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The culture of the United Kingdom is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people. It is influenced by the UK's history as a developed island country, a liberal democracy and a major power, its predominantly Christian religious life, and its composition of four countries—England, HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan

Northern Ireland,Scotland and Wales—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism. The wider culture of Europe has also influenced British culture, and Humanism, Protestantism and representative democracy developed from broader Western culture. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

British literature, music, cinema, art, theatre, media, television, philosophy and architecture are influential and respected across the world. The United Kingdom is also prominent in science and technology. Sport is an important part of British culture; numerous sports originated in the country, including football. HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

The UK has been described as a "cultural superpower",[3][4] and London has been described as a world cultural capital.[5][6][7][8]

The Industrial Revolution, with its origins in the UK, had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the world. Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

As a result of the British Empire, significant British influence can be observed in thelanguage, culture and institutions of a geographically wide assortment of countries, including Australia, Canada, India, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

These states are sometimes collectively known as the Anglosphere, and are among Britain's closest allies.[9][10] In turn the empire also influenced British culture, particularly British cuisine.[11]

The cultures of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are diverse and have varying degrees of overlap and distinctiveness. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

First spoken in early medieval England, the English language is the de facto official language of the UK, and is spoken monolingually by an estimated 95% of the British population.[12][note 1]

However, individual countries within the UK have frameworks for the promotion of their indigenous languages. Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

In Wales, all pupils at state schools must either be taught through the medium of Welsh or study it as an additional language until age 16, and the Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages should be treated equally in the public sector, so far as is reasonable and practicable. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Irish and Ulster Scots enjoy limited use alongside English in Northern Ireland, mainly in publicly commissioned translations. The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act, passed by the Scottish Parliament in 2005, recognisedGaelic as an official language of Scotland, commanding equal respect with English, Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

and required the creation of a national plan for Gaelic to provide strategic direction for the development of the Gaelic language.[note 2] There is also a campaign under way to recogniseScots as a language in Scotland, though this remains controversial. The Cornish language enjoys neither official recognition nor promotion by the state in Cornwall. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

Under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the UK Government has committed to the promotion of certain linguistic traditions. The United Kingdom has ratified the charter for: Welsh (in Wales), Scottish Gaelic and Scots (in Scotland), Cornish (in Cornwall), and Irish and Ulster Scots (in Northern Ireland). British Sign Language is also a recognised language. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

At its formation, the United Kingdom inherited the literary traditions of England, Scotland and Wales, including the earliest existing native literature written in the Celtic languages, Old English literature and more recent English literature including the works ofGeoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare and John Milton. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The early 18th century is known as the Augustan Age of English literature. The poetry of the time was highly formal, as exemplified by the works of Alexander Pope, and the English novel became popular, with Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1721), Samuel Richardson's Pamela (1740) and Henry Fielding's Tom Jones (1749). HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

From the late 18th century, the Romantic period showed a flowering of poetry comparable with the Renaissance 200 years earlier and a revival of interest in vernacular literature. In Scotland the poetry of Robert Burnsrevived interest in Scots literature, and the Weaver Poets of Ulster were influenced by literature from Scotland. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

In Wales the late 18th century saw the revival of the eisteddfod tradition, inspired by Iolo Morganwg. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.

In the 19th century, major poets in English literature included William Blake, IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Alfred Lord Tennyson, John Keats, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Percy Shelley and Lord Byron. The Victorian period was the golden age of the realistic English novel, represented by Jane Austen, theBrontë sisters (Charlotte, Emily and Anne), Charles Dickens, William Thackeray, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

World War I gave rise to British war poets and writers such as Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon, Robert Gravesand Rupert Brooke who wrote (often paradoxically), of their expectations of war, and/or their experiences in the trench.

The most widely popular writer of the early years of the 20th century was arguably Rudyard Kipling. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

To date the youngest ever recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, Kipling's novels include The Jungle BookThe Man Who Would Be King and Kim, while his inspirational poem If— is a national favourite. Like William Ernest Henley's poem Invictus,[16] it is a memorable evocation of Victorian stoicism, a traditional British virtue.[17] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Notable Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, James Joyce, Bram Stoker, Jonathan Swift, George Bernard Shaw andW. B. Yeats. The Celtic Revival stimulated a new appreciation of traditional Irish literature. The Scottish Renaissance of the early 20th century brought modernism to Scottish literature as well as an interest in new forms in the literatures of Scottish Gaelic and Scots.FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The English novel developed in the 20th century into much greater variety and it remains today the dominant English literary form.

Other globally well-known British novelists include George Orwell, C. S. Lewis, Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, H. G. Wells,D. H. Lawrence, Mary Shelley, Lewis Carroll, J. R. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

R. Tolkien, Virginia Woolf, Ian Fleming, Walter Scott, Agatha Christie, J. M. Barrie, Joseph Conrad, Graham Greene, E. M. Forster, Aldous Huxley, Roald Dahl, Helen Fielding, Arthur C. Clarke, Alan Moore, Ian McEwan, Anthony Burgess, Evelyn Waugh, William Golding, Salman Rushdie, Douglas Adams, P. G. Wodehouse, HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

Martin Amis, Anthony Trollope, Beatrix Potter, A. A. Milne, Philip Pullman, Terry Pratchett, H. Rider Haggard, Neil Gaimanand J. K. Rowling. Important British poets of the 20th century include Rudyard Kipling, W. H. Auden, Ted Hughes, Philip Larkin, John Betjeman and Dylan Thomas. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

In 2003 the BBC carried out a UK survey entitled The Big Read in order to find the "nation's best-loved novel" of all time, with works by English novelists Tolkien,Austen, Pullman, Adams and Rowling making up the top five on the list. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

From its formation in 1707, the United Kingdom has had a vibrant tradition of theatre, much of it inherited from England and Scotland. The West End is the main theatre district in the UK, which is located in the West End of London.[19][20] The West End'sTheatre Royal in Covent Garden in the City of Westminster dates back to the mid 17th century, making it the oldest London theatre.[21] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

In the 18th century, the highbrow and provocative Restoration comedy lost favour, to be replaced by sentimental comedy, domestictragedy such as George Lillo's The London Merchant (1731), and by an overwhelming interest in Italian opera. Popular entertainment became more important in this period than ever before, FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

with fair-booth burlesque and mixed forms that are the ancestors of the English music hall. These forms flourished at the expense of legitimate English drama, which went into a long period of decline. By the early 19th century it was no longer represented by stage plays at all, but by the closet drama, plays written to be privately read in a "closet" (a small domestic room). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet[22] describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, and new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque; but critics described British theatre as driven by commercialism and a 'star' system.

A change came in the late 19th century with the plays on the London stage by the Irishmen George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, who influenced domestic English drama and vitalised it again. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Shakespeare's birthplaceStratford upon Avon in 1879; and Herbert Beerbohm Tree founded an Academy of Dramatic Art at Her Majesty's Theatre in 1904.[25] ProducerRichard D'Oyly Carte brought together librettist W. S. Gilbert and composer Arthur Sullivan, and nurtured their collaboration.[26Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

] AmongGilbert and Sullivan's best known comic operas are H.M.S. PinaforeThe Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado.[27] Carte built the West End's Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works, and through the inventor of electric light Sir Joseph Swan, the Savoy was the first theatre, and the first public building in the world, to be lit entirely by electricity.[28][29] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Sadler's Wells, under Lilian Baylis, nurtured talent that led to the development of an opera company, which became the English National Opera (ENO), a theatre company, which evolved into the National Theatre, and a ballet company, which eventually became the English Royal Ballet. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Making his professional West End debut at the Garrick Theatre in 1911, flamboyant playwright, composer and actor Noël Coward had a career spanning over 50 years, in which he wrote many comic plays, and over a dozen musical theatre works.[32] In July 1962, a board was set up to supervise construction of aNational Theatre in London and a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The Company was to remain at the Old Vic until 1976, when the new South Bankbuilding was opened. A National Theatre of Scotland was set up in 2006. Today the West End of Londonhas a large number of theatres, particularly centred on Shaftesbury Avenue. A prolific composer of musical theatre in the 20th century, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

Andrew Lloyd Webber has been referred to as "the most commercially successful composer in history".[24] His musicals which include; The Phantom of the OperaCatsJesus Christ Superstar and Evita, have dominated the West End for a number of years and have travelled to Broadway in New York and around the world as well as being turned into films.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Lloyd Webber has worked with producer Sir Cameron Mackintosh, lyricist Sir Tim Rice, actress and singer Sarah Brightman, while his musicals originally starred Elaine Paige, who with continued success has become known as the First Lady of British Musical Theatre.[33] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The Royal Shakespeare Company operates out of Stratford-upon-Avon, producing mainly but not exclusively Shakespeare's plays.[34]Important modern playwrights include Nobel laureate Harold Pinter, Tom Stoppard, Alan Ayckbourn, John Osborne, Michael Frayn andArnold Wesker. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

While the British national anthem "God Save the Queen" and other patriotic songs such as "Rule, Britannia!" represent the United Kingdom, each of the four individual countries of the UK also has their own patriotic hymns. Edward Elgar's "Land of Hope and Glory", and Hubert Parry's "Jerusalem" set to William Blake's poem And did those feet in ancient timeHP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

are among England's most patriotic hymns.[37] Scottish patriotic songs include "Flower of Scotland", "Scotland the Brave" and "Scots Wha Hae"; patriotic Welsh hymns include "Bread of Heaven", set to the tune "Cwm Rhondda", and "Land of My Fathers"; the latter is the national anthem of Wales.[38] HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The patriotic Northern Irish ballad Danny Boy is set to the tune "Londonderry Air". The traditional marching song, "The British Grenadiers", is often performed by British Army bands, and is played at the Trooping the Colour.[39] Written by British Army bandmaster F. J. Ricketts, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the "Colonel Bogey March" is often whistled, becoming part of British way of life during World War II.[40] George Frideric Handel composed Zadok the Priest in 1727 for the coronation of George II, which has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally performed during the sovereign's anointing. Jeremiah Clarke's "Trumpet Voluntary" is popular for wedding music, and has featured in royal weddings.[41] HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Other notable British composers: Henry Purcell, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Benjamin Britten, Gustav Holst, William Byrd, Thomas Tallis, Henry Wood, John Taverner, John Blow, Arthur Sullivan, William Walton, John Stafford Smith, Henry Bishop, Ivor Novello, Malcolm Arnold, Michael Tippett and John Barry have made major contributions to British music, and are known internationally. HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Living composers include Sir George Martin, Harrison Birtwistle, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Oliver Knussen, Harry Gregson Williams, Mike Oldfield, John Rutter, James MacMillan, Joby Talbot, John Powell, David Arnold, Anne Dudley, Trevor Horn, John Murphy, Brian Eno, Clint Mansell,Craig Armstrong and Michael Nyman. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The traditional folk music of England has contributed to several genres, such as sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde's printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections.[42] IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some of the best known songs are GreensleevesScarborough FairPastime with Good CompanyOver the Hills and Far Away amongst others. The bagpipes have long been a national symbol of Scotland, and the Great Highland Bagpipe is widely recognised. The most famous Scottish folk song, Auld Lang Syne, is well known throughout the English-speaking world, and is often sung to celebrate the start of the New Year, especially at Hogmanay in Edinburgh.[43] HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From the mid-16th century, nursery rhymes began to be recorded in English plays.[44] Some of the best known nursery rhymes from Britain include; Twinkle Twinkle Little StarRoses are redJack and JillCock a doodle dooBaa, Baa, Black SheepThe Grand Old Duke of YorkLondon Bridge Is Falling DownHey Diddle DiddleSONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Three Blind MiceLittle Miss MuffetPat-a-cakePop Goes the WeaselOne, Two, Buckle My ShoePeter PiperHickory Dickory DockRock-a-bye Baby,One for SorrowThis Old ManSimple SimonOld Mother HubbardLittle Bo PeepSing a Song of SixpenceMary, Mary, Quite ContraryOld King Cole and Humpty Dumpty.[45] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work by John Awdlay, a Shropshire chaplain who lists twenty five "caroles of Cristemas", probably sung by groups of 'wassailers', who went from house to house.[46] Some of the most notable carols from the UK include; We Wish You a Merry ChristmasO Come All Ye FaithfulHP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The First NoelGod Rest You Merry, GentlemenThe Holly and the IvyI Saw Three ShipsDeck the HallsIn the Bleak MidwinterJoy to the WorldOnce in Royal David's CityHark! The Herald Angels SingWhat Child Is This?Good King WenceslasHere We Come A-Caroling and While Shepherds Watched Their FlocksHP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The music of Christmas has always been a combination of sacred and secular, and every year in the UK there is highly publicised competition to be the Christmas number one single, which has led to the production of music which still provides the mainstay of festive playlists. During WWII, Vera Lynn was known as the Forces' Sweetheart,  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with "We'll Meet Again", sung to British troops, among the songs most associated with her.[47] The UK single and album charts are revealed every Sunday on BBC Radio 1, with Elton John's "Candle in the Wind 1997" the best-selling single in the UK, and Queen's Greatest Hits the best-selling album. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The United Kingdom supports a number of major orchestras including the BBC Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, thePhilharmonia, the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. London is one of the world's major centres for classical music: Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

it has several important concert halls and is also home to the Royal Opera House, one of the world's leading opera houses. British traditional music has also been very influential abroad. The Brit Awards, the BPI's annual pop music awards, take place at The O2 Arena every February.[54] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The UK was one of the two main countries in the creation and development of many genres of popular music, including; rock music; The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Who, The Kinks; hard rock; Led Zeppelin, Cream, Def Leppard, Whitesnake; progressive rock; Pink Floyd,Genesis, Yes; Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

glam rock; Queen, Elton John, David Bowie, T. Rex, blues rock; The Yardbirds, The Animals, Eric Clapton, Dire Straits; heavy metal; Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Iron Maiden, Motörhead, Judas Priest; punk rock; Sex Pistols, The Clash, Billy Idol; new wave;The Police, Elvis Costello, Culture Club, Duran Duran; goth rock; HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Cure, Siouxsie and the Banshees; art rock; The Moody Blues,Emerson, Lake and Palmer, Procol Harum, Peter Gabriel, Kate Bush; folk rock; Van Morrison, Cat Stevens, Donovan, Mumford & Sons; soft rock; The Hollies, blue-eyed soul; Dusty Springfield, Tom Jones, Steve Winwood; disco; SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bee Gees; synth pop; Depeche Mode, Eurythmics, Pet Shop Boys; reggae; UB40; pop rock; Rod Stewart, Phil Collins, Sting, Joe Cocker, Robert Palmer, Bonnie Tyler; alternative rock; The Smiths, New Order, Radiohead, Coldplay; symphonic rock; ELO, Muse; Britpop; Oasis, Blur, The Verve; soul; Sade, Amy Winehouse, Adele. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The UK has also pioneered various forms of electronic dance music including dubstep, acid house, uk garage, drum and bass and trip hop, with acts including; The Prodigy, Massive Attack, Jamiroquai, The Chemical Brothers, Gorillaz, Calvin Harris and Fatboy Slim. Other notable British artists in pop music include; APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Spice Girls, George Michael, Seal, Leona Lewis, One Direction and Robbie Williams. In 2009, British artists topped the decade end ranking, with "Chasing Cars" by Snow Patrol announced as the most widely played song of the decade in the UK, and Back to Bedlam by James Blunt the best selling album of the 2000s in the UK.[55][56HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Since the mid 2000s, British rap is becoming increasingly popular, mainly within the youth of large cities such as London, Manchester, Birmingham, Nottingham, Leeds and Sheffield. Popular British R&B artists include Taio Cruz, Jay Sean, M.I.A. and Jessie J.

The UK has had a large impact on modern cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Sir Alfred Hitchcock, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Charlie Chaplin, David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Vivien Leigh, Audrey Hepburn, John Gielgud, Sean Connery, Richard Burton, Vanessa Redgrave, Michael Caine, Anthony Hopkins and Daniel Day-Lewis. The BFI Top 100 British films is a poll conducted by the British Film Institute which ranks what they consider to be the 100 greatest British films of all time. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Two of the biggest actors in the silent era were Charlie Chaplin and Stan Laurel. English photographer Eadweard Muybridge pioneered motion picture,[57] while pioneering Scottish documentary maker John Grierson coined the term "documentary" to describe a non-fiction film in 1926.[58] Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Hitchcock's first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1926), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail, is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.[59][60] The 39 Steps (1935) features a signatureHitchcock cameo, and established the quintessential English 'Hitchcock blonde' Madeleine Carroll as the template for his succession of ice cold and elegant leading ladies.[6HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

1] Sir Alexander Korda's The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), was the first British production to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. Boris Karloff played the leading role in several major Hollywood horror films in the 1930s. Famous for recording many motion picture film scores, the London Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first British Academy Film Awards ceremony took place in 1947. Sir Laurence Olivier starred in and directed Henry V (1944), and Hamlet (1948), the latter being the first non-American film to win the Academy Award for Best Pictureand also picked up the BAFTA Award for Best Film. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The third Shakespearean film directed by Olivier was Richard III (1955). The British film-making partnership of Powell and Pressburger made a series of influential films in the 1940s and 1950s, with The Red Shoes (1948) their most commercially successful film. Carol Reed directed The Third Man (1949), regarded among the best British films of the 20th century.[64] Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

David Lean emerged as a major filmmaker in the 1940s with Brief Encounter (1945) and Great Expectations (1946), and his first big-screen epic The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) won seven Academy Awards. Towards the end of the 1950s, Hammer Films embarked on their series of influential and wildly successful horror films,  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including lavish colour versions of Frankenstein (1957), Dracula(1958) and The Mummy (1959), with actors Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee at the forefront. The Dam Busters (1955), recreates the true story of the RAF's raid on dams in Nazi Germany using Sir Barnes Wallis's invention the "bouncing bomb".HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Carry On series, which consists of 31 comedy motion pictures, commenced in 1958. A West Country native where many well-known English pirates hailed from, Robert Newton's portrayal of Long John Silver in 1950s films popularised the stereotypical West Country pirate accent.[65] ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Films that explored the "Swinging London" phenomenon of the 1960s included, Alfie (1966), Blowup (1966) and Bedazzled (1967). TheJames Bond film series began in the early 1960s, with Sean Connery in the leading role. Bond, portrayed by Connery, was selected as the third-greatest hero in cinema history by the AFI.[6 HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

6] After The Beatles films A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965), it became standard for each new pop group to have a verité style feature film made about them. A Man for All Seasons (1966), based on Sir Thomas More, is listed by theVatican as being among the greatest religious movies of all time.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Other major British films of the 1960s included Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Tom Jones (1963), Zulu (1964) and Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines (1965). Four of the decade's Academy Award winners for best picture were British productions, including six Oscars for the film musical Oliver! (1968), based on Charles Dickens' classic Oliver Twist Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The caper film The Italian Job (1969), starringMichael Caine, is regarded as one of the greatest British films ever, with the line "You were only supposed to blow the bloody doors off!" by Caine voted favourite film one-liner in a poll.[69] Other British actors in starring roles in 1960s films included Richard Burton,  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Peter Sellers, Audrey Hepburn (played Cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle in My Fair Lady, 1964), Julie Christie, Peter Ustinov,Rex Harrison, Alec Guinness, David Niven and Julie Andrews, whose portrayal of English nanny Mary Poppins is named one of the greatest movie characters.[70] HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ken Russell's Women in Love (1969) starred Glenda Jackson, who won the Academy Award for best actress.

In the 1970s, Ronald Neame directed the festive favourite Scrooge (1970). A Clockwork Orange (1971), based on Anthony Burgess' novella of the same name, starred Malcolm McDowell as the leader of a gang of thugs in a dystopian future Britain.[71] HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British horror film The Wicker Man (1973), starring Christopher Lee, is considered a cult classic. Two adaptations of Agatha Christie stories Murder on the Orient Express (1974) and Death on the Nile (1978) were critically acclaimed. British musical comedy film The Rocky Horror Picture Show(1975) featuring Tim Curry,  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

is the longest-running theatrical release in film history.[72] In the mid-1970s, seminal British comedy teamMonty Python switched their attention to films, beginning with Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975), followed by Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979), the latter regularly voted the funniest film of all time by the British public.[73][ DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

74] Hollywood blockbusters that were filmed at major British studios in 1977–79, include Star Wars (featuring Alec Guinness, and 'the dean of special effects' John Stears)[75] at Elstree Studios, Superman (featuring Terence Stamp) at Pinewood, and Alien (directed by Ridley Scott) at Shepperton. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

British films won back to back Academy Award for best picture in the 1980s, with Chariots of Fire (1982), followed by Gandhi (1983).John Hurt won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor for his titular role as 19th-century Englishman Joseph Merrick in The Elephant Man (1980).Richard Marquand directed Star Wars Episode VICompaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

: Return of the Jedi in 1983, the only non-American to direct a Star Wars film. The 1985 dark comedy fantasy film, Brazil, is regarded as one of the best British films of the mid 1980s, while the 1987 black comedy, Withnail and I, has been described as "one of Britain's biggest cult films".[76] HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the late 1980s, a number of young British actors who were becoming major stars, such as Gary Oldman, Daniel Day-Lewis, Colin Firth, Tim Roth and Rupert Everett, were dubbed the 'Brit Pack'.[77]

The 1990s saw a large number of traditional British period dramas, including Sense and Sensibility (1995),  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Restoration (1995), Emma(1996), Mrs. Brown (1997), The Wings of the Dove (1997), Shakespeare in Love (1998) and Topsy-Turvy (1999). Anthony Minghella's biggest directorial success was The English Patient (1996), winning nine Academy Awards. English film composer Michael Nyman wrote the critically acclaimed score for The Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Piano (1993). Elton John and lyricist Sir Tim Rice collaborated to write music for Disney's The Lion King (1994), winning the Academy Award for Best Original Song, as did Phil Collins for Disney's Tarzan (1999). Scottish composer Craig Armstrong wrote the award winning score for the modern version of Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet (1996). HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

BAFTA award winning British films included Danny Boyle's drama Trainspotting (1996) that centres on life in Edinburgh, the 1997 comedy The Full Monty set in Sheffield, and the biographical drama Elizabeth (1998). Richard Curtis's 1994 film Four Weddings and a Funeral set a pattern for British-set romantic comedies, including Sliding Doors (1998) and Notting Hill (1999). HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the start of the 21st century, three major international British successes were the romantic comediesBridget Jones's Diary (2001), sequel Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason (2004), and Richard Curtis's directorial debut Love Actually(2003). In 2000, Leavesden Film Studios began filming the first instalment of the Harry Potter film series.[78HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] English composer Clint Mansell's score for Requiem for a Dream has been well received,[79] and its main theme Lux Aeterna has gained wide usage in popular culture and has featured in a number of film trailers. Famous for his creation Mr. Bean, the much celebrated comedian Rowan Atkinsonstarred in Johnny English (2003). HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Wallace and Gromit creator and four time Academy Award winning animator Nick Park directed Chicken Run(2000) and Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit (2005). Helen Mirren starred as Elizabeth II in The Queen (2006), winning Academy and Bafta Awards for best actress. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Acclaimed British sci-fi films, 28 Days Later (2002), and Children of Men (2007), depict a dystopian Britain. Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was the most successful British film of the decade, receiving critical acclaim and won eight Academy Awards.[80] Based on Mark Millar's comic, the superhero action comedy-film Kick-Ass (2010), HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

directed byMatthew Vaughn and starring Aaron Taylor-Johnson as the title character, won the Empire Award for Best British Film. Historical drama The King's Speech (2010), featuring Colin Firth as George VI, received widespread acclaim, won four Academy Awards and seven Baftas, and is being hailed as the most successful independent British film ever.[81][8HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

2] In 2012, the twenty-third James Bond film Skyfall became thehighest-grossing film of all-time in the UK.

The five most commercially successful British directors in recent years are David Yates, Christopher Nolan,Mike Newell, Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass.[84] Other contemporary British film directors include Guy Ritchie, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Alan Parker, Tony Scott, Terry Gilliam, Richard Attenborough, Kenneth Branagh, Paul W. S. Anderson, Tom Hooper, Edgar Wright, Matthew Vaughn, Richard Curtis, Danny Boyle, Steve McQueen and Sam Mendes.

