revealed the methodology which they proposed to use when compiling the new world university rankings.[7] The new methodology included 13 separate performance indicators, an increase from the six measures employed between 2004 and 2009. After further consultation the criteria were grouped under five broad overall indicators to produce the final ranking. THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years.[8]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings.[9][10] The Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential."[11] Research published by professors at the University of Michigan in 2011 demonstrated that the early THES rankings were disproportionately influential in establishing the status order of world research universities.[12]  HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Published for the first time in March 2011,[13] the rankings are based on a survey of 13,388 academics over 131 countries - which is the largest evaluation of academic reputation to date.[14] The survey was conducted in eight languages by Ipsos Media CT for Times Higher Education's ranking-data partner Thomson Reuters, HP G72-b50US Laptop Keyboard and asked experienced academics to highlight what they believed to be the strongest universities for teaching and research in their own fields. The top six universities in the ranking for 2012—Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, Stanford University, UC Berkeley andUniversity of Oxford—were found to be "head and shoulders above the rest", and were touted as a group of globally recognised "super brands".[15]ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-3549tu Laptop Keyboard

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Purdue University Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S., is the flagship university of the six-campus Purdue University system.[4] Purdue was founded on May 6, 1869, as a land-grant university when the Indiana General Assembly, taking advantage of the Morrill Act, accepted a donation of land and money from Lafayette businessman John Purdue to establish a college of science, technology, and agriculture in his name.[5] The first classes were held on September 16, 1874, SONY VAIO VGN-FW180FU Laptop Keyboard with six instructors and 39 students.[5] Today, Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference, and is a well known world-class research institution. Purdue enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana as well as the fourth largest international student population of any university in the United States.[6]SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard Purdue offers both undergraduate and graduate programs in over 210 major areas of study, and is well known for its competitive engineering curricula. The university has also been highly influential in America's history of aviation, having established the first college credit offered in flight training, the first four-year bachelor's degree in aviation, and the first university airport (Purdue University Airport). Purdue's aviation technology program remains one of the most competitive aviation-specific programs in the world. HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard In the mid-20th century, Purdue's aviation program expanded to encompass advanced spaceflight technology giving rise to Purdue's nickname, Cradle of Astronauts.[7] Twenty-two Purdue graduates have gone on to become astronauts, including Gus Grissom (one of the original Mercury Seven astronauts), Neil Armstrong (the first person to walk on the moon), and Eugene Cernan (the most recent person to walk on the moon).[8]ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, and began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering. Communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department atIndiana University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, and 100 acres (40 ha) of land from local residents. On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students.[5] A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of the year.[9] Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875 and admitted its first female students that fall.[10][11]HP Pavilion DV3500 Laptop Keyboard Emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act. Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed that Purdue should be an "industrial college" and devote its resources toward providing a liberal (or broad) education with an emphasis on science, technology, HP Pavilion DV3505xx Laptop Keyboard and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but also to prepare them to be good citizens and family members.[12] Part of White’s plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities. This ban was ultimately overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White’s resignation.[13]TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard In the late 1890s former U.S. President Benjamin Harrison served on the board of trustees and delivered lectures about world affairs.[14] By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture, engineering (mechanical, civil, and electrical), and pharmacy. Purdue had a number of engineering laboratories, including testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time. IBM ThinkPad T42 2379 Laptop Keyboard The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine.  GATEWAY MT3705 Laptop Keyboard President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor, alumnus, and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, and was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross’s gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, and the Purdue University Airport. DELL KR737 Laptop Keyboard The Purdue Airport was the country’s first university-owned airport and the site of the country’s first college-credit flight training courses.[15] Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women’s careers. In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E that Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight. HP Pavilion DV3550ee Laptop Keyboard Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II.[16] During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor.[17][18] The Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students, staff, and alumni served in the armed forces.[19] Purdue also set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries.[20] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard As veterans returned to the university under the G.I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. Purdue’s on-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.[21][22]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. The 1950s saw a decade-long construction program with an emphasis on science and research. The university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, and nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States.[23]SONY VAIO VGN NR220ES Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened, although Hovde only reluctantly approved of graduate-level study in these areas. Purdue awarded its first Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1960.[24] The programs in liberal arts and education, formerly administered by the School of Science, were soon split into their own school. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard In recent years, Purdue’s leaders have continued to support high-tech research and international programs. In 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan visited the West Lafayette campus to give a speech about the influence of technological progress on job creation.[25] In the 1990s, the university expanded its course offerings in foreign languages and world cultures and added more opportunities to study abroad.[26] The first buildings of the Discovery Park interdisciplinary research center were dedicated in 2004.[27] Purdue launched a Global Policy Research Institute in 2010 to explore the potential impact of technical knowledge on public policy decisions.[28]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Purdue's campus is situated in the small city of West Lafayette, near the western bank of the Wabash River, across which sits the larger city of Lafayette. State Street, which is concurrent with State Road 26, divides the northern and southern portions of campus. Academic buildings are mostly concentrated on the eastern and southern parts of campus, with residence halls to the west, and athletic facilities to the north. The Greater Lafayette Public Transportation Corporation (CityBus) operates eight campus loop bus routes on which students, faculty, and staff can ride free of charge.  HP Pavilion G7-1100 Series Laptop Keyboard\ The Purdue Mall is the central quad of Purdue University. It is also known as the Engineering Mall, due to its proximity to several engineering buildings. The most prominent feature of the Purdue Mall is the 38-foot (12 m)-tall concrete Engineering Fountain, and also features the Frederick L. Hovde Hall of Administration, which houses the office of the university president, Timothy D. Sands. The Purdue Bell Tower is located between the Purdue and Memorial Malls. The Bell Tower is considered an icon of the university and can be found on many Purdue logos and those of the cities of Lafayette and West Lafayette. HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Southwest of the Purdue Mall is the Edward C. Elliott Hall of Music, one of the largest proscenium theaters in the world.[29]Purdue's Student Concert Committee often invites famous entertainers to perform there for an audience of students, faculty, and the general public. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard The Purdue Memorial Mall, located south of the Purdue Mall, is the original section of campus. A popular meeting place for students, the grassy, open Memorial Mall is surrounded by the Stewart Student Center, Stanley Coulter Hall, the Class of 1950 Lecture Hall, Recitation Building, Winthrop Stone Hall, and University Hall. The Memorial Mall also features the Hello Walk. Near this section of campus is Felix Haas Hall, which was constructed in 1909 as Memorial Gymnasium in memory of the 17 Purdue University football players, coaches, TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard alumni, and fans who perished in the Purdue Wreck railroad accident on October 31, 1903. The structure was renovated in 1985 to house the Computer Science department. In 2006, it was renamed in honor of retired Provost Felix Haas and began to also house the Statistics department. East of the Memorial Mall is the Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue's student union building, and the adjacent Union Club Hotel. HP G62x-400 CTO Laptop Keyboard University Hall is the only building remaining from the original six-building campus. Construction began in 1871, when the building was known as "The Main Building". The building was dedicated in 1877 and the project cost $35,000 to complete. University Hall originally housed the office of the president, a chapel, and classrooms, but was remodeled in 1961 to house only the department of history and classrooms used by the School of Liberal Arts. At the request of John Purdue, he was buried in the Memorial Mall, directly across from the main entrance of University Hall.[30]HP AETT3U00010 Laptop Keyboard

West campus

The western portion of campus consists of student housing, dining, and recreation facilities. Students can play club andintramural sports at the Recreational Sports Center, the Boilermaker Aquatic Center, and the intramural playing fields in this area. Purdue's Recreational Sports Center, built in 1957, SAMSUNG NP-Q320-JS02UK Laptop Keyboard is the first building in the nation created solely to serve university student recreational needs. As a replacement for the previously separate women's and men's gymnasiums, it was originally called the "Co-recreational Gymnasium".[31] Despite several official name changes, it has been nicknamed "the Co-rec" ever since. From January 2011 until August 2012, the building will undergo a LEED-certified expansion and renovation project to become the Student Wellness and Fitness Center.[32]DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard Much of the northern part of campus sits on land purchased for the university by industrialist David E. Ross and author and humorist George Ade in the 1920s. Many of Purdue's athletic facilities are located there, including Ross–Ade Stadium (American football), Mackey Arena (basketball), and Lambert Fieldhouse(indoor track and field). SONY VAIO VGN-CR Series Laptop Keyboard This area also includes the Slayter Center of Performing Arts and Cary Quadrangle, one of the largest all-male housing units in the country.[33] David Ross is one of two people buried on Purdue's campus (the other being John Purdue). His grave site is in a garden atop the hill just to west of the Slayter band shell. Other athletic facilities are located a mile west of the stadium, at the newer Northwest Athletic Complex. FUJITSU CP270342-02 Laptop Keyboard Purdue offers more than 200 options for major areas of study at the West Lafayette campus alone, and a variety of options for minors.[34] Purdue is organized into ten colleges and schools. On July 1, 2010 the College of Health and Human Sciences was formed. The new college was created by combining existing academic units. These units include the School of Nursing, the School of Health Sciences, the College of Consumer and Family Sciences, and non-humanities majors from the College of Liberal Arts; namely psychology and hearing and speech pathology.[35]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard The University President, appointed by the Board of Trustees, is the chief administrative officer of the university. The office of the president oversees admission and registration, student conduct and counseling, the administration and scheduling of classes and space, the administration of student athletics and organized extracurricular activities, the libraries, the appointment of the faculty and conditions of their employment, the appointment of all non-faculty employees and the conditions of employment, the general organization of the university, and the planning and administration of the university budget.  HP Pavilion dv7-4040ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Board of Trustees directly appoints other major officers of the university including a provost, who serves as the chief academic officer for the university, a number of vice presidents with oversight over specific university operations, and the regional campus chancellors.  APPLE MG45070v1-Q010-S99 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University expended $472.7 million in support of research system-wide in 2006–07, using funds received from the state and federal governments, industry, foundations, and individual donors. The faculty and more than 400 research laboratories put Purdue University among the leading research institutions.[36] Purdue University is considered by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education to have "very high research activity".[37] SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue also was rated the nation's fourth best place to work in academia, according to rankings released in November 2007 by The Scientist magazine.[38] Purdue's researchers provide insight, knowledge, assistance, and solutions in many crucial areas. These include, but are not limited to Agriculture; Business and Economy; Education; Engineering; Environment; Healthcare; Individuals, Society, Culture; Manufacturing; Science; Technology; Veterinary Medicine.[39]ACER TravelMate 5720-6560 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue University generated a record $438 million in sponsored research funding during the 2009–10 fiscal year with participation from National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the U.S. departments ofAgriculture, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services.[40] Purdue University established the Discovery Park to bring innovation thSONY Vaio VPC-EA36FM/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Toshiba SUNON GB0507PGV1-A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan ltidisciplinary action.[41] In all of the eleven centers of Discovery Park, ranging from entrepreneurship to energy and advanced manufacturing, research projects reflect a large economic impact and address global challenges.[42] Purdue University's nanotechnology research program, built around the new Birck Nanotechnology Center in Discovery Park, ranks among the best in the nation.[43]HP 610774-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  ACER Aspire 5922 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Purdue Research Park which opened in 1961[44] was developed by Purdue Research Foundation which is a private, nonprofit foundation created to assist Purdue. The park is focused on companies operating in the arenas of life sciences, homeland security, engineering, advanced manufacturing and information technology.[45] It provides an interactive environment for experienced Purdue researchers and for private business and high-tech industry.[44] It currently employs more than 3,000 people in 155 companies, including 90 technology-based firms.[46] The Purdue Research Park was ranked first by the Association of University Research Parks in 2004.[47]HP Pavilion dv7-3130eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In national rankings for 2011, Purdue was ranked No. 40 by ARWU, No. 62 by U.S. News & World Report, and No. 79 byWashington Monthly. In global rankings for 2011, the university was ranked No. 61 by ARWU, No. 85 by QS, and No. 98 byTimes. The engineering program has been ranked in the top by both national and international ranking agencies. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked Purdue's engineering program No. 10 internationally in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences rankings. HP Pavilion dv7-4294nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The U.S. News & World Report has featured Purdue's engineering program among its top 10, several times since its inception. In 2012, U.S. News & World Report has ranked Purdue's undergraduate engineering program at No. 9 in the nation. In the 2013 U.S. News & World Report Graduate School Rankings, Purdue is ranked No. 10 in the nation for its engineering program. IBM MCF-C10AM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The College of Engineering's undergraduate and graduate engineering programs are highly ranked by U.S. News & World Reportas some of the best engineering programs in America. Many of Purdue's engineering programs are ranked within the top 10 nationally, or near the top 10, resulting in Purdue's College of Engineering coming in 9th overall for undergraduate and 12th overall for graduate programs in the United States. The 2010 rankings are listed below.[55] SONY Vaio VGN-NW115J/T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue's Sustainability Council, composed of University administrators and professors, meets monthly to discuss environmental issues and sustainability initiatives at Purdue.[57] The University is currently constructing its first LEED Certified building in an addition to the Mechanical Engineering building, which is to be completed in Spring 2011.[58] The school is also in the process of developing an arboretum on campus.[59] In addition, a system has been set up to display live data detailing current energy production at the campus utility plant.[59] The school holds an annual "Green Week" each fall, an effort to engage the Purdue community with issues relating to environmental sustainability.[60]ACER Aspire 5742ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Purdue student body is composed primarily of students from Indiana. In 2006–07, 23,086 out of a total of 39,288 students enrolled were Indiana residents.[61] As of 2007, the racial diversity of the undergraduate student body was 86.9% white, 5.51%Asian, 3.53% African American, and 2.75% Hispanic.[62] Of these students, 41.2% are female.[63] Domestic minorities constitute a total of 15.4% in the Graduate student body population[62] of which 38.5% are female.[63] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1S0E/BJ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The largest minority (six percent of the full-time student body)[64] is international, representing 123 countries.[65] In graduate student population, non-residents occupy an overwhelming majority, about 78%.[66] Almost all undergraduates[67] and about 70% of the graduate student population attend full-time.[66] The school's selectivity for admissions is "more selective" by USNWR: approximately 70% of applicants are admitted. SONY Vaio VPC-EE31FX/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue University operates fifteen separate residence halls for its undergraduate and graduate students, including Cary Quadrangle, Earhart Hall, First Street Towers, Harrison Hall, Hawkins Hall, Hillenbrand Hall, Hilltop Apartments, McCutcheon Hall, Meredith Hall, Owen Hall, Purdue Village, Shreve Hall, Tarkington Hall, WileyHall, and Windsor Halls.[68] Of the residence halls, Cary and Tarkington are male-only while Windsor is female-only; the remainder are coed. The newest residence hall, First Street Towers, opened in July 2009.[69]DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard There are 12 cooperative houses at Purdue (5 men's houses and 7 women's houses). The men's houses include Circle Pines, Fairway, Marwood, Chauncey, and Gemini. The women's houses include Ann Tweedale, Glenwood, Twin Pines, Maclure, Stewart, Devonshire, and Shoemaker. All cooperative houses are governed under the Purdue Cooperative Council which is led by Purdue University students who live in these houses. The cooperative system allows for a much lower cost of living than other types of housing,[70] as the members take an active role in sharing chores and cooking all meals themselves, as opposed to hiring out cleaning and cooking staff.[71]HP Pavilion dv7-4101eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue University hosts the nation's third largest Greek community, with approximately 5,000 students participating in one of the 46 men's fraternities or 29 women's sororities.[72] Several of Purdue's most distinguished graduates are members of fraternities and sororities.[71] Purdue's Greek system is very strong and works together in various aspects, including the Inter-Fraternity Council, Panhellenic, and many very successful philanthropies. For example, in 2010, Zeta Tau Alpha's philanthropy, HP Pavilion dv6-2055er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Big Man On Campus (BMOC) raised over $125,000 with the help of the rest of the Greek community, all benefitting Breast Cancer awareness and research. Every Chapter has their own national philanthropy dedicated to a certain cause that many chapters also participate in. Besides philanthropy, Purdue Greeks are involved all over campus including College Mentors for Kids, Purdue University Dance Marathon, Boiler Gold Rush, Purdue Student Government and many other various activities.  ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Purdue Exponent, an independent student newspaper, has the largest circulation of any Indiana college newspaper, with a daily circulation of 17,500 copies during the spring and fall semesters.[73] FUJITSU LifeBook P8020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan WBAA is a radio station owned by Purdue University. The station operates on the AM frequency of 920 kHz and FM frequency of 101.3 MHz. Its studios are in theEdward C. Elliott Hall of Music on the Purdue campus, and the transmitters are located in Lafayette, Indiana. WBAA is the longest continuously-operating radio station in Indiana, having been licensed on April 4, 1922. WBAA airs NPR and local news/talk programming during the day. Overnight, the AM station airs jazzwhile the FM station airs classical music. HP Pavilion dv4-1465dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan  HP G60-120CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are also a few campus radio stations on campus. Currently, three radio stations operate from residence halls, broadcasting via internet only; WCCR from Cary Quadrangle (not to be confused with the current WCCR FM or WCCR-LP stations in other states), WILY from Wiley Hall, and WHHR from Harrison Hall. A fourth student station, the Purdue Student Radio club operates from the Purdue Memorial Union and broadcasts on low power AM in addition to internet streaming.[74][75][76][77]APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA092LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan W9YB is the callsign of the Amateur Radio Club at Purdue University. W9YB also holds the self declared title of having one of the largest and most active collegiate amateur radio stations in the country. W9YB actively participates in emergency management for the Tippecanoe County area and maintains ready status with its members in skills to assist.[78] HP Envy 17-2106tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue is home to 18 Division I/I-A NCAA teams including football, basketball, cross country, tennis, wrestling, golf, volleyball, and others. Purdue is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference, and played a central role in its creation. Traditional rivals include Big Ten colleagues the Indiana Hoosiers (see Indiana–Purdue rivalry), the Illinois Fighting Illini, and the Notre Dame Fighting Irish from the Big East Conference (football program independent, however). SONY Vaio VPC-EB23FM/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Boilermaker men's and women's basketball teams have won more Big Ten Championships than any other conference school, with 27 conference banners, including a league-leading 22 for the men’s team. Purdue men's basketball has an all-time winning record against all Big Ten schools. Best the 7th seed St Mary's team in the 2012 NCAA March Madness[79]HP Pavilion dv7-4113tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Purdue has one of the few college athletic programs that is not funded by student fees or subsidized by the university. In the more than 130 years since the founding of the university, several mascots have emerged in support of the Boilermaker athletic teams, including: The Boilermaker Special, Purdue Pete, and more recently, Rowdy. Toshiba Qosmio G30-10E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Boilermaker Special has been the official mascot of Purdue University since 1940. Designed to look like a train locomotive, the Special was originally designed to demonstrate Purdue's engineering programs and is maintained by the members of the Purdue Reamer Club. As the official mascot of Purdue Athletics, Purdue Pete is one of the most recognized symbols of Purdue University. ACER Aspire MS2264 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan An 18-foot (5.5 m) statue of "The Boilermaker" was erected in 2005 across from Ross Ade Stadium. Purdue University adopted its school colors, Old Gold and Black, in the fall of 1887. Members of Purdue's first football team in 1887 felt that the squad should be distinguished by certain colors, and since Princeton was at the time the most successful gridiron unit, its colors were considered. Though actually orange and black, the Princeton colors were known by many as yellow and black. Purdue gridders opted for old gold over yellow, kept the black, and began flying the colors that endure today.[82]HP Pavilion dv7-6000em Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The official seal of Purdue was officially inaugurated during the University's centennial in 1969. The seal, approved by the Board of Trustees, was designed by Prof. Al Gowan, formerly at Purdue. It replaced one that had been in use for 73 years, but was never officially accepted by the board. FUJITSU Amilo Li3910 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In medieval heraldry, a griffin symbolized strength, and Abby P. Lytle used it in her 1895 design for a Purdue seal. When Professor Gowan redesigned the seal, he retained the griffin symbol to continue identification with the older, unofficial seal. As on the older seal, the words "Purdue University" are set in the typeface Uncial. The three-part shield indicates three stated aims of the University: education, research, and service, replacing the words Science, Technology, and Agriculture on the earlier version. Toshiba Satellite L650-1Q2 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Song

The official fight song of Purdue University, "Hail Purdue!", was composed in 1912 by alumni Edward Wotawa (music) and James Morrison (lyrics) as the "Purdue War Song".[83] "Hail Purdue" was copyrighted in 1913 and dedicated to the Varsity Glee Club. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Boiler Gold Rush (BGR) is Purdue's new-student orientation program. BGR, which takes place before each fall semester, was formed to ease the transition to college for incoming students and to help them get acquainted with successful college life. The Boiler Gold Rush program was formed by Roger Sharritt in 1993. In the first year, Sharritt’s operation, then called Corn Camp, served just 100 new students with around 15 staff.[85] Since 1993, the program has gone from being called Corn Camp to Boiler Gold Rush, HP 441316-001 Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard has moved from operations in the Cary Quadrangle living residence to the Student Access, Transition and Success (SATS) office, and has increased from 100 students to over 5,500 in 2011. Other significant changes are that the program now takes place the week immediately preceding the beginning of the fall semester and that during BGR, students live in the rooms they will be living in for the rest of the year, which was not the case in the first few years of the program’s development. HP G42-283LA Laptop Keyboard Boiler Gold Rush activities include speaker presentations from various academic, cultural, safety and professional organizations on campus, campus tours led by Team Leaders, academic 'meet the schools' picnic and interest sessions, late night events at the Purdue Memorial Union, Recreational Sports Center and local stores, and a sports pep rally. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard Best described as a cross between a pep rally and a Halloween party, students and even some alumni dress up in costumes, from traditional Halloween garb to creative hand-made costumes, as they bar-hop before Boilermaker home football games. The Breakfast Club plays a significant role during the football season and is informally a part of Purdue tradition. Many Boilermaker fans are dedicated; getting up at 5 am on Saturdays and lining up at the bars on Chauncey Hill and the levee by 6 am. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard The original faculty of six in 1874 has grown to 2,563 tenured and tenure-track faculty in the Purdue Statewide System by Fall 2007 totals. The number of faculty and staff members system-wide is 18,872.[86] The current faculty includes scholars such as Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar – known for his contributions tosingularity theory, Arden L. Bement Jr. – Director of the National Science Foundation, R. Graham Cooks, Joseph Francisco, Douglas Comer, Louis de Branges de Bourcia who proved the Bieberbach conjecture, Ei-ichi Negishi, Victor Raskin, Michael Rossmann who mapped human common cold virus, Leah Jamieson, James L. Mohler, who has written several manuals of computer graphics, and H. Jay Melosh[87]HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Purdue's tenured faculty comprises sixty Academic Deans, Associate Deans, and Assistant Deans; 63 Academic Department Heads; 753 Professors; 547 Associate Professors; and 447 Assistant Professors. Purdue employs 892 non-tenure-track faculty, Lecturers, and Postdoctorals at its West Lafayette campus. Purdue employs another 691 tenured and 1,021 Non-Tenure Track Faculty, Lecturers, and Postdoctorals at its Regional Campuses and Statewide Technology.[86]SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard Two faculty members have been awarded Nobel Prizes while at Purdue, in addition to a third laureate, Herbert C. Brown, who was a former Purdue faculty member. In all seven Nobel Prizes have been associated with Purdue including alumni, researchers, current and previous faculty. Purdue alumni have achieved recognition in a range of areas, particularly in science and industry. The university's alumni pool collectively holds over 15,000 United States patents.[88]  HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard Purdue has produced 22 astronauts, including Gus Grissom, the first vertically launched person to return to space, Neil Armstrong, the first to walk on the moon, and Eugene Cernan, the most recent astronaut to do so.[89] Over one third of all of NASA's manned space missions have had at least one Purdue graduate as a crew member.[90]HP G72-b50US Laptop Keyboard In science, Purdue has also produced a trio of Nobel prize winning physicists in Edward Mills Purcell, Ben Roy Mottelson, and Julian Schwinger; as well as a trio of Nobel prize winning chemists in Akira Suzuki, Herbert C. Brown, and Ei-ichi Negishi. Other noted Purdue alumni in science include pioneer of robotics and remote control technology Thomas B. Sheridan, Debian founder Ian Murdock, Founding father and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs: Chinese physicist Deng Jiaxian, biochemist Edwin T. Mertz, who is credited with discovery of high-protein corn and beans. ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard In business and economics, Purdue alumni include Stephen Bechtel, owner of Bechtel Corporation; Nobel prize winning economist Vernon L. Smith; Federal Reserve Bank president Jeffrey Lacker; and popcorn specialist Orville Redenbacher. In 2010, Bloomberg also revealed that Purdue was one of the universities in America with the most undergraduate alumni serving as chief executive officers of Standard & Poor's 500 firms.[91] HP Mini 110-3549tu Laptop Keyboard They are Gregory Wasson, president/CEO of Walgreen Co, Mark Miller, chairman/president/CEO of Stericycle Inc, Charles Davidson, chairman/CEO of Noble Energy Inc, Samuel Allen, chairman /president/CEO of Deere & Co., Donald Thompson, president/COO of McDonald's Corp., and John Martin, chairman/CEO of Gilead Sciences Inc.[92]HP Mini 210-2013tu Laptop Keyboard In government and culture, Purdue alumni include former Egyptian Prime Minister Essam Sharaf, Pulitzer Prize winners Booth Tarkington and John T. McCutcheon, theater and television director Tom Moore, CEO of Rand Corporation James Thomson, founder and CEO of C-SPAN Brian Lamb, former Governor of Indiana Harry G. Leslie, former Governor of Mississippi Kirk Fordice, former Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture Earl L. ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Butz, former United States SenatorBirch Bayh, 2012 Presidential Candidate Herman Cain, Current West Virginia Congressman David McKinley, Chinese nationalist General Sun Liren, Anthony W. Miller, United States Deputy Secretary of Education, and University of Chicago president Hugo F. Sonnenschein. HP G62-b12SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In sports, Purdue has produced basketball coach John Wooden, basketball Hall of Famers Stretch Murphy, Piggy Lambert and Rick Mount; NBA Champions Paul Hoffman,Herm Gilliam, Frank Kendrick, Jerry Sichting, Glenn Robinson, and Brian Cardinal and NBA All-Stars Glenn Robinson, Brad Miller, Terry Dischinger, HP Pavilion dv6-3167ca Laptop Keyboard and Joe Barry Carroll. Purdue has three NFL Super Bowl-winning quarterbacks in Drew Brees, Bob Griese, and Len Dawson; in addition a total of 19 Purdue alumni have been on a Super Bowl-winning team,[93] including ten of the past 12 Super Bowl Champions. Purdue also produced Super Bowl IV winning coach Hank Stram. Daytona 500 winnerRyan Newman graduated from Purdue with a Bachelor's degree in vehicle structure engineering.[94]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard The Dauch Alumni Center acts as a showcase for the university's alumni. The 67,000-square-foot (6,200 m2) center houses the offices of the Purdue Alumni Association and University Development. It is a destination and gathering area for the Purdue Alumni Association’s 68,000 members and more than 410,000 living alumni.[95]HP Pavilion DV3113tx Laptop Keyboard Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur withspacecraft with or without humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the Russian Soyuz program, the U.S. Space shuttle program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probeswhich leave Earth's orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communication satellites. These operate either by telerobotic control or are fully autonomous. HP 508112-001 Laptop Keyboard Spaceflight is used in space exploration, and also in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites and other earth observation satellites. DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard A spaceflight typically begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth. Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft—both when unpropelled and when under propulsion—is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics. Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, and others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact. TOSHIBA P205-S7476 Laptop Keyboard The realistic proposal of space travel goes back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. His most famous work, "Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами" (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices), was published in 1903, but this theoretical work was not widely influential outside of Russia. TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard Spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddard's publication in 1919 of his paper 'A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes'; where his application of the de Laval nozzle to liquid fuel rockets gave sufficient power for interplanetary travel to become possible. He also proved in the laboratory that rockets would work in the vacuum of space; not all scientists of that day believed they would. This paper was highly influential on Hermann Oberth and Wernher Von Braun, later key players in spaceflight. APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard The first rocket to reach space, an altitude of 189 km, was the German V-2 rocket, on a test flight in June 1944[1] . On 4 October 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, which became the first artificial satellite to orbit theEarth. The first human spaceflight was Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, aboard which Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made one orbit around the Earth. The lead architects behind the Soviet space program's Vostok 1 mission were the rocket scientists Sergey Korolyov and Kerim Kerimov.[2]SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard Rockets remain the only currently practical means of reaching space. Other non-rocket spacelaunch technologies such as scramjetsstill fall far short of orbital speed. A rocket launch for a spaceflight usually starts from a spaceport (cosmodrome), which may be equipped with launch complexes and launch pads for vertical rocket launches, and runways for takeoff and landing of carrier airplanes and winged spacecraft. Spaceports are situated well away from human habitation for noise and safety reasons. ICBMs have various special launching facilities. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard A launch is often restricted to certain launch windows. These windows depend upon the position of celestial bodies and orbits relative to the launch site. The biggest influence is often the rotation of the Earth itself. Once launched, orbits are normally located within relatively constant flat planes at a fixed angle to the axis of the Earth, and the Earth rotates within this orbit. HP Pavilion dv5-1220ez Laptop Keyboard A launch pad is a fixed structure designed to dispatch airborne vehicles. It generally consists of a launch tower and flame trench. It is surround The most commonly used definition of outer space is everything beyond the Kármán line, which is 100 kilometers (62 mi) above the Earth's surface. (The United States sometimes defines outer space as everything beyond 50 miles (80 km) in altitude.) ACER Travelmate 8571 Laptop Keyboard Rockets are the only currently practical means of reaching space. Conventional airplane engines cannot reach space due to the lack of oxygen. Rocket engines expel propellant to provide forward thrust that generates enough delta-v (change in velocity) to reach orbit. Propulsion systems for different applications include: Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Achieving a closed orbit is not essential to lunar and interplanetary voyages. Early Russian space vehicles successfully achieved very high altitudes without going into orbit. NASA considered launching Apollo missions directly into lunar trajectories but adopted the strategy of first entering a temporary parking orbit and then performing a separate burn several orbits later onto a lunar trajectory. This costs additional propellant because the parking orbit perigee must be high enough to prevent reentry while direct injection can have an arbitrarily low perigee because it will never be reached. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard However, the parking orbit approach greatly simplified Apollo mission planning in several important ways. It substantially widened the allowable launch windows, increasing the chance of a successful launch despite minor technical problems during the countdown. The parking orbit was a stable "mission plateau" that gave the crew and controllers several hours to thoroughly check out the spacecraft after the stresses of launch before committing it to a long lunar flight; TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard the crew could quickly return to earth, if necessary, or an alternate earth-orbital mission could be conducted. The parking orbit also enabled translunar trajectories that avoided the densest parts of the Van Allen radiation belts. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Apollo missions minimized the performance penalty of the parking orbit by keeping its altitude as low as possible. For example, Apollo 15used an unusually low parking orbit (even for Apollo) of 92.5 by 91.5 nautical miles (171x169 km) where there was significant atmospheric drag. But it was partially overcome by continuous venting of hydrogen from the third stage of the Saturn V, and was in any event tolerable for the short stay. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Robotic missions do not require an abort capability or radiation minimization, and because modern launchers routinely meet "instantaneous" launch windows, space probes to the moon and other planets generally use direct injection to maximize performance. Although some might coast briefly during the launch sequence, they do not complete one or more full parking orbits before the burn that injects them onto an earth escape trajectory. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Note that the escape velocity from a celestial body decreases with altitude above that body. However, it is more fuel-efficient for a craft to burn its fuel as close to the ground as possible; see Oberth effect and reference.[4] This is another way to explain the performance penalty associated with establishing the safe perigee of a parking orbit. HP G71-441NR Laptop Keyboard Plans for future crewed interplanetary spaceflight missions often include final vehicle assembly in Earth orbit, such as NASA's Project Orion and Russia'sKliper/Parom tandem. SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Laptop Keyboard Vehicles in orbit have large amounts of kinetic energy. This energy must be discarded if the vehicle is to land safely without vaporizing in the atmosphere. Typically this process requires special methods to protect against aerodynamic heating. The theory behind reentry is due to Harry Julian Allen. Based on this theory, reentry vehicles present blunt shapes to the atmosphere for reentry. Blunt shapes mean that less than 1% of the kinetic energy ends up as heat that reaches the vehicle and the heat energy instead ends up in the atmosphere. DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard The first human spaceflight was Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, on which cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin of the USSR made one orbit around the Earth. In official Soviet documents, there is no mention of the fact that Gagarin parachuted the final seven miles.[5]The international rules for aviation records stated that "The pilot remains in his craft from launch to landing". This rule, if applied, would have "disqualified" Gagarin's spaceflight. Currently, the only spacecrafts regularly used for human spaceflight are the Russian Soyuz spacecraft and the Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft. The U.S. Space Shuttle fleet has been retired. SpaceShipOne has conducted two human suborbital spaceflights. TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard On a sub-orbital spaceflight the spacecraft reaches space and then returns to the atmosphere after following a (primarily) ballistic trajectory. This is usually because of insufficient specific orbital energy, in which case a suborbital flight will last only a few minutes, but it is also possible for an object with enough energy for an orbit to have a trajectory that intersects the Earth's atmosphere, sometimes after many hours. Pioneer 1 was NASA's first space probe intended to reach the Moon. A partial failure caused it to instead follow a suborbital trajectory to an altitude of 113,854 kilometers (70,746 mi) before reentering the Earth's atmosphere 43 hours after launch. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard The most generally recognized boundary of space is the Kármán line 100 km above sea level. (NASA alternatively defines an astronaut as someone who has flown more than 50 miles (80 km) or 80 km above sea level.) It is not generally recognized by the public that the increase in potential energy required to pass the Kármán line is only about 3% of the orbital energy (potential plus kinetic energy) required by the lowest possible earth orbit (a circular orbit just above the Kármán line.) In other words, it is far easier to reach space than to stay there.  HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard On May 17, 2004, Civilian Space eXploration Team launched the GoFast Rocket on a suborbital flight, the first amateur spaceflight. On June 21, 2004,SpaceShipOne was used for the first privately-funded human spaceflight. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Orbital spaceflight Five spacecraft are currently leaving the Solar System on escape trajectories. The one farthest from the Sun is Voyager 1, which is more than 100 AU distant and is moving at 3.6 AU per year.[6] In comparison Proxima Centauri, the closest star other than the Sun, is 267,000 AU distant. It will take Voyager 1 over 74,000 years to reach this distance. Vehicle designs using other techniques, such as nuclear pulse propulsion are likely to be able to reach the nearest star significantly faster. HP Pavilion dv5-1138tx Laptop Keyboard Point-to-point sub-orbital spaceflight is a category of spaceflight in which a spacecraft uses a sub-orbital flight for transportation. This can provide a two-hour trip from London to Sydney, which is a great improvement over what is currently over a twenty-hour flight. Today, no company offers this type of spaceflight for transportation. However, Virgin Galactic is planning to build a spaceplane called SpaceShipThree, which will offer this service in the future.[7]HP Pavilion DV6-3100 Laptop Keyboard However, if rockets are used, the size of rocket, relative to the payload, necessary to achieve intercontinental distances, is similar to an ICBM. ICBMs have delta-v's somewhat less than orbital; and therefore would be somewhat cheaper than the costs for reaching orbit, but the difference is not large.[8]Toshiba Satellite A215-S5848 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first reusable spacecraft, the X-15, was air-launched on a suborbital trajectory on July 19, 1963. The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981. During the Shuttle era, six orbiters were built, all of which have flown in the atmosphere and five of which have flown in space. SONY VGN-CS90S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Enterprise was used only for approach and landing tests, launching from the back of a Boeing 747 and gliding to deadstick landings at Edwards AFB, California. The first Space Shuttle to fly into space was the Columbia, followed by the ChallengerDiscoveryAtlantis, and Endeavour. The Endeavour was built to replace the Challenger, which waslost in January 1986. The Columbia broke up during reentry in February 2003. Compaq Presario V3817au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first (and so far only) automatic partially reusable spacecraft was the Buran (Snowstorm), launched by the USSR on November 15, 1988, although it made only one flight. This spaceplane was designed for a crew and strongly resembled the U. S. Space Shuttle, although its drop-off boosters used liquid propellants and its main engines were located at the base of what would be the external tank in the American Shuttle. Lack of funding, complicated by the dissolution of the USSR, prevented any further flights of Buran. ACER AB7005HX-ED3 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Per the Vision for Space Exploration, the Space Shuttle is due to be retired in 2011 due mainly to its old age and high cost of the program reaching over a billion dollars per flight. The Shuttle's human transport role is to be replaced by the partially reusable Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) no later than 201