British actors and actresses have always been significant in international cinema. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Well-known currently active performers include the likes of Catherine Zeta-Jones, Ian McKellen, Clive Owen, Jude Law, Rachel Weisz, Ewan McGregor, Kate Winslet, Hugh Grant, Colin Firth,Daniel Radcliffe, Daniel Craig, Emma Watson, Keira Knightley, Ralph Fiennes, Orlando Bloom, HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Tilda Swinton, Christian Bale, Jason Statham, Idris Elba, Paul Bettany, Sacha Baron Cohen, Emma Thompson, Kate Beckinsale, Michael Sheen, Helena Bonham Carter, Hugh Laurie, Ben Kingsley, Christopher Lee, Alan Rickman, Jason Isaacs, John Hurt, Emily Blunt, Benedict Cumberbatch, Sienna Miller, Bill Nighy, HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carey Mulligan, Ray Winstone, Peter O'Toole, Jeremy Irons, Gary Oldman, Helen Mirren, Liam Neeson, Tim Roth, Robert Pattinson,Julie Andrews, Sean Bean, Gemma Arterton, Gerard Butler, Tom Hiddleston, Maggie Smith, Russell Brand, Andrew Garfield, Henry Cavill,Simon Pegg, Chiwetel Ejiofor,  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Tom Hardy, Patrick Stewart, Daniel Day-Lewis, Judi Dench, Anthony Hopkins and Michael Caine.

Hollywood films with a British dimension have had enormous worldwide commercial success. Many of the highest-grossing films worldwide of all time have a British historical, cultural or creative theme. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Films based on British historical events; RMSTitanic,[85] Piracy in the Caribbean,[86] Mutiny on the Bounty,[87] The Great Escape,[88] historical people; William Wallace,Lawrence of Arabia, King Arthur, Elizabeth I, British stories; The Lord of the RingsHarry PotterJames BondThe Chronicles of NarniaSherlock HolmesFrankensteinA Christmas CarolHP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Charlie and the Chocolate FactoryTreasure IslandThe War of the Worlds among many others, while British video game Tomb Raider featuring English archaeologist Lara Croft, has been made into feature films. British influence can also be seen with the 'English Cycle' of Disney animated films, which feature Alice in WonderlandPeter PanCompaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Jungle BookRobin HoodThe Hundred and One DalmatiansThe Sword in the StoneThe Rescuers andWinnie the Pooh.

The UK has been at the forefront of developments in film, radio, and television. Broadcasting in the UK has historically been dominated by the taxpayer-funded but independently run British Broadcasting Corporation or BBC, HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

although other independent radio and television (ITV, Channel 4, Five) and satellite broadcasters (especially BSkyB which has over 10 million subscribers[90]) have become more important in recent years. BBC television, and the other three main television channels are public service broadcasters who, HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

as part of their license allowing them to operate, broadcast a variety of minority interest programming. The BBC and Channel 4 are state-owned, though they operate independently.

Many successful British TV shows have been exported around the world, such as Pop Idol (created by Simon Fuller), HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?Britain's Got Talent (created by Simon Cowell), The X FactorHell's Kitchen (created by Gordon Ramsay), The Office(created by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant), Ramsay's Kitchen NightmaresStrictly Come DancingDoctor WhoDownton Abbey and Top GearHP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British Film Institute drew up a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes in 2000, voted by industry professionals.[91] In 2004 the BBC conducted a nationwide poll to find "Britain's Best Sitcom".[92]

The United Kingdom has a large number of national and local radio stations which cover a great variety of programming. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The most listened to stations are the five main national BBC radio stations. BBC Radio 1, a new music station aimed at the 16–24 age group. BBC Radio 2, a varied popular music and chat station aimed at adults is consistently highest in the ratings. BBC Radio 4, a varied talk station, is noted for its news, current affairs, drama and comedy output as well as The ArchersHP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

its long running soap opera, and other unique programmes. The BBC, as a public service broadcaster, also runs minority stations such as BBC Asian Network, BBC Radio 1Xtra and BBC Radio 6 Music, and local stations throughout the country. Talksport is one of the biggest commercial radio stations in the UK. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From the creation of the United Kingdom, the English school of painting is mainly notable for portraits and landscapes, and indeed portraits in landscapes. Among the artists of this period are Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792), George Stubbs (1724–1806), and Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788). DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

William Hogarth painted far more down-to-earth portraits and satires, and was the first great English printmaker.

The late 18th century and the early 19th century was perhaps the most radical period in British art, producing William Blake(1757–1827), DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

John Constable (1776–1837) and William Turner (1775–1851), three of the most influential British artists, each of whom have dedicated spaces allocated for their work at the Tate Britain.[95]

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB) achieved considerable influence after its foundation in 1848 with paintings that concentrated on religious, literary, and genre subjects executed in a colourful and minutely detailed style. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

PRB artists included John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and subsequently Edward Burne-Jones. Also associated with it was the designer William Morris, whose efforts to make beautiful objects affordable (or even free) for everyone led to his wallpaper and tile designs to some extent defining the Victorian aesthetic and instigating the Arts and Crafts movement. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Visual artists from the United Kingdom in the 20th century include Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Bridget Riley, and the pop artists Richard Hamilton and Peter Blake. Also prominent amongst twentieth-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.[96] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sir Jacob Epstein was a pioneer of modern sculpture. In 1958 artist Gerald Holtom designed the protest logo for the British CND, which later became a universal peace symbol used in many different versions worldwide.[97] As a reaction to abstract expressionism, pop art emerged originally in England at the end of the 1950s. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Known for his thickly impasted portrait and figure paintings, Lucian Freud was widely considered the pre-eminent British artist of his time.[98] The 1990s saw the Young British Artists, Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin.

Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane, Kate Greenaway, John Tenniel, Aubrey Beardsley, Roger Hargreaves, Arthur Rackham,  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

John Leech, George Cruikshank and Beatrix Potter were notable book illustrators. In the late 1960s, British graphic designer Storm Thorgerson co-founded the English graphic art group Hipgnosis, who have designed many iconic single and album covers for rock bands. His works were notable for their surreal elements,  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with perhaps the most famous being the cover for Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon.[99] The subversive political artwork of Banksy (pseudonym of the renowned English graffiti artist whose identity is concealed) can be found on streets, walls and buildings all over the world, and has also featured in TV shows.[100][1HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

01] Arts institutions include the Royal College of Art, Royal Society of Arts, New English Art Club, Slade School of Art, Royal Academy, and the Tate Gallery (founded as the National Gallery of British Art).

The architecture of the United Kingdom includes many features that precede the creation of the United Kingdom in 1707, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

from as early as Skara Brae and Stonehenge to the Giant's Ring, Avebury and Roman ruins. In most towns and villages the parish church is an indication of the age of the settlement. Many castles remain from the medieval period such as; Windsor Castle (longest-occupied castle in Europe),[102]  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stirling Castle (one of the largest and most important in Scotland),[103] Bodiam Castle (moated castle), and Warwick Castle. Over the two centuries following the Norman conquest of England of 1066, and the building of the Tower of London, castles such as Caernarfon Castle in Wales and Carrickfergus Castle in Ireland were built. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

English Gothic architecture flourished from the 12th to the early 16th century, and famous examples include Westminster Abbey, the traditional place of coronation for the British monarch, which also has a long tradition as a venue for royal weddings;[105] Canterbury Cathedral, one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England; ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Salisbury Cathedral, which has the tallest church spire in the UK;[106] and Winchester Cathedral, which contains the longest nave and overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe.[107]

In the United Kingdom, a listed building is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

About half a million buildings in the UK have "listed" status.

In the 1680s, Downing Street was built by Sir George Downing, and its most famous address 10 Downing Street, became the residence of the Prime Minister in 1730.[108] One of the best known English architects working at the time of the foundation of the United Kingdom was Sir Christopher Wren. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London following the Great Fire of London. His masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, was completed in the early years of the United Kingdom.[109] Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the British monarch, was built in 1705. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the early 18th century baroque architecture – popular in Europe – was introduced, and Blenheim Palace was built in this era. However, baroque was quickly replaced by a return of the Palladian form. The Georgian architecture of the 18th century was an evolved form of Palladianism. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Many existing buildings such as Woburn Abbey and Kedleston Hall are in this style. Among the many architects of this form of architecture and its successors, neoclassical and romantic, were Robert Adam, Sir William Chambers, and James Wyatt. The aristocratic stately home continued the tradition of the first large gracious unfo

rtified mansions such as the Elizabethan Montacute House andHatfield House. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the 18th and 19th centuries to the highest echelons of British society, theEnglish country house served as a place for relaxing, hunting and running the countryside. Many stately homes have become open to the public; Knebworth House, now a major venue for open air rock and pop concerts,[111] ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Alton Towers, theme park and the most popular in the UK,[112] and Longleat, the world's first safari park outside Africa.

In the early 19th century the romantic medieval gothic style appeared as a backlash to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to develop incorporating steel as a building component; one of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. Paxton also continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular retrospective Renaissancestyles. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In this era of prosperity and development British architecture embraced many new methods of construction, but ironically in style, such architects as August Pugin ensured it remained firmly in the past.

At the beginning of the 20th century a new form of design arts and crafts became popular,  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the architectural form of this style, which had evolved from the 19th century designs of such architects as George Devey, was championed by Edwin Lutyens. Arts and crafts in architecture is symbolised by an informal, non-symmetrical form, often with mullioned or lattice windows, multiple gablesand tall chimneys. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This style continued to evolve until World War II. Following the Second World War, reconstruction went through a variety of phases, but was heavily influenced by Modernism, especially from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. Many bleak town centre redevelopments—criticised for featuring hostile, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

concrete-lined "windswept plazas"—were the fruit of this interest, as were many equally bleak public buildings, such as the Hayward Gallery. Many Modernist inspired town centres are today in the process of being redeveloped, Bracknell town centre being a case in point. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

However, in the immediate post-War years many thousands (perhaps hundreds of thousands) of council houses in vernacular style were built, giving working-class people their first experience of private gardens and indoorsanitation.

Modernism remains a significant force in UK architecture, although its influence is felt predominantly in commercial buildings. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The two most prominent proponents are Lord Rogers of Riverside and Norman Foster. Rogers' iconic London buildings are probably Lloyd's Building and the Millennium Dome, while Foster created the 'Gherkin' and the City Hall. Completed in 2012, the Shard London Bridge is the tallest building in the European Union.[115HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

] Other major skyscrapers under construction in London include The Pinnacle, and Heron Tower.[116][117] Modernist architect Nicholas Grimshaw designed the Eden Project in Cornwall, which is the world's largest greenhouse.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

The UK was at the forefront of the illegal, free rave movement from the late 1980s, which led to pan-European culture of teknivalsmirrored on the UK free festival movement and associated travelling lifestyle.[119] The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Gardens.[120] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually.[120] The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world’s largest arts festival.[121] Established in 1947, it takes place in Scotland's capital during three weeks every August alongside several other arts and cultural festivals. The Fringe mostly attracts events from the performing arts, particularly theatre and comedy, although dance and music also figure significantly. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The circus is a traditional form of entertainment in the UK. Chipperfield's Circus dates back more than 300 years in Britain, making it one of the oldest family circus dynasties.[114] Philip Astley is regarded as the father of themodern circus. Following his invention of the circus ring in 1768,[122] Astley's Amphitheatre opened in London in 1773. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

As an equestrian master Astley had a genius for trick horse-riding, and when he added tumblers, tightrope-walkers, jugglers, performing dogs, and a clown to fill time between his own demonstrations – the modern circus was born.[123][124] Having began his theatrical career with Hughes Royal Circus in London in the 1780s, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Englishman John Bill Ricketts brought the modern circus to the US in 1792, and he gave America's first complete circus performance in Philadelphia on 3 April 1793.[123] Joseph Grimaldi is the most celebrated of English clowns, and is widely considered the father of modern clowning. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Much of the folklore of the United Kingdom pre-dates the UK. Though some of the characters and stories are present across Britain, most belong to specific countries or regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elfs, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angeln and Weyland Smith,[127] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.[128] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

During the High Middle Ages tales originated from Brythonic traditions, notably the Arthurian myth.[129][130][131] Deriving from Welsh source;King Arthur, Excalibur and Merlin, while the Jersey poet Wace introduced the Knights of the Round Table. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum BritanniaeHP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.

The Loch Ness Monster is a cryptid that is reputed to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

The legendary monster has been affectionately referred to by the nickname Nessie since the 1950s.[132] The Leprechaun figures large in Irish folklore. A mischievous fairy type creature in emerald green clothing who when not playing tricks spend all their time busily making shoes, Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

the Leprechaun is said to have a pot of gold hidden at the end of the rainbow, and if ever captured by a human it has the magical power to grant three wishes in exchange for release.[133] In mythology, English fairy tales such as Jack and the Beanstalk helped form the modern perception of giants as stupid and violent, HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

while the legendary dwarf Tom Thumb is a traditional hero in English folklore. English fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears is one of the most popular fairy tales in the English language.[134] Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, the heroic English figure Hereward the Wake resisted the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park, and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.[135] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while the colourful English piratesBlackbeard and Calico Jack are renowned.[86] The Gremlin is part of RAF folklore dating from the 1920s, with gremlin being RAF slang for a mishievous creature that sabotages aircraft, meddling in the planes equipment.[136] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Legendary figures from nineteenth century London whose tales have been romanticised include Sweeney Todd, the murderous barber of Fleet Street, and serial killer Jack the Ripper. On 5 November, people in England make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plotcentred on Guy Fawkes, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

which became an annual event after The Thanksgiving Act of 1606 was passed.[137] The Guy Fawkes mask has become an emblem for anti-establishment protest groups.

Halloween is a traditional and much celebrated holiday in Scotland and Ireland on the night of 31 October.[139] The name Halloweenis first attested in the 16th century as a Scottish shortening of the fuller All-Hallows-Even,[140HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

] and according to some historians has its roots in the gaelic festival Samhain, where the Gaels believed the border between this world and the otherworld became thin, and the dead would revisit the mortal world.[141] In 1780, Dumfries poet John Mayne makes note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!"HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts).[142] The bard of Scotland Robert Burns' 1785 poem "Halloween" is recited by Scots at Halloween, and Burns was influenced by Mayne's composition.[142][143] In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include; HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Guising — children disguised in costume going from door to door requesting food or coins – which became practice by the late 19th century,[144][145] turnips hollowed-out and carved with faces to make lanterns,[146] holding parties where games such as apple bobbing are played.[147] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Other practices in Ireland include lightingbonfires, and having firework displays.[148][149] Further contemporary imagery of Halloween is derived from Gothic and Horrorliterature (notably Shelley's Frankenstein and Stoker's Dracula), and classic horror films (such as Hammer Horrors). HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

Mass transatlantic Irish and Scottish migration in the 19th century popularised Halloween in North America.

Each country of the United Kingdom has its own body responsible for heritage matters.

English Heritage is the governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. Seventeen of the United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.[152]Some of the best known of these include; HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast,Westminster, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.[153]

Historic Scotland is the executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland, such asStirling Castle. The Old and New Town of Edinburgh is a notable Scottish World Heritage site. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

Many of Wales' great castles, such as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd and other monuments, are under the care ofCadw, part of the Welsh Government.

The Northern Ireland Environment Agency promotes and conserves the natural and built environment in Northern Ireland, and The Giants Causeway in the northeast coast, is one of the UK's natural World Heritage sites. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

The British Museum in London with its collection of more than seven million objects,[154] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,[155] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

National Museums of Scotland bring together national collections in Scotland. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales comprises eight museums in Wales. The Titanic Belfast museum, a visitor attraction in the Titanic Quarter, east Belfast, Northern Ireland on the regenerated site of the shipyard where Titanic was built, was officially opened to the public in March 2012.[156DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

] The architecture is a tribute to Titanic itself, with the external facades, a nod to the enormous hull of the cruise liner.[157] The first Madame Tussauds wax museum opened in London in 1835, and today displays waxworks of famous people from various fields, including; HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

royalty (Princess Diana), historical figures (Henry VIII), sports heroes (Beckham) among others.[158]

The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.[159] The National Galleries of Scotland are the five national galleries of Scotland and two partner galleries. The National Museum of Art, Wales, opened in 2011. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.[161] The National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh, holds 7 million books, fourteen million printed items and over 2 million maps.[162] HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The National Library of Wales is the national legal deposit library of Wales.

From the time of the Scientific Revolution, England and Scotland, and thereafter the United Kingdom, have been prominent in world scientific and technologicaldevelopment. The Royal Society serves as the national academy for sciences, with members drawn from many different institutions and disciplines. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Formed in 1660, it is one of the oldest learned societies still in existence.

Sir Isaac Newton's publication of the Principia Mathematica ushered in what is recognisable as modern physics. The first edition of 1687 and the second edition of 1713 framed the scientific context of the foundation of the United Kingdom. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

He realised that the same force is responsible for movements of celestial and terrestrial bodies, namely gravity. He was the father of classical mechanics, formulated as his three laws and as the co-inventor (with Gottfried Leibniz) of differential calculus. He also created the binomial theorem, worked extensively on optics, and created a law of cooling. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Since Newton's time, figures from the UK have contributed to the development of most major branches of science. Examples include Michael Faraday, who, with James Clerk Maxwell, unified the electric and magneticforces in what are now known as Maxwell's equations; James Joule, who worked extensively in thermodynamics and is often credited with the discovery of the principle of conservation of energy; HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Paul Dirac, one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics; naturalist Charles Darwin, author of On the Origin of Species and discoverer of the principle of evolution by natural selection; Harold Kroto, the discoverer of buckminsterfullerene; William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) who drew important conclusions in the field of thermodynamics and invented the Kelvinscale of absolute zero; HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

botanist Robert Brown discovered the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid (Brownian motion); and the creator of Bell's Theorem, John Stewart Bell. Other British pioneers in their field include; Joseph Lister (Antiseptic surgery), Edward Jenner (Vaccination), ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

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The Ukraine crisis is an ongoing international crisis principally involving Russia and Ukraine. It involves the Crimean Peninsula, a multi-ethnic region which until February 2014 was administered by Ukraine as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the administratively separate municipality of Sevastopol; Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

both are populated by an ethnic Russian majority and a minority of both ethnic Ukrainians and Crimean Tatars. Currently, the Crimean Peninsula is controlled by the Russian Federation as the Crimean Federal District, a status which is not recognized by the United Nations. The crisis has also spread to the Eastern and Southern regions of Ukraine. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

The crisis unfolded in late February 2014 in the aftermath of the Ukrainian Revolution, which resulted in President Viktor Yanukovych's deposition by the Ukrainian parliament after his flight from the capital, setting May 25 for a new presidential election, the appointment of an interim President, and the formation of an interim government. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

The Yatsenyuk Government attained recognition from most of the international community,including the U.S. and E.U. Russia, along with a few other countries, condemns the Yatsenyuk government as illegitimate and the result of a coup d'etat, and accuses the United States and the E.U. of funding and directing the 'revolution', while maintaining that Yanukovych was illegally impeached and remains the legitimate president of Ukraine.[ ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

Beginning on February 26, pro-Russian forces began to gradually take control of the Crimean peninsula. Many of them were widely believed to be Russian military personnel without insignia. While the gunmen occupied Crimea's parliament building, the Crimean parliament voted to dismiss theCrimean government, Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

replace its Prime Minister and to call a referendum on Crimea's autonomyA referendum on whether to join Russia had an official turnout of 83% and resulted in a 96.77% (Crimea) and 95.6% (Sevastopol) affirmative vote[27] but has been condemned by the EU, the US, Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar officials as contrary to Ukraine's constitution and to international law.[ SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

On March 17, the Crimean Parliament declared independence from Ukraine and asked to join the Russian Federation.[31] On March 18 Russia and Crimea signed a treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol into the Russian Federation.[32][33] On March 27, the UN General Assembly passed a non-binding Resolution 68/262 that declared the Crimean referendum invalid and the incorporation of Crimea into Russia illegal.[34][35] SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

On April 15, the Ukrainian parliament declared Crimea as a territory temporarily occupied by Russia.The Crimean Khanate, a vassal from 1441, of the Ottoman Empire, was conquered by the Russian Empire in 1783. Following its incorporation into the Russian Empire, Crimea became the "heart of Russian Romanticism" and the region continued to attract vacationers well after the Russian Empire was replaced by the Soviet Union. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

The demographics of Crimea have undergone dramatic changes in the past centuries.

Crimea had autonomy within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic as the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1921 until 1945, when Joseph Stalin deported the Crimean Tatars and abolished Crimean autonomy.[44] HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

In 1954, the Soviet Union underNikita Khrushchev transferred the Crimean Oblast from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR, in a "symbolic gesture" that seemed insignificant at the time, since both republics were a part of the Soviet Union.[45][46][47] Crimea's pre-1945 autonomy was re-established with the Crimean sovereignty referendum in 1991, the final year of the Soviet Union's existence.[48] HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

In 1992, the Crimean Parliament voted to hold a referendum to declare independence, while the Russian Parliament voted to void the cession of Crimea to Ukraine.[49][50] In 1994, Russian nationalist Yuri Meshkov won the 1994 Crimean presidential election and organized a referendum on Crimea's status.[51][52] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Later in that same year, Crimea's legal status as part of Ukraine was recognized by Russia, which pledged to uphold the territorial integrity of Ukraine in the Budapest memorandum signed in 1994. This treaty (or"executive agreement" for purposes of US law), was also signed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France.[53][54] HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

Ukraine revoked the Crimean constitution and abolished the office of Crimean President in 1995.[55] Crimea would gain a new constitution in 1998 that granted the Crimean parliament lesser powers than the previous constitution, including no legislative initiative.[48][56]Crimean officials would later seek to restore the powers of the previous constitution.[56] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

The further developments in Crimea and the future of the Russian naval base in Sevastopol there have been a point of contention in Russian-Ukrainian relations.[53] Under the now defunct Russian-Ukrainian Partition Treaty determining the fate of the military bases and vessels in Crimea – signed in 1997 and prolonged in 2010 –COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Russia was allowed to have up to 25,000 troops, 24 artillery systems (with a caliber smaller than 100 mm), 132 armored vehicles, and 22 military planes, on the Crimean peninsula.The Russian Black Sea fleet was given basing rights in Crimea until 2042.