4. The Shuttle's heavy cargo transport role is to be replaced by expendable rockets such as the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) or a Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicle. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne was a reusable suborbital spaceplane that carried pilots Mike Melvill and Brian Binnie on consecutive flights in 2004 to win theAnsari X Prize. The Spaceship Company will build its successor SpaceShipTwo. A fleet of SpaceShipTwos operated by Virgin Galactic planned to begin reusableprivate spaceflight carrying paying passengers (space tourists) in 2008, but this was delayed due to an accident in the propulsion development.[10]AMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard All launch vehicles contain a huge amount of energy that is needed for some part of it to reach orbit. There is therefore some risk that this energy can be released prematurely and suddenly, with significant effects. When a Delta II rocket exploded 13 seconds after launch on January 17, 1997, there were reports of store windows 10 miles (16 km) away being broken by the blast.[11]HP Mini 210-2012tu Laptop Keyboard Space is a fairly predictable environment, but there are still risks of accidental depressurisation and the potential failure of equipment, some of which may be very newly developed.In 2004 the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety was established in the Netherlands to further international cooperation and scientific advancement in space systems safety.[12]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Space weather is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space. It is distinct from the concept of weather within a planetary atmosphere, and deals with phenomena involving ambient plasma, magnetic fields,radiation and other matter in space (generally close to Earth but also in interplanetary, and occasionallyinterstellar medium). "Space weather describes the conditions in space that affect Earth and its technological systems. Our space weather is a consequence of the behavior of the sun, the nature of Earth's magnetic field, and our location in the solar system." [15]Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard Space weather exerts a profound influence in several areas related to space exploration and development. Changing geomagnetic conditions can induce changes in atmospheric density causing the rapid degradation of spacecraft altitude in Low Earth orbit. Geomagnetic storms due to increased solar activity can potentially blind sensors aboard spacecraft, or interfere with on-board electronics. An understanding of space environmental conditions is also important in designing shielding and life support systems for manned spacecraft. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Rockets as a class are not inherently grossly polluting. However, some rockets use toxic propellants, and most vehicles use propellants that are not carbon neutral. Many solid rockets have chlorine in the form of perchlorate or other chemicals, and this can cause temporary local holes in the ozone layer. Re-entering spacecraft generate nitrates which also can temporarily impact the ozone layer. Most rockets are made of metals that can have an environmental impact during their construction. TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard In addition to the atmospheric effects there are effects on the near-Earth space environment. There is the possibility that orbit could become inaccessible for generations due to exponentially increasing space debris caused by spalling of satellites and vehicles (Kessler syndrome). Many launched vehicles today are therefore designed to be re-entered after use. DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also an aerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was an officer in the U.S. Navy and served in the Korean War. After the war, he earned his bachelor's degree atPurdue University and served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he logged over 900 flights. He later completed graduate studies at the University of Southern California. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard A participant in the U.S. Air Force's Man in Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs, Armstrong joined the NASA Astronaut Corps in 1962. He made his first space flight, as command pilot of Gemini 8, in 1966, becoming NASA's first civilian astronaut to fly in space. On this mission, he performed the first docking of two spacecraft, with pilotDavid Scott.[citation needed]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing, in July 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent two and a half hours exploring, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Command Module. Along with Collins and Aldrin, Armstrong was awarded thePresidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon; in 1978, President Jimmy Carter presented Armstrong theCongressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978; he and his former crewmates received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2009. HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard Armstrong died in Cincinnati, Ohio, on August 25, 2012, at the age of 82, after complica Neil Armstrong was born on August 5, 1930, in Wapakoneta, Ohio, to Stephen Koenig Armstrong and Viola Louise Engel.[2][3] He was of Scottish and German ancestry and had two younger siblings, June and Dean. Stephen Armstrong worked as an auditor[4] for the Ohio state government; the family moved around the state repeatedly after Armstrong's birth, TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard living in 20 towns. Neil's love for flying grew during this time, having gotten off to an early start when his father took his two-year-old son to the Cleveland Air Races. When he was five, he experienced his first airplane flight in Warren, Ohio on July 20, 1936 when he and his father took a ride in a Ford Trimotor, also known as the "Tin Goose".[5]Compaq Presario V3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His father's last move was in 1944, back to Neil's birthplace, Wapakoneta, in Auglaize County. Armstrong attended Blume High School and took flying lessons at the county airport. He earned his flight certificate at age 15, before he had a driver's license. Armstrong was active in the Boy Scouts and earned the rank ofEagle Scout. As an adult, he was recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with its Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo Award.[6] HP Pavilion dv6-3007ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On July 18, 1969, while flying towards the Moon inside the Columbia, Armstrong greeted the Scouts: "I'd like to say hello to all my fellow Scouts and Scouters at Farragut State Park in Idaho having a National Jamboree there this week; and Apollo 11 would like to send them best wishes". Houston replied: "Thank you, Apollo 11. I'm sure that, if they didn't hear that, they'll get the word through the news. Certainly appreciate that."[7] Among the very few personal items that Neil Armstrong carried with him to the Moon and back was a World Scout Badge.[8]Compaq Presario A935EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1947, at age 17, Armstrong began studying aeronautical engineering at Purdue University. He was the second person in his family to attend college. He was also accepted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The only engineer he knew (who had attended MIT) dissuaded him from attending, telling Armstrong that it was not necessary to go all the way to Cambridge, Massachusetts, for a good education.[9] His college tuition was paid for under the Holloway Plan: Compaq Presario CQ60-230eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan successful applicants committed to two years of study, followed by three years of service in the U.S. Navy, then completion of the final two years of the degree. At Purdue, he earned average marks in his subjects, with a GPA that rose and fell during eight semesters. He was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree inAeronautical Engineering in 1955, and a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Southern California in 1970.[1] Armstrong was later awarded honorary doctorates by several universities.[10]SONY Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Armstrong's call-up from the Navy arrived on January 26, 1949, requiring him to report to Naval Air Station Pensacola for flight training at age 18. This lasted almost 18 months, during which he qualified for carrier landing aboard the USS Cabot and USS Wright. On August 16, 1950, two weeks after his 20th birthday, Armstrong was informed by letter that he was a fully qualified Naval Aviator.[11]Toshiba Satellite P505-S8980 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan His first assignment was to Fleet Aircraft Service Squadron 7 at NAS San Diego (now known as NAS North Island). Two months later he was assigned to Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51), an all-jet squadron, and made his first flight in a jet, an F9F-2B Panther, on January 5, 1951. In June, he made his first jet carrier landing on the USS Essex and was promoted the same week from Midshipman to Ensign. By the end of the month, the Essex had set sail with VF-51 aboard, bound for Korea, where they would act as ground-attack aircraft.[12] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ev Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Armstrong first saw action in the Korean War on August 29, 1951, as an escort for a photo reconnaissance plane over Songjin.[13] Five days later on September 3rd, he flew armed reconnaissance over the primary transportation and storage facilities south of the village of Majon-ni, west of Wonsan. While making a low bombing run at about 350 mph (560 km/h), Armstrong's F9F Panther was hit by anti-aircraft fire. While trying to regain control, he collided with a pole at a height of about 20 feet (6 m), Toshiba Satellite A135-S4527 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which sliced off about three feet (1 m) of the Panther's right wing.[14] Armstrong flew the plane back to friendly territory, but due to the loss of the aileron, ejection was his only safe option. He planned to eject over water and await rescue by Navy helicopters, and therefore flew to an airfield near Pohang, but his ejection seat was blown back over land.[15] A jeep driven by a roommate from flight school picked Armstrong up; it is unknown what happened to the wreckage of No. 125122 F9F-2.[16]HP Pavilion dv7-4180us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Armstrong flew 78 missions over Korea for a total of 121 hours in the air, most of which were in January 1952. He received the Air Medal for 20 combat missions, a Gold Star for the next 20, and the Korean Service Medal and Engagement Star.[17] Armstrong left the Navy at age 22 on August 23, 1952, and became a Lieutenant, Junior Grade, in the U.S. Naval Reserve. He remained in the reserve for eight years, then resigned his commission on October 21, 1960.[18]HP Pavilion dv6-2162nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C variants, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker, and was one of eight elite pilots involved in the paraglider research vehicle program (Paresev). HP G62-b13SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After his service with the Navy, Armstrong returned to Purdue, where his best grades came in the four semesters following his return from Korea. His final GPA was 4.8 out of 6.0.[19] He pledged the Phi Delta Theta fraternity[20] after his return and he wrote and co-directed its musical as part of the all-student revue; he was also a member of Kappa Kappa Psi[21] National Honorary Band Fraternity and a baritone player in the Purdue All-American Marching Band. Armstrong graduated in 1955 with a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering.[18]HP Pavilion dv6-3040er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After returning to Purdue, he met Janet Elizabeth Shearon, who was majoring in home economics. According to the couple, there was no real courtship, and neither could remember the exact circumstances of their engagement, except that it occurred while Armstrong was working at the NACA's Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. They were married on January 28, 1956, at the Congregational Church in Wilmette, Illinois. When he moved to Edwards Air Force Base, he lived in the bachelor quarters of the base, while Janet lived in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. After one semester, they moved into a house in Antelope Valley. Janet never finished her degree, a fact she regretted later in life.[22] SONY Vaio VGN-CR305E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The couple had three children together: Eric, Karen, and Mark.[23] In June 1961, daughter Karen was diagnosed with a malignant tumor of the middle part of herbrain stem; X-ray treatment slowed its growth, but her health deteriorated to the point where she could no longer walk or talk. Two-year-old Karen died ofpneumonia, related to her weakened health, on January 28, 1962.[24]HP Mini 210-2080ca Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

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Newark, New Jersey Newark was originally founded in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, and experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminated by the 1967 Newark riots. The city has experienced revitalization during the 1990s and early 21st century.[23]HP Mini 210-2013tu Laptop Keyboard Newark was originally formed as a township on October 31, 1693, based on the Newark Tract, which was first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, and was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township (April 14, 1794), Caldwell Township (now known as Fairfield Township, February 16, 1798), Orange Township (November 27, 1806), ACER Aspire 5315 Laptop Keyboard Bloomfield Township (March 23, 1812) and Clinton Township(April 14, 1834, remainder reabsorbed by Newark on March 5, 1902). Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836. The previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township, changed its name to Maplewood. As a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newark's Vailsburg.[24]HP G62-b12SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark is located at 40°43′27″N 74°10′21″W (40.72422,-74.172574). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles (67.617 km2), of which, 24.187 square miles (62.644 km2) of it is land and 1.920 square miles (4.973 km2) of it (7.35%) is water.[25][3] It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U.S., behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-4101eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city's altitude ranges from 0 (sea level) in the east to approximately 230 feet (70 m) above sea level in the western section of the city.[27] Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Historically, Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods. In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, and Weequahic.[28]HP Pavilion dv6-2055er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were essentially wilderness, with a few dumps, warehouses, and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres (28 ha) of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands.[19] ASUS F5GL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west (on the slope of the Watchung Mountains), the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, and middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north. The city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, which is said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City".[29] FUJITSU LifeBook P8020 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark is New Jersey's largest and second-most racially diverse city (after neighboring Jersey City). It is divided into five political wards,[30] which are often used by residents to identify their place of habitation. In recent years, residents have begun to identify with specific neighborhood names instead of the larger ward appellations. Nevertheless, the wards remain relatively distinct. Industrial uses, coupled with the airport and seaport lands, are concentrated in the East and South Wards, while residential neighborhoods exist primarily in the North, Central, and West Wards.[31]HP Pavilion dv4-1465dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan State law requires that wards be compact and contiguous and that the largest ward may not exceed the population of the smallest by more than 10% of the average ward size. Ward boundaries are redrawn, as needed, by a board of ward commissioners consisting of two Democrats and two Republicans appointed at the county level and the municipal clerk.[32]  HP G60-120CA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Redrawing of ward lines in previous decades have shifted traditional boundaries, so that downtown currently occupies portions of the East and Central Wards. The boundaries of the wards are altered for various political and demographic reasons and sometimesgerrymandered, especially the northeastern portion of the West Ward. APPLE MacBook Pro 17 inch MA092LL A Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark's Central Ward, formerly known as the old Third Ward, contains much of the city's original history including the Lincoln Park, Military Park and the James Street Commons Historic Districts. The Ward contains the University Heights, The Coast/Lincoln Park, Government Center,  HP Envy 17-2106tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Springfield/Belmont and Seventh Avenue Neighborhoods. Of these neighborhood designations only University Heights, a more recent designation for the area that was the subject of the 1968 novel Howard Street by Nathan Heard, is still in common usage. The Central Ward extends at one point as far north as 2nd Avenue. SONY Vaio VPC-EB23FM/WI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the 19th century, the Central Ward was inhabited by Germans and other white Catholic and Christian groups. The German inhabitants were later replaced by Jews, who were then replaced by Blacks. The increased academic footprint in the University Heights neighborhood has produced gentrification, with landmark buildings undergoing renovation. Located in the Central Ward is the largest health sciences university in the nation, HP Pavilion dv7-4113tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School. It is also home to three other universities – New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), Rutgers University - Newark, and Essex County College. The Central Ward forms the present-day heart of Newark, and includes 26 public schools, two police precincts, including headquarters, four firehouses, and one branch library.[36] The North Ward is surrounded by Branch Brook Park. Its neighborhoods include Broadway, Mount Pleasant, Toshiba Qosmio G30-10E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Upper Roseville and the affluent Forest Hill section.[37] Forest Hill contains the Forest Hill Historic District, which is registered on state and national historic registers, and contains many older mansions and colonial homes. A row of residential towers with security guards and secure parking line Mt. ACER Aspire MS2264 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Prospect Avenue in the Forest Hill neighborhood. The North Ward has lost geographic area in recent times; its southern boundary is now significantly further north than the traditional boundary near Interstate 280. The North Ward historically had a large Italian population; demographics have transitioned to Latino in recent decades, though the ward as a whole remains ethnically diverse.[37]HP Pavilion dv7-6000em Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The West Ward comprises the neighborhoods of Vailsburg, Ivy Hill, West Side, Fairmount and Lower Roseville. It is home to the historic Fairmount Cemetery. The West Ward, once a predominately Irish-American, Polish, and Ukrainian neighborhood, is now home to neighborhoods composed primarily of Latinos, African Americans, Africans and Caribbean Americans.[38] The West Ward has struggled in recent years with elevated rates of crime, particularly violent crime.[39]ACER Travelmate 8571 Laptop Keyboard The South Ward comprises the Weequahic, Clinton Hill, Dayton, and South Broad Valley neighborhoods. The South Ward, once home to residents of predominately Jewish descent, now has ethnic neighborhoods made up primarily of African Americans and Latinos. The South Ward is represented by Council Member Ras Baraka. The city’s second-largest hospital, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, can be found in the South Ward, as can 17 public schools, five daycare centers, three branch libraries, one police precinct, a mini precinct, and three fire houses.[40]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard Finally, the East Ward consists of Newark's Downtown commercial district, as well as the Ironbound neighborhood, where much of Newark's industry was located in the 19th century. Today, due to the enterprise of its immigrant population, the Ironbound (also known as "Down Neck") is a destination for shopping, dining, and nightlife.[41] A historically immigrant-dominated section of the city, the Ironbound in recent decades has been termed "Little Portugal" due to its heavilyPortuguese population. In addition, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard the East Ward has become home to Brazilians, Latin Americans, African Americans and commuters to Manhattan. Public education in the East Ward consists of East Side High School and six elementary schools. The ward is largely composed of densely packed housing, primarily large apartment buildings and rowhouses.[31][42][43]HP 441316-001 Laptop Keyboard Newark has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with mild winters and hot, humid summers. Its proximity to the ocean has a moderating effect. Also, being near to the Atlantic Ocean means Newark tends to have warmer winters than cities at a similar latitude or even somewhat further south, such as Chicago, Columbus, Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. The January average is 32.3 °F (0.2 °C), and temperatures down to the 15 °F (−9.4 °C) range are not uncommon, though they rarely fall to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below. With a seasonal total of 26 inches (66.0 cm), snow cover does not usually remain for long. Spring in the area is of reasonable length and relatively devoid of temperature extremes. HP G42-283LA Laptop Keyboard Summers are particularly hot and humid, with a July average of 77.2 °F (25.1 °C), and highs exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 25 days per year.[44] Heat advisories are not uncommon during the summer months, particularly July and August, when temperatures can reach 100 °F (38 °C) with high humidity. The city cools off at a moderate pace during autumn. TOSHIBA Satellite 2410 PS241L-5Y34T Laptop Keyboard The city receives precipitation ranging from 2.9 to 4.7 inches (74 to 119 mm) monthly, usually falling on 8 to 12 days monthly. Measurable snowfall occurs each winter, but in lesser amounts than cities in the Midwest at a similar latitude. The highest recorded temperature was 108 °F (42 °C) on July 22, 2011. SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 277,140 people, 94,542 households, and 61,641 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,458.3 inhabitants per square mile (4,424.1 /km2). There were 109,520 housing units at an average density of 4,528.1 per square mile (1,748.3 /km2). SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard The racial makeup of the city was 26.31% (72,914) White, 52.35% (145,085) African American, 0.61% (1,697) Native American, 1.62% (4,485) Asian, 0.04% (118) Pacific Islander, 15.22% (42,181) from other races, and 3.85% (10,660) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.83% (93,746) of the population.[5]HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard There were 94,542 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.0% were married couples living together, 28.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.36.[5]  HP 640208-001 Laptop Keyboard In the city the age distribution of the population shows 25.6% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.3 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.[5]HP G72-b50US Laptop Keyboard The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household incomewas $35,659 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,009) and the median family income was $41,684 (+/- $1,116). Males had a median income of $34,350 (+/- $1,015) versus $32,865 (+/- $973) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,367 (+/- $364). About 22.0% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.9% of those under age 18 and 22.4% of those age 65 or over.[54]ACER Aspire 5930 Laptop Keyboard Poverty and lack of investment Poverty remains a consistent problem in Newark, despite its revitalization in recent years. As of 2010, roughly one-third of the city's population is impoverished.[55] The 1967 riots resulted in White flight, a significant population loss of the city's middle class, many of them Jews, which continued from the 1970s through to the 1990s.[56] The city lost about 130,000 residents between 1960 and 1990. The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, White,[57]declined from 82.8% in 1950 to 26.3% by 2010.[58]HP Mini 110-3549tu Laptop Keyboard Portions of Newark are rebounding and improving due to the abandonment and demolition of public housing projects, especially the Baxter Terrace area. Baxter Park, a mixed-use development started in July 2011 that will include 400 apartment units along with shopping and recreation space, will replace the 500 units in the original Baxter Terrace development, which was demolished starting in 2008.[59]SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