According to the 2001 census, ethnic Russians make up about 58% of the two million residents of Crimea. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

In Sevastopol, which houses a base for the Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet, ethnic Russians make up 70% of the city's population of 340,000.[58] Ukrainians make up 24% of the Crimean population, while 12% are Crimean Tatars.[44][58] Ethnic Russians did not become the largest population group in Crimea until the 20th century, HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944 for alleged collaboration with Nazi invaders in World War Two.[59][60] Crimean Tatars were not permitted to return to Crimea after their deportation in 1944, and became an international cause célèbre,[61] until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

The continuing return of Crimean Tatars to their homeland in Crimea since the Soviet collapse has caused persistent tensions with the Russian population of the peninsula.[62] A news report claimed pro-Russian forces marking "X" on the doors of houses of Crimean Tatars.[63] The leader of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People Refat Chubarov protested against the intervention of Russia.[64] HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

In the 2010 local parliamentary elections, the Party of Regions received 357,030 votes, while the second-placed Ukrainian Communist Party received 54,172 votes.[65]Both parties were targeted by protesters during the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.In July 2011, Yuriy Olexandrovich Meshkov the former president of Crimea (1994–95) called for a referendum on restoring the 1992 version of the Constitution of Crimea. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

The District Administrative Court of Crimea responded by deporting Meshkov from Ukraine for a period of 5 years.[69]

According to the Talinn-based think tank "International Centre for Defense Studies", since Orange Revolution in 2004, Russia has pressured Ukraine against closely associating itself with the West.[70] HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

It has been stated that the information campaign in Crimea has become especially proficient and systematic, becoming particularly intense during the 2006–08 Ukraine bid for NATO membership. Each of Ukraine's attempts to achieve European integration has led to increased Russian hostility to the idea via its use of information campaign.[70][71] HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Russia opposes Ukrainian integration with the West for various reasons, including a fear of NATOexpanding to Russia's Western borders[72] and Russia's claimed desire to include Ukraine in a Eurasian Union.[73]

According to Taras Kuzio, during the Viktor Yushchenko presidency (2005–2010), HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Russia's relations with Ukraine deteriorated, prompting the Russian security service (FSB) and Russian military intelligence (GRU) to expand their covert support for pro-Russian forces in Southern Ukraine and Russian separatists in Crimea.[74]Following the Orange Revolution and the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, American diplomatic cables leaked to the public noted that Russian military action against Ukraine was "no longer unthinkable." HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

At the end of 2013, Euromaidan protests (around 400,000 – 800,000 people in Kiev, and hundreds of thousands in other Ukrainian cities and abroad)[76] began after President Viktor Yanukovych postponed the signing of Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement under severe economic pressure from Russia, Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

even though previously he had considered this agreement one of his key objectives and stated it on multiple occasions.[77][78] Instead, Yanukovych struck a deal with Putin which meant, among other things, that Russia would buy $15 billion in Ukrainian bonds, and discount gas prices to Ukraine by one-third.[79] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Opposition leaders were suspicious of the true cost to Ukraine for Russian support.[80][81] The majority of protesters held liberal pro-European values (Batkivshchyna, Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform, and other forces). Much less popular, but still influential nationalist parties and movements were also represented and, to a certain extent, supported the idea of European integration, too. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

After the violent dispersal of protesters on November 30 and the adoption of Anti-protest laws, the protests took an anti-government and anti-corruption turn, escalated in early 2014 and eventually led to deaths of both protesters and police on January 22[82] and between February 18 and 20. 103 people were killed and 1419 injured.[83] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

According to most reports in Ukraine, violence was used mostly by the police.[84] Numerous snipers killed dozens of protesters. The snipers' identities are still disputed. According to the official investigation, the pro-European opposition and the majority of Ukrainian and Western media, they were hired by Yanukovych and his circle and/or the Russian secret services,[88] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

which had also planned a large military operation to 'cleanse' protesters.[89][90][91] On February 20, acting Interior Minister Vitaliy Zakharchenko announced in a video address to the nation that combat weapons had been provided to the police and announced the beginning of an operation to disperse the protesters.[92] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Radio Liberty published video footage of police special forces shooting protesters withKalashnikov and sniper rifles.[93] Several pro-Yanukovych politicians openly called for 'cleansing' protesters.[94] Despite these facts, Yanukovych denied his regime's involvement in the massacre.[95] Some allegations that the snipers were hired by the revolutionaries appeared.[96] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

On February 21, President Yanukovych and the opposition leaders signed a compromise deal that was brokered by the foreign ministers of France, Poland and Germany,[97][98] but it soon became redundant as Yanukovych left the capital, the Verkhovna Rada voted to withdraw the police and the military from Kiev,[99] and the protesters took control of the city without resistance.[100] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

According to the deal, the Verkhovna Rada was obliged to adopt a bill about the constitutional reform and Yanukovych was obliged to sign it within 48 hours.[98] The bill was adopted, but Yanukovych didn't sign it.[101]

On February 22, Yanukovych fled Kiev.[102] Evidence shows that Yanukovych had started to prepare his leave on February 19, removing goods and valuables. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

The guards of Yanukovych's residence opened it to the protesters, who found vast evidence of Yanukovych's unprecedented corruption.[103][104] The Rada impeached Yanukovych,[105]but not according to the constitutional procedure. The action did not follow the impeachment process as specified by the Constitution of Ukraine HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

(which would have involved formally charging the president with a crime, a review of the charge by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, and a three-fourths majority vote – i.e. at least 338 votes in favor – by the Rada); instead, the Verkhovna Rada declared that Yanukovych "withdrew from his duties in an unconstitutional manner" and cited "circumstances of extreme urgency" as the reason for early elections.[ SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

The vote was supported by all present[107] in the Ukrainian parliament, 328:0 (of the 447 deputies). The Rada set May 25 for a new presidential election.[108][109] According to the opposition leaders, they had no other choice, because, as they see it, Yanukovych was involved in mass murder and large-scale corruption,[91] had usurped power, HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

including the judicial system, and disregarded and violated the Constitution and other laws many times.[110] Members of the opposition appointed Oleksandr Turchinov as the new speaker of the Verkhovna Rada and also as the interim President. A new Council of Ministers, known as the Yatsenyuk Government, was elected by the Verkhovna Rada on February 27.[111HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

] Russia refused to recognize the new authorities in Kiev, saying that they had come to power through armed insurrection by extreme-right political forces and unconstitutional methods. The United States and European Unionimmediately[when?] recognized the government in Kiev.

Some residents of the Eastern and Southern parts of the country, ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

which are primarily Russian-speaking and previously constituted President Yanukovych's support base, felt disenfranchised by these developments and protested against the government in Kiev.[115] The Parliament of Crimea called for an extraordinary session on February 21. The leader of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People Refat Chubarov stated that he suspected that the session might ask for Russian military intervention.[116] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

On February 21, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) issued a statement which promised that "it will use severe measures to prevent any action taken against diminishing the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine."[g] The same day the pro-Russian Party of Regions who held 80 of the 100 seats in the Crimean Parliament,[118] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

did not discuss issues relating to the separation of Crimea from Ukraine and appeared to support the deal struck between President Yanukovich and the opposition to end the crises signed the same day.[119]

On February 23, 2014, the second day after the flight of Viktor Yanukovich, Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

while in session of the Ukrainian parliament a deputy from "Batkivshchina" party,Vyacheslav Kyrylenko moved to include in the agenda a draft that would repeal the 2012 Law "On the principles of the state language policy". The motion was carried with 232 deputies voting in favor, Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

the draft was included into the agenda, immediately put to a vote with no debate and approved with the same 232 voting in favor, making Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels.[120][121] Repeal of the 2012 Law "On the principles of the state language policy" was met with great disdain in Crimea, populated by a Russian-speaking majority[122HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

] and Southern and Eastern Ukraine provoking waves of anti-government protests, ultimately culminating with the Crimean crisis. The Christian Science Monitor reported: "The only served to infuriate Russian-speaking regions, saw the move as more evidence that the antigovernment protests in Kiev that toppled Yanukovich's government were intent on pressing for a nationalistic agenda."Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

A few days later, on March 1, 2014, the acting President of Ukraine, Oleksandr Turchynov, vetoed the bill effectively stopping its enactment.[125] The veto did little to address the unfolding crisis, perhaps because it came too late. Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

The Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group and the Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union have both denied any human rights violations against Russian speakers in Ukraine that would justify Russia's actions.

The Russian-Ukrainian Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet[h] signed in 1997 and prolonged in 2010, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

determined the status of the military bases and vessels in Crimea prior to the current crisis. Russia was allowed to maintain up to 25,000 troops, 24 artillery systems (with a caliber smaller than 100 mm), 132 armored vehicles, and 22 military planes, on the Crimean Peninsula and Sevastopol. The Russian Black Sea fleet had basing rights in Crimea until 2042. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

However it is controversial if the recent troop movements were covered by the treaty.[129]

Both Russia and Ukraine are signatories to the Charter of the United Nations. The ratification of said charter has several ramifications in terms of international law, particularly those that cover the subjects of declarations of independence, sovereignty, HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

self-determination, acts of aggression, and humanitarian emergencies.Vladimir Putin has claimed that Russian troops in the Crimean peninsula were aimed "to ensure proper conditions for the people of Crimea to be able to freely express their will",[130] whilst Ukraine and other nations argue that such intervention is a violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[13HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

1] The Russian President also noted that the United Nations International Court of Justice handed down an advisory opinion in 2010 saying unambiguously that the unilateral declaration of independence in Kosovo (for which there was no referendum nor agreement from Belgrade) was in accordance with international law.[132] Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

On the other hand, United States and Ukraine point out that by annexing Crimea Russia violated terms of the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, by which Russia, the United States and the United Kingdom reaffirmed their obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine. HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

February 23 in Sevastopol, tens of thousands protested against the new authorities and voted to establish a parallel administration and civil defense squads created with the support of Russian Night Wolves bikers. Same were created on February 22 in Simferopol, where about 5,000 had joined such squads. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

Protesters waved Russian flags and chanted "Putin is our president" and claimed they would refuse to pay further taxes to the state.[134]

February 26, pro-Russian forces gradually took control of the Crimean peninsula. Russia claimed that the uniformed men were local self-defense forces, but they are generally reported in non-Russian media to be Russian military personnel without insignia.[ HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

February 27, unidentified forces seized the Building of the Supreme Council of Crimea (the regional parliament) and the building of the Council of Ministers inSimferopol.[135] Berkut units, local militiamen and self-defence troops seized checkpoints on the Isthmus of Perekop and Chonhar peninsula. Since then they control all traffic by land between Crimea and continental Ukraine.[ SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

February 28: While gunmen occupied the building, the Supreme Council held an emergency session.[25][26] It voted to terminate the Crimean government, and replace Prime Minister Anatolii Mohyliov with Sergey Aksyonov.[21][139] Aksyonov belonged to the Russian Unity party, which received 4% of the vote in the last election.[26] Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

It also voted to hold a referendum on greater autonomy on 25 May. The gunmen had cut all of the building's communications and took MPs' phones as they entered.[25][26] No independent journalists were allowed inside the building while the votes were taking place.[26] Some MPs claimed they were being threatened and that votes were cast for them and other MPs, even though they were not in the chamber.[26] Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

March 11, the Supreme Council and the City Council of Sevastopol jointly expressed their intention to unilaterally declare Crimea's independence from Ukraine as a single united nation with the possibility of joining the Russian Federation as a federal subject. The question of independence was put to a referendum. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

March 16. Official returns indicated nearly 96% in favor,[140] with a turnout of over 83%,[141] despite a boycott by Tatars and other opponents of the referendum.The Ukrainian parliament declared the referendum unconstitutional.The United States and the European Union condemned the vote as illegal, and later imposed sanctions against persons deemed to have violated Ukraine's sovereignty. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Ukrainian officials, as well as Mustafa Dzhemilev, Refat Chubarov and the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People claimed that the voter turnout in the referendum among Crimeans could only be a maximum of 30–40 percent and that the referendum was undemocratic, hastily prepared, falsified and didn't reflect the real will of the Crimeans.[148] HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

Mustafa Dzhemilev called the referendum "cynical" and "absurd", claiming that the right to self-determination only belongs to the indigenous people - the Crimean Tatar population.[149] Pro-Ukrainian activists were reported to have been persecuted and kidnapped, with 9 still reported missing and pro-Russian billboards were seen in the streets before the referendum.[152] Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

March 17, the Crimean parliament declared independence from Ukraine and asked to join the Russian Federation.[153] President Putin claimed Crimea as a part of Russia on moral and material grounds, citing the principle of self determination and Crimea's strategic importance for Russia.[154] DELL R859C CPU Fan

On March 24, the Ukraine Ministry of Defense announces that approximately 50% of Ukrainian soldiers in Crimea have defected to the Russian military.[155][156]

On March 25th, Russia awarded a medal to individuals who assisted in the annexation of Crimea. Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

It was pointed out that the reverse of the medallion, dates "the return of Crimea" to February 20 — March 18. This implies that Russia was awarding those involved with the February 20 killing of Maidan protesters and before the Crimean crisis actually began.[157]

March 27, the U.N. General Assembly passed a non-binding resolution declaring Crimea's Moscow-backed referendum invalid.SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

The resolution passed with 100 votes in favor, 11 against and 58 abstentions in the 193-nation assembly. On April 15, 2014, Ukrainian parliament passed a bill declaring the southern Crimea peninsula as territory temporarily occupied by the Russian Federation and imposed travel restrictions on Ukrainians visiting Crimea.[36] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

On April 17, during the 12th 'Direct Line with Vladimir Putin' the use of Russian armed forces along with Crimean self-defence troops was avowed by the Russian president.[163]

On May 5th, the Russian President's Human Rights Council "posted a blog that was quickly taken down as if it were toxic radioactive waste" estimating that a "vast majority of the citizens of Sevastopol voted in favor of unification with Russia in the referendum (50-80%);SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

in Crimea, various data show that 50-60% voted for unification with Russia, with a turnout of 30-50%," suggesting that only 15-30% of Crimeans actually voted for annexation.[164] The document is still on the website.

On March 2, 2014, Pavel Chernev, former member of the nationalist Attack party and current political secretary of "Orthodox Dawn" HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

(Bulgarian: Православна Зора,Pravoslavna Zora) who is known for his pro-Putin views, revealed that the Bulgarian branch of the organization will be sending a group of Bulgarian volunteers to "protect ethnic Russians and ethnic Bulgarians from forceful Ukrainization". Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

Chernev also claimed that they had already sponsored "tens of Orthodox fighters" (non-Bulgarian) to fly to Moscow and Crimea.[167][168] Simeon Kostadinov, another former Attack member, currently representing the Nationalist Party in Bulgaria, and Chernev clarified that their mission has peaceful intentions, but will be prepared to give a good account of themselves in the unfortunate event of an escalation. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

Their contention is that the old regime was preferable from the standpoint of the Bulgarian minority in Ukraine and the new authorities lack legitimacy. Another small "international group based on the Pyrenean Peninsula" which includes some Bulgarians and is supported by a Russian paramilitary organization was reported to have left for Ukraine on March 3. HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan

"Orthodox Dawn" have displayed an interest in securing the backing of international actors for the 2014 referendum in Crimea and will try to recruit foreign election observers.[169] According to Bulgarian sources, drawing on reports made by Al Jazeera, 20 Bulgarian nationals are presently inCrimea. SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

They are part of the paramilitary formation Dobrovolets/Доброволец, which is under the control of Russian troops. Dobrovolets' area of operations also intends to include Odessa and Donetsk. Chernev stated that he will be visiting Crimea on March 15 and guarantees that all the participants in the mission have undergone thorough screening to ensure that people with criminal convictions are weeded out.[170] HP Envy 15 CPU Fan

Anton Kisse, the only deputy in the Verkhovna Rada with Bulgarian roots has spoken out against any foreign interventions stating that "even the friendliest foreign state has no right to impose its vision of what constitutes proper order on Ukraine" and that "people will turn to Bulgaria if the need arises".[171] HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

Chernev was one of the election observers for the 2014 referendum in Crimea,[172]on the invitation of Sergey Aksyonov.[173]

A very small group of Chetniks, a Serbian nationalist paramilitary force, have travelled to Crimea to support Russia. Serbian and Russian nationalists share Slavic and Orthodox culture and anti-Western sentiment, Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

and Chetniks claim to be in Russia's favour for support during the Yugoslav Wars.[174] The Chetniks are based in an Orthodox monastery. Their commanders Bratislav Jivković and Milutin Malisić have participated in previous armed conflicts – Jivković in the Bosnian  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan

War as part of the Serb Volunteer Guard while Malisić has been involved in the protection of the Serbian minority in Kosovo in the aftermath of the Kosovo War. Malisić has reiterated that his paramilitary formation is committed to peace and does not want to shed the blood of fellow Slavs, viewing Ukrainians and Russians as brotherly ethnicities. IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

As a result of the crisis, the two leading indexes of the Moscow Exchange fell in trading on March 3: the MICEX 10 declined 10.79 percent, equating to a loss inmarket capitalization of nearly $60 billion, and the RTS Index declined 12.01 percent to its lowest level since September 2009.[175]  HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan

The next day, though, the MICEX rose 5.25%, recovering part of the losses. In response to this and the decline of the ruble, the Central Bank of Russia raised its interest rate from 5.5 to 7.0% and spent up to US$12 billion in reserves to bolster the currency.[176] The possibility for international sanctions against Russia has also been raised.[177] IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

There were worries that Russian gas exports into Europe and Ukraine may become disrupted by the conflict. Thirty percent of Europe's gas is imported from Russia, half of which flows through Ukrainian pipelines. On March 1, Russian Energy Ministry decided to halt the subsidies of Russian gas for Ukraine.[178] HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan

The crisis could also affect worldwide grain supplies. Prices will likely rise because Ukraine is one of the world's largest exporters of corn.[177] The crisis resulted into the exit of several multinational companies from Crimea due to suspension of necessary financial and banking services. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan

Over the course of the Crimean crisis, a Ukrainian soldier and a Crimean defense member have been killed, another two Ukrainians have sustained serious bullet injuries and two other Russian militiamen have been wounded. During a controversial incident in Simferopol on March 18, some Ukrainian sources said that armed gunmen that have been reported to be Russian special forces allegedly stormed the base. HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan

This was contested by Russian authorities, who subsequently arrested an alleged Ukrainian sniper in connection with the killings.[180][181]

At this stage, none of the accounts of this event could be verified independently.[182] The Ukrainian and the Crimean authorities provided conflicting reports of the event.[183] HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan

Furthermore, witnesses of the event said that there was no immediate evidence that any Russian soldiers were involved in the incident.[184]

The two casulties had a joint funeral attended by both the Crimean and Ukrainian authorities, and both soldiers were mourned together.[185] The incident is now under investigation by both the Crimean authorities and the Ukrainian military. HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

Three ex‐presidents of Ukraine accused Russia of interfering in Crimean affairs.[188] Interim president Oleksandr Turchynov at the start of the protests warned that there is a "serious risk" of separatism in parts of the country. On February 27, 2014, the Central Election Commission of Ukraine claimed that regional referendum is impossible due to lack of necessary legislative basis for such.[191] HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

On February 27, 2014, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Oleksandr Turchynov was instructed to develop a new law "about language".[192] On February 28, a freelance journalist wrote on Twitter that President Yanukovych said that any military actions are unacceptable and he will not ask Russia for it.[193] HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

According to President Yanukovych he believed that Crimea must remain part of Ukraine.[194][195]

The new Prime Minister of Ukraine Arseniy Yatsenyuk stated in his maiden speech on February 27 that "Ukraine will use all legal constitutional methods to preserve the territorial integrity of the state. Crimea was, is and will be a part of Ukraine!".[196] HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

On February 28, the Verkhovna Rada adopted a resolution on events in Crimea:[197] "Verkhovna Rada demands from the Russian Federation to stop steps that have signs of encroachment on state sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, including to refuse supporting separatism in Ukraine in any form".[197][198] HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Oleksandr Turchynov dismissed Yuriy Ilyin as the Chief of the General Staff. During the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution Ilyin was reportedly preparing a military operation against the protest movement in Kiev. Ilyin reportedly had a heart attack after meeting with the newly appointed mayor of Sevastopol.[199] HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

Due to the events in Crimea, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine initiated bilateral consultations with Russia and indicated its readiness to initiate consultations within the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances framework if it receives no response.[200] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

On March 1, the acting president of Ukraine signed an edict in which he pointed out that appointment of Sergey Aksyonov as the Chairman of the Councils of Ministers of Crimea was in violation of the Constitution of Ukraine and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.[201] The incumbent and two former presidents of Ukraine – Leonid Kravchuk, HP 533736-001 CPU Fan

Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yushchenko—called on Ukraine to renounce the Kharkiv Agreements.[202] Leonid Kuchma's press-center later denounced such a statement on behalf of Leonid Kuchma.[203] The acting President of Ukraine purportedly ordered the Armed Forces of Ukraine to full combat readiness.[204] IBM 13R2760 CPU Fan

On March 4, the district administration court of Kiev cancelled the decision of the council concerning a no confidence vote to the Council of Ministers of Crimea and the appointment of Aksyonov as a chairman of the Council of Ministers of Crimea as well as declared illegal organization and conduct of a local referendum on improving the status and powers of autonomy.[205] ACER LU.S040A.067 CPU Fan

On March 17, Ukraine recalled its ambassador Volodymyr Yelchenko from the Russian Federation officially to discuss the situation about Crimea.[206][207]

On March 19, Ukraine drew up plans to withdraw all their soldiers and their families to mainland Ukraine from Crimea "Quickly and Efficiently".[208] ACER LU.S050B.078 CPU Fan

On March 25, Ukrainian defense minister, Ihor Tenyukh, resigned due to the public criticism of being indecisive and slow to give orders to Ukrainian military units in Crimea. His resignation was approved only after a repeated vote in the Ukrainian parliament.[209] He resigned and was replaced by Colonel General Mykhaylo Koval, DELL Studio 1535 CPU Fan

who had served with the border guards in Crimea and was briefly kidnapped there in March. Ukrainian Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council Andriy Parubiy stated in an interview that "Mistakes have been and will be made, but the new government is not afraid to fix them."[210] HP Pavilion dv6736nr CPU Fan

The Ukrainian National Council for TV and Radio Broadcasting instructed all cable operators on March 11 to stop transmitting a number of Russian channels, including the international versions of the main state-controlled stations Rossiya 1, Channel One and NTV, as well as news channel Rossiya 24.[211] HP Envy 15-1050ca CPU Fan

The Kiev government has barred Russian men aged 16–60 and women aged 20–35 from entering the Ukraine.Former President Viktor Yuschenko believes that the formerly imprisoned ex-Prime Minister and fierce political rival Yulia Tymoshenko "cut a deal" with Russian President Vladimir Putin, which saw Ukraine give Crimea to Russia in exchange for Russia securing Tymoshenko's early release from prison.[213] HP Pavilion dv7-6100et CPU Fan

Yushchenko said it is "quite strange" that Ukraine's Tymoshenko-dominated government has done nothing to secure the Crimean electricity and water infrastructure on the mainland, in addition to failing to stop "Russian agitators" from going to Donetsk and Kharkov.[213] Tymoshenko dismissed the charges as "anti-Ukrainian propaganda." APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

Late at night on February 27, the ex-President of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, who is wanted along with Zakharchenko under suspicion of mass killing of people,[214]arrived in Rostov-on-Don escorted by jet fighters.[215] On February 28, he conducted a press-conference.[215] In this press conference Yanukovych stated "Crimea must remain part of the Ukrainian state retaining broad autonomy rights".[216] IBM 42W2403 CPU Fan

According to him the unrest in Crimea was "an absolutely natural reaction to the bandit coup that has occurred in Kiev"; and he stated he was confident that the people of Crimea "do not want to obey and will not obey nationalists and bandits".[216] He insisted that military action was "unacceptable" and that he would not request Russian military intervention.[217][2ACER Aspire 9304WSMi CPU Fan

18] Still on March 4, 2014, Russia's Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Vitaly Churkin showed a photocopy of the letter allegedly signed by Victor Yanukovich on March 1, 2014 where he demanded Russian military intervention in Ukraine.[219]

On March 11, Yanukovych vowed to return to Ukraine, calling upon the Ukrainian Armed Forces to not follow the "criminal orders" of the acting government in Kiev.[22HP 610773-001 CPU Fan

0] Yanukovych attacked the acting government in Ukraine as being a "band of ultranationalists and neo-fascists" that have replaced his government, and criticized their supposed Western backers.

Operations of the Kerch Strait ferry were suspended on February 27, 2014.[221] IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan

The Ukrainians in Crimea called on Ukrainian officials to secure peace and security for Crimeans and for European officials to influence the Russian position in regards to separatist attitudes.[222] The new chairman of the Council of Ministers hopes to receive financial help from the Russian Federation with support from Viktor Yanukovych.[22IBM ThinkPad T61 8898 CPU Fan

3] In the telephone conversation Volodymyr Konstantinov explained toNestor Shufrych (MP) that Crimea does not want a secession, but only to expand its right.[224] The former chief of the general staff Yuriy Ilyin was reported to be hospitalized with a heart attack in the Ukrainian Navy hospital in Sevastopol.[225] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2889 CPU Fan

Members of the Crimean government have declared their acceptance of Yanukovych as the legitimate President of Ukraine, deputy chairman of the Crimean parliament Konstantin Bakharev has said: "Today, Yanukovych is the legitimate president," though he also addressed issues concerning him saying, IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan

"But we have questions for him, questions as the leader of the government about his moral responsibility before the society, before the party he once led, and before Crimeans."[226]

About one thousand residents of Crimea, mainly Crimean Tatars, have left Crimea for Ukraine. IBM ThinkPad R50 1829 CPU Fan

arty of Regions MP Yuriy Miroshnychenko urged the Crimean government to stop the referendum.[230] Another Party of Regions MP, Hanna Herman, commented the same day about Yanukovych's press conference, "He needs to ... prevent the illegal referendum."

The State Duma Committee on Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, headed by Leonid Slutsky, IBM ThinkPad R50P CPU Fan

visited Simferopol on February 25, 2014 and said: "If the parliament of the Crimean autonomy or its residents express the wish to join the Russian Federation, Russia will be prepared to consider this sort of application. We will be examining the situation and doing so fast."[232] IBM Thinkpad W500 CPU Fan

They also stated that in the event of a referendum for Crimea region joining Russian Federation they would consider its results "very fast".Later Slutsky announced that he was misunderstood by Crimean press and no decision regarding simplifying the process of acquiring Russian citizenship for people in Crimea has been made yet.[235] Compaq Presario CQ41-206TU CPU Fan

And added that if "fellow Russian citizens are in jeopardy you understand that we do not stay away".[236] On February 25, in a meeting with Crimean politicians he stated that Viktor Yanukovich was still the legitimate president of Ukraine.[237] That same day in the Russian Duma, they announced they were determining measures so that Russians in Ukraine who "did not want to break from the Russian World" could acquire Russian citizenship. SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan

On February 26, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian Armed Forces to be "put on alert in the Western Military District as well as units stationed with the 2nd Army Central Military District Command involved in aerospace defense, airborne troops and long-range military transport." HP G62-374CA CPU Fan

Despite media speculation it was for in reaction to the events in Ukraine RussianDefense Minister Sergei Shoigu said it was in separate consideration from the unrest in Ukraine.[239] On February 27, 2014, the Russian government dismissed accusations about violation by the Russian side of the basic agreements in regards of the Black Sea Fleet: HP Pavilion dv5-1203eg CPU Fan

"All movements of armored vehicles are undertaken in full compliance with the basic agreements and did not require any approvals".On February 27, the Russian governing agencies presented the new law project on granting citizenship.The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs called on the West and particularly NATO to "abandon the provocative statements and respect the neutral status of Ukraine".[244HP Pavilion dv7-3131ez CPU Fan

] In its statement the ministry claims that agreement on settlement of the crisis which was signed on February 21 and was witnessed by foreign ministries from Germany, Poland and France has to this date, not been implemented[244] (Vladimir Lukin from Russia had not signed it[245]). Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

According to ITAR-TASS on February 28 the Russian Ministry of Transport discontinued its further talks with Ukraine in regards to the Kerch Strait Bridgeproject.[246] However, on March 3 Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia, signed a decree creating a subsidiary of Russian Highways (Avtodor) to build a bridge at an unspecified location along the Kerch strait.[247][248] SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan

On Russian social networks there is a movement to gather volunteers who served in the Russian army to go to Ukraine.[249]

On February 28 President Putin stated it was of "extreme importance of not allowing a further escalation of violence and the necessity of a rapid normalisation of the situation in Ukraine" in telephone calls with key EU leaders.[217] HP Pavilion dv6-3043tx CPU Fan

Already on February 19 the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs referred to the Euromaidan revolution as the "Brown revolution".[250][251]

The Federation Council approved that Russia may introduce a limited contingent of Russian troops in Crimeafor the security of the Black Sea Fleet and the Russians.[252] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

In Moscow, on March 2, an estimated 27,000 rallied in support of the Russian government's decision to intervene in Ukraine.[253] The rallies received considerable attention on Russian state TV and were officially sanctioned by the government.