Federal, state, and county representation

Newark is split between the 10th and 13th Congressional districts[65] and is part of New Jersey's 28 and 29th state legislative districts.[6][66] Prior to the2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Newark had been in 27th, 28th and 29th state legislative districts.[65] Based on the results of the 2010 Census, the New Jersey Redistricting Commission has shifted Newark into the 8th Congressional District and the 10th Congressional District, a change that will take effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections, with 123,763 of the city's residents in the 8th District and 153,377 in the 10th.[67][68] HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District was represented by Donald M. Payne (D, Newark), until his death on March 6, 2012.[69] New Jersey's Thirteenth Congressional District is represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken). SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard The 28th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Ronald Rice (D, Newark) and in the General Assembly by Ralph R. Caputo(D, Belleville) and Cleopatra Tucker (D, Newark).[70] The 29th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Teresa Ruiz (D,Newark) and in the General Assembly by Alberto Coutinho (D, Newark) and L. Grace Spencer (D, Newark).[71] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R,Mendham Township).[72] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[73]HP Pavilion dv5-1138tx Laptop Keyboard Essex County's County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr.[74] The executive, along with the Board of Chosen Freeholders administer all county business. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve terms of office on a concurrent basis.[75] HP Pavilion DV6-3100 Laptop Keyboard As of 2011 Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large)[76], Freeholder Vice President Ralph R. Caputo (District 5)[77], Rufus I. Johnson (at large)[78], Donald Payne Jr. (at large)[79], Patricia Sebold (at large)[80], Samuel Gonzalez (District 1)[81], D. Bilal Beasley (District 2)[82], Carol Y. Clark (District 3)[83] and Linda Lordi Cavanaugh (District 4).[84][85]HP Pavilion dv6-3167ca Laptop Keyboard On the national level, Newark leans strongly toward the Democratic Party. As of March 23, 2011, out of a 2010 Census population of 277,140 in Newark, there were 136,785 registered voters (66.3% of the 2010 population ages 18 and over of 206,253, vs. 77.7% in all of Essex County of the 589,051 ages 18 and up) of which, 68,393 (50.0% vs. 45.9% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 3,548 (2.6% vs. 9.9% countywide) were registered as Republicans, 64,812 (47.4% vs. 44.1% countywide) were registered as Unaffiliated and there were 30 voters registered to other parties.[86]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 90.8% of the vote here (77,112 ballots cast), ahead of Republican John McCain who received 7.0% of the vote (5,957 votes), with 84,901 of the city's 140,946 registered voters participating, for a turnout of 60.2% of registered voters.[87] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 85.9% of the vote here (62,700 ballots), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received 12.8% (9,344), with 72,977 of 127,049 registered voters participating, for a turnout percentage of 57.4%.[88]HP Pavilion DV3113tx Laptop Keyboard In the 2009 Gubernatorial Election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 90.2% of the vote here (36,637 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie who received 8.3% of the vote (5,957 votes), with 40,613 of the city's 134,195 registered voters (30.3%) participating.[89]HP 508112-001 Laptop Keyboard Political corruption Newark has been marred with episodes of political corruption throughout the years. Five of the previous seven Mayors of Newark have been indicted on criminal charges, including the previous three Mayors: Hugh Addonizio, Kenneth Gibson, and Sharpe James. As reported by Newsweek: "... every mayor since 1962 (except the current one, Cory Booker) has been indicted for crimes committed while in office."[90]DELL Latitude D630 Laptop Keyboard Addonizio was mayor of Newark from 1962 to 1970. A son of Italian immigrants, a tailor and WWII veteran, he ran on a reform platform, defeating the incumbent, Leo Carlin, who, ironically, he characterized as corrupt and a part of the political machine of the era. During the 1967 riots, it was found that Addonizio and other city officials were taking kickbacks from city contractors. He was convicted of extortion and conspiracy in 1970, and was sentenced to ten years in federal prison.[91]TOSHIBA P205-S7476 Laptop Keyboard His successor was Kenneth Gibson, the city's first African American mayor, elected in 1970. He pleaded guilty to federal tax evasion in 2002 as part of a plea agreement on fraud and bribery charges. During his tenure as Mayor in 1980, he was tried and acquitted of giving out no-show jobs by an Essex County jury.[92]TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard Sharpe James, who defeated Gibson in 1986 and declined to run for a sixth term in 2006, was indicted on 33 counts of conspiracy, mail fraud, and wire fraud by a federal grand jury sitting in Newark. The grand jury charged James with spending $58,000 on city-owned credit cards for personal gain and orchestrating a scheme to sell city-owned land at below-market prices to his companion, APPLE A1181 Laptop Keyboard who immediately re-sold the land to developers and gained a profit of over $500,000. James pleaded not guilty on 25 counts at his initial court appearance on July 12, 2007. On April 17, 2008, James was found guilty for his role in the conspiring to rig land sales at nine city-owned properties for personal gain. The former mayor was sentenced to serve up to 27 months in prison.[93]SONY KFRSBA019A Laptop Keyboard In 1996, Time magazine ranked Newark "The Most Dangerous City in the Nation."[94] By 2007, however, the city recorded a total of 99 homicides for the year, representing a significant drop from the record of 161 murders set in 1981.[95][96][97][98] The number of murders in 2008 dropped to 65, a decline of 30% from the previous year and the lowest in the city since 2002 when there were also 65 murders.[99]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard In 2011 Newark recorded 90 homicides, after experiencing 86 homicides in 2010.[100] Overall, there was a 6% increase in crime numbers over the previous year, including a rise in carjackings for the third straight year.[101] Along with the increase in crime, the Newark Police Department increased its recovery of illegally owned guns in 2011 to 696, up from 278 in 2010.[100]HP Pavilion dv5-1220ez Laptop Keyboard After being forced to lay off 162 officers due to economic reasons in 2010, the NPD was able to rehire eight of those officers in 2012, with plans for another 17 rehires later in the year.[100]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Newark is the third-largest insurance center in the United States, after New York City and Hartford.[102] The Prudential Financial and Mutual Benefit Life companies originated in the city. The former, one of the largest insurance companies in the world, is still headquartered in Newark. Many other companies are headquartered in the city, including IDT Corporation, New Jersey Transit, Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG), Manischewitz, Horizon Blue Cross and Blue Shield of New Jersey.[103][104] and Audible.com[105]TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard Though Newark is not the industrial colossus of the past, the city does have a considerable amount of industry. The southern portion of the Ironbound, also known as the Industrial Meadowlands, has seen many factories built since World War II, including a large Anheuser-Busch brewery. The service industry is also growing rapidly, replacing those in the manufacturing industry, which was once Newark's primary economy. In addition, transportation has become a large business in Newark, accounting for more than 17,000 jobs in 2011.[106]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard The Consulate-General of Ecuador in New Jersey is located on the 4th Floor at 400 Market Street.[107] The Consulate-General of Portugal is located at the main floor of the Legal Center at One Riverfront Plaza.[108] The Vice Consulate of Italy is located in Suite 100 at 1 Gateway Center.[109] The Mission of the Central African Republic to the United Nations is located in Suite 2008 at 51 Clifton Avenue in Newark.[110]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Panasonic plans to leave its longtime North American headquarters in nearby Secaucus, New Jersey and move to a 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) space in Newark in 2013, as part of a deal in which the company would receive over $100 million in tax incentives to add to the 800 employees it already has in New Jersey.[111]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Portions of Newark are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.[112]HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard Port Newark is the part of Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal and the largest cargo facility in the Port of New York and New Jersey. Located on Newark Bay, it is run by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and serves as the principal container ship facility for goods entering and leaving the New York metropolitan region and the northeastern quadrant of North America. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard The Port moved over $100 billion in goods in 2003, making it the 15th busiest in the world at the time, but was the number one container port as recently as 1985.[113] Plans are underway for billions of dollars of improvements - larger cranes, bigger railyard facilities, deeper channels, and expanded wharves. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard As of the 2006-2010 American Community Survey, 16.0% of Newark residents ages 25 and over had never attended high school and 15.9% didn't graduate, while 68.1% had at least graduated from high school, including the 12.3% who had earned a bachelor's degree or higher. The total school enrollment in Newark city was 75,025 in the 2006-2010 ACS, with pre-primary school enrollment of 10,560, elementary or high school enrollment of 46,691 and college enrollment of 17,774.[54]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The Newark Public Schools, a state-operated school district, is the largest school system in New Jersey. The district is one of 31 Abbott districts statewide,[116] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[117][118] As of the 2009-10 school year, the district's 75 schools had an enrollment of 39,443 students and 2,685 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 14.69.[119]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The city's public schools are among the lowest-performing in the state, leading to a take over by the state government in 1995 with the intention of improvement. The school district continues to struggle with low high school graduation rates and low standardized test scores. A notable exception to this was Science Park High School, which was the 69th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 322 schools statewide, in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2010 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", HP G71-441NR Laptop Keyboard after being ranked 50th in 2008 out of 316 schools. Technology High School has a GreatSchools rating of 9/10 was ranked 165th in New Jersey Monthly's 2010 rankings. Newark high schools ranked in the bottom 10% of New Jersey Monthly'ss 2010 list include Central(274th), East Side (293rd), Newark Vocational (304th), Weequahic (310th), SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Laptop Keyboard Barringer (311th), Malcolm X Shabazz (314th) and West Side (319th).[120] Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg donated a challenge grant of $100 million to the district in 2010, choosing Newark because he stated he believed in Mayor Cory Booker and Governor Chris Christie's abilities.[121]DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard It remains one of the top performing K-8 schools in New Jersey based on standardized test scores.[122] University Heights Charter School is another charter school, serving children in grades K-5, recognized as a 2011 Epic Silver Gain School.[123] Gray Charter School, like Robert Treat, also won a Blue Ribbon Award.[124] Also, Newark Collegiate Academy (NCA) opened in August 2007 and currently serves 420 students in grades 9-12. It will ultimately serve over 570 students, mostly matriculating from other charter schools in the area.[125]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard The city hosts three high schools as part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. The coeducational Christ The King Prep, founded in 2007, is part of theCristo Rey Community; Saint Benedict's Preparatory School is an all-boys Roman Catholic high school founded in 1868 and conducted by the Benedictine monks of Newark Abbey, whose campus has grown to encompass both sides of MLK Jr. Blvd. near Market Street and includes a dormitory for boarding students; and Saint Vincent Academy, is an all-girls Roman Catholic high school founded and sponsored by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth and operated continuously since 1869.[126]Compaq Presario V3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Link Community School is a non-denominational coeducational day school located serving approximately 128 students in seventh and eighth grades. The Newark Boys Chorus School was founded in the 1960s.[127] The University Heights Charter School teaches 160 students in grades K-5. HP Pavilion dv6-3007ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are several notable Beaux-Arts buildings, such as the Veterans' Administration building, the Newark Museum, the Newark Public Library, and the Cass Gilbert-designed Essex County Courthouse. Notable Art Deco buildings include several 1930s eraskyscrapers, such as the National Newark Building and Eleven 80, the restored Newark Penn Station, and Arts High School.Gothic architecture can be found at the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart by Branch Brook Park, Compaq Presario A935EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan which is one of the largest gothic cathedrals in the United States. It is rumored to have as much stained glass as the Cathedral of Chartres. Newark also has two public sculpture works by Gutzon Borglum — Wars of America in Military Park and Seated Lincoln in front of the Essex County Courthouse. Moorish Revival buildings include Newark Symphony Hall and the Prince Street Synagogue, one of the oldest synagogue buildings in New Jersey.[128]Compaq Presario CQ60-230eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark is site of the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, located near Military Park, which since its opening in 1997 has become the home of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra and the New Jersey State Opera, and has developed into one the most visited in the United States. NJPAC is involved in the construction of One Theater Square, a mixed-use skyscraper in the heart of the cultural district that is planned to include the city's tallest building. The center's programs of national and international music, dance, and theater make it the nation's sixth-largest performing arts center, attracting over 400,000 visitors each year.[129]SONY Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Prior to the opening of the performing arts center, Newark Symphony Hall was home to the New Jersey Symphony, the New Jersey State Opera, and the Garden State Ballet, which stills maintains an academy there.[130] The 1925 neo-classic building, originally built by the Shriners, has three performance spaces, including the main concert named in honor of famous Newarker Sarah Vaughan, offering rhythm and blues, rap, hip-hop, and gospel music concerts, and is part of the modern day Chitlin' circuit.[131]Toshiba Satellite P505-S8980 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Newark Boys Chorus, founded in 1966, performs regularly in the city. The Arican Globe Theater Works presents a new works seasonally. The biennial Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival took place in Newark for the first time in 2010.[132][133] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ev Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Venues at the universities in the city are also used to present professional and semi-professional theater, dance, and music. Since its opening, the Prudential Center in 2007 has presented Diana Ross, Katy Perry, Lady Gaga, Britney Spears, The Eagles, Hannah Montana/Miley Cyrus, Spice Girls, Jonas Brothers, Metro Station, Metallica, Alicia Keys, Demi Lovato, David Archuleta, Taylor Swift and American Idol Live!, among others. Bon Jovi performed a series of ten concerts to mark the venue's opening.[134]Toshiba Satellite A135-S4527 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Newark Museum is the largest in New Jersey. Highlights of its collection include American and Tibetan art. The museum also contains science galleries, a planetarium, a gallery for children's exhibits, a fire museum, a sculpture garden and an 18th century schoolhouse. Also part of the museum is the historic John Ballantine House, a restored Victorian mansion which is a National Historic Landmark. The museum co-sponsors the Newark Black Film Festival, which has premiered numerous films since its founding in 1974.[135]HP Pavilion dv7-4180us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city is also home to the New Jersey Historical Society, which has rotating exhibits on New Jersey and Newark. The Newark Public Library, the state's largest system with 11 locations, also produces a series of historical exhibits. The library houses more than a million volumes and has frequent exhibits on a variety of topics, many featuring items from its Fine Print and Special Collections.[136]HP Pavilion dv6-2162nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP G62-b13SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In February 2004, plans were announced for a new Smithsonian Institution-affiliated Museum of African American Music to be built in the city's Coast/Lincoln Park neighborhood. The museum will be dedicated to black musical styles, from gospel torap. The new museum will incorporate the facade of the old South Park Presbyterian Church, where Abraham Lincoln once spoke.[137]HP Pavilion dv6-3040er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On December 9, 2007, the Jewish Museum of New Jersey,[138] located at 145 Broadway in the Broadway neighborhood held its grand opening. The museum is dedicated to the cultural heritage of New Jersey’s Jewish people. The museum is housed at Ahavas Sholom,[139] the last continually operating synagogue in Newark. By the 1950s there were 50 synagogues in Newark serving a Jewish population of 70,000 to 80,000, once the sixth-largest Jewish community in the United States.[140][141] SONY Vaio VGN-CR305E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark is also home to numerous art galleries including Aljira, a Center for Contemporary Art, City Without Walls, Gallery Aferro, Rupert Ravens Contemporary, Sumei Arts Center,[142] and the Paul Robeson Galleries[143] at Rutgers-Newark. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5848 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are several festivals and parades held annually or bi-annually including the Cherry Blossom Festival (April) in Branch Brook Park, the Lincoln Park Music Festival (July) at Lincoln Park, the Newark Black Film Festival (Summer), the Portugal Day Festival (June) in The Ironbound and the McDonald's Gospelfest (June) at Prudential Center, Geraldine R. Dodge Poetry Festival (October) (biennale) at various venues and the city-wide Open Doors (October)[145]SONY VGN-CS90S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although Newark has had a rich history in baseball and currently has a minor league team, the city has never had a Major League Baseball team. Newark had eight teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players, including the Newark Eurekas and the Newark Adriatics.[149] Newark was then home to the Newark Indians of the International League and then to the Newark Peppers of the Federal League, sometimes nicknamed the Newfeds. Compaq Presario V3817au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city was also hosted the Negro League'sNewark Dodgers and Newark Eagles, the latter for whom the Bears and Eagles Riverfront Stadium is partially named.[150] The current Newark minor league team, the revived Newark Bears, play at Bears and Eagles Riverfront Stadium, a stop on the Newark Light Rail. The Bears are part of the independent Atlantic League, which also includes the Somerset Patriots in Bridgewater Township and the Camden Riversharks in Camden.[151]ACER AB7005HX-ED3 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Morris Canal, stretching 102 miles (164 km) to Newark from Phillipsburg on the Delaware River was completed in 1831 and allowed coal and other industrial and agricultural products from Pennsylvania to be transported cheaply and efficiently to the New York City area.[166] The canal's completion led to increased settlement in Newark, vastly increasing the population for years to come. As the city came to be more and more congested, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard further means of transportation were sought; eventually leading to horse drawn trolleys which eventually became electric trolleys that ran down the main streets of downtown Newark including Broad Street and up Market Street near the courthouse. The trolley cars did not last long as the personal motor vehicle quickly gained popularity and slowly made the trolley system seem like a burden.[167AMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard ] The Morris Canal also saw its days come to an end, only to be more recently used by the Newark City Subway, now known as the Newark Light Rail. Even today, many of the subway stations still portray the Canal in its original state in the form of mosaic works. HP Mini 210-2012tu Laptop Keyboard Newark is a hub of air, road, rail, and ship traffic, making it a significant gateway into the New York metropolitan area and the northeastern United States.[168] Newark Liberty International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the New York region and the 14th-busiest in the United States (in terms of passenger traffic),[169]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard had 403,429 plane movements, transported 33,107,041 passengers, 860,845 tons of cargo and processed 82,479 tons of airmail in 2010.[170] Newark Airport was the New York City area's first commercial airport, opened in 1928 on land reclaimed by the Port Authority.[19] Just east of the airport lies Port Newark, the fifteenth-busiest port in the world and the largest container port on the East Coast of the United States. In 2003, the port moved over $100 billion in goods.[171]Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard Newark is served by numerous highways including the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95),Interstate 280, Interstate 78, the Garden State Parkway, U.S. Route 1/9, U.S. Route 22, and Route 21. Newark is connected to the Holland Tunnel and Lower Manhattan by the Pulaski Skyway, spanning both the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers., which was first constructed in 1938 and will be undergoing a $900 million renovation project.[172]SONY Vaio VGN-AW160J/Q Laptop Keyboard Local streets in Newark conform to a quasi-grid form, with major streets radiating outward (like spokes on a wheel) from the downtown area. Some major roads in the city are named after the towns to which they lead, including South Orange Avenue, Springfield Avenue, and Bloomfield Avenue, as well as Broadway, which had been renamed from Belleville Avenue.[173]SONY VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Laptop Keyboard Newark is second in the U.S. to New York City in the proportion of households without an automobile, and is extensively served by mass transit. Newark Penn Station, situated just east of downtown, is the city's major train station, connecting the interurban PATH system (which links Newark to Manhattan) with three New Jersey Transit commuter rail lines and Amtrakservice to Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. It was designed by McKim, ACER Aspire 3660 Laptop Keyboard Mead & White and completed in 1935. Only one mile north, the Newark Broad Street Station is served by two commuter rail lines. The two train stations are linked by the Newark Light Rail system, which also provides services from Newark Penn Station to Newark's northern communities and into the neighboring towns of Belleville and Bloomfield.  HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Built in the bed of the Morris Canal, the light rail cars run underground in Newark's downtown area. The city's third train station, Newark Liberty International Airport, connects the Northeast Corridor and North Jersey Coast Line to the airport via AirTrain Newark. Bus service in Newark is provided by New Jersey Transit, CoachUSA contract operators and DeCamp in North Newark.[174]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Hospitals and medical care