Meanwhile, on March 1, five people who were picketing next to the Federation Council building against the invasion of Ukraine were arrested.[255] HP Pavilion dv7-1003eo CPU Fan

The next day about 200 people protested at the building of the Russian Ministry of Defense in Moscow against Russian military involvement.[256] About 500 people also gathered to protest on the Manezhnaya Square in Moscow and the same number of people on the Saint Isaac's Square in Saint Petersburg.[257] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

On March 2, about eleven protesters demonstrated in Yekaterinburg against Russian involvement, with some wrapped in the Ukrainian flag.[258]Protests were also held in Chelyabinsk on the same day.[259] The opposition to the military intervention was also expressed by rock musician Andrey Makarevich, who wrote in particular:  HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

"You want war with Ukraine? It will not be the way it was with Abkhazia: the folks on the Maidan have been hardened and know what they are fighting for – for their country, their independence. [...] We have to live with them. Still neighborly. And preferably in friendship. But it's up to them how they want to live".[260] SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan

The Professor of the Department of Philosophy at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations Andrey Zubov was fired for his article in Vedomosti, criticizing Russian military intervention.President Putin's approval rating among the Russian public has increased by nearly 10% since the crisis began, up to 71.6%, the highest in three years, according to a poll conducted by the All-Russian Center for Public Opinion Research, released on March 19.[262] HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan

Additionally, the same poll showed that more than 90% of Russians supported unification with the Crimean Republic.[262]

On March 4, at press conference in Novo-Ogaryovo President Putin expressed his view on the situation that if a revolution took place in Ukraine, it is a new country with which Russia did not conclude any treaties.[263HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan

] He brought up an analogy with events of 1917 in Russia, when as a result of the revolution the Russian Empirefell apart and a new state was created.[263] However, he stated Ukraine would still have to honor its debts.

Russian politicians have speculated that there are already 143,000 Ukrainian refugees in Russia.[264] Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan

The Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs refuted those claims of refugees increase in Russia.[265] At a briefing on March 4, 2014, the director of department of information policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of UkraineYevhen Perebiynis claimed that Russia was misinforming its own citizens as well as the entire international community to justify its own actions in the Crimea.[266] HP Pavilion dv7-3080eg CPU Fan

On March 5, an anchor of the Russian-owned international ne

ws channel RT America, Abby Martin, in an interview with Piers Morgan, said she "did not agree" with how her employer RT was covering the Ukrainian crisis, but claims RT still supports her despite her differences of opinion.[267] HP Pavilion dv9233ca CPU Fan

Also on March 5, 2014, another RT America anchor, Liz Wahl, of the network's Washington, DC bureau, resigned on air, explaining that she could not be "part of a network that whitewashes the actions of Putin" and citing her Hungarian ancestry and the memory of the Soviet repression of the Hungarian Uprising as a factor in her decision.[268] HP Envy 14-1195la CPU Fan

Prominent dissident Mikhail Khodorkovsky said that Crimea should stay within Ukraine with broader autonomy.[269]

Tatarstan, a republic within Russia populated by Volga Tatars, has sought to alleviate concerns about treatment of Tatars by Russia, as Tatarstan is a gas-rich and economically successful republic in Russia.[27HP Pavilion dv6-2115sf CPU Fan

0] On March 5, President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov signed an agreement on cooperation between Tatarstan and the Aksyonov government in Crimea that implied collaboration between ten government institutions as well as significant financial aid to Crimea from Tatarstan businesses.[270] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

On March 11, Minnikhanov was in Crimea on his second visit and attended as a guest present in the Crimean parliament chamber during the vote on the declaration of sovereignty pending the March 16 referendum.[270] The Tatarstan's Mufti Kamil Samigullin invited Crimean Tatars to study in madrasas in Kazan and declared support for their "brothers in faith and blood".[HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan

270] Mustafa Dzhemilev, a former leader of the Crimean Tatar Majlis believes that forces that are suspected to be Russian forces should leave the Crimean peninsula,[270] and has asked the UN Security Council to send peacekeepers into the region.[271]

On March 15, thousands of protesters (estimates varying from 3,000 by official sources up to 50,000 claimed by opposition) HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan

in Moscow marched against Russian involvement in Ukraine, many waving Ukrainian flags.[272] At the same time a pro government (and pro-referendum) rally, occurred across the street, counted thousands as well (officials claiming 27,000 with opposition claiming about 10,000). HP Pavilion dv6-2140se CPU Fan

There has been a range of international reactions to the crisis. A U.N. General Assembly passed a non-binding resolution 100 in favor, 11 against and 58 abstentions in the 193-nation assembly that declared invalid Crimea's Moscow-backed referendum. In a move supported by the Lithuanian President,[273] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C CPU Fan

the United States government imposed sanctions against persons they deem to have violated or assisted in the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty.[145]The European Union suspended talks with Russia on economic and visa related matters; and is considering more stringent sanctions against Russia in the near future, including asset freezes.[146][147HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

] while Japan announced sanctions which include suspension of talks relating to military, space, investment, and visa requirements.[274] The EU Commission decided on March 11 to enter into a full free-trade agreement with Ukraine this year.[275] On March 12, the European Parliamentrejected the upcoming referendum on independence in Crimea, which they saw as manipulated and contrary to international and Ukrainian law.[27ACER eMachines G520 CPU Fan

6] The G7 bloc of developed nations (the G8 minus Russia) made a joint statement condemning Russia and announced that they will suspend preparations for the upcoming G8 summit in Sochi in June.[277][278] NATO condemned Russia's military escalation in Crimea and stated that it was breach of international law[279] while the Council of Europeexpressed its full support for the territorial integrity and national unity of Ukraine.[280HP Pavilion dv5-2132dx CPU Fan

] The Visegrád Group has issued a joint statement urging Russia to respect Ukraine's territorial integrity and for Ukraine to take into account its minority groups to not further break fragile relations. It has urged for Russia to respect Ukrainian and international law and in line with the provisions of the 1994 Budapest Memorandum.[281] Compaq Presario CQ60-307ea CPU Fan

China said "We respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine". A spokesman restated China's belief of non-interference in the internal affairs of other nations and urged dialogue.[282][283]

National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon of India stated that Russia has legitimate HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa CPU Fan

interests in Crimea and called for "sustained diplomatic efforts" and "constructive dialogue" to resolve the crisis.[284] However, the National Security Advisor is not a part of the Cabinet of India and, as such, Menon's statement was not an official statement issued by the government of India.[285] Toshiba Satellite A40-702 CPU Fan

However, India subsequently made it clear that it will not support any "unilateral measures" against Russian government. "India has never supported unilateral sanctions against any country. Therefore, we will also not support any unilateral measures by a country or a group of countries against Russia."[286] SONY Vaio VGN-AR21B CPU Fan

Both Syria and Venezuelaopenly support Russian military action. Syrian President Bashar al Assad said that he supports Putin's efforts to "restore security and stability in the friendly country of Ukraine", while Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro condemned Ukraine's "ultra-nationalist" coup.[287][288] SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1E/PI CPU Fan

Sri Lanka described Yanukovych's removal as unconstitutional and considered Russia's concerns in Crimea as justified.[289]

Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk called for change in EU energy policy as Germany's dependence on Russian gas poses risks for Europe.[290] SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1E/WI CPU Fan

On March 13, German Chancellor Angela Merkel warned Moscow it risks massive damage to Russia, economically and politically, if it refuses to change course on Ukraine,[291] though close economic links between Germany and Russia significantly reduce the scope for Berlin to sanction the Eurasian giant.[292] SONY Vaio VGN-FS660/W CPU Fan

After Russia moved to formally incorporate Crimea, some worried whether it may not do the same in other regions.[293] US deputy national security advisor Tony Blinken said that the Russian troops massed on the eastern Ukrainian border may be preparing to enter the country's eastern regions. HP Pavilion G61-631NR CPU Fan

Russian officials stated that Russian troops would not enter other areas.[293] US Air Force Gen. Philip M. Breedlove, NATO's supreme allied commander in Europe, warned that the same troops were in a position to take over the separatist Russian-speaking Moldovan province of Transnistria.On April 9, PACE deprived Russia of voting rights. HP Pavilion dv6560el CPU Fan

The 2014 Crimean referendum was recognized by only 18 states, 15 of whom were UN members.Five UN members (Afghanistan,Nicaragua,Russia, Syria, Venezuela) have explicitly accepted the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia:According to Belarus, Crimea is de jure part of Ukraine, but de facto part of Russia. HP Pavilion dv6-2128ca CPU Fan

Its wording thus far has been vague: it includes "Ukraine should remain an integral, indivisible, non-aligned state" and "As for Crimea, I do not like it when the integrity and independence of a country are broken", on the one hand, and "Today Crimea is part of the Russian Federation. HP Pavilion dv7-3004el CPU Fan

No matter whether you recognize it or not, the fact remains." and "Whether Crimea will be recognized as a region of the Russian Federation de-jure does not really matter", on the other hand.

Sanctions were imposed to prevent Russian and Crimean officials and politicians traveling to Canada, the United States, and the European Union. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

They were the most wide-ranging used on Russia since the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union.[299]

Japan announced milder sanctions than the US and EU. These include suspension of talks relating to military, space, investment, and visa requirements.[300]

In response to the sanctions introduced by the U.S. and EU, HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

the Russian Duma unanimously passed a resolution asking for all members of the Duma to be included on the sanctions list.[301] Head of the opposition A Just Russia party Sergei Mironov said he was proud of being included on the sanctions list, "It is with pride that I have found myself on the black list, this means they have noticed my stance on Crimea."[301] HP Pavilion dv5-1172el CPU Fan

Russian companies started pulling billions of dollars out of Western banks to avoid any asset freeze.[302]

Three days after the lists were published, the Russian Foreign Ministry published a reciprocal sanctions list of US citizens, which consisted of 10 names, including House of Representatives Speaker John Boehner, Senator John McCain, and two advisers to President Obama. Toshiba Satellite A105-S4084 CPU Fan

The ministry said in the statement, "Treating our country in such way, as Washington could have already ascertained, is inappropriate and counterproductive," and reiterated that sanctions against Russia would have a boomerang effect.[303] Several of those sanctioned responded with pride at their inclusion on the list, including John Boehner,[30HP Pavilion dv4-1038tx CPU Fan

4] John McCain,[304] Bob Menendez,[305] Dan Coats,[304] Mary Landrieu,[306] and Harry Reid.[306]

On March 24, Russia has imposed retaliatory sanctions on 13 Canadian officials including members of the Parliament of Canada,[307] banning them from entering Russia. Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird, said the sanctions were "a badge of honour."[ HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb CPU Fan

308] Former Minister of Justice Irwin Cotler also said that he considered the sanctions a badge of honour, not a mark of exclusion.[307]

Expanded Western sanctions in mid-March coursed through financial markets, hitting the business interests of some Russia's richest people.[309] The Americans' centered on the heart of Moscow's leadership,[310HP Pavilion dv7-6055sf CPU Fan

] though the EU's initial list shied from targeting Putin's inner circle.[311] As ratings agencies Fitch andStandard & Poor's downgraded Russia's credit outlook,[312] Russian banks warned of a sanctions-induced recession,[313] the country braced for capital outflows for the first three months of 2014 to reach $70 billion,[314SONY VGN-CS108D  CPU Fan

] more than the entirety of outflows for 2013,[315] and Russian government-bond issues plummeted by three-quarters compared with the same period the previous year.[316] Novatek, Russia's second-largest gas producer, saw $2.5bn in market value wiped out when its shares sank by nearly 10%, rendering Putin's close friend Gennady Timchenko, DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan

who has a 23% stake in the company, $575m poorer.[309] "I do hope that there is some serious diplomatic activity going on behind the scenes," said one Russian banker,[317] though others were more sanguine on the question of whether the sanctions would have any enduring effect, and Russians, top and bottom, seemed defiant.[320] HP Pavilion G72-b15SV CPU Fan

The official Russian response was mixed.[321]

As well as differences between the United States and Europe as a whole as to how to respond to the Russian-backed incursion, those same differences have played out among Eastern European countries. HP G62-120ES CPU Fan

Several scholars, including Alexander J. Motyl, Paul A. Goble, Timothy D. Snyder, and Andreas Umland, have discussed the possibility of Russian military intervention in Crimea specifically, due to its unique geopolitical nature and demographics.[324][325] Political scientist Uriel Abulof suggested that instead of rejecting the referendum outright, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ss   CPU   Fan

the West should have proposed a moratorium on a free plebiscite, arguing that the clash over the principle of self-determination unearthed an emergent "global crisis of legitimacy."[154]

Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's opinion was that "Earlier Crimea was merged with Ukraine under Soviet laws, to be more exact by the [Communist] party's laws, without asking the people, and now the people have decided to correct that mistake.HP Pavilion dv7-3165ef  CPU Fan

This should be welcomed instead of declaring sanctions."[326]

Nina L. Khrushcheva, the great-granddaughter of former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and a Russian Affairs professor at the The New School, New York City, said that the aim of Crimea was not necessarily independence from Ukraine, but rather continued dependence on Russia. HP X16-1000 Series CPU Fan

However, this has instead led Putin to justify continued backing for Yanukovych as well as his own desires to re-take the peninsula. Nevertheless, she acknowledged that Putin's long term goal may not be annexation of Crimea, since this could cause ethnic Crimean Tatars, who had been forcibly displaced by Stalin to Central Asia, IBM ThinkPad Z61m  CPU Fan

to demand a return to Crimea and possibly cause the Islamic insurgency to spread out of the Northern Caucasus. Furthermore, she also states that if Russia sets a precedent of recovering "lost territory", this could inspire countries such as China or Georgia to demand back their own "stolen lands".[327] ACER Aspire One D250 CPU Fan

Volodymyr Panchenko, of the Kiev-based think-tank International Center for Policy Studies, said on February 28 that the aim of Russia is for Crimea to be "more or less controlled by Russian troops," but that if or when a referendum is held "more than 80 percent" of votes would be for independence from Ukraine. ACER Ferrari 4000 CPU Fan

The way events are unfolding in Crimea "is not a good precedent for the other provinces."[328]

Russian opposition leader and chess Grandmaster Garry Kasparov, former US National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, former US secretary of state Hillary Clinton, Ukrainian MP Lesya Orobets (Batkivshchyna), HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

former foreign minister of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, as well as the Foreign Affairs Minister of Canada John Baird all compared Russia's actions to Nazi Germany's policy before the start of World War II, after the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin.Former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt called Russia's actions "perfectly understandable", and considers sanctions being imposed by the US and EU "foolish".[334] Toshiba Satellite L350-146 CPU Fan

Ukraine's Chief Rabbi, Yaakov Bleich, described Putin's accusations of anti-semitism from Ukrainians towards Jews as a pretense for invasion as "what the Nazis did during the time of the Anschluss in Austria."[335]

Commentaries and editorials published by China's state-run Xinhua News Agency[336] and Global Times[337] HP Pavilion dv8335ea CPU Fan

supported Russia's position on the situation, though Chinese president Xi Jinping said China's position was neutral, and noted Crimea's status does not meaningfully affect his country.

The crisis aroused discussion of the concept of "territorial integrity".[339] Dell Vostro 3400 CPU Fan

The phrase was used by many governments and commentators,[339] and according to Erik Voeten, referred to the idea that borders could only be changed by mutual agreement between two countries. Voeten argued that while the principle produces less conflict, "the status quo looks best to states that won the last war," and did not appeal to Russia as much as to Western states.[3APPLE MG62090V1-Q020-S99 CPU Fan

39] Fareed Zakaria stated that the situation in Crimea involved a "global principle: whether national boundaries can be changed by brute force," and questioned what effects it might have on other regions with contested boundaries.[340] Bryan Frederick of the RAND Corporation stated "the widely accepted principle that international borders are not subject to further revision" had been responsible for decreased international conflict in recent decades, APPLE 15" Macbook Pro Unibody CPU Fan

and that Russia's involvement threatened the idea, which had been eroding since the Russo-Georgian War and as a result of the Kosovo independence precedent.[341]

A wider partitioning of Ukraine, while opposed by many commentators[342] and goverments,[343] had a few proponents.[344][345] Gateway 6020GZ CPU Fan

Media were accused of exaggerating the regional differences in Ukraine through misleading maps implying clear linguistic or ethnic boundaries.[342] Russian politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky proposed to partition Ukraine on historical grounds. He sent letters to the governments of Poland, Romania,[350] and Hungary;[3Toshiba Satellite Pro M30-891 CPU Fan

51] none took the idea seriously. Zhirinovsky's position conflicted from the Kremlin's,[352] but some considered it a reflection of increasing nationalism in Russia.[346]

Some, such as Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko,[353] also considered Russia's proposal to federalize Ukraine, as a threat to Ukraine's territorial integrity. Toshiba Satellite Pro M30-782 CPU Fan

Mykola Riabchuk argued that the result would be "highly vulnerable to Russian subversion, manipulation and sabotage." HP Pavilion dv5-1050eo CPU Fan,SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan,Dell Studio XPS 1645 CPU Fan

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Euromaidan (Ukrainian: Євромайдан, Yevromaidan, literally "Eurosquare") is a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests demanding closer European integration.  The scope of the protests expanded, with many calls for the resignation of President Viktor Yanukovych and his government.[ HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan

Many protesters joined because of the violent dispersal of protesters on 30 November and "a will to change life in Ukraine".[5]  By 25 January 2014, the protests had been fuelled by the perception of "widespread government corruption", "abuse of power", and "violation of human rights in Ukraine".HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

The protests reached a climax during mid-February.  On 18 February, the worst clashes of Euromaidan broke out after the parliament had failed to rollback the Constitution of Ukraine to its pre-2004 form, which would lessen presidential power and bring more balance to the government. HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

Police and protesters fired guns, with both live and rubber ammunition, in multiple locations in Kyiv.  The riot police advanced towards Maidan later in the day and clashed with the protesters and did not fully occupy it.  The fights continued through the following days, in which the vast majority of casualties took place.  Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

On the night of 21 February, Maidan vowed to go into armed conflict if Yanukovych did not resign by 10:00.  Subsequently, the riot police drew back and vanished and Yanukovych and many other high government officials fled the country.  Protesters gained control of the presidential administration and Yanukovych's private estate. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The next day, the parliament impeached Yanukovych, replaced the government with a pro-European one, and released Yulia Tymoshenko from prison.  In the aftermath, the Crimean crisis began amid pro-Russian unrest.

Despite the impeachment of Yanukovych, the installation of a new government, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

and the signature of the political provisions of the Ukraine-EU Association Agreement, the protests have been ongoing to sustain pressure on the government, counter pro-Russian protests, and reject Russian occupation of Ukraine. The general area of the pro-Ukraine and pro-Europe protests has shifted from Kiev and western Ukraine to the include the eastern and southern areas of the country as well. Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

The demonstrations began on the night of 21 November 2013, when protests erupted in the capital, Kiev, after the Ukrainian government suspended preparations for signing an Association Agreement and a Free Trade Agreement with the European Union, to seek closer economic relations with Russia.[74] Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Prime Minister Mykola Azarov had asked for 20 Billion Euros (US$27) billion in loans and aid.[75]  The EU and Russia both offered Ukraine the possibility of substantial loans.[76]  Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices.[76]  On 24 November 2013, first clashes between protesters and police began.  Protesters strived to break cordon. Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

Police used tear gas and batons, protesters also used tear gas and some fire crackers (according to the police, protesters were the first to use them).After a few days of demonstrations an increasing number of university students joined the protests.The Euromaidan has been repeatedly characterised as an event of major political symbolism for the European Union itself, particularly as "the largest ever pro-European rally in history". Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

The protests continued despite heavy police presence,regularly sub-freezing temperatures, and snow.  Escalating violence from government forces in the early morning of 30 November caused the level of protests to rise, with 400,000–800,000 protesters demonstrating in Kiev on the weekends of 1 December[51] and 8 December.[82] HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

In the weeks since, protest attendance has fluctuated from 50,000 to 200,000 during organised rallies.Violent riots took place 1 December and 19 January through 25 in response to police brutality and government repression.Since 23 January several Western Ukrainian Oblast (province) Governor buildings and regional councils have been occupied in a revolt by Euromaidan activists.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

In the Russophone cities of Zaporizhzhya, Sumy, and Dnipropetrovsk, protesters also tried to take over their local government building, and have been met with considerable force from both police and government supporters.[13]

According to journalist Lecia Bushak writing in 18 February 2014 issue of Newsweek magazine, HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

EuroMaidan has grown into something far bigger than just an angry response to the fallen-through EU deal.  It's now about ousting Yanukovych and his corrupt government; guiding Ukraine away from its 200-year-long, deeply intertwined and painful relationship with Russia; and standing up for basic human rights to protest, speak and think freely and to act peacefully without the threat of punishment. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

A turning point came in late-February, when enough members of the president's party fled or defected to lose their majority in the parliament leaving the opposition large enough to form the necessary quorum.  This allowed parliament to pass a series of laws that removed police from Kiev, cancelled anti-protest operations, restored the 2004 constitution, freed political detainees, and allegedly[87] impeached the president. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

Yanukovych then fled to Ukraine's second largest city of Kharkiv, refusing to recognise the parliament's decisions.  The parliament has assigned early elections for May 2014.

The term "Euromaidan" was initially used as a hashtag on Twitter.[90]  A Twitter account named Euromaidan was created on the first day of the protests.[91] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

It soon became popular in the international media.[92]  The name is composed of two parts: "Euro" is short for Europe and "maidan" refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the main square of Kiev, where the protests are centred.[90]  During the protests the word "Maidan" has come to mean the act of public politics itself.[93] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The term "Ukrainian Spring" is sometimes used in reference to the Arab Spring, which was triggered by similar causes such as heavy-handed authoritarianism, widespread official corruption, kleptocracy, and lack of opportunity.

The Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, had asked for 20 Billion Euros (US$27) in loans and aid.[75] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The EU was willing to offer 610 million euros (838 million US) in loans,[76] however Russia was willing to offer 15 billion US in loans.[76]  Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices.[76]  As a condition for the loans, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in Ukraine.  Russia did not.[75] FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

On 30 March 2012 the European Union (EU) and Ukraine initiated an Association Agreement;[96] however, the EU leaders later stated that the agreement would not be ratified unless Ukraine addressed concerns over a "stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law", including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012.[97][nb 5] SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

In the months leading up to the protests Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych urged the parliament to adopt laws so that Ukraine would meet the EU's criteria. On 25 September 2013 Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament) Volodymyr Rybak stated he was sure that his parliament would pass all the laws needed to fit the EU criteria for the Association Agreement since, except for the Communist Party of Ukraine, HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

"The Verkhovna Rada has united around these bills."[citation needed]

In mid-August 2013 Russia changed its customs regulations on imports from Ukraine such that on 14 August 2013, the Russian Custom Service stopped all goods coming from Ukraine and prompted politicians and sources to view the move as the start of a trade war against Ukraine to prevent Ukraine from signing a trade agreement with the European Union. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Ukrainian Industrial Policy Minister Mykhailo Korolenko stated on 18 December 2013 that because of this Ukraine's exports had dropped by $1.4 billion (or a 10% year-on-year decrease through the first 10 months of the year). The State Statistics Service of Ukraine reported in November 2013 that in comparison with the same months of 2012, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

industrial production in Ukraine in October 2013 had fallen by 4.9 percent, in September 2013 by 5.6 percent, and in August 2013 by 5.4 percent (and that the industrial production in Ukraine in 2012 total had fallen by 1.8 percent).

On 21 November 2013 a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The reason given was that the previous months Ukraine had experienced "a drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries".[110][nb 6]  The government also assured "Ukraine will resume preparing the agreement when the drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries are compensated by the European market."[110] FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

According to Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov "the extremely harsh conditions" of an IMF loan (presented by the IMF on 20 November 2013), which included big budget cuts and a 40% increase in gas bills, had been the last argument in favour of the Ukrainian government's decision to suspend preparations for signing the Association Agreement. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

On 7 December 2013 the IMF clarified that it was not insisting on a single-stage increase in natural gas tariffs in Ukraine by 40%, but recommended that they be gradually raised to an economically justified level while compensating the poorest segments of the population for the losses from such an increase by strengthening targeted social assistance.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

The same day IMF Resident Representative in Ukraine Jerome Vacher stated that this particular IMF loan is worth US$4 billion and that it would be linked with "policy, which would remove disproportions and stimulate growth".

President Yanukovych attended the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit in Vilnius (where originally it was planned that the Association Agreement would be signed on 29 November 2013), HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

but the Association Agreement was not signed. Both Yanukovych and high level EU officials signalled that they wanted to sign the Association Agreement at a later date.

According to December 2013 polls (by three different pollsters) between 45% and 50% of Ukrainians supported Euromaidan, while between 42% and 50% opposed it. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The biggest support for the protest can be found in Kiev (about 75%) and western Ukraine (more than 80%).Among Euromaidan protesters, 55% are from the west of the country, with 24% from central Ukraine and 21% from the east.

In a poll taken on 7–8 December, 73% of protesters had committed to continue protesting in Kiev as long as needed until their demands are fulfilled. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

This number has increased to 82% as of 3 February 2014. Polls also show that the nation is divided in age: while majority of young people are pro-EU, older generations (50 and above) more often prefer the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. More than 41% of protesters are ready to take part in the seizure of administrative buildings as of February, HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

compared to 13 and 19 percent during polls on 10 and 20 December 2013.  At the same time, more than 50 percent are ready to take part in the creation of independent military units, compared to 15 and 21 percent during the past studies, respectively.

According to a January poll, 45% of Ukrainians supported the protests, and 48% of Ukrainians disapproved of Euromaidan.Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

In a March poll, 57% of Ukrainians said they supported the Euromaidan protests.

According to an August 2013 study by a Donetsk company, Research & Branding Group,[130] 49% of Ukrainians supported signing the Association Agreement, while 31% opposed it and the rest had not decided yet.  HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

However, in a December poll by the same company, only 30% claimed that terms of the Association agreement would be beneficial for the Ukrainian economy, while 39% said they were unfavourable for Ukraine.  In the same poll, only 30% said the opposition would be able to stabilise the society and govern the country well, if coming to power, while 37% disagreed.[131]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Authors of the GfK Ukraine poll conducted 2–15 October 2013 claim that 45% of respondents believed Ukraine should sign an Association Agreement with the EU, whereas only 14% favoured joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 15% preferred non-alignment.  Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Full text of the EU-related question asked by GfK reads, "Should Ukraine sign the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement, and, in the future, become an EU member?"

Another poll conducted in November by IFAK Ukraine for DW-Trend showed 58% of Ukrainians supporting the country's entry into the European Union.[134]  HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

On the other hand a November 2013 poll by Kyiv International Institute of Sociology showed 39% supporting the country's entry into the European Union and 37% supporting Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.

In December 2013, then Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov refuted the pro-EU poll numbers claiming that many polls posed questions about Ukraine joining the EU, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

and that Ukraine had never been invited to join the Union, but only to sign the Association Agreement.

The pro-European Union protests are Ukraine's largest since the Orange Revolution of 2004, which saw Yanukovych forced to resign as prime minister over allegations of voting irregularities.  DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Although comparing the 2013 events in the same East-West vector as 2004, with Ukraine remaining "a key geopolitical prize in eastern Europe" for Russia and the EU, The Moscow Times noted that Yanukovych's government was in a significantly stronger position following his election in 2010.[138] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were "largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine's political opposition unprepared" compared to their well-organised predecessors.[139]  The hashtag #euromaidan (Ukrainian #євромайдан, Russian #евромайдан), emerged immediately on the first meeting of the protests and was highly useful as a communication instrument for protesters.[140] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Vitali Klitschko wrote in a tweet[141]  "Friends! All those who came to Maydan [Independence Square], well done! Who has not done it yet – join us now!"  The protest hashtag also gained traction on the VKontakte social media network, and Klitschko tweeted a link to a speech[142] he made on the square saying that once the protest was 100,000-strong, "we'll go for Yanukovych" – referring to President Viktor Yanukovych.[ HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

In an interview, opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, when asked if the current opposition was weaker than it was in 2004, argued that the opposition was stronger because the stakes were higher, "I asked each [of the opposition leaders]: "Do you realise that this is not a protest? It is a revolution [...] we have two roads – we go to prison or we win."  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Paul Robert Magocsi illustrated the effect of the Orange Revolution on Euromaidan, saying, "Was the Orange Revolution a genuine revolution? Yes it was.  And we see the effects today.  The revolution wasn't a revolution of the streets or a revolution of (political) elections; it was a revolution of the minds of people, in the sense that for the first time in a long time, Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Ukrainians and people living in territorial Ukraine saw the opportunity to protest and change their situation.  This was a profound change in the character of the population of the former Soviet Union."[144]  Lviv-based historian Yaroslav Hrytsak also remarked on the generational shift, "This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine's independence (who were born around the time of 1991); SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year).  It's a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don't have futures."[80] HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to Hrytsak: "Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older.  This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors."[145]  In a Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (69.8% of those aged 18 to 29), HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

higher than the national average of 43.2% support.[146][147]  A November 2013 poll by the same institute found the same result with 70.8% aged 18 to 29 wanting to join the European Union while 39.7% was the national average of support.[146]  An opinion poll by GfK conducted 2–15 October found that among respondents aged 16–29 with a position on integration, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

73% favoured signing an Association Agreement with the EU, while only 45% of those over the age of 45 favoured Association.  The lowest support for European integration was among people with incomplete secondary and higher education.

The movement started peacefully but did not end that way. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Protesters felt authorised to use violence after the government's crackdown on protesters which happened during the night of 30 November 2013.  The Associated Press described the evolution this way, on 19 February:

The latest bout of street violence began Tuesday when protesters attacked police lines and set fires outside parliament, HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

accusing Yanukovych of ignoring their demands to enact constitutional reforms that would limit the president's power — a key opposition demand.  Parliament, dominated by his supporters, was stalling on taking up a constitutional reform to limit presidential powers. Police responded by attacking the protest camp. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Armed with water cannons, stun grenades and rubber bullets, police dismantled some barricades.  But the protesters held their ground through the night, encircling the protest camp with new burning barricades of tires, furniture and debris.[148]

In the early stages of Euromaidan, there was discussion about whether the Euromaidan movement constituted a revolution - or a staged 'Colour Revolution' by outside forces. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the time many protest leaders (such as Oleh Tyahnybok) had already used this term frequently when addressing the public.  Tyahnybok called in an official 2 December press release for police officers and members of the military to defect to 'the Ukrainian revolution'.[149] HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In a Skype interview with media analyst Andrij Holovatyj, Vitaly Portnikov, Council Member of the "Maidan" National Alliance and President and Editor-in-Chief of the Ukrainian television channel TVi, stated "EuroMaidan is a revolution and revolutions can drag on for years" and that "what is happening in Ukraine goes much deeper.  It is changing the national fabric of Ukraine."[150] SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Select media outlets in the region have dubbed this staged movement, Eurorevolution[151] (Ukrainian: Єврореволюція).  On 10 December President Viktor Yanukovych stated "Calls for a revolution pose a threat to national security."[152]  Former Georgian president Mikhail Saakashvili has described the movement as "the first geopolitical revolution of the 21st century".[153] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Political expert Anders Åslund commented on this aspect: "Revolutionary times have their own logic that is very different from the logic of ordinary politics, as writers from Alexis de Tocqueville to Crane Brinton have taught.  The first thing to understand about Ukraine today is that it has entered a revolutionary stage.  Like it or not, we had better deal with the new environment rationally." HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The resolution stated that on 1 December, on the 22nd anniversary of Ukraine's independence referendum, that the group will gather at noon on Independence Square to announce their further course of action.[80]

After the forced police dispersal of all protesters from Maidan Nezalezhnosti on the night of 30 November, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

the dismissal of Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko became one of the protesters' main demands.[155]

A petition to the US White House demanding sanctions against Viktor Yanukovych and Ukrainian government ministers gathered over 100,000 signatures in four days.[  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ukrainian students nationwide have also demanded the dismissal of Minister of Education Dmytro Tabachnyk.

On 5 December Batkivshchyna faction leader Arseniy Yatsenyuk stated, "Our three demands to the Verkhovna Rada and the president remained unchanged: the resignation of the government; SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the release of all political prisoners, first and foremost; [the release of former Ukrainian Prime Minister] Yulia Tymoshenko; and [the release of] nine individuals [who were illegally convicted after being present at a rally on Bankova Street on December 1]; the suspension of all criminal cases; and the arrest of all Berkut officers who were involved in the illegal beating up of children on Maidan Nezalezhnosti."[ Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The opposition also demanded that the government resumed negotiations with the IMF for a loan that they saw as key to helping Ukraine "through economic troubles that have made Yanukovych lean toward Russia".

On 30 November 2013, the protests were dispersed violently by the Berkut riot police units, sparking riots the following day in Kiev. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 1 December 2013, protesters reoccupied the square and through December further clashes with the authorities and political ultimatums by the opposition ensued.  This culminated in a series of anti-protest laws by the government on 16 January 2014, and further rioting on Hrushevskoho Street.  Early February 2014 saw a bombing of the Trade Unions Building,[163] as well as the formation of "Self Defense" teams by protesters. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 19 January, a Sunday mass protest, the ninth in a row, took place gathering up to 200,000 in central Kiev to protest the new anti-protest laws, dubbed the Dictatorship laws.  Many protesters ignored the face concealment ban by wearing party masks, hard hats and gas masks.  Opposition leader Vitali Klitschko appeared covered with powder after he was sprayed with a fire extinguisher. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Riot police and government supporters cornered a group of people who were trying to seize government buildings.  The number of riot police on Hrushevskoho Street increased after buses and army trucks showed up.  The latter resulted in the buses being burned as a barricade.  The next day, a clean-up began in Kiev.  SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 22 January, more violence erupted in Kiev.  This resulted in 8-9 people dead.

A 24 November protest in Ivano-Frankivsk saw several thousand protestors gather at the regional administration building.[194]  No classes were held in the universities of western Ukrainian cities such as Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhhorod.[195] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Protests also took place in other large Ukrainian cities: Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Luhansk, Lviv, and Uzhhorod.  The rally in Lviv in support of the integration of Ukraine into the EU was initiated by the students of local universities.  This rally saw 25–30 thousand protesters gather on Prospect Svobody (Freedom Avenue) in Lviv.  APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The organisers planned to continue this rally 'till the 3rd Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November 2013.[196]  A rally in Simferopol, which drew around 300, saw nationalists and Crimean Tatars unite to support European integration; the protesters sang both the Ukrainian national anthem and the anthem of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.[197] HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

7 people were injured after 40 titushky (thugs) attacked a tent encampment in Dnipropetrovsk, which was ordered cleared by court order on 25 November. Officials estimated the number of attackers to be 10–15,[200] and police did not intervene in the attacks.[201]  Similarly, police in Odessa ignored calls to stop the demolition of Euromaidan camps in the city by a group of 30, and instead removed all parties from the premises.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

50 police officers and men in plain clothes also drove out a Euromaidan protest in Chernihiv the same day.[203]

On 25 November, in Odessa, 120 police raided and destroyed a tent encampment made by protesters at 5:20 in the morning.  The police detained three of the protesters, including the leader of the Odessa branch of Democratic Alliance, Alexei Chorny. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

All three were beaten in the police vehicle and then taken to the Portofrankovsk Police Station without their arrival being recorded.  The move came after the District Administrative Court hours earlier issued a ban restricting citizens' right to peaceful assembly until New Year.  The court ruling places a blanket ban on all demonstrations, the use of tents, sound equipment and vehicles until the end of the year.[204] Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 26 November, a rally of 50 was held in Donetsk.On 28 November, a rally was held in Yalta; university faculty who attended were pressured to resign by university officials.On 29 November, Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000.Like in Kiev, they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union). HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

n 1 December, the largest rally outside of Kiev took place in Lviv by the statue of Taras Shevchenko, where over 50,000 protesters attended.  Mayor Andriy Sadovy, council chairman Peter Kolody, and prominent public figures and politicians were in attendance.[54]  An estimated 300 rallied in the eastern city of Donetsk demanding that President Viktor Yanukovych and the government of Prime Minister Mykola Azarov resign.[ HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Meanwhile, in Kharkiv, thousands rallied with writer Serhiy Zhadan, during a speech, calling for revolution.  The protest was peaceful. Protesters claimed at least 4,000 attended,[213] with other sources saying 2,000. In Dnipropetrovsk, 1,000 gathered to protest the EU agreement suspension, show solidarity with those in Kiev, and demand the resignation of local and metropolitan officials. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They later marched, shouting "Ukraine is Europe" and "Revolution". EuroMaidan protests were also held in Simferopol (where 150–200 attended),[216] and Odessa.On 2 December, in an act of solidarity, Lviv Oblast declared a general strike to mobilise support for protests in Kiev,[218] which was followed by the formal order of a general strike by the cities of Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk.[Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In Dnipropetrovsk on 3 December, a group of 300 protested in favour of European integration and demanded the resignation of local authorities, heads of local police units, and the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU).[220]

On 7 December it was reported that police were prohibiting those from Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk from driving to Kiev.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Protests on 8 December saw record turnout in many Ukrainian cities, including several in eastern Ukraine.  On the evening, the fall of the monument to Lenin in Kiev took place.[222]  The statue made out of stone was completely hacked to pieces by jubilant demonstrators.

On 9 December, a statue of Vladimir Lenin was destroyed in in the town of Kotovsk in Odessa Oblast.[223] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In Ternopil, Euromaidan organisers were prosecuted by authorities.[224]

The removal or destruction of Lenin monuments and statues gained particular momentum after the destruction of the Kyiv Lenin statue.  Under the motto "Ленінопад" (Leninopad, translated into English as "Leninfall"), activists pulled down a dozen monuments in the Kyiv region, Zhytomyr, ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Chmelnitcki, and elsewhere, or damaged them during the course of the EuroMaidan protests into spring of 2014.[225]  In other cities and towns, monuments were removed by organised heavy equipment and transported to scrapyards or dumps.[226]

On 14 December, Euromaidan supporters in Kharkiv voiced their disapproval of authorities fencing off Freedom Square from the public by covering the metal fence in placards.[  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They have since 5 December been the victims of theft and arson.[228]  A Euromaidan activist in Kharkiv was attacked by two men and stabbed twelve times.  The assailants were unknown but activists told the Kharkiv-based civic organisation Maidan that they believe the city's mayor, Gennady Kernes, to be behind the attack.[229]  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 22 December, 2,000 rallied in Dnipropetrovsk.

In late December, 500 marched in Donetsk.  Due to the regime's hegemony in the city, foreign commentators have suggested that, "For 500 marchers to assemble in Donetsk is the equivalent of 50,000 in Lviv or 500,000 in Kiev."[231]  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 5 January, marches in support of Euromaidan were held in Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, and Kharkiv; the latter three drawing several hundred and Donetsk only 100.[232]

On 11 January 150 activists met in Kharkiv for a general forum on uniting the nation-wide Euromaidan efforts.   HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A church where some were meeting was stormed by over a dozen thugs, and others attacked meetings in a book store; smashing windows and deploying tear gas to stop the Maidan meetings from taking place.

On 22 January in Donetsk, two simultaneous rallies were held – one pro-Euromaidan and one pro-government. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The pro-government rally attracted 600 attendees to about 100 from the Euromaidan side.  Police reports claimed 5,000 attended to support the government, to only 60 from Euromaidan.  In addition, approximately 150 titushky appeared and encircled the Euromaidan protesters with megaphones and began a conflict, HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

burning wreaths and Svoboda Party flags, and shouted "down with fascists!", but were separated by police.[234]  Meanwhile, Donetsk City Council pleaded with the government to take tougher measures against Euromaidan protesters in Kiev.[235]  Reports indicated a media blackout took place in Donetsk.[236]  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In Lviv on 22 January, amid the police shootings of protesters in the capital, military barracks were surrounded by protesters.  Many of the protesters included mothers whose sons are serving in the military, and pleaded with them not to deploy to Kiev.[237]

In Vinnytsia on 22 January thousands protesters blocked the main street of the city and the traffic.  DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Also, they brought "democracy in coffin" to the city hall, as a present to Yanukovych.[238] 23 January Odessa city council member and Euromaidan activist Oleksandr Ostapenko's car was bombed.[239] The Mayor of Sumy threw his support behind the Euromaidan movement on 24 January, laying blame for the civil disorder in Kiev on the Party of Regions and Communists.[240]HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Crimean parliament repeatedly stated that because of the events in Kiev it is ready to join autonomous Crimea to Russia.  On 27 February armed men seize Crimea parliament and raised Russian flag.[241]

In the beginning of March, thousands of Crimean Tatars in support of Euromaidan clashed with pro-Russian protesters in Simferopol. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 4 March 2014, a mass pro-Euromaidan rally has been held in Donetsk for the first time.  About 2,000 people were there.  Donetsk is a major city in the far east of Ukraine and serves as Yanukovych's stronghold and the base of his supporters.  On 5 March 2014, 7,000-10,000 people rallied in support of Euromaidan in the same place.[242] HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After a leader declared the rally over, a fight broke out between pro-Euromaidan and 2,000 pro-Russian protesters.

Starting on 23 January, several Western Ukrainian Oblast (province) Governor buildings and regional councils (RSA's[nb 8]) were occupied by Euromaidan activists.[13]  Several RSA's of the occupied oblasts then decided to ban the activities and symbols of the Communist Party of Ukraine and Party of Regions in their oblast.[14]  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the cities Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk and Odessa protesters also tried to take over their local RSA.

Smaller protests or Euromaidans have been held internationally, primarily among the larger Ukrainian diaspora populations in North America and Europe.  The largest took place on 8 December in New York, with over 1,000 attending. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Notably, in December 2013, Warsaw's Palace of Culture and Science,[244]  Buffalo Electric Vehicle Company Tower in Buffalo,[245]  Cira Centre in Philadelphia,[246] the Tbilisi City Hall in Georgia,[247] and Niagara Falls on the US/Canada border[248] were illuminated in blue and yellow as a symbol of solidarity with Ukraine. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Pro-government rallies during Euromaidan have largely been credited as funded by the government.  Several news outlets have investigated the claims to confirm that by and large, attendees at pro-government rallies do so for financial compensation and not for political reasons, and are not an organic response to the Euromaidan. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

"People stand at Euromaidan protesting against the violation of human rights in the state, and they are ready to make sacrifices," said Oleksiy Haran, a political scientist at Kyiv Mohyla Academy in Kiev.  "People at Antimaidan stand for money only.  The government uses these hirelings to provoke resistance.  They won't be sacrificing anything." HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Automaidan is a movement within the Euromaidan, that seeks the resignation of the Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych.  It is made up mainly of drivers who would protect the protest camps and blockade streets.  It organised a car procession on 29 December 2013 to the president's residence in Mezhyhirya to voice their protests at his refusal to sign the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement in December 2013. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The motorcade was stopped a couple of hundred metres short of his residence.  Automaidan has been the repeated target of violent attacks by government forces and supporters.

On 30 November 2013, the day after the dispersion of Euromaidan, Euromaidan organisers, aided by groups such as Svoboda, have created Self-defense of the Maidan – formation for protecting protesters from police and providing security within the city.[IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Head of Self-defence is Andriy Parubiy[252]

The groups are divided up into sotnia, or 'hundreds', which have been described as a "resilient force that is providing the tip of the spear in the violent showdown with government security forces".  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The sotni take their name from a traditional form of Cossacks cavalry formation, and were also used in the Ukrainian National Army.  Activists estimate at least 32 such groups are in Kiev now, with more forming all the time.[253]

Along with Self-defence headed by Mr. Parubiy, there are some independent divisions (some of them are also referred to as sotnias and even self-defence), HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

like the security of the Trade Unions Building until 2 January 2014,  Narnia and Vikings from Kiev City State Administration, Volodymr Parasyuk's sotnia from Conservatory building, etc.  Mr. Parubiy officially asked such divisions to not call itself Self-defence Pravy Sektor coordinates its actions with Self-defence and is formally a 23-rd sotnia,[259] although already had hundreds of members at the time of registering as sotnia. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Second sotnia (staffed by Svoboda's members) tends to dissociate itself from "sotnias of self-defence of Maidan".

The first of major casualties occurred on the Day of Unity of Ukraine, 22 January 2014.  Four people permanently lost their vision,[261] and one man died by falling from a colonnade.  The circumstances of his death are unclear. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At least five more people were confirmed dead during the clashes on 22 January,[262] four people perished from gunshot wounds.[262]  Medics confirmed bullet wounds to be from firearms such as a Degtyaryov sniper rifle (7.62 mm) and possibly a Makarov handgun (9mm) in the deaths of Nihoyan and Zhyznevskyi.[263]  HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There are photos of Berkut utilising shotguns (such as the RPC Fort), and reporters verified the presence of shotgun casings littering the ground.[264]  Ukrainian Prosecutor General's Office confirmed two deaths from gunshot wounds in Kyiv protests.[265]  "We are pursuing several lines of inquiry into these murders, including [that they may have been committed] by Berkut (special police unit) officers," HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Vitali Sakal, first deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate told a press conference in Kyiv on Friday...It was established that the weapons and cartridges that were used to commit these killings are hunting cartridges.  Such is the conclusion of forensic experts.  Most likely, it was a smoothbore firearm.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

I want to stress that the cartridges which used to commit the murder were not used by, and are not in use of, the police.  They have no such cartridges," said first deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate.  The MVS has not ruled out that Berkut officers committed the killings. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 31 January it was discovered that 26 unidentified, unclaimed bodies remained in the Kiev central morgue; 14 of which were from January alone. Journalists revealed that a mass burial is planned on 4 February 2014.[267]  The Kiev city administration followed on the announcement with its own statement informing that there are 14 such bodies; 5 from January.[ HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 18 and 19 February, at least 26 people were killed in clashes with police,[270]  Moreover,a self-defense soldier from Maidan was found dead.  Journalist Vyacheslav Veremiy was murdered by pro-government Titushky and shot in the chest when they attacked his taxi.  It was announced that an additional 40-50 people died in the fire that engulfed the Trade Union building after police attempted to seize it the night before. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 20 February 60 people had been killed by gunfire according to an opposition medical service.[272]

At least 79 people have been killed and 570 injured.  At least 13 officers have been killed and 130 hospitalised with gunshot wounds.