Newark is home to four hospitals. University Hospital is the principal teaching hospital of the UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School and is the busiest Level I trauma center in the state.[178] UMDNJ also provides emergency medical services to the city. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center is the largest hospital in the city and is a part of Barnabas Health, the state's largest system of hospital and health care facilities.[179] Beth Israel is also one of the oldest hospitals in the city, SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop Keyboard dating back to 1901. This 669-bed regional facility is also home to the Children's Hospital of New Jersey. Catholic Health East operates Street Michael's Medical Center. Hospitals which have been closed in recent years include the Street James Hospital, Columbus Hospital, Mount Carmel Guild Hospital and the United Hospitals Medical Center.[180][181][182]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Emergency Medical Services UMDNJ Staffs a full-time EMS system off of Cabinet Street behind the old Martland hospital building. The department operates a 24/7 fleet of 10 BLS units staffed with two EMTs, 5 ALS units staffed with two paramedics (units cover Port Newark, EWR, and most of Essex County), one Heavy Rescue unit, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard one Critical Care unit staffed with one paramedic and one nurse, and two Field Supervisors. University Hospital EMS (UH-EMS) carries special operations equipment that can cover any sepctrum of disaster. The fast-paced EMS system is the busiest system per unit in the nation. On average, a BLS unit may be sent to 20-25 dispatches in a 12-hour shift. UMDNJ also operates the Regional Emergency Medical Communications Service (REMCS), SONY VAIO PCG-FRV37 Laptop Keyboard the regional dispatch center for UH-EMS as well as state-wide disaster management and the JEMSTAR medivac program, managing inter-facility and on-scene medivac requests to the state's aircraft (Northstar, Southstar, MEDIVAC1, Monoc Air 1, Atlantic Air 1, Atlantic Air 2). Staffed at all times by six EMD certified dispatchers, REMCS also dispatches the Orange, Maplewood, and Irvington NJ fire departments. The EMS system in Newark handles upwards of 125,000 requests for service annually.[183] Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU Laptop Keyboard The city of Newark is protected around the clock by the 700 full-time, paid firefighters of the city of Newark Fire Department (NFD). Founded in 1863, the Newark Fire Department operates out of 16 Fire Stations, located throughout the city in three Battalions. The NFD also operates and maintains a front line fire apparatus fleet of 15 Engines, 8 Ladders, 1 Rescue, 4 Haz-Mat. HP Mini 210-2080ca Laptop Keyboard Units, a Foam Unit, a Mobile Command Unit, an Air Unit, a Fireboat, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The Newark Fire Department responds to around 45,000 emergency calls annually. In 2006, the NFD responded to 2,681 fire and hazardous condition calls.[185]HP Mini 210-2170nr Laptop Keyboard On October 1, 2010, the NFD removed Battalion 1 from service and distributed the command of its Fire Stations and Companies over the remaining 3 Battalions. Also, Engine 12, Engine 16, and Ladder 1 were disbanded from service.[186][187][188] Up to 2010, the firehouse located at 191 Orange Street was home to Ladder 1, Rescue 1, and Haz-Mat. 1. Currently, it no longer houses active fire companies, however it is the headquarters of the department's Special Operations Division and houses Haz-Mat. 2, the Haz-Mat. Spill Unit, the Haz-Mat. Decontamination Unit, the Dive Unit, HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard the Foam Unit, the Mobile Command Unit, and many other Special Operations Units. Like other stations in the city, it also houses a fleet of reserve/spare fire apparatuses. Also, the Special Services and Fire Alarm Line Divisions are located at 56 Prospect Street (former quarters of Engine 5) in the North Ironbound neighborhood.[189]HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States of America. As defined by the United States Census Bureau, an "incorporated place" includes a variety of designations, including city, town,village, borough, and municipality.[1] A few exceptional Census Designated Places (CDPs) are also included in the Census Bureau's listing of incorporated places.[2] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Consolidated city-counties represent a distinct type of government that includes the entire population of a county, or county equivalent. Some consolidated city-counties, however, include multiple incorporated places. This list presents only that portion (or "balance") of such consolidated city-counties that are not a part of another incorporated place.  SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Note that this list refers only to the population of individual municipalities within their defined limits, which does not include other municipalities or unincorporated suburban areas within urban agglomerations. A different ranking is evident when considering U.S. metropolitan area populations.  SONY Vaio VGN-SZ48GN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A headquarters is the entity at the top of a corporation that takes full responsibility for the overall success of the corporation, and ensures Corporate Governance. Corporate headquarters is a key element of a corporate structure and covers different corporate functions such as strategic planning, corporate communications, tax, legal, marketing, finance, HR, IT, Procurement (CPO). The corporate headquarters includes: CEO as a key person and his support staff such as the CEO office and other CEO related functions; Toshiba Satellite Pro A40-692 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the "Corporate policy making" functions: Include all corporate functions necessary to steer the firm by defining and establishing corporate policies; the Corporate Services: Activities that combine or consolidate certain enterprise-wide needed support services, provided based on specialized knowledge, best practices, and technology to serve internal (and sometimes external) customers and business partners; the Interface: Reporting line and bi-directional link between corporate headquarters and business units. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Military headquarters take many forms depending on the size and nature of the unit or formation they command. Typically, they are split into the forward, main and rear components, both within NATO nations, and those following the organization and doctrine of the former Soviet Union (see Isby, 1988).  HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard The forward or tactical HQs (known as 'Tac' for short) is a small group of staff and communicators. Usually very mobile, they exist to allow the commander to go forward in an operation, and command the key parts of it from a position where they can see the ground and influence their immediate subordinates. HP Pavilion dv6105EA Laptop Keyboard The main HQs (known as 'Main') is less mobile and is involved in both the planning and execution of operations. There are a number of staff assembled here from various staff branches to advise the commander, and to control the various aspects of planning and the conduct of discrete operations. A main HQ for a large formation will have a chief of staff (CoS) who coordinates the staff effort; in a smaller HQ this may be done by the second-in-command (2iC). HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The rear or logistic HQs ('Rear') is some distance from the battle or front line in conventional operations. Its function is to ensure the logistical support to front line troops, which it does by organizing the delivery of combat supplies, materiel and equipment to where they are needed, and by organizing services such as combat medicine, equipment recovery and repair.[3]HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard Religious organizations have their headquarters in a city or a place. The headquarters of the Catholic Church is Vatican City. The headquarters of the Russian Orthodox Church is in Danilov Monastery, Moscow. The World Council of Churches, including Orthodox Churches, has its Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. The Headquarters of Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is located in Istanbul, Turkey. The headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is located in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. And Anglican Communion Office is in London. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard The New Jersey Performing Arts Center (NJPAC), in downtown Newark, New Jersey, United States, is one of the largest performing arts centers in the United States.[1] Home to the Grammy Award-winning New Jersey Symphony Orchestra (NJSO), more than 6 million visitors (including more than one million children) have visited the center since it opened in October 1997 on the site of the former Military Park Hotel. SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B Laptop Keyboard NJPAC has been an important component in revitalization of New Jersey's largest city.[2][3] Located just west of thePassaic

River waterfront, the Center lies in the heart of the city's cultural district around Military Park and Washington Park that also includes the Newark Museum, New Jersey Historical Society, and the Newark Public Library. ThePrudential Center is just to the south. SONY VAIO PCG-FR415S Laptop Keyboard NJPAC has one of the largest arts education programs offered by a performing arts center in the nation. The program includes arts training classes, scholarships, in-school residencies, professional development, and family and children's programming, allowing students, teachers and families to interact with professional artists and explore the various genres of music, theater, dance, poetry and more.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard The State of New Jersey decided to build a world class performing arts center in 1986, when then Governor of New Jersey Thomas Kean appointed a committee to decide the location and the needs of New Jersey's performing arts organization. They chose Newark over other cities because of the density of the surrounding areas, proximity to New York City, highway and rail access to the site, and a location inside a city in need of revitalization. The last reason was considered especially important. A major goal of NJPAC was to help revitalize the city, bringing people back into blighted areas and provide jobs for local businesses. HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard The planning commission decided that the new center would be directly integrated into the city, encouraged walking, and provided a plaza for the city. Previous redevelopment schemes in Newark, such as the Gateway Center had all involved skyways that connected all the main office buildings to Newark Penn Station above street level, further segregating the city. The master plan, executed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill consisted of plazas and pedestrian boulevards, joining major thoroughfares. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard After a selection process, the board chose Barton Myers as the lead architect, based on his experience with theaters and his contextual buildings. They instructed him to build a complex that was the opposite of the Kennedy Center or Lincoln Center, and more like the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. Instead of a monument to the arts, Myers saw it as another part of the city tying it to residents and inviting them into it. He related the physical structure to the context by using brick, exposed steel, and glass as the materials, to reflect the industrial roots of Newark. HP Mini 210-2011tu Laptop Keyboard Goundbreaking ceremonies took place in October 1993 with speeches by dignitaries and performances by Kathleen Battle and the Newark Boys Chorus, among others.[4]During the bidding process, NJPAC President & CEO Lawrence Goldman mandated that most of the construction jobs had to go to local minorities. The board of the organization successfully implemented this program, suspending a contractor in 1995 for failing to do so.  TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard Construction began in 1995 and was completed in 1997, receiving rave reviews by The New York Times architecture critic Herbert Muschamp upon its opening.[5] The New Yorker has said that it houses one of the best modern concert halls on the Eastern Seaboard - handsome in appearance, warm in sound.[6]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard Since opening, artists that have appeared on NJPAC's stages include the Boston Symphony Orchestra; Yo-Yo Ma, Paul Simon, Bob Dylan, Diana Krall, Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Twyla Tharp Dance, Dance Theatre of Harlem, Israel Philharmonic, Nancy Wilson and Ramsey Lewis, Royal Danish Ballet, Hilary Hahn, Bill T. Jones, Itzhak Perlman, Sting, Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo, Elvis Costello, the National Song & Dance Company of Mozambique, GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard the Afro-Cuban All-Stars, Audra McDonald, the Buena Vista Social Club, The Chieftains, Dulce Pontes, Alice Coltrane, Salt-N-Pepa, Gilberto Santa Rosa, Jerry Seinfeld, Kevin Hart, Christine Ebersole, Jennifer Hudson, Herbie Hancock, Sweet Honey in the Rock, Garrison Keillor, Maurizio Pollini, Gewandhaus Orchestra, Balé Folclorico da Bahia, Peter, Paul & Mary, Savion Glover, Aspen Santa Fe Ballet, Art Garfunkel, Kodo Drummers, Kirov Orchestra, Martha Graham Dance, Johnny Mathis, New Edition, Angelique Kidjo, Renee Fleming, and Evgeny Kissin. HP G71-340US Laptop Keyboard NJPAC has also played host to tours of popular Broadway musicals such as Evita, The Sound of Music, Grease, Annie, Blast!, Bring in ‘da Noise, Bring in ‘da Funk, Fame, Fosse, Sunset Boulevard, Peter Pan, Movin’ Out, Les Misérables, The Full Monty, Fiddler on the Roof, Oklahoma, 42nd Street, The Producers, Beauty and the Beast, and Cats. A regular season is presented by the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra. HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop Keyboard New Jersey Performing Arts Center and Dranoff Properties, Inc. of Philadelphia have signed a Letter of Intent for the development a mixed-use residential and retail project. One Theater Square is inspired by its location on a 1.2 acre site across the street from NJPAC and if built would be the tallest building in Newark. [14][15] [16] [17]HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The project is conceived as part of a continued effort to increase the resident population in the heart of downtown Newark. It is nearby the restored Eleven 80 and Union Building[18] and the planned residential renovations of theGriffith Building and former Hahne and Company flagship store. [19][20][21] The estimated $190 million cost will be offset New Jersey Economic Development Authority $38 million Urban Transit tax credits and federal tax credits for inclusion of affordable housing for artists. [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard HP 550 Laptop Keyboard One Theater Square is envisioned to include a residential community of at least 250 units, 30,000 square feet of street-level retail and cultural uses, and structured parking for over 750 cars to serve the shared needs of the residential community as well as those of NJPAC’s audiences and daytime commercial demand.  Toshiba Satellite A210-131 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Branch Brook Park is a county park of Essex County, New Jersey in the United States, located in the North Ward of Newark, between the neighborhoods of Forest Hill and Roseville. At 360 acres (1.5 km²), Branch Brook Park is the largest public park in the city of Newark. The park is noted for the largest collection of cherry blossom trees in the United States, having over 4,300 in more than fourteen different varieties collectively called Cherryblossomland, as well as its spectacular Cherry Blossom Festival each April.[2][3][4]SONY Vaio VPC-EE2S1E/BQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The park was formally created in 1895 by the newly-created Essex County Parks Commission, making it the nation's first county park. The area had served as an Army training ground during the American Civil War. At the time, the northern portion of the area had been a marsh known as Old Blue Jay Swamp. In 1898, a public appropriation financed the conversion of the swamp into a landscaped lake. The initial park was only 60 acres (0.2 km²)  HP Pavilion dv7-6051ei Laptop CPU Cooling Fan in size but grew in the 1920s through private donations from prominent Newark families, such as the Ballantines, eventually reaching the city limit withBelleville and becoming one of the largest urban parks in the United States. The Morris Canal originally ran on the park's west side, until its old bed was turned into the Newark City Subway, providing access to the park from Downtown Newark.  HP Pavilion dv7-1020us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first designs of the park, based largely on romantic garden themes, were proposed in 1895 and 1898, after the Parks Commission hired several architectural firms to plan the park. In 1900, the commission hired the firm of Frederick Law Olmsted to redesign the park. The result was the park's current naturalistic look and feel, with acres of meadows and forests, in a manner similar to Olmsted's earlier designs of Central Park and Prospect Park. ACER Aspire 3105 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The famous cherry trees were the result of a 1927 gift from Caroline Bamberger Fuld, sister of department store magnateLouis Bamberger and widow of the store's vice president. The Cherry Blossom Festival attracts approximately 10,000 visitors each April.During World War II, the park's grounds served a tent city for recruits, as well as a landing strip for airplanes of theUnited States Postal Service.  HP Pavilion dv6648se Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The neighborhood on the east side of the park, Forest Hill, is Newark's most affluent. Also on the east side of the park is the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart Basilica, one of the largest cathedrals in the United States.It has been placed on both the New Jersey (1980) and National (1981) Registers of Historic Places. Toshiba Qosmio F30-116 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Branch Brook Park is undergoing $25 million, ten-year, restoration program. In 2004, the Park Avenue bridge was repaired, as were the baseball fields in the center of the park. In 2007, a plan was created to provide for more than 5,000 cherry trees in the park and renovate and rename the Welcome Center. The plan uses a $650,000 grant from the Essex County Recreation and the Open Space Trust Fund from 2006 and private donations.[5]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

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Princeton University Princeton University is a private, Ivy League, research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. It is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciencesand engineering.[5] Princeton does not have schools of medicine, law, divinity, or business, but it does offer professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science and the School of Architecture. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey, as the College of New Jersey, the university moved to Newark in 1747, then to Princeton in 1756 and was renamed Princeton University in 1896.[6] The present-day College of New Jersey in nearby Ewing Township, New Jersey, is an unrelated institution. Princeton was the fourth chartered institution of higher education in the American colonies.[7] [8] Princeton had close ties to the Presbyterian Church, but has never been affiliated with any denomination[9] and today imposes no religious requirements on its students.[10]Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University.[11] Princeton has been associated with 35 Nobel Laureates, 17 National Medal of Sciencewinners, and three National Humanities Medal winners. On a per-student basis, Princeton has the largest university endowment in the world.[12]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey, later Princeton University, in 1746 in order to train ministers.[13] The college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1756, the college moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal house of William III of England. HP G71-441NR Laptop Keyboard Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became President in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. SAMSUNG Q330-JS0E Laptop Keyboard To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college.[14] Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it. DELL Alienware M11x Laptop Keyboard Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754.[15] During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, (1802 and 1855) Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers.[16] Nassau Hall's iconic bell rang after the halls construction however the fire of 1802 melted the bell. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus.[17] McCosh Hall is named in his honor.[16] HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard In 1879, the first thesis for PhD was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard In 1900, the Graduate school was established.[18] In 1902, Woodrow Wilson graduate of the Class of 1879 is elected the 13th president of the University.[19] Under Woodrow Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest. HP Pavilion dv5-1138tx Laptop Keyboard In 1906, Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie.[18] A collection of Historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton's campus.[20]HP Pavilion DV6-3100 Laptop Keyboard In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university had actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women's college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school's operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. HP Pavilion dv6-3167ca Laptop Keyboard The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard (Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meserve, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study "critical languages" in which Princeton's offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.) HP Pavilion DV3113tx Laptop Keyboard As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton's eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn's appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied.[21]SONY VGN-CS90S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km2) split between two municipalities, the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township.[4] The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia. Compaq Presario V3817au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756, and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street.[16] The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century.[22][23] The McCoshpresidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place.[24]ACER AB7005HX-ED3 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At the end of the 19th century Princeton adopted the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today.[25] Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter[25] and later enforced by the University's supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram,[26] the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960.[27][28] A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard many of which have been poorly received.[29] Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library),[30] I.M. Pei (Spelman Halls),[31]Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project),[32] Robert Venturi (Frist Campus Center, among several others),[33] and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).[34]AMSUNG Q330-JS02 Laptop Keyboard A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval With Points), Isamu Noguchi(White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman).[35] Richard Serra's The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.[36]HP Mini 210-2012tu Laptop Keyboard At the southern edge of the campus is Lake Carnegie, a man-made lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake's construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus.[37] Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered "not gentlemanly."[38] The Shea Rowing Center on the lake's shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.[39]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Cannon Green Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the "Big Cannon," which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was brought to New Brunswick.[40] In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.[41]Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard A second "Little Cannon" is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton.[42] The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.[43][44]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred most recently in 2012, ending a five-year drought. TOSHIBA Satellite L355 Laptop Keyboard Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756,[16] it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776,[45] was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777,[16] and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783 to November 4, 1783.[46]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus.[47] The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879.[16] Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather.[48] In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.[49]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Residential colleges Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, Wilson College and Forbes College (formerly Princeton Inn College), DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard date to the 1970s; three others,Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university's sixth residential college, was completed in 2007. HP Pavilion dv6-3047eo Laptop Keyboard Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton's Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories. SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard Wilson and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. Wilson served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the "New New Quad") before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen. TOSHIBA K000097450 Laptop Keyboard Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years.[50] Forbes currently houses over 400 undergraduates and a number of resident graduate students in its residential halls. Butler and most of Forbes are in a different municipality, Princeton Township, from the rest of the main campus, which is in Princeton Borough. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton's sixth residential college that same year. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Oxford University and Cambridge University. Wilson's model was much closer to Yale's present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Compaq Presario V3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alum, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale. HP Pavilion dv6-3007ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the G.C. was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the College; Compaq Presario A935EM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed.[50] The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College departs in its design from Collegiate Gothic; it is reminiscent of the former dormitories of Butler College, the newest of the five pre-Whitman residential colleges. Compaq Presario CQ60-230eg Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors. SONY Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Numbering over 72,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on theMediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Romanantiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. Toshiba Satellite P505-S8980 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol's Blue Marilyn.  HP Pavilion dv6-2150ev Laptop CPU Cooling Fan One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of Pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture. Toshiba Satellite A135-S4527 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of US$2.3 million,[52] approximately US$31.1 million in 2011 dollars. Ralph Adams Cram, the University's supervising architect, designed the Chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus.[53] At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King's College Chapel, Cambridge.[54] It underwent a two-year, US$10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.[55]HP Pavilion dv7-4180us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Measured on the exterior, the Chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high.[56] The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim.[57] The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages.[58] The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.[53]HP Pavilion dv6-2162nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Chapel seats almost 2,000.[59] It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services,[60] daily Roman Catholic mass,[61] and several annual special events.

Sustainability

Published in 2008, Princeton's Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University's Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement.[63] Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 without the purchase of offsets.[64] HP G62-b13SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009.[65] The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics.[66] Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 20% sustainable food products.[67] The student organization "Greening Princeton" seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.[68]HP Pavilion dv6-3040er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University's endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.  SONY Vaio VGN-CR305E/R Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With an endowment of US$17.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university has the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over US$2 million for undergraduates).[69] Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers.[70] Some of Princeton's wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5848 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in engineering (B.S.E.). HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in all disciplines.[71] It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master's degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Undergraduate Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a "precept." To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as "junior papers." Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. HP Mini 210-2011tu Laptop Keyboard B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum. SONY Vaio VGN-AW160J/Q Laptop Keyboard Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; SONY VAIO VGN-SZ750N/C Laptop Keyboard a conviction results in the student's suspension or expulsion.[72] The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students' academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall.[73][74] Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline.[75] Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.[76]ACER Aspire 3660 Laptop Keyboard Princeton's undergraduate program is highly selective, admitting 7.86% of undergraduate applicants in the 2011–12 admissions cycle (for the Class of 2016).[77]In September 2006, the university announced that all applicants for the Class of 2012 would be considered in a single pool. In this way, the early decisionprogram was effectively ended.[78]  HP 550 Laptop Keyboard In February 2011, following decisions by the University of Virginia and Harvard University to reinstate their early admissions programs, Princeton announced it would institute an early action program, starting with applicants for the Class of 2016.[79] In 2011, the Business Journal rated Princeton as the most selective college in the Eastern United States in terms of admission selectivity.[80]COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In 2001, expanding on earlier reforms, Princeton became the first university to eliminate loans for all students who qualify for financial aid.[81] All demonstrated need is met with combinations of grants and campus jobs. In addition, all admissions are need-blind.[82] U.S. News & World Report and Princeton Review both cite Princeton as the university that has the fewest of graduates with debt even though 60% of incoming students are on some type of financial aid.[83] SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop Keyboard Kiplinger magazine ranks Princeton as the best value among private universities, noting that the average graduating debt is US$4,957, "about one fifth the average debt of students who borrow at all private schools."[84]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard

Grade deflation policy

In 2004, Nancy Weiss Malkiel, the Dean of the College, implemented a grade deflation policy to curb the number of A-range grades undergraduates received.[85]Malkiel's argument was that an A was beginning to lose its meaning as a larger percentage of the student body received them.[85] While the number of A's has indeed decreased under the policy, many argue that this is hurting Princeton students when they apply to jobs or graduate school.[85] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Malkiel has said that she sent pamphlets to inform institutions about the policy so that they consider Princeton students equally,[85] but students argue that Princeton graduates can apply to other institutions that know nothing about it. They argue further that as other schools purposefully inflate their grades,[86] Princeton students' GPAs will look low by comparison. Further, studies have shown that employers prefer high grades even when they are inflated.[87SONY VAIO PCG-FRV37 Laptop Keyboard The policy remained in place even after Malkiel steped down at the end of the 2010–2011 school year. The policy deflates grades only relative to their previous levels; indeed, as of 2009, or five years after the policy was instituted, the average graduating GPA saw a marginal decrease, from 3.46 to 3.39.[88] Compaq Presario CQ42-173TU Laptop Keyboard Princeton offers postgraduate research degrees in many fields in the social sciences, engineering, natural sciences, and humanities. Although Princeton offers professional graduate degrees in engineering, architecture, and finance, it has no medical school, law school, or business school like other research universities.[89] The university's most famous professional school is the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and US President) Woodrow Wilson. HP Mini 210-2170nr Laptop Keyboard

Libraries

The university's library system houses over eleven million holdings[90] including six million bound volumes.[91] The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world[92] and among the largest "open stack" libraries in existence. Its collections include the Blickling homilies. In addition to Firestone library, many individual disciplines have their own libraries, HP Mini 210-2080ca Laptop Keyboard including architecture, art history, East Asian studies, engineering, geology, international affairs and public policy, Near Eastern studies, and psychology. Seniors in some departments can register for enclosed carrels in the main library for workspace and the private storage of books and research materials. In February 2007, Princeton became the 12th major library system to join Google's ambitious project to scan the world's great literary works and make them searchable over the Web.[93]HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard From 2001 to 2012, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.S. News & World Report (USNWR), holding the No. 1 spot for 10 of those 12 years.[101] After being at second place in 2008-9, Princeton returned to the number one spot in 2010, tying with Harvard University.[102] It has been ranked sixth among world universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University,[103] In the 2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings[104]  Toshiba Satellite A210-131 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Princeton was ranked 6th in the world. In the 2012 QS World University Rankings[105] it was ranked 9th overall in the world, making it 5th among US universities. Its three highest subject rankings were: 7th in Arts & Humanities, 8th in Natural Sciences, and 12th in Social Sciences.[106] In THE's 2012-2013 World University Ranking of Universities, Princeton placed 2nd above MIT and behind Caltech in Engineering and Technology.[107] Princeton was ranked 7th among 300 Best World Universities in 2011 compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance .[108]SONY Vaio VPC-EE2S1E/BQ Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the "America's Best Colleges" rankings by Forbes in 2012, Princeton University was ranked first among all national colleges and universities.[109] The Forbes ranking also takes into consideration national awards won by students and faculty, as well as number of alumni in the 2008 "Who's Who in America" register.[110] HP Pavilion dv7-6051ei Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Princeton Graduate School programs are also highly ranked among universities in the United States.[111] In the 2009 U.S. News & World Report "Graduate School Rankings", all fourteen of Princeton's doctoral programs evaluated were ranked in their respective top 20, 7 of them in the top 5, and 4 of them in the top spot (Mathematics, Economics, History, Political Science).[112] HP Pavilion dv7-1020us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In Princeton Review's rankings of "softer" aspects of students' college experience, Princeton University was ranked first in "Students Happy with Financial Aid" and third in "Happiest Students", behind Clemson and Brown Universities.[113]ACER Aspire 3105 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The university's individual academic departments have been highly ranked in their respective fields. The Department of Psychology has been ranked fifth in the nation[114] and its individual graduate programs have received high national rankings as well. The behavioral neuroscience program[115] has been ranked sixth and the social psychology program[116] has been ranked seventh. The Department of History is currently ranked first in the world.[117] HP Pavilion dv6648se Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Princeton University also participates in the (NAICU)'s University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN). Princeton University has an IBM BlueGeneL supercomputer, called Orangena, which was ranked as the 89th fastest computer in the world in 2005 (LINPACKperformance of 4713 compared to 12250 for other U.S. universities and 280600 for the top-ranked supercomputer, belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy).[118][needs update]Toshiba Qosmio F30-116 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan University housing is guaranteed to all undergraduates for all four years. More than 98 percent of students live on campus in dormitories.[119] Freshmen and sophomores must live in residential colleges, while juniors and seniors typically live in designated upperclassman dormitories. The actual dormitories are comparable, but only residential colleges have dining halls. Nonetheless, any undergraduate may purchase a meal plan and eat in a residential college dining hall. Recently,  SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan upperclassmen have been given the option of remaining in their college for all four years. Juniors and seniors also have the option of living off-campus, but high rent in the Princeton area encourages almost all students to live in university housing. Undergraduate social life revolves around the residential colleges and a number of coeducational eating clubs, which students may choose to join in the spring of their sophomore year. Eating clubs, which are not officially affiliated with the university, serve as dining halls and communal spaces for their members and also host social events throughout the academic year.  SONY Vaio VGN-SZ48GN/C Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Princeton's six residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities, guest speakers, and trips. The residential colleges also sponsor trips to New York for undergraduates to see ballets, operas, Broadway shows, sports events, and other activities. The eating clubs, located on Prospect Avenue, are co-ed organizations for upperclassmen. Most upperclassmen eat their meals at one of the eleven eating clubs. Additionally, the clubs serve as evening and weekend social venues for members and guests. Toshiba Satellite Pro A40-692 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Princeton hosts two Model United Nations conferences, PMUNC[120] in the fall for high school students and PICSim[121] in the spring for college students. It also hosts the Princeton Invitational Speech and Debate tournament each year at the end of November. Princeton also runs Princeton Model Congress, an event that is held once a year in mid-November. The 4-day conference has high school students from around the country as participants. SONY VAIO PCG-6Q2L Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Although the school's admissions policy is need blind, Princeton, based on the proportion of students who receive Pell Grants, was ranked as a school with little economic diversity among all national universities ranked by U.S. News & World Report.[122] While Pell figures are widely used as a gauge of the number of low-income undergraduates on a given campus, the rankings article cautions "the proportion of students on Pell Grants isn't a perfect measure of an institution's efforts to achieve economic diversity," but goes on to say that "still, many experts say that Pell figures are the best available gauge of how many low-income undergrads there are on a given campus."  HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard Princeton is an NCAA Division I school. Its athletic conference is the Ivy League. Princeton hosts 38 men's and women's varsity sports.[131] The largest varsity sport is rowing, with almost 150 athletes.[39]HP Pavilion dv6105EA Laptop Keyboard Princeton's football team has a long and storied history. Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U.S. on Nov 6, 1869. By a score of 6–4, Rutgers won the game, which was played by rules similar to modern rugby.[133] Today Princeton is a member of the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I.[134] As of the end of the 2010 season, Princeton had won 26 national football championships, more than any other school.[135]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The men's basketball program is noted for its success under Pete Carril, the head coach from 1967 to 1996. During this time, Princeton won 13 Ivy League titles and made 11 NCAA tournament appearances.[136] Carril introduced the Princeton offense, an offensive strategy that has since been adopted by a number of college and professional basketball teams.[137] Carril's final victory at Princeton came when the Tigers beat UCLA, the defending national champion, HP 636376-001 Laptop Keyboard in the opening round of the 1996 NCAA tournament,[137] in what is considered one of the greatest upsets in the history of the tournament.[138] Recently Princeton tied the record for the fewest points in a Division I game since the institution of the three-point line in 1986–87, when the Tigers scored 21 points in a loss against Monmouth University on Dec 14, 2005.[139]HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard The men's water polo team is currently a dominant force in the Collegiate Water Polo Association, having reached the Final Four in two of the last three years. Similarly, the men's lacrosse program enjoyed a period of dominance 1992–2001, during which time it won six national championships.[140]SONY VAIO VGN-FS515B Laptop Keyboard Club and intramural In addition to varsity sports, Princeton hosts about 35 club sports teams.[131] Princeton's rugby team is organized as a club sport.[141] Each year, nearly 300 teams participate in intramural sports at Princeton.[142] Intramurals are open to members of Princeton's faculty, staff, and students, though a team representing a residential college or eating club must consist only of members of that college or club. Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available.[143]SONY VAIO PCG-FR415S Laptop Keyboard "Old Nassau" has been Princeton University's anthem since 1859. Its words were written that year by a freshman, Harlan Page Peck, and published in the March issue of the Nassau Literary Review (the oldest student publication at Princeton and also the second oldest undergraduate literary magazine in the country). The words and music appeared together for the first time in Songs of Old Nassau, published in April 1859. Before the Langlotz tune was written, the song was sung to Auld Lang Syne's melody, which also fits.[144]  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard However, Old Nassau does not only refer to the university's anthem. It can also refer to Nassau Hall, the building that was built in 1756 and named afterWilliam III of the House of Orange-Nassau. When built, it was the largest college building in North America. It served briefly as the capitol of the United States when the Continental Congress convened there in the summer of 1783. By metonymy, the term can refer to the university as a whole. Finally, it can also refer to a chemical reaction that is dubbed "Old Nassau reaction" because the solution turns orange and then black.[145]SONY VAIO VGN-FZ490 Laptop Keyboard U.S. Presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson graduated from Princeton, as did Michelle Obama, the current First Lady of the United States. Former Chief Justice of the United States Oliver Ellsworth was an alumnus, as are current U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justices Samuel Alito, Elena Kagan, and Sonia Sotomayor. Notable graduates of Princeton's School of Engineering and Applied Science include Amazon CEO and founder Jeff Bezos, HP G62-120EG Laptop Keyboard Google executive Eric Schmidt and Lisa P. Jackson, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. Actor Jimmy Stewart graduated from Princeton. Writers F. Scott Fitzgerald and Eugene O'Neill attended but did not graduate; Selden Edwards and Will Stanton graduated with an English degree. Notable graduate alumni include Richard Feynman, John Nash, Alan Mathison Turing and David Petraeus. SONY VAIO VGN-NW125J/T Laptop Keyboard Notable faculty members include Paul Krugman, Joyce Carol Oates, Peter Singer, and Andrew Wiles. Notable former faculty members include Ben Bernanke, Joseph Henry, Toni Morrison, John P. Lewis and Woodrow Wilson, who served as president of the University 1902–1910. Albert Einstein, though on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study rather than at Princeton, came to be associated with the university through frequent lectures and visits on the campus. HP G62-b10EP Laptop Keyboard As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,790 people, 13,171 households, and 7,982 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,346.9 inhabitants per square mile (906.1 /km2). There were 13,926 housing units at an average density of 913.2 per square mile (352.6 /km2). Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard The racial makeup of the township was 63.14% (22,598)White, 27.62% (9,885) African American, 0.30% (109) Native American, 4.30% (1,538) Asian, 0.04% (15) Pacific Islander, 2.24% (803) from other races, and 2.35% (842) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.62% (2,727) of the population.[9]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard There were 13,171 households out of which 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.97.[9] TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard In the township the age distribution of the population shows 16.3% under the age of 18, 20.0% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males.[9]TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $69,716 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,668) and the median family income was $86,875 (+/- $4,312). Males had a median income of $56,308 (+/- $6,003) versus $52,313 (+/- $1,887) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $30,489 (+/- $1,527). About 4.7% of families and 10.0% of the population were below thepoverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.[30]GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard s of the 2000 United States Census[14] there were 35,707 people, 12,551 households, and 8,208 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,328.6 people per square mile (899.3/km2). There were 12,924 housing units at an average density of 842.8 per square mile (325.5/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 69.02% White, 24.82% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.83% from other races, and 1.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.44% of the population.[28][29]HP G71-340US Laptop Keyboard There were 12,551 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couplesliving together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.00.[28]HP Pavilion dv6-3132tx Laptop Keyboard In the township the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 17.3% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.[28]HP G61-420SO Laptop Keyboard The median income for a household in the township was $57,274, and the median income for a family was $67,618. Males had a median income of $44,531 versus $35,844 for females. The per capita income for the township was $24,268. About 3.3% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.[28]SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard Ewing Township was originally farmland punctuated by hamlets, including Ewingville, West Trenton and Wilburtha. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the township has developed as a suburb of Trenton. The sections near the city border are distinctly urban, but most of the township is suburban residential development. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The main commercial district extends along North Olden Avenue Extension (County Route 622), originally constructed to connect north Trenton residences with the now-closed General Motors plant. Ewing Township is also the location of The College of New Jersey, the Community Blood Council of New Jersey, New Jersey State Police headquarters, the Jones Farm State Correction Institute, the Trenton Psychiatric Institute, the New Jersey Department of Transportationheadquarters, Katzenbach School for the Deaf, and Trenton-Mercer Airport (KTTN), the location of Trenton, New Jersey's weather observations. HP 535442-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Ewing was home to the Inland Fisher Guide Plant, a plant that opened in 1938 for the Ternstedt division of GM's Fisher Body unit. During World War II, the plant was used to build torpedo bombers for the United States Navy. The plant was converted back to manufacture car parts after the war and became the first location of an industrial robot used to replace human workers.[31] After its closure in 1998. The plant was demolished and has been targeted for cleanup and commercial redevelopment, with a $10.4 million grant received in 2011 to cover the costs of remediation of the site.[32] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Federal, state and county representation