During the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots of 22–25 January, 3 protesters were killed by firearms. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Oleh Tatarov, deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate under Yanukovych, claimed in January that "[t]he theory we are looking at is the killing was by unidentified persons.  This is an official theory, and the unidentified persons could be various people, a whole host of them… It could have been motivated by disruptive behavior, or with the aim of provocation." HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He then claimed the cartridges and weapons used in the shootings were not police issue.[266]  Forensics experts found that protesters were killed with both buckshot and rifle bullets,[274] while medics confirmed the bullet wounds to be from firearms such as the Degtyarev sniper rifle (7.62 mm) and possibly 9×18mm Makarov cartridges.[275] HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A report published on 25 January by Armament Research Services, a speciality arms and munitions consultancy in Perth, Australia, says the mysterious cufflink-shaped projectiles presumably fired by riot police on Hrushevskoho Street at protesters during clashes were not meant for riot control, but for stopping vehicles, busting through doors and piercing armour.  HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The bullets, writes Jenzen-Jones, who specialises in Eastern bloc weapons, are special armour-piercing 12-gauge shotgun projectiles, likely developed and produced by the Spetstekhnika (Specialized Equipment) design bureau, a facility located in Kiev and associated with the Ministry of Internal Affairs.[276] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 31 January 2014, Vitali Sakal, first deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate told a press conference that "[w]e are pursuing several lines of inquiry into these murders, including [that they may have been committed] by Berkut (special police unit) officers." HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Following the revolution of 18–23 February that saw over 100 killed in gunfire, the government's new health minister, Oleh Musiy, a doctor who helped oversee medical treatment for casualties during the protests, suggested to The Associated Press that the similarity of bullet wounds suffered by opposition victims and police indicates the shooters were trying to stoke tensions on both sides and spark even greater violence, with the goal of toppling Yanukovych. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

"I think it wasn't just a part of the old regime that (plotted the provocation), but it was also the work of Russian special forces who served and maintained the ideology of the (old) regime," he said, citing forensic evidence.[277]  Hennadiy Moskal, a former deputy head of Ukraine's main security agency, the SBU, and of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

suggested in an interview published in the Ukrainian newspaper Dzerkalo Tizhnya that snipers from the MIA and SBU were responsible for the shootings, not foreign agents, acting on contingency plans dating back to Soviet times, stating: "Snipers received orders to shoot not only protesters, but also police forces.  This was all done to escalate the conflict, to justify the police operation to clear Maidan." DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The IBTimes reported that a telephone call between Estonian foreign minister Urmas Paet and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton had been intercepted in which Paet claimed he was told about evidence concerning the sniper killings during the protests from a doctor named Olga.  HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Paet relayed he was told by Olga that "all the evidence shows that people who were killed by snipers from both sides, among policemen and people from the streets, that they were the same snipers killing people from both sides." Olga showed him photos and explained her opinion as a medical doctor that it was the same "handwriting." HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Paet said he found it "really disturbing that now the new coalition [doesn't] want to investigate what exactly happened," and that "there is a stronger and stronger understanding that behind snipers it was not Yanukovych, it was somebody from the new coalition."[ HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However, Paet later denied that he implicated the opposition in anything as he was merely relaying rumours he had heard without giving any assessment of their veracity, while acknowledging that the phone call was genuine.[281]  Olga Bogomolets, the doctor, who allegedly claimed that protesters and Berkut troops came under fire from the same source, Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

said she had not told Paet that policemen and protesters had been killed in the same manner, that she did not imply that the opposition was implicated in the killings, and that the government informed her that an investigation had been started.[282]

On 12 March 2014, Interior Minister Avakov has stated that the conflict was provoked by a 'non-Ukrainian' third party, and that an investigation was ongoing.[  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 21 March 2014, Oleh Makhnitsky, Ukraine Parliamentary Commissioner for the supervision of the General Prosecutor of Ukraine and a member of the right-wing Svoboda party, stated that the government had identified the snipers shooting at the demonstrators in Kiev as "Ukrainian citizens," but did not release their names.[284]  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 31 March 2013, the Daily Beast published photos and videos which show that the snipers were members of the Ukrainian Security Services (SBU) "anti-terrorist" Alfa Team unit, who had been trained in Russia.  The media suggested that it was not the Ukrainian riot police which fired on the protesters as previously believed, although the members of Alfa Team are Ukrainian citizens.[ HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 2 April, law enforcement authorities announced in a press conference they had detained nine suspects in the 18–20 February shootings of Euromaidan activists, acting Prosecutor General of Ukraine Oleh Makhnytsky reported.  Among the detainees was the leader of the sniper squad.  All

of the detained are officers of the Kiev City Berkut unit, and verified the involvement of the SBU's Alfa Group in the shootings. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Officials also reported that they plan to detain additional suspects in the Maidan shootings in the near future, and stressed that the investigation is ongoing but hindered by the outgoing regime destroying all documents and evidence.  Ukraine's Ministry of Internal Affairs confirmed that Viktor Yanukovych gave the order to fire on protesters on 20 February.[  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the press conference, Ukraine’s interior minister, chief prosecutor and top security chief implicated more than 30 Russian FSB agents in the crackdown on protesters, who in addition to taking part in the planning, had also flown in shipments of large quantities of explosives into an airport near Kiev.  HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Valentyn Nalyvaichenko, the interim head of Ukraine’s SBU state security agency, said the agents were stationed in Kiev during the entire Euromaidan protests, were provided with “state telecommunications” while residing at an SBU compound, and in regular contact with Ukrainian security officials. ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

“We have substantiated grounds to consider that these very groups which were located at an SBU training ground took part in the planning and execution of activities of this so-called antiterrorist operation,” said Nalyvaichenko.  Investigators, he said, had established that Yanukovych's SBU chief Oleksandr Yakymenko, SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

who had fled the country, had received reports from FSB agents while they were stationed in Ukraine, and that Yakymenko held several briefings with the agents.  Russia's Federal Security Bureau rejected the comments as "groundless accusations" and otherwise refused to comment. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A number of attacks by law enforcement agents on members of the media and medical personnel have been reported.  Some 40 journalists were injured during the staged assault at Bankova Street on 1 December 2013.  At least 42 more journalists were victims of police attacks at Hrushevskoho Street on 22 January 2014.[290]  Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 22 January 2014, Television News Service (TSN) reported that journalists started to take off their identifying uniform (vests and helmets), as they were being targeted, sometimes on purpose, sometimes accidentally.[291]  Since 21 November 2013, a total of 136 journalists have been injured. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to an 4 to 9 December 2013 study[122] by Research & Branding Group 49% of all Ukrainians supported Euromaidan and 45% had the opposite opinion.  It was mostly supported in West (84%) and Central Ukraine (66%).  A third (33%) of residents of South Ukraine and 13% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported Euromaidan as well. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The percentage of people who do not support the protesters was in East Ukraine 81%, in South Ukraine 60%[nb 9], in Central Ukraine 27% and in Western Ukraine 11%.  Polls have shown that two-thirds of Kievans support the ongoing protests.[125]

A poll conducted by the Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Fund and Razumkov Center, ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

between 20 and 24 December, showed more than 50% of Ukrainians supporting the Euromaidan protests, while 42% opposing it.[124]

Another Research & Branding Group survey (conducted from 23 to 27 December) showed that 50% of Ukrainians don't support Euromaidan, while 45% did support it.[123] HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

43% of those polled thought that Euromaidan's consequences "sooner could be negative", while 31% of the respondents thought the opposite; 17% believed that Euromaidan would bring no negative consequences. An Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Foundation survey of protesters conducted 7 and 8 December 2013 found that 92% of those who came to Kiev from across Ukraine came on their own initiative, HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

6.3% was organised by a public movement, and 1.8% were organised by a party.[5][302] 70% said they came to protest the police brutality of 30 November, and 54% to protest in support of the European Union Association Agreement signing.  Among their demands, 82% wanted detained protesters freed, 80% wanted the government to resign, and 75% want president Yanukovych to resign and for snap elections.[  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The poll showed that 49.8% of the protesters are residents of Kiev and 50.2% came from across Ukraine.  38% of the protesters are aged between 15 and 29, 49% are aged between 30 and 54, and 13% are 55 or older.  A total of 57.2% of the protesters are men.[

In the eastern regions of Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv, 29% of the population believe "In certain circumstances, an authoritarian regime may be preferable to a democratic one." HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to an 4 to 9 December 2013 study[122] by Research & Branding Group 46% of Ukrainians supported the integration of the country into EU, and 36% into the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia.  Most support for EU integration could be found in West (81%) and in Central (56%) Ukraine; HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

30% of residents of South Ukraine and 18% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported the integration with EU as well.  Integration with the Customs Union was supported by 61% of East Ukraine and 54% of South Ukraine and also by 22% of Central and 7% of Western Ukraine.

According to a 7 to 17 December 2013 poll by the Sociological group "RATING",HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

49.1% of respondents would vote for Ukraine's accession to the European Union in a referendum, and 29.6% would vote against the motion.[306]  Meanwhile, 32.5% of respondents would vote for Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 41.9% would vote against. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

During the annual World Economic Forum meeting at the end of January 2014 in Davos (Switzerland) Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov received no invitations to the main events; according to the Financial Times's Gideon Rachman because the Ukrainian government was blamed for the violence of the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots.[ HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

A telephone call was leaked of US diplomat Victoria Nuland speaking to the Ambassador Geoffrey Pyatt about the future of the country, in which she said that Klitschko should not be in the future government and she also casually stated "fuck the EU." German chancellor Angela Merkel said she deemed Nuland's comment "completely unacceptable".[HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Commenting on the situation afterwards, State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said that Nuland had apologised to her EU counterparts[311] while White House spokesman Jay Carney alleged that because it had been "tweeted out by the Russian government, it says something about Russia's role".[312] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The IBTimes reported, "if Svoboda and other far-right groups gain greater exposure through their involvement in the protests, there are fears they could gain more sympathy and support from a public grown weary of political corruption and Russian influence on Ukraine."[

On 23 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the Rada passed a bill that would have altered the law on languages of minorities, including Russian. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

The bill would have made Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels.[314]  However, President Turchynov vetoed the bill.

The Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, had asked for 20 Billion Euros (US$27 billion) in loans and aid from the EU[75]  The EU was willing to offer 610 million euros (838 million US) in loans,[76] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

however Russia was willing to offer 15 billion US in loans.[76] Russia also offered the Ukraine cheaper gas prices.[76] As a condition for the loans, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in the Ukraine.  Russia did not.[75]

Moody's Investors Service reported on 4 December 2013 "As a consequence of the severity of the protests, ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

demand for foreign currency is likely to rise" and noted that this was another blow to Ukraine's already poor solvency.[316]  First deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov stated on 7 December Ukraine risked a default if failed to raise $10 billion "I asked for a loan to support us, and Europe [the EU] agreed, but a mistake was made – we failed to put it on paper."[317] HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

On 3 December Azarov had warned Ukraine might not be able to fulfill its natural gas contracts with Russia. And he blamed the deal on restoring gas supplies of 18 January 2009 for this.On 5 December Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that "money to finance the payment of pensions, wages, social payments, Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

support of the operation of the housing and utility sector and medical institutions do not appear due to unrest in the streets" and he added that authorities were doing everything possible to ensure the timely financing of them.[319]  Minister of Social Policy of Ukraine Natalia Korolevska stated on 2 January 2014 that these January 2014 payments would begin according to schedule.[ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

]

On 11 December the second Azarov Government moved the date of social payments due to "the temporarily blocking of the government".[321]  The same day Reuters commented (when talking about Euromaidan) "The crisis has added to the financial hardship of a country on the brink of bankruptcy" and added that (at the time) investors thought it more likely than not that Ukraine would default over the next five years (since it then cost Ukraine over US$1 million a year to insure $10 million in state debt).[ ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Fitch Ratings reported on 16 December that the (political) "standoff" had led to "greater the risk that political uncertainty will raise demand for foreign currency, causing additional reserve losses and increasing the risk of disorderly currency movement".[323]  It also added "Interest rates rose sharply as the National Bank sought to tighten hryvnia liquidity."[323] HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

First Deputy Finance Minister Anatoliy Miarkovsky stated on 17 December the Ukrainian government budget deficit in 2014 could amount to about 3% with a "plus or minus" deviation of 0.5%.[324]

On 18 December, the day after an economical agreement with Russia was signed, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated "Nothing is threatening stability of the financial-economic situation in Ukraine now.  Not a single economic factor."[325] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

However, BBC News reported that the deal "will not fix Ukraine's deeper economic problems" in an article titled "Russian bailout masks Ukraine's economic mess".[326]

On 21 January 2014 the Kiev City State Administration claimed that protests in Kiev had so far caused the city more than 2 million US dollars worth of damage.[327]  Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

It intended to claim compensation for damage caused by all demonstrators, regardless of their political affiliation.[327]

On 5 February 2014 the hryvnia had fallen to a five-year low against the US dollar.

On 21 February 2014 Standard & Poor's cut Ukraine's credit rating to CCC; adding that the country risked default without "significantly favourable changes".[329] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Standard & Poor's analysts believed the compromise deal of the same day between President Yanukovych and the opposition made it "less likely Ukraine would receive desperately needed Russian aid, thereby increasing the risk of default on its debts".

In Kiev, life continued "as normal" outside the "protest zone" (namely Maidan Nezalezhnosti). Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

"Euromaidan" has been named as word of the year for 2013 by modern Ukrainian language and slang dictionary Myslovo , and the most popular neologism in Russia by web analytics company Public.ru.

Ukrainian-Polish band Taraka came up with a song dedicated to "Euromaidan" "Podaj Rękę Ukrainie" (Give a Hand to Ukraine).TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The song uses the first several words of the National anthem of Ukraine "Ukraine has not yet died".

Among other tunes appeared number of remakes for the Ukrainian folklore song "Aflame the pine was on fire" (Ukrainian: Горіла сосна, палала).

Ukrainian band Skriabin also created a song dedicated to the revolutionary days of Maidan.  Another native of Kiev dedicated a song to titushky. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

DJ Rudy Paulenko created a track inspired by events on Maidan called The Battle at Maidan.

A short footage film-stories with general name "Babylon'13" were created about the 2013 revolution.[345]

Polish and Ukrainian activists filmed short footage movie "Happy Kyiv" editing it with the Pharrell Williams hit "Happy" and some shoots of "Babylon'13".[346] Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

On 5 February 2014 a group of activists-cinematographers initiated series of films about people of Euromaidan.

The 2013–14 UEFA Europa League Round of 32 match of 20 February 2014 between FC Dynamo Kyiv and Valencia CF was moved by UEFA from Kiev's Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex to the GSP Stadium in Nicosia, Cyprus, "due to the security situation in the Ukrainian capital".[HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

On 19 February the Ukrainian athletes competing in the 2014 Winter Olympics asked for and were refused permission by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to wear black arm bands to honour those killed in the violent clashes in Kiev.[355]  IOC president Thomas Bach offered his condolences "to those who have lost loved ones in these tragic events".[355] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

On 19 February 2014 alpine skier Bohdana Matsotska refused further participating in the 2014 Winter Olympics in protest against the violent clashes in Kiev.[356]  She and her father posted a message on Facebook stating "In solidarity with the fighters on the barricades of the Maidan, and as a protest against the criminal actions made towards the protesters, HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

the irresponsibility of the president and his lackey government, we refuse further performance at the Olympic Games in Sochi 2014."[356]

On 4 March 2014, the 2013–14 Eurocup Basketball Round of 16 game between BC Budivelnyk Kyiv and JSF Nanterre was moved to Žalgiris Arena in Kaunas, Lithuania. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

On 5 March 2014, another Round of 16 game between Khimik Yuzhny and Aykon TED Ankara was moved to Abdi Ipekci Arena in Istanbul.

A common chant among protesters is "Glory to Ukraine, Glory to Heroes!" The chant has extended beyond Ukrainians and has been used by Crimean Tatars and Russians. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The red-and-black battle flag of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) is another popular symbol among protesters, and the wartime insurgents have acted as a large inspiration for Euromaidan protesters.  Serhy Yekelchyk of the University of Victoria says the use of UPA imagery and slogans was more of a potent symbol of protest against the current government and Russia rather than adulation for the insurgents themselves, SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

explaining "The reason for the sudden prominence of [UPA symbolism] in Kiev is that it is the strongest possible expression of protest against the pro-Russian orientation of the current government."The colours of the flag symbolise Ukrainian red blood spilled on Ukrainian black earth. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

On various resources, such as DesignContest, was started numerous graphic design competitions in a support of Euromaidan and its symbolism. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

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Moldova has 66 cities (towns), including the five with municipality status, and 916 communes. Other 699 villages are too small to have a separate administration, and are administratively part of either cities (40 of them) or communes (659). This makes for a total of 1,681 localities of Moldova, all but two of which are inhabited. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova lies between latitudes 45° and 49° N, and mostly between meridians 26° and30° E (a small area lies east of 30°). The total land area is 33,851 km2

The largest part of the nation lies between two rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova has access to the Danube for only about 480 m (1,575 ft), and Giurgiulești is the only Moldovan port on the Danube. In the east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south, receiving the waters of Răut, Bâc, Ichel, Botna. Ialpug flows into one of the Danube limans, whileCogâlnic into the Black Sea chain of limans. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country is landlocked, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While most of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 m (1,411 ft) — the highest point being the Bălănești Hill. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Its subdivisions in Moldova include the Dniester Hills (Northern Moldavian Hills and Dniester Ridge), the Moldavian Plain (Middle Prut Valley and Bălţi Steppe), and the Central Moldavian Plateau (Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills, Cornești Hills—Codri Massive, "Codri" meaning "forests"—Lower Dniester Hills, Lower Prut Valley, and Tigheci Hills). HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau, and parts of the Eurasian Steppe.The country's main cities are the capital Chișinău, in the centre of the country, Tiraspol (in the eastern region of Transnistria), Bălţi (in the north) and Bender (in the south-east). Comrat is the administrative centre of Gagauzia. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate.[71]

Moldova's climate is moderately continental: The summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20 °C (68 °F), and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging −4 °C (25 °F). Annual rainfall, which ranges from around 600 mm (24 in) in the north to 400 mm (16 in) in the south, can vary greatly; Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) on July 21, 2007 in Camenca.[ HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lowest temperature ever recorded was −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) on January 20, 1963 in Brătușeni, Edineţ county.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As a part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, liberalized all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and liberalized interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to promote growth.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Recent trends indicate that the Communist government intends to reverse some of these policies, and recollectivise land while placing more restrictions on private business. The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2007 (6%), in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.

Following the regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. It has, furthermore, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy. These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy's further growth and development in the medium term.[ Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Despite these efforts and recent resumption of economic growth, Moldova ranks low in terms of commonly used living standards and human development indicators in comparison with other transition economies. Although the economy experienced a constant economic growth after 2000: HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with 2.1%, 6.1%, 7.8% and 6.3% between 2000 and 2003 (with a forecast of 8% in 2004), one can observe that these latest developments hardly reach the level of 1994, with almost 40% of the GDP registered in 1990. Thus, during the last decade little has been done to reduce the country's vulnerability. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After a severe economic decline, social and economic challenges, energy uprooted dependencies, Moldova continues to occupy one of the last places among European countries in income per capita.]

In 2005, according to the Human Development Report, the registered GDP per capita was US$ 2,100 PPP, which was 78% lower than the world average at the time (US $ 9,543). HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moreover, GDP per capita was under the average of its statistical region (US $ 9,527 PPP). In 2005, about 20.8% of the population were under the absolute poverty line and registered an income lower than US $ 2.15 (PPP) per day. Moldova is classified as medium in human development and is at the 111th spot in the list of 177 countries. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The value of the Human Development Index (0.708) is below the world average. Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe in terms of official (i.e., excluding the black and grey economy) per capita which currently stands at $3,400 [74] The GDP(PPP) in 2011 constituted $12.15 billion. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova imports all of its supplies of petroleum, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Moldova is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova is known for its wines. For many years viticulture and winemaking in Moldova were the general occupation of the population. Evidence of this is present in historical memorials and documents, folklore, and the spoken language of Moldova, which is Romanian.

The country has a well established wine industry. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It has a vineyard area of 147,000 hectares (360,000 acres), of which 102,500 ha (253,000 acres) are used for commercial production. Most of the country's wine production is made for export. Many families have their own recipes and strands of grapes that have been passed down through the generations. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to a 2011 WHO report, Moldova consumed the highest amount of alcohol per capita in the world in 2005.Cricova is one of the largest wine cellars in the world, with 120 km (75 mi) of tunnel-like storage galleries.Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate (with warm summers and mild winters) DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe. In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform.

The main means of transportation in Moldova are railroads 1,138 km (707 mi) and a highway system (12,730 km or 7,910 mi overall, including 10,937 km or 6,796 mi of paved surfaces). HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The sole international air gateway of Moldova is the Chișinău International Airport. The Giurgiulești terminal on the Danube is compatible with small seagoing vessels. Shipping on the lower Prut and Nistru rivers plays only a modest role in the country's transportation system. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first million of mobile telephone users was registered in September 2005. The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by 47.3% in the first quarter of 2008 against the last year and exceeded 2.89 million.[78]

In September 2009, Moldova was the first country in the world to launch high-definition voice services (HD voice) for mobile phones, and the first country in Europe to launch 14.4 Mbit/s mobile broadband at a national scale, with over 40% population coverage.[79] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As of 2010 there are around 1,295,000 Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of 35.9%.[80]

On 6 June 2012, the Government approved the licensing of 4G / LTE for mobile operators.

There is an ongoing controversy whether Romanians and Moldovans are the same ethnic group, namely whether Moldovans' self-identification constitutes an ethnic group distinct and apart from Romanians or a subset. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There were also numerous allegations that the ethnic affiliation numbers were rigged, 7 out of 10 observer groups of the Council of Europe reported a significant number of cases when census-takers recommended respondents to declare themselves Moldovans rather than Romanians.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Complicating the interpretation of the results, 18.8% of respondents that identified themselves as Moldovans declared Romanian to be their native language.

The official language of Moldova is Romanian, a Romance language related to Italian, French, Catalan, Spanish, and Portuguese. HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 1991 Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian.[84][85] The Constitution of 1994 states that the national language of the Republic of Moldova is Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.[86] In 2003, theCommunist government adopted a political document which states that one of the priorities of the national politics of the Republic of Moldova is the insurance of the existence of the Moldovan language.[ HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In December 2013, a decision of theConstitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and the state language should be called "Romanian".[1][88]

Scholars agree that Moldovan and Romanian are the same language, with the glottonym "Moldovan" used in certain political contexts.[89] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

More than 76 percent of the population declared Romanian/Moldovan as their native language.

As of the 2004 census, the country has significant Russian (6%) and Ukrainian (8.4%) populations. 50% of ethnic Ukrainians, 27% of Gagauz, 35% of Bulgarians, and 54% of smaller ethnic groups speak Russian as their first language.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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Russian remains, in practice, used on all levels of the society and the state, and is provided with the status of a "language of interethnic communication" (alongside an official regional language in Gagauzia and Transnistria). In total, there are 541,000 people (or 16% of the population) in Moldova who use Russian as their first language, ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including 130,000 ethnic Moldovans. On the other hand, 47,000 members of ethnic minorities use Romanian as their first language. Gagauz and Ukrainian have significant regional speaker populations and are also granted official regional status in Gagauzia and Transnistria respectively. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The primary foreign language taught is English. In 2013 it was taught to over 60% of schoolchildren as the first foreign language. This was followed by French, with less than 50% (Since 1996, the Republic of Moldova has been a full member of La Francophonie.), and then German. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

For the 2004 census, Orthodox Christians, who make up 93.3% of Moldova's population, were not required to declare the particular of the two main churches they belong to. The Moldovan Orthodox Church, autonomous and subordinated to theRussian Orthodox Church, and the Orthodox Church of Bessarabia, Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

autonomous and subordinated to the Romanian Orthodox Church, both claim to be the national church of the country. 1.9% of the population is Protestant, 0.9% belongs to other religions, 1.0% is non-religious, 0.4% is atheist, and 2.2% did not answer the religion question at the census. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There are 16 state and 15[91] private institutions of higher education in Moldova, with a total of 126,100 students, including 104,300 in the state institutions and 21,700 in the private ones. The number of students per 10,000 inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Union, reaching 217 in 2000–2001, and 351 in 2005–2006. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The National Library of Moldova was founded in 1832. The Moldova State University and the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, the main scientific organizations of Moldova, were established in 1946.The total fertility rate (TFR) in Moldova was estimated in 2013 at 1.55 children/woman,[94] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2012, the average age of women at first birth was 23.9 years, with 75.2% of births being to women under 30, and 22.4% of births being to unmarried women.[95] The maternal mortality rate was 41 deaths/100,000 live births (in 2010) and the infant mortality rate was 13.28 deaths/1,000 live births (in 2013).[96] HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 69.82 years (65.95 years male, 73.94 years female).[96]

Public expenditure on health was 4.2% of the GDP and private expenditure on health 3.2%.[97] There are about 264 physicians per 100,000 people.[97] Health expenditure was 138 US$ (PPP) per capita in 2004.[97] HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the country has seen a decrease in spending on health care and, as a result, the tuberculosis incidence rate in the country has grown.[98] According to a 2009 study, Moldova was struggling with one of the highest incidence rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world.[99]  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The percentage of adults (aged 15–49) living with HIV/AIDS was estimated in 2009 at 0.40%.

Located geographically at the crossroads of Latin, Slavic and other cultures, Moldova has enriched its own culture adopting and maintaining some of the traditions of its neighbours and of other influence sources. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam and Dosoftei, and those of scholars such as Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Nicolae Milescu, Dimitrie Cantemir,[nb 6] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Ion Neculce. In the 19th century, Moldavians from the territories of the medieval Principality of Moldavia, then split between Austria, Russia, and an Ottoman-vassal Moldavia (after 1859, Romania), made a significant contribution to the formation of the modern Romanian culture. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Among these were many Bessarabians, such asAlexandru Donici, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stamati-Ciurea, Costache Negruzzi,Alecu Russo, Constantin Stere.

Mihai Eminescu, a late Romantic poet, and Ion Creangă, a writer, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

are the most influential Romanian language artists, considered national writers both in Romania and Moldova.[102]

The largest ethnic group is a speaker of Romanian and shares the Romanian culture. The culture has been also influenced (throughEastern Orthodoxy) by the Byzantine culture.HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The country has also important minority ethnic communities. Gagauz, 4.4% of the population, are Christian Turkic people. Greeks,Armenians, Poles, Ukrainians, although not numerous, were present since as early as 17th century, and had left cultural marks. The 19th century saw the arrival of many more Ukrainians from Podolia and Galicia, as well as new communities, such as Lipovans, Bulgarians and Bessarabian Germans. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

In the second part of the 20th century, Moldova saw a massive Soviet immigration, which brought with it many elements of Soviet culture.

In October 1939, Radio Basarabia, a local station of the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company, was the first radio station opened in Chișinău. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

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Television in Moldova was introduced in April 1958, within the framework of Soviet television. Through cable, Moldovan viewers can receive a large number of Russian channels, a few Romanian channels, and several Russian language versions of international channels in addition to several local channels. One Russian and two local channels are aired. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Moldovan cuisine is similar to neighbouring Romania, and has been influenced by elements of Russian, Turkish, and Ukrainian cuisine. Main dishes include beef, pork, potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of cereals. Popular alcoholic beverages are divin(Moldovan brandy), beer, and local wine. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Total recorded adult alcohol consumption is approximately evenly split between spirits, beer and wine.

Among Moldova's most prominent composers are Gavriil Musicescu, Ştefan Neaga and Eugen Doga.

In the field of popular music, Moldova has produced the band O-Zone, who came to prominence in 2003, with their hit song "Dragostea Din Tei." HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

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Moldova has been participating in the Eurovision Song Contest since 2005. Another popular band from Moldova is Zdob și Zdub that represented the country in the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing 6th.

In May 2007, Natalia Barbu represented Moldova in Eurovision Song Contest 2007 with her entry "Fight", in Finland, Helsinki.ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Natalia squeezed into the final by a very small margin. Her rock song was aggressive in nature and performance. She took 10th place with 109 points. Then Zdob și Zdub again represented Moldova in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing 12th. Dan Bălan, another popular artist, released the album Chica Bomb in 2010. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The band SunStroke Project with Olia Tira represented the country in the 2010 Eurovision Song Contest with their hit song "Run Away". Their performance gained international notoriety as an internet meme due to the pelvic thrusting and dancing of Sergey Stepanov, the band saxophonist. He has been fittingly dubbed "Epic Sax Guy".HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Among most prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Mark Pester, a distinguished violinist, conductor and the first professor of the State Conservatory. Mark Pester was a student of the famous violin teacher Leopold Auer at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

As a conductor, he staged the first operas in Moldova and performed with the greatest soloists including Sergei Rachmaninov. Other prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Maria Biesu, one of the leading world's sopranos and the winner of the Japan International Competition; Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

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pianist Mark Zeltser, winner of the USSR National Competition, Margueritte Long Competition in Paris and Busoni Competition in Bolzano, Italy. Another outstanding pianist is Oleg Maisenberg, the winner of the Schubert International Competition in Vienna.

Located in southeastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine.Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Most of its territory lies between the area's two main rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The Dniester forms a small part of Moldova's border with Ukraine in the northeast and southeast, but it mainly flows through the eastern part of the country, separating Bessarabia and Transnistria. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The Prut River forms Moldova's entire western boundary with Romania. The Danube touches the Moldovan border at its southernmost tip, and forms the border for 200 m (656 ft).

Phytogeographically, Moldova is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

According to the WWF, the territory of Moldova can be subdivided into threeecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, the East European forest steppe (the most territory of the country), andPontic steppe (in the south and southeast).

Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

Moldova's climate is moderately continental: the summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20 °C (68 °F), and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging −4 °C (25 °F). Annual rainfall, which ranges from around 6 centimeters (2.4 in) in the north to 4 centimeters (1.6 in) in the south, can vary greatly; HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

Weather records. The highest temperature ever recorded: +41.5 °C (106.7 °F) on July 21, 2007 (Camenca). HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The lowest temperature ever recorded: −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) on January 20, 1963 (Brătuşeni, Edineţ county).

Most of Moldova's territory is a moderate hilly plateau cut deeply by many streams and rivers. Geologically, Moldova lies primarily on deep sedimentary rock that gives way to harder crystalline outcroppings only in the north. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Moldova's hills are part of theMoldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains.

The northern landscape of Moldova is characterized by gently rolling uplands of theDniester Hills (up to 300 m or 984 ft, in elevation) interlaced with small flat plains in the valleys of the numerous creeks (at 150 m or 492 ft elevation). Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

These hills, which have an average altitude of 240 meters (787 ft) and a maximum altitude of 320 meters (1,050 ft), can be divided into the Northern Moldavian Hills and theDniester Ridge, and continue further occupying the northern part of the Chernivtsi oblast in Ukraine. The eastern slopes of the Dniester Ridge (average 250 meters or 820 feet, max 347 meters or 1,138 feet), form the high right bank of the Dniester River. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The Moldavian Plain has an average of 200 meters (656 ft) and a maximum altitude of 250 meters (820 ft), and can be divided into the Bălţi Steppe and the Middle Prut Valley. Originally forested, it has been extensively de-forested for agriculture during the 19th and 20th centuries. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

In contrast to the region to the north and south, which is smore slant, this area is referred to as plain, although it has relief very different from that of a flatland, and vegetation different from that of the steppe.

The hills of central Moldova, the Central Moldavian Plateau, at an average elevation of about 350 to 400 m (1,148 to 1,312 ft),HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

are ridges interlaced by deep, flat valleys, ravines, and landslide-scoured depressions. Steep forest-clad slopes account for much of the terrain, where the most common trees are hornbeam, oak, linden, maple, wild pear, and wild cherry. The term Codri refers more generally to all the forests between the Carpathians and the Dniesterriver, Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

and even more generally to all forests in the area of the Carpathians, yet since in Moldova most of them were preserved in the central part, Codri sometimes can colloquially refer to the remaining forests in the hills west and north of Chişinău. The Dniester Ridge border Central Moldavian Plateau to the north along the river Răut. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

The plateau can be divided into 5 parts: Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Ciuluc-Soloneţ), alongated in the north along the right side of the Răut river, 1,690 km2 (653 sq mi), Corneşti Hills (Romanian:Dealurile Corneştilor), also known as Cordi Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Codrilor), 4,740 km2 (1,830 sq mi), HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Lower Dniester Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Nistrului Inferior), alongated to the south of the Botna river, 3,040 km2 (1,174 sq mi),Tigheci Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Tigheciului), alongated in the south along the left side of the Prut river, 3,550 km2(1,371 sq mi), and between the latter and the Prut river, the Lower Prut Valley (Romanian: Valea Prutului Inferior), 1,810 km2 (699 sq mi). DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The country's highest point, Bălăneşti Hill, which reaches 1,407 or 1,410 ft (428.9 or 429.8 m), depending on the source, is situated in the Corneşti Hills, the western part of the Central Moldavian Plateau. Northwest of it are the Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills (average 250 meters or 820 feet, max 388 meters or 1,273 feet). HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

In the south, the Tigheci Hills (average 200 meters or 656 feet, max 301 meters or 988 feet) are a prolongation, and run to the south parallel to the Lower Prut Valley.

To the south-east, the southern part of the Central Moldavian Plateau, which averages 150–200 meters (492–656 ft), max 250 meters (820 ft), and has numerous ravines and gullies, SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

gradually vanishs into the extensive Bugeac Plain, with most of the Budjak region already in Ukraine.Transnistria (the left bank of the Dniester) has spurs of the Podolian Plateau (Romanian: Podişul Podoliei, Ukrainian: Volyno-Podil's'ka vysochyna), (average 180 meters or 591 feet, max 275 meters or 902 feet), which are cut into by tributaries of the Dniester River. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The southern half of Transnistria, the Lower Dniester Plain, can be regarded as the western end of the Eurasian steppe, and has an average elevation of 100 meters (328 ft), with a maximum of 170 meters (558 ft). The high right bank and low left bank of the Dniester are in sharp contrast here, where visibility is not impeded by forests. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

About 75 percent of Moldova is covered by a soil type called black earth or chernozem. In the northern hills, more clay textured soils are found; in the south, red-earth soil is predominant. The soil becomes less fertile toward the south but can still support grape and sunflower production. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The hills have woodland soils, while a small portion in southern Moldova is in the steppe zone, although most steppe areas today are cultivated. The lower reaches of the Prut and Dniester rivers and the southern river valleys are saline marshes.

Drainage in Moldova is to the south, toward the Black Sea lowlands, and eventually into the Black Sea, but only eight rivers and creeks extend more than 100 kilometers. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Moldova's main river, the Dniester, is navigable throughout almost the entire country, and in warmer winters it does not freeze over. The Prut river is a tributary of the Danube, which it joins at the far southwestern tip of the country. Over 95% of the water circulation in Moldova flows into one of the two rivers - the Prut or Dniester. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Of Moldova's well-developed network of about 3,000 creeks and streams, all draining south to the Black Sea, only 246 exceed 6 mi (9.7 km) in length, and only 8 exceed 60 mi (96.6 km).

Underground water, extensively used for the country's water supply, includes about 2,200 natural springs. The terrain favours construction of reservoirs of various size. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Moldova's communist-era environmental legacy, like that of many other former Soviet republics, is one of environmental degradation. Agricultural practices such as overuse of pesticides and artificial fertilizers were intended to increase agricultural output at all costs, without regard for the consequences. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

As a result, Moldova's soil and groundwater were contaminated by lingering chemicals, some of which (including DDT) have been banned in the West.

Such practices continue in Moldova to the present day. In the early 1990s, use of pesticides in Moldova averaged approximately twenty times that of other former Soviet republics and Western nations. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

In addition, poor farming methods, such as destroying forests to plant vineyards, have contributed to the extensive soil erosion to which the country's rugged topography is already prone. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan,Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

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Moldova i/mɔːlˈdoʊvə/,[nb 1][nb 2] officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldovapronounced [reˈpublika molˈdova]) is a landlocked[7] country in Eastern Europe located between Romania to its west and Ukraine to its north, east and south. Its capital city is Chișinău. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan 

Moldova declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republicin 1991 as part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. A new constitution was adopted on July 29, 1994. A strip of Moldova's internationally recognised territory on the east bank of the river Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

As a result of a decrease in industrial and agricultural output since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the relative size of the service sector in Moldova's economy has grown to dominate its GDP and currently stands at over 60%. Moldova remains, however, the poorest country in Europe.[7][8] HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is, among other organizations, a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). The country aspires to join the European Union[9] and, to this end, has implemented an initial three-year action plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP).Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River; the valley of this river was a political centre when thePrincipality of Moldavia was founded in 1359.[11] The origin of the name of the river is not clear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The river was named by princeDragoș after hunting an aurochs: after the chase, his exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river. The dog's name was given to the river and extended to the Principality.

During the Neolithic stone age era, Moldova's territory was the centre of the large Cucuteni-Trypillian culturethat stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine, Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The inhabitants of this civilisation, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practiced agriculture, raised livestock, hunted, and made intricately designed pottery.

In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, thenByzantine Empires. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgarians,Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars.

The Principality of Moldavia, established in 1359, was bounded by the Carpathian Mountains in the west, Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

Dniester river in the east, and Danube and Black Sea in the south. Its territory comprised the present-day territory of the Republic of Moldova, the eastern eight of the 41 counties of Romania, and the Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak region of Ukraine. Like the present-day republic and Romania's north-eastern region, it was known to the locals as MoldovaLenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, since the 15th century, by the Turks. In 1538, the principality became a tributary to theOttoman Empire, but it retained internal and partial external autonomy.

In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 and despite numerous protests by Moldavian nobles on behalf of the sovereignty of their principality, HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

theOttoman Empire (of which Moldavia was a vassal) ceded to the Russian Empire the eastern half of the territory of the Principality of Moldavia along with Khotynand old Bessarabia (modern Budjak), which Russia had already conquered and annexed.

The new Russian province was called "Oblast of Moldavia and Bessarabia", and initially enjoyed a large degree of autonomy. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

After 1828 this autonomy was progressively restricted and in 1871 the Oblast was transformed into the Bessarabia Governorate, in a process of state-imposed assimilation, "Russification". As part of this process, the Tsarist administration in Bessarabia gradually removed the Romanian language from official and religious use.[15] HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

 The western part of Moldavia (which is a part of present-day Romania) remained an autonomous principality, and in 1859, united with Wallachia to form the Kingdom of Romania.

The Treaty of Paris (1856) returned three counties of Bessarabia — Cahul, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Bolgrad and Ismail — to Moldavia, but in the Treaty of Berlin (1878), the Kingdom of Romania agreed to return them to the Russian Empire. Over the 19th century, the Russian authorities encouraged colonization of the south of the region by Romanians,[16] Ukrainians, Lipovans, Cossacks, Bulgarians,[17] Germans,[18] Gagauzes, and allowed the settlement of more Jews,[nb 3IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

] to replace the large NogaiTatar population expelled in the 1770s and 1780s, during Russo-Turkish Wars;[19] the Moldovan proportion of the population decreased from an estimated 86% in 1816,[20] in the aftermath of the Muslim expulsion, to around 52% in 1905.[21] During this time there were anti-Semitic riots, leading to an exodus of thousands of Jews to the United States of America. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

World War I brought in a rise in political and cultural (ethnic) awareness among the inhabitants of the region, as 300,000 Bessarabians were drafted into the Russian Army formed in 1917; within bigger units several "Moldavian Soldiers' Committees" were formed. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Bessarabian parliament, Sfatul Ţării, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

was elected in October–November 1917 and opened on December 3 [O.S. November 21] 1917. The Sfatul Ţării proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic(December 15 [O.S. December 2] 1917) within a federal Russian state, and formed a government (December 21 [O.S. December 8] 1917).

Bessarabia proclaimed independence from Russia on February 6 [O.S. January 24] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

1918 and requested the assistance of the French army present in Romania (general Henri Berthelot) and of the Romanian army, which had occupied the region in early January.[23] On April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918, the Sfatul Ţării decided with 86 votes for, 3 against and 36 abstaining, to unite with the Kingdom of Romania. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The union was conditional upon fulfillment of the agrarian reform, autonomy, and respect for universal human rights.[24] A part of the interim Parliament agreed to drop these conditions after Bukovina and Transylvaniaalso joined the Kingdom of Romania, although historians note that they lacked the quorum to do so. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

This union was recognized by the principal Allied Powers in the 1920 Treaty of Paris, which however was not ratified by all of its signatories.[30][31] Some major powers, such as the United States and the newly communist Russia, did not recognize Romanian rule over Bessarabia, the latter considering it an occupation of Russian territory.[32]

In May 1919, the Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a government in exile. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

After the failure of theTatarbunary Uprising in 1924, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian ASSR) was formed.

In August 1939, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and its secret additional protocol were signed, by which Nazi Germany recognized Bessarabia as being within the Soviet sphere of influence, which led the latter to actively revive its claim to the region.[33] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union, with the acknowledgement of Nazi Germany, issued an ultimatum to Romania requesting the cession of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, with which Romania complied the following day. Soon after, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic(Moldavian SSR, MSSR) was established,[33] comprising about 70% of Bessarabia, and 50% of the now-disbanded Moldavian ASSR. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

As part of the 1941 Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania seized the territories of Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and Transnistria. Romanian forces, working with the Germans, deported or exterminated about 300,000 Jews, including 147,000 from Bessarabia and Bukovina (of the latter, approximately 90,000 perished).[34] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The Soviet Army re-captured the region in February–August 1944, and re-established the Moldavian SSR. Between the end of the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive in August 1944 and the end of the war in May 1945, 256,800 inhabitants of the Moldavian SSR were drafted into the Soviet Army. 40,592 of them perished. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

During the Stalinist periods 1940–1941 and 1944–1953, deportations of locals to the northern Urals, to Siberia, and northern Kazakhstan occurred regularly, with the largest ones on 12–13 June 1941, and 5–6 July 1949, accounting from MSSR alone for 18,392[nb 4] and 35,796 deportees respectively.[36] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Other forms of Soviet persecution of the population included 32,433 political arrests, followed by Gulag or in 8,360 cases, execution.

In 1946, as a result of a severe drought and excessive delivery quota obligations and requisitions imposed by the Soviet government, the southwestern part of the USSR suffered from a major famine.[37] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

In 1946–1947, at least 216,000 deaths and about 350,000 cases of dystrophy were accounted by historians in the Moldavian SSR alone.[36] Similar events occurred in 1930s in the Moldavian ASSR.[36] In 1944–53, there were several anti-Soviet resistance groups in Moldova; however the NKVDand later MGB managed to eventually arrest, execute or deport their members.[36] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

In the postwar period, the Soviet government organized the immigration of working age Russian speakers (mostly Russians,Belarusians, and Ukrainians), into the new Soviet republic, especially into urbanized areas, partly to compensate for the demographic loss caused by the war and the emigration of 1940 and 1944.[38] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

In the 1970s and 1980s, the Moldavian SSR received substantial allocations from the budget of the USSR to develop industrial and scientific facilities and housing. In 1971, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a decision "About the measures for further development of the city of Kishinev" (modern Chișinău), DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

that allotted more than one billion Soviet rubles from the USSR budget for building projects,[39] subsequent decisions also directed substantial funding and brought qualified specialists from other parts of the USSR to develop Moldova's industry.[citation needed]

The Soviet government conducted a campaign to promote a Moldovan ethnic identity distinct from that of the Romanians, HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

based on a theory developed during the existence of the Moldavian ASSR. Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language (seeMoldovenism). To distinguish the two, during the Soviet period, Moldovan was written in the Cyrillic alphabet, in contrast with Romanian, which since 1860 had been written in the Latin alphabet. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

All independent organizations were severely reprimanded, with the National Patriotic Front leaders being sentenced in 1972 to long prison terms. The Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova is assessing the activity of the communist totalitarian regime. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

In the 1980s, political conditions created by the glasnost and perestroika, a Democratic Movement of Moldova was formed, which in 1989 became known as the nationalist Popular Front of Moldova (FPM).[40][41] Along with several other Soviet republics, from 1988 onwards, Moldova started to move towards independence.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

On August 27, 1989, the FPM organized a mass demonstration in Chișinău that became known as the Grand National Assembly. The assembly pressured the authorities of the Moldavian SSR to adopt a language law on August 31, 1989 that proclaimed the Moldovan language written in the Latin script to be the state language of the MSSR. Its identity with the Romanian language was also established.[40][42Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

] The year 1989 when the Communist Party continued to gain opposition, was also marked by November riots.

The first democratic elections for the local parliament were held in February and March 1990. Mircea Snegur was elected as Speaker of the Parliament, and Mircea Druc as Prime Minister. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

On June 23, 1990, the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the "Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova", which, among other things, stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union.[40] After the failure of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Moldova declared its independence on 27 August 1991, Romaniabeing the first state to recognize its independence.

On December 21 of the same year, Moldova, along with most of the other Soviet republics, signed the constitutive act that formed the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova received official recognition on December 25. On December 26, 1991 the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Declaring itself a neutral state, Moldova did not join the military branch of the CIS. Three months later, on March 2, 1992, the country gained formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1994, Moldova became a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, and a member of the Council of Europe on June 29, 1995.[40]

In the region east of the Dniester river, Transnistria, which includes a large proportion of predominantly russophone East Slavs of Ukrainian (28%) and Russian (26%) descent (altogether 54% as of 1989), HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

while Moldovans (40%) have been the largest ethnic group, and where the headquarters and many units of the Soviet 14th Guards Army were stationed, an independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on August 16, 1990, with its capital in Tiraspol.[40] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The motives behind this move were fear of the rise of nationalism in Moldova and the country's expected reunification with Romania upon secession from the USSR. In the winter of 1991–1992 clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Army, and the Moldovan police. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Between March 2 and July 26, 1992, the conflict escalated into a military engagement.

On January 2, 1992, Moldova introduced a market economy, liberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation. From 1992 to 2001, the young country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1993, a national currency, the Moldovan leu, was introduced to replace thetemporary cupon. The economy of Moldova began to change in 2001; and until 2008 the country saw a steady annual growth of between 5% and 10%. The early 2000s also saw a considerable growth of emigration of Moldovans looking for work (mostly illegally) in Russia HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 (especially the Moscow region), Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, and other countries; remittances from Moldovans abroad account for almost 38% of Moldova's GDP, the second-highest percentage in the world, after Tajikistan (45%).[43][44]

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Agrarian Party gained a majority of the seats, setting a turning point in Moldovan politics. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With the nationalist Popular Front now in a parliamentary minority, new measures aiming to moderate the ethnic tensions in the country could be adopted. Plans for aunion with Romania were abandoned,[40] and the new Constitution gave autonomy to the breakaway Transnistria and Gagauzia. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 23, 1994, the Parliament of Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and in 1995 the latter was constituted.

After winning the 1996 presidential elections, on January 15, 1997, Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in 1989–91, became the country's second president (1997–2001), succeeding Mircea Snegur (1991–1996). HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2000, the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into aparliamentary republic, with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote.

Winning 49.9% of the vote, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (reinstituted in 1993 after being outlawed in 1991), gained 71 of the 101 MPs, and on April 4, 2001, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Eelected Vladimir Voronin as the country's third president (re-elected in 2005). The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party returned to power.[40] New governments were formed by Vasile Tarlev (April 19, 2001 – March 31, 2008), and Zinaida Greceanîi (March 31, 2008 – September 14, 2009).  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2001–2003 relations between Moldova and Russia improved, but then temporarily deteriorated in 2003–2006, in the wake of the failure of the Kozak memorandum, culminating in the 2006 wine exports crisis. The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova managed to stay in power for eight years. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The fragmentation of the liberal (aka the democrats) helped consolidate its power. The decline of the party started in 2009 after Marian Lupu joined the Democratic Party and thus attracted many of the Moldovans supporting the Communists.

In the April 2009 parliamentary elections, the Communist Party won 49.48% of the votes, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

followed by the Liberal Party with 13.14% of the votes, the Liberal Democratic Party with 12.43%, and the Alliance "Moldova Noastră" with 9.77%. The controversial results of this election sparked civil unrest[46][47][48]

In August 2009, four Moldovan parties – Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party, and Our Moldova Alliance – agreed to create a governing coalition that pushed the Communist party into opposition. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On August 28, 2009, this coalition chose a new parliament speaker (Mihai Ghimpu) in a vote that was boycotted by Communist legislators. Vladimir Voronin, who had been President of Moldova since 2001, eventually resigned on September 11, 2009, but the Parliament failed to elect a new president. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The acting president Mihai Ghimpu instituted the Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova. After the constitutional referendum aimed to approve the reform failed in September 2010,[49] the parliament was dissolved again and a new parliamentary election was scheduled for 28 November 2010.[50] HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 30, 2010, Marian Lupu was elected as the Speaker of the Parliament.[51] In accordance with the Constitution, he will be serving as the Acting President of Republic of Moldova. After the Alliance for European Integration lost a no confidence vote, the Pro-European Coalition was formed on May 30, 2013. SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. The 1994 Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country. A parliamentary majority of at least two thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova, which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum. Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution.[52] APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament (Parlament), which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years.

The head of state is the President of Moldova, who is elected by the Moldovan Parliament, HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

requiring the support of three fifths of the deputies (at least 61 votes). The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since 2001, a change designed to decrease executive authority in favour of the legislature. The president appoints a prime minister who functions as the head of government, and who in turn assembles a cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 1994 constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court, composed of six judges (two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of Magistrature), serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

neutrality, and European Union integration. In 1995 the country was admitted to the Council of Europe.

In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is also a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and the EU established an action plan that sought to improve collaboration between the its two neighbouring countries, Romania and Ukraine. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the end of 2005 EUBAM, the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, was established at the joint request of the presidents of Moldova and Ukraine. EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards, and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime.Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After the 1990–1992 War of Transnistria,  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and co-operating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions. The foreign minister of Moldova, HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Andrei Stratan, repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally."[53] In 2012, a secuACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

rity zone incident resulted in the death of a civilian, raising tensions with Russia.[54]

In September 2010, the European Parliament approved a grant of €90 million to Moldova.[55] The money was to supplement $570 million in International Monetary Fund loans,[56] World Bank and other bilateral support already granted to Moldova.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In April 2010, Romania offered Moldova development aid worth of €100 million while the number of scholarships for Moldovan students doubled to 5,000.[57] According to a lending agreement signed in February 2010, Poland provided US$15 million as a component of its support for Moldova in its European integration efforts.[58]  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first joint meeting of the Governments of Romania and Moldova, held in March 2012, concluded with several bilateral agreements in various fields.[59][60] The European orientation "has been the policy of Moldova in recent years and this is the policy that must continue," Nicolae Timofti told lawmakers before his election.[61]  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 29 November 2013, at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's 'Eastern Partnership' with ex-Soviet countries.[62] The Romanian President Traian Băsescu stated that Romania will make all efforts for Moldova to join the EU as soon as possible.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Likewise, Traian Băsescu declared that the unification of Moldova with Romania is the next national project for Romania.