Ewing Township is in the 12th Congressional district[36] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[10][37] New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District is represented by Rush D. Holt, Jr. (D, Hopewell Township).[38] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senateby Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken). FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard The 15th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Reed Gusciora (D, Trenton) and Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[39] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[40] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[41]TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Under Mercer County's form of government, the County Executive performs executive functions and oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. As of 2012, the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D; term ends December 31, 2013, Princeton Township).[42] Members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders are elected at-large to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard with two or three seats coming up for election each year. A Freeholder Chair and Vice-Chair are selected on an annual basis from among its members.[43] County Freeholders are Freeholder Chair Lucylle R. S. Walter (D; 2014, Ewing Township)[44], Freeholder Vice Chair John Cimino (D; 2014, Hamilton Township)[45], Ann M. Cannon (D; 2012,

 East Windsor Township)[46], Anthony P. Carabelli (D; 2013, Trenton)[47], Pasqual "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (D; 2012, Lawrence Township)[48], Samuel T. Frisby (D; 2012; Trenton)[49], and Andrew Koontz (D; 2013, Princeton Borough).[50][51][3] DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 21,714 registered voters in Ewing Township, of which 9,358 (43.1%) were registered as Democrats, 3,256 (15.0%) were registered as Republicans and 9,087 (41.8%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 13 voters registered to other parties.[54]HP 636191-001 Laptop Keyboard In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 70.0% of the vote here (11,911 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 28.1% (4,787 votes) and other candidates with 1.2% (200 votes), among the 17,021 ballots cast by the township's 22,913 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.3%.[55] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 62.0% of the vote here (10,091 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 34.7% (5,653 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (135 votes), among the 16,284 ballots cast by the township's 22,019 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 74.0.[56]IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 59.4% of the vote here (6,529 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 34.1% (3,751 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 4.7% (520 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (81 votes), among the 10,989 ballots cast by the township's 22,263 registered voters, yielding a 49.4% turnout.[57] HP G61-440SG Laptop Keyboard The Ewing Township Board of Education oversees the Ewing Public Schools. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[58]) are three K-5 elementary schools — Antheil (731 students) Lore (521) Parkway (462) — Fisher (880) for grades 6-8 and Ewing High School (1,151) for grades 9-12. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard A court case filed in 1946 challenged a policy of the Ewing Public Schools under which the district provided bus transportation to students living in the districts who attended private parochial schools. In Everson v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled for the first time that state and local government were subject to the establishment clause but that it had not been violated in this instance.[59]SONY VAIO VPCF126FM Laptop Keyboard The Ewing Public Education Foundation, established in 1995, is an independent, not-for-profit citizen’s organization whose mission is to mobilize community support, concern, commitment and resources to help improve the quality of education in Ewing Township. EPEF provides grants to Ewing Township Schools for innovative educational programs through fund-raising activities, and corporate and institutional sponsorship. The Foundation also seeks to match corporate and organizational donors with teachers to fund additional projects of mutual interest. These programs enhance the educational experience without the use of additional taxpayer dollars.[60] IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard Incarnation-St. James Catholic School (formerly Incarnation School), constructed in 1955, is a Pre-K to 8th grade parish school administered by The Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and overseen by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.[61] The school added a parish center in 2003, which includes a gym, locker rooms, offices, meeting rooms, boiler room, and a kitchenette to be used to the benefit of its students, faculty, and staff. In 2006, the Incarnation School and parish combined with the St. James School and parish.[62]SONY VAIO VGN-N11M Laptop Keyboard The Villa Victoria Academy is a private Catholic school in Ewing Township, christened as a private academy in 1933, and operated by the Religious Teachers Filippini. This single-gender school offers an education to young females from grades Pre-K to 12th grade.[63]SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 Laptop Keyboard The College of New Jersey (formerly Trenton State College) is located on a campus covering 289 acres (117 ha) within the township.[64] Thomas J. Rubino Academy (formerly Mercer County AltNewark ( /ˈnjuː.ərk/)[13] is the largest city (by population) in the U.S. state of New Jersey, and the seat ofEssex County. One of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs, the city had a population of 277,140 in 2010,[8] retaining its position as the largest city in the state and making it the nation's 67th most-populous municipality.[14] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard After reaching a peak of 442,337 residents counted in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a decline of nearly 40% as residents moved to surrounding suburbs, with the increase in 2010 of 3,594 (+1.3%) from the 273,546 counted in the 2000 Census marking the second census in 70 years in which the city's population had grown from the previous enumeration.[5][6][7][15][16]SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/PI Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Located in the heart of New Jersey's Gateway Region, Newark is the second largest city in the New York metropolitan area, approximately 8 miles (13 km) west of Manhattan. Port Newark, the major container shipping terminal in thePort of New York and New Jersey, is the largest on the East Coast. Newark Liberty International Airport was first municipal commercial airport in the United States and today one of its busiest.[17][18][19]Toshiba Satellite A50-109 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark is headquarters to numerous corporations, such as Prudential Financial and PSEG. It is home to several universities, including Rutgers and the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and cultural and sports venues, among them the New Jersey Performing Arts Center and Prudential Center. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA896LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A culturally diverse city, Newark is divided into five geographical wards, and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, which number about 4,300.[20][21][22]FUJITSU LifeBook S7111 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan construction of its own arena, the Barclays Center in Brooklyn, New York for the 2012–13 season.[152] The New York Liberty of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) will have its home court at Newark's Prudential Center for three seasons until renovations of Madison Square Garden are completed in 2013.[153]  SONY Vaio VGN-CR290 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A professional basketball team in the American Basketball Association, the Newark Express was introduced to the city in 2005. The team formerly played their home at Essex County College and Drew University in Madison and now play at East Orange Campus High School.[154]HP G62-346NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark had a team which competed in the first American Football League in 1926, the Newark Bears. A short-lived NFL franchise named the Newark Tornadoes folded in 1930. In 1937, the AFL team the Orange Tornadoes moved to Newark, becoming the Newark Tornadoes which competed in the AA's Southern Division. In 1939, the Tornadoes were purchased by Chicago Bears owner George Halas as a farm team, eventually moving to Akron, Ohio.[155] In 1946, they were replaced by the Newark Bombers, which in 1947 moved to Bloomfield, New Jersey and became the Bloomfield Cardinals. HP Pavilion dv7-4007eo Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Newark does not have any major television network affiliates due to its proximity to New York City. However, WNET, a flagship station of the Public Broadcasting Service, and Spanish-language WFUT-TV, a TeleFutura owned-and-operated station, are licensed to Newark. The state's leading newspaper, The Star-Ledger, owned byAdvance Publications, is based in Newark. HP G62-b54SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Radio Station WJZ (now WABC (AM)) made its first broadcast in 1921 from the Westinghouse plant near Lackawanna Station. It moved to New York City in the 1920s. Pioneer radio station WOR AM was originally licensed to and broadcast from the Bamberger's Department Store in Newark. Radio Station WNEW-AM (now WBBR) was founded in Newark in 1934. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5821 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It later moved to New York City. In addition, WBGO, a National Public Radio affiliate that reaches New York City with a format of standard and contemporary jazz, is located in downtown Newark. WNSW AM-1430 (formerly WNJR) and WQXR (which was formerly WHBI and later WCAA) 105.9 FM are also licensed to Newark.[156]SONY Vaio VGN-FS215M Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Film and television There have been several film and TV productions depicting life in Newark. Life of Crime, was originally produced in 1988 and was followed by a 1998 sequel.[157]New Jersey Drive, a 1995 film about the city when it was considered the "car theft capital of the world".[158] Street Fight is an Academy Award-nominateddocumentary film which covered the 2002 mayoral election between incumbent Sharpe James and challenger Cory Booker. In 2009, the Sundance Channel aired Brick City,  Toshiba Satellite A205-S5809 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan a five-part television documentary about Newark, focusing on the community's attempt to become a better and safer place to live, against a history of nearly a half century of violence, poverty and official corruption. The second season premiered January 30, 2011.[159] Revolution '67 is an award winning documentary which examines the causes and events of the 1967 Newark riots. The HBO television series The Sopranos filmed many of its scenes in Newark, and is partially based on the life of Newark mobster Richard Boiardo.[160][161]HP Pavilion dv6-2120tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Numerous movies, television programs, and music videos have been shot in Newark, it's period architecture and its streetscape seen as an ideal "urban setting". In 2011, the city created the Newark Office of Film and Television in order to promote the making of media productions.[162][163] Some months earlier the Ironbound film and Televisin studio, the only, "stay and shoot" facility in the metro area opened, it's first production being Bar Karma.[164] In 2012 the city hosted the seventh season of the reality show competition America's Got Talent.[165]ASUS G60J Laptop CPU Cooling Fan rnative High School) is one of Mercer County's only alternative schools, offering an alternative educational program for students who have struggled in the traditional school environment, featuring smaller classes, mentoring and counseling.[65] Ewing Township is traversed by multiple main roadways, as well as by a passenger rail line and is the location of an airport. HP HDX18-1000EO Laptop Keyboard Route 29 (Daniel Bray Highway and River Road) extends north-south along the western edge of the township, along the Delaware River. The southern section, Daniel Bray Highway, is a 55 mph (90 km/h), divided four-lane facility with at-grade intersections and traffic lights, and was constructed in the 1950s. The northern section, River Road, is a 45 mph (70 km/h), undivided two-lane facility whose construction as a state highway dates from the 1930s. NJ 29 connects southwards toTrenton, and northwards to Lambertville and Frenchtown. Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard Route 31 (Pennington Road) extends north-south towards the eastern side of the township. It is a 35-45 mph (60–70 km/h), undivided four-lane facility whose construction as a state highway also dates to the 1930s. It once also carried a trolley line, but it has long since been removed. It was once proposed to be bypassed by a freeway, but this plan has since been cancelled. NJ 31 also connects south to Trenton, and connects north to Pennington, Flemington, and Clinton. HP 633736-001 Laptop Keyboard U.S. Route 206 (Princeton Avenue) skirts the southeastern section of the township. It is a 25 mph (40 km/h), undivided four-lane[66] facility. Although part of US 206, it was not constructed and is not maintained by the state. US 206 also connects south to Trenton, and connects north to Princeton and Somerville. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard Interstate 95 (the Scudder Falls Freeway and Bridge) crosses the northwestern section of the township. It is a 55-65 mph (90–100 km/h), 4-6 lane dividedfreeway facility. It was constructed as a 4-lane facility in the 1960s, and widened to 6 lanes in the 1990s, with the exception of the Scudder Falls Bridge over the Delaware River. TOSHIBA Satellite P300 Laptop Keyboard It connects south with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and connects north to U.S. 1, where this branch of Interstate 95 ends. It becomesInterstate 295. From there, travelers use U.S. 1 or Interstate 195 and the New Jersey Turnpike to reach the next major destination northwards, New York City. The Ewing portion of Interstate 95 will eventually be redesignated as "Interstate 195 Extension" when a direct interchange between Interstate 95 in Pennsylvaniaand the Pennsylvania Turnpike is completed, re-routing Interstate 95 onto the New Jersey Turnpike at Exit 6 (in Mansfield Township).  DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion dv7-4070us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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