The Moldovan armed forces consist of the Ground Forces and Air and Air Defense Forces. Moldova has accepted all relevant arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On October 30, 1992, Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits. The country acceded to the provisions of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in October 1994 in Washington, D.C. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It does not have nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons. Moldova joined theNorth Atlantic Treaty Organisation's Partnership for Peace on March 16, 1994.

Moldova is committed to a number of international and regional control of arms regulations such as the UN Firearms Protocol, Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan,  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the UN Programme of Action (PoA) and the OSCE Documents on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition.

Since declaring independence in 1991, Moldova has participated in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Sudan and Georgia. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova signed with Romania a military agreement to strengthen regional security. The agreement is part of Moldova's strategy to reform its military and cooperate with its neighbours.

According to Amnesty International, "Torture and other ill-treatment in police detention remained widespread; HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the state failed to carry out prompt and impartial investigations and police officers sometimes evaded penalties. Political dissidents from Ilaşcu Group were released from arbitrary detention only after an order of the European Court of Human Rights.[65] In 2009, when Moldova experienced its most serious civil unrest in a decade, several civilians like Valeriu Boboc were killed by police and many more injured.[66] Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State, released in April 2011, "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces. During the year reports of government exercising undue influence over the media substantially decreased." HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

But "Transnistrian authorities continued to harass independent media and opposition lawmakers; restrict freedom of association, movement, and religion; and discriminate against Romanian speakers."[67] Moldova "has made “noteworthy progress” on religious freedom since the era of the Soviet Union,  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but it can still take further steps to foster diversity," said the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief Heiner Bielefeldt, in Chișinău, in September 2011.[68] Moldova improved its legislation by enacting Law on Preventing and Combating Family Violence, in 2008. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

oldova is divided into thirty-two districts (raioane, singular raion), three municipalities and two autonomous regions (Gagauzia and Transnistria).[70] The final status of Transnistria is disputed, as the central government does not control that territory. The cities of Comrat and Tiraspol, the administrative seats of the two autonomous territories also have municipality status. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[64HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing[65] and the genetically engineered Arctic Apples do not brown. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated waterto prevent this effect.

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[66]  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[66] using disease-resistant cultivars. A light coating of kaolin, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, also helps prevent apple sun scalding.

One form of apple allergy, often found in northern Europe, is called birch-apple syndrome, and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen.[67DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Reactions, which entailoral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat,[67] but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.[68] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed—the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. The variety of apple, maturity and storage conditions can change the amount of allergen present in individual fruits. Long storage times can increase the amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In other areas, such as the Mediterranean, some individuals have adverse reactions to apples because of their similarity to peaches.[67] This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Individuals with this form of allergy can also develop reactions to other fruits and nuts. Cooking does not break down the protein causing this particular reaction, so affected individuals can eat neither raw nor cooked apples. Freshly harvested, over-ripe fruits tend to have the highest levels of the protein that causes this reaction.[67]  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Breeding efforts have yet to produce a hypoallergenic fruit suitable for either of the two forms of apple allergy.

The seeds of apples contain small amounts of amygdalin, a sugar and cyanide compound known as a cyanogenic glycoside. Ingesting small amounts of apple seeds will cause no ill effects, but in extremely large doses can cause adverse reactions. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There is only one known case of fatal cyanide poisoning from apple seeds; in this case the individual chewed and swallowed one cup of seeds. It may take several hours before the poison takes effect, as cyanogenic glycosides must be hydrolyzed before the cyanide ion is released. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales.[70] Preliminary research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[71] Apple peels contain ursolic acid which, in rat studies, increases skeletal muscle and brown fat, and decreaseswhite fat, obesity, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver disease.[72] HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical apple serving weighs 242 grams and contains 126 calories with significant dietary fiber andvitamin C content.[73]

Apple peels are a source of various phytochemicals with unknown nutritional value[64] and possible antioxidant activity in vitro.[74] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[75]

Apple juice concentrate has been found in mice to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[76] Other studies have shown an "alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.[77HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Fruit flies fed an apple extract lived 10% longer than other flies fed a normal diet.

Pollination is the process of pollen from one flower being transferred to another, required for certain plants, in this casefruit trees, to produce seeds with surrounding fruit. The material required for tree reproduction comes from separate flowers to allow transfer of genetic material from separate fruit trees. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The pollination process requires a carrier, which can be animal, wind, or human intervention. Plants can be manually cross-pollinated to make seeds that can produce trees and fruit with desired attributes. Some tree species cannot be self-pollinated.

Most apples are self-incompatible and must be cross pollinated. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A few are described as "self-fertile" and are capable of self-pollination, although even those tend to carry larger crops when cross pollinated. A relatively small number of species are "Triploid", meaning that they provide no viable pollen for themselves or other apple trees. Apples that can pollinate one another are grouped by the time they usually flower so cross-pollinators are in bloom at the same time. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Pollination management is an important component of apple culture. Before planting, it is important to arrange for pollenizers - varieties of apple orcrabapple that provide plentiful, viable and compatible pollen. Orchard blocks may alternate rows of compatible varieties, or may plant crabapple trees, orgraft on limbs of crabapple. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some varieties produce very little pollen, or the pollen is sterile, so these are not good pollenizers. Good-quality nurseries have pollenizer compatibility lists.

Growers with old orchard blocks of single varieties sometimes provide bouquets of crabapple blossoms in drums or pails in the orchard for pollenizers. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Home growers with a single tree and no other variety in the neighborhood can do the same on a smaller scale.

During the bloom each season, commercial apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybee hives are most commonly used, and arrangements may be made with a commercial beekeeper who supplies hives for a fee. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. According to Christopher O'Toole's The Red Mason BeeOsmia rufa is a much more efficient pollinator of orchard crops than the honeybee.[1] Home growers may find these more acceptable in suburban locations because they do not sting. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some wild bees such as carpenter bees and other solitary bees may help. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.

Symptoms of inadequate pollination are small and misshapen apples, and slowness to ripen. The seeds can be counted to evaluate pollination.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Well-pollinated apples have best quality, and will have seven to ten seeds. Apples with fewer than three seeds will usually not mature and will drop from the trees in the earlysummer. Inadequate pollination can result from either a lack of pollinators or pollenizers, or from poor pollinating weather at bloom time. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Multiple bee visits are usually required to deliver sufficient grains of pollen to accomplish complete pollination.

The blossoms of all California Almond varieties are self-incompatible, requiring cross-pollination with other varieties to produce a crop. The single most important factor determining a good yield is pollination during the bloom period. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

More than a million colonies of honey bees are placed in California Almond orchards at the beginning of the bloom period to pollinate the crop. California beekeepers alone cannot supply this critical need, which is why honey bees travel across the country to the San Joaqin Valley each year. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although the recommended number of hives per acre is 2 to 3, due to the high demand in conjunction with the reduced availability of commercial beehives, many almond growers have to make due with a lower hive density during pollination. These growers started using semiochemical formulations, like SPLAT Bloom,[2] to compensate for the low hive density. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

SPLAT Bloom manipulates the behavior of the bees, inciting them to spend more time foraging, and thus pollinating flowers in entire the almond orchard (increasing pollination and fruit set), not only close to the hive.Pears are similar to apples, with the notable exception that pear blossoms are much less attractive to bees, due to lower sugar content than apple or contemporaneous wildflower nectar. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bees may abandon the pear blossoms to visit dandelions or a nearby apple orchard. There are three methods used that commercial growers use to compensate for this low attractiveness of pear flowers. One is saturation pollination, that is to stock so many bees that all area blossoms are worked regardless of the attractiveness to the bees. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The second is to delay the movement of the beehives into the orchards until there is about 30 per cent bloom. The bees are moved into the orchard during the night and will usually visit the pear blossoms for a few hours until they discover the richer nectar sources. The third method is to use semiochemical formulations, like SPLAT Bloom,[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

to manipulate the behavior of the bees, inciting them to spend more time foraging in the pear orchard, thus increasing pollination and fruit set. The recommended number of hives per acre is 1.

Many citrus varieties are seedless and are produced parthenocarpically without pollination. Some varieties may be capable of producing fruit either way, having seeds in the segments, if pollinated, and no seeds if not. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Citrus that requires pollination may be self-compatible, thus pollen must be moved only a short distance from the anther to the stigma by a pollinator. Some citrus, such as Meyer Lemons, are popular container plants. When these bloom indoors, they often suffer from blossom drop because no pollinators have access.Hand pollinate by a human pollinator is a solution, HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

though it is important to learn A few citrus varieties,[3] including some tangelos and tangerines are self-incompatible, and require cross pollination. Pollinizers must be planned when groves are planted. This last group generally requires the addition of managed honeybee hives at bloom time for adequate pollination. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, eastern Uzbekistan,Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Northern Afghanistan and Xinjiang, China. It has recently been shown to be the sole ancestor of mostcultivars of the domesticated apple (Malus domestica). DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It was first described (as Pyrus sieversii) in 1833 by Carl Friedrich von Ledebour, a German naturalist who saw them growing in the Altai Mountains.

It is a deciduous tree growing to 5 to 12 metres (16 to 39 ft), very similar in appearance to the domestic apple. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Its fruitis the largest of any species of Malus, up to 7 cm diameter, equal in size to many modern apple cultivars. Unlike domesticated varieties its leaves go red in autumn: 62.2% of the trees in the wild do this compared to only 2.8% of the 2,170 English cultivated varieties.[2] The species is now considered vulnerable to extinction. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence.[3] A DNA analysis in 2010[4] confirmed M. sieversii as the progenitor of the cultivated apple. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A third species that has been thought to have made contributions to the genome of the domestic apples is Malus baccata, but there is no evidence for this in older apple cultivars.[citation needed]

Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan, and formerly its capital, derives its name from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and is often translated as "full of apples" HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(the region surrounding Almaty is home to forests of Malus sieversii);alma is also 'apple' in other Turkic languages, as well as in Hungarian. The Soviet-era name, Alma-Ata, is Kazakh for "Father of Apples." Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These and other Malus species have been used in some recent breeding programmes to develop apples suitable for growing in climates unsuitable for M. domestica, mainly for increased cold tolerance.[5]

Malus sieversii has recently been cultivated by the United States Agricultural Research Service,  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

in hopes of finding genetic information of value in the breeding of the modern apple plant. Some, but not all, of the resulting trees show unusual disease resistance. The variation in their response to disease on an individual basis is, itself, a sign of how much more genetically diverse they are than their domesticated descendants.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock.

Perennial plants can be propagated either by sexual or vegetative means. Sexual reproduction begins when a male germ cell (pollen) from one flower fertilises a female germ cell (ovule, incipient seed) of the same species, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

initiating the development of a fruit containing seeds. Each seed, when germinated, can grow to become a new specimen tree. However, the new tree inherits characteristics of both its parents, and it will not grow 'true' to the variety of either parent from which it came. That is, it will be a fresh individual with an unpredictable combination of characteristics of its own. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although this is desirable in terms of producing novel combinations from the richness of the gene pool of the two parent plants (such sexual recombination is the source of new cultivars), only rarely will the resulting new fruit tree be directly useful or attractive to the tastes of humankind.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Most new plants will have characteristics that lie somewhere between those of the two parents.

Therefore, from the orchard grower or gardener's point of view, it is preferable to propagate fruit cultivars vegetatively in order to ensure reliability. This involves taking a cutting (or scion) of wood from a desirable parent tree which is then grown on to produce a new plant or 'clone' of the original. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In effect this means that the original Bramley apple tree, for example, was a successful variety grown from a pip, but that every Bramley since then has been propagated by taking cuttings of living matter from that tree, or one of its descendants.

The simplest method of propagating a tree vegetatively is rooting or taking cuttingsACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A cutting (usually a piece of stem of the parent plant) is cut off and stuck into soil. Artificial rooting hormones are sometimes used to improve chances of success. If the cutting does not die from rot-inducing fungi ordesiccation first, roots grow from the buried portion of the cutting to become a new complete plant. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However although this works well for some plants (such asfigs and olives), for most fruit tree cultivars this method has much too low a success rate to be commercially viable. Root cuttings (pieces of root cut off and induced to grow a new trunk) are also not used to propagate fruit trees, although this method is successful with some herbaceous plants. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A refinement on rooting is layering. This is rooting a piece of a wood that is still attached to its parent and continues to receive nourishment from it. The new plant is severed only after it has successfully grown roots. Layering is the technique most used for propagation of clonal apple rootstocks. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The most common method of propagating fruit trees, suitable for nearly all species, is grafting onto rootstocks. This in essence involves physically joining part of a shoot of a hybrid cultivar onto the roots of a different but closely related species or cultivar, so that the two parts grow together as one plant. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The process of joining the two varieties must ensure maximum contact between the cambium (the layer just below the bark) of each, so that they grow together successfully. Grafting is a preferred method because it not only propagates a new plant of the desired hybrid cultivar, DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

it usually also confers extra advantages as a result of the characteristics of the rootstocks (or stocks), which are selected for characteristics such as their vigour of growth, hardiness and soil tolerance, as well as compatibility with the desired variety that will form the aerial part of the plant (called the scion). ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

For example, grape rootstocks descended from North American grapes allow European grapes to be grown in areas infested with Phylloxera, a soil-dwelling insect that attacks and kills European grapes when grown on their own roots. Two of the most common grafting techniques are 'whip and tongue', carried out in spring as the sap rises, and 'budding', which is performed around the end of summer. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

One reason for grafting onto rootstocks is that this enables the grower to determine the tree's eventual size. Apple tree size classes number from one to ten in increasing height and breadth.[1] A "1" is a dwarf which can be productive and as short as 3 feet (0.91 m) with proper pruning. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A "10" is the standard sized tree with no dwarfing and will grow to 20 feet (6.1 m) tall and wide or more, dependent upon the variety chosen. In general the class range is (1) 10-20% of full size, (2) 20-30%, (3) 30-40% and so forth to size 10 which is 100% of full size.

The following are a selection of apple tree rootstocks.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They are referred to by numbers prefixed by letters indicating the developer of the rootstock.

"Bud 118" A winter hardy early bearing replacement for MM 111 bred in the Soviet Union. Full sized tree unless allowed to bear young which will stunt its growth. Hardy to USDA zone 3.

"Bud 9" A winter- hardy, early- bearing replacement for M9 bred in the Soviet Union. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Dwarf tree resistant to crown rot and less susceptible to drought than most other dwarfing stocks. Produces large fruit, is precocious and hardy to USDA zone 3.

"M" designates Malling series developed stocks. East Malling Research is a pioneer in the development of dwarfing rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

East Malling Research Station in Kent, England collected clones of the Paradise stocks from France in 1912 from which 24 "M" were designated with no particular order to the rootstock characteristics other than where they were located in the garden at the time the numbers were assigned. In other words, M.2 is larger tree than M.9 while M.27 is smaller than M.26.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

"MM" designates Malling-Merton stocks developed from joint breeding program by John Innes Institute, in Merton, England, & East Malling Research Station in the early 1950s.[3] The "MM" series was developed primarily to provide resistance to Woolly Apple Aphid(Eriosomatinae) infestation.[4]

"EMLA" designates East Malling / Long Ashton research statiHP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

ons who took the "M" stocks and developed virus free versions. E.g., EMLA 7 is M 7 with a guaranteed virus free stock.[5] EMLA characteristics are often different from the parent "M" rootstock. Note that nearly all the apple rootstocks in the industry are now virus free.[2] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

"CG" or "G" designates Cornell-Geneva stocks which are those developed via the Cornell & USDA collaboration at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The "G" is the old designation. All newer stocks are "CG" followed by numbers that actually provide some information about the stock. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

As one might surmise, this is a huge improvement in the classical naming scheme which has no identification method at all.

M.27 Malling 27: A very dwarfing rootstock. Unless the central leader is supported, the tree will be very small. Often only used as an intermediate stem piece on MM. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

106 or MM.111. If handled and spaced properly, it can be a very productive stock for a vertical axe system.[5] Trees can be grown three to four feet tall and produce about 45 fruit, roughly 2 pecks, depending on fruit cultivar.[7]

M.9: Very dwarfing - Reaches a height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m), HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

coming into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full capacity of 50 to 65 pounds (23 to 29 kg) after 5 to 6 years. It will grow under average soil conditions, but needs a good rich soil to thrive. A good choice where space is limited and fertility is high. Permanent staking is required, as is routine feeding and watering.[ HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

on this rootstock always require leader support. The rootstock is very susceptible to fire blight and can develop burr knots.[5]

G.41 Geneva 41, released in 2005, produces trees the size of M.9. The rootstock was developed from a cross between M.27 and Robusta 5 made in 1975. Resistant to Crown|Collar|Root rot(Phytopthora) and fire blight.[5] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

M.26: Dwarfing - Similar to M9 in effect, although somewhat more vigorous and generally stronger, with a higher expected eventual yield of 65–75 pounds (29–34 kg) and height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m). A good choice where soil quality is average and compact growth is required. Comes into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full cropping capacity after 5 to 6 years. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Staking needed for first five years of its life. It is susceptible to collar rot and fire blight and should not be planted in a wet site. Certain varieties when grafted onto this rootstock may exhibit signs of graft union incompatibility(i.e., the union breaks).[5]

G.11 Geneva 11 is the second release of the Cornell breeding program similar in size to M.26(Class 4) but more productive. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Has the advantage of being resistant to fire blight and crown rot as well as only rarely producing suckers or burr knots.[5]

G.202 Geneva 202(CG 4202) is a semidwarfing rootstock that produces a tree in class 5 slightly larger than M.26(Size Class 4) and is more productive than M.26. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

It was developed from a cross of M.27(Size Class 1) and Robusta 5 to be fire blight and Phytopthora resistant as well as having resistance to woolly apple aphids. In a 9-year study with the scion cultivar of the "Liberty" apple, G.202 was about 50 percent smaller than M.7 but had much greater production efficiency.[5] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

M.7 Malling 7 rootstock produces a semidwarf tree of Class 6[1] that is freestanding in deep well drained soils but in rocky, steep, or shallow soils, it tends to lean. The rootstock may sucker profusely and is susceptible to collar rot(Phytopthora).[5]

MM.106: Semi-dwarfing - Sometimes referred to as semi-vigorous, this is the most widely used of rootstocks.[ HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

It is probably the best choice for the average garden under average conditions, being tolerant of a wide range of soils, and producing a tree with an eventual size of 14 to 18 ft (4.3 to 5.5 m).[citation needed] Trees on this stock begin producing fruit within three to four years, and yield 90 to 110 pounds (41 to 50 kg) after some seven or eight years.[ HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

MM106 is very suitable for use with weaker varieties that would produce under sized bushes with more dwarfing rootstocks. Can be trained as a half standard tree, but is rather too vigorous for cordons unless the soil is poor. Requires staking for the first five years or so of its life.[citation needed] Trees on MM. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

106 are highly susceptible to collar rot especially when planted in soils that remain wet(poor percolation).[5]

M.111 : Vigorous - Not generally suitable for garden scale growing, being both too large and spreading (18-25'), and too slow to come into cropping. They are however suitable for growing as specimen standards in the large garden, or for producing medium sized bushes on poorer soils. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Begins to fruit after six or seven years, reaching full capacity of 160 to 360 lb (73 to 163 kg) after eight to nine years. It is not winter hardy in US zone 3 unless you receive abundant snow cover. Bud 118 was developed in the Soviet Union to replace MM 111, Bud 118 is winter hardy in zone 3 and very precocious. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

(Early bearing). Planting depth of this rootstock is critical. The union should be no higher than 1 to 2 inches above the final soil line.[5]

M.25: Very vigorous - Suitable for a grassed orchard, and to grow on as a full standard. Plant 20 ft (6.1 m) apart, makes a tree of 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 m) or more height and spread, eventually yielding 200 to 400 lb (91 to 181 kg) per tree.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

This rootstock is primarily used in UK and is rarely seen in USA where M.111(size Class 8)[1] is used for this size tree.

Seedling: Very vigorous trees produced on a rootstock grown from seed. There is greater variability than with the vegetatively propagated rootstocks. Apples used for production of seedling rootstocks include 'Dolgo' and 'Antonovka', which are both extremely hardy and vigorous.[ ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The Malling series and clones have been standard rootstocks for apples for many years and remain the "workhorses" for the commercial industry in the USA[5] and the UK. However, since most of them are susceptible to disease some Malling rootstocks are being replaced by new breeds, including the Cornell-Geneva series, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

which has resistance to the major problems preventing quality production of apples utilizing organic control systems. One of the newest rootstocks of the "CG" series, only released commercially in 2004, is CG5202(G.202) which adds resistance to the woolly apple aphid, and when combined with highly resistant cultivars such as "Liberty" it is showing great potential.[8][9] HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Another desirable characteristic of rootstocks is environmental adaptability. This may be tolerance to wet/dry soil conditions, acidity/alkalinity of soil or even hot/cold air temperature.[2] Rootstocks based on Siberian Crab apple are being used in colder areas for more cold tolerance.[10] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The ability of new rootstocks to modify or augment characteristics of fruit trees is limited and may disappoint in the long term. It takes ten years to get a full picture of the effects of any one rootstock, so a rootstock that appears promising in the first five years of a trial may fail in the last five years. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

The Mark rootstock was such a stock and has now fallen mostly into disfavor.[5] Another, the G.30, has proved to be an excellent stock for production but it was only after a number of years of trials that it was found to be somewhat incompatible with the cultivar 'Gala', so that it is now recommended to be staked and wired.[5] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

An industry consortium undertakes trials of different rootstocks - called the "NC-140" trials.[11] These test many pome rootstocks in many different sites across the USA and thereby provide growers a clearer picture of what to expect when growing fruit trees on specific stock, in specific planting methods in their specific area of the USA. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

This information has the potential to create economic benefits to both growers and consumers, as well as helping to reduce the need to spray pesticides as frequently as is currently required.

Pears are usually grafted onto quince rootstocks, which produce small to medium sized trees. Some varieties however are not compatible with quince, and these require double working. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

This means that a piece of pear graft-work compatible with both the quince rootstock and the pear variety is used as an intermediate between the two. If this is not done the pear and the rootstock could eventually separate at the graft. Varieties that require double working include 'Bristol Cross', 'Dr Jules Guyot', 'Doyenné d' été' and 'Williams Bon Chrétien'. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Quince C: Moderately vigorous- Makes a bush pear tree about 8 to 18 ft (2.4 to 5.5 m) tall, bearing fruit within four to eight years. Suitable for highly fertile soils and vigorous varieties, but not where conditions are poor. Used for bush, cordon and espalier growing. Old stocks of Quince C may be infected with a virus, so care should be taken to obtain certified virus free stock. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

If in doubt, use Quince A as there is not a great amount of difference in vigour between the two.

Quince A: Medium vigour- Slightly more vigorous than Quince C, this is the most common variety upon which pears are grafted. Bears fruit between four to eight years, making a tree of some 10 to 20 ft (3.0 to 6.1 m) in height and spread. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Suitable for all forms of pear trees except standards.

Pear stock: Very vigorous- Pears grafted onto pear rootstocks make very large standard trees, not suitable for most gardens.

Until the 1970s, cherries were grown on the vigorous Malling F12/1, Mazzard (Prunus avium), or Maheleb (P. maheleb) rootstocks, which required much space and time before cropping began, thus the growing of cherries was not a realistic option on a garden scale. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

The introduction of the rootstock 'Colt' enabled trees reaching a maximum height of 12 to 15 ft (3.7 to 4.6 m) to be grown, and if trained as a pyramid it is possible to restrict growth to about 10 ft (3.0 m).[13]The popular sweet variety 'Stella' can even be successfully grown in a pot on the patio when grafted onto a 'Colt' rootstock.[13] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

A newer rootstock, Gisela 5,[14]is slowly becoming available to gardeners and produces a tree smaller still than Colt, making netting for bird protection much easier.

Many species of fruit (e.g. fig, filbert, olive, and pomegranate) are commonly grown on their own roots, as there may be no great advantages to using a special rootstock, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

or suitable rootstocks may not be readily available. However even for fruit trees which usually are grown grafted on a rootstock, there can be advantages in growing them on their own roots instead, particularly in the traditional coppicing systems advocated in both sustainable agriculture andpermaculture. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Disadvantages of using own root trees can include excessive size and excessive production of wood (thus very long times until the start of fruit production), although training branches horizontally and limiting pruning to summer only may help encourage fruit production at an earlier age.[15][16][17] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

There is a lack of research on the use of the own root method in large scale systems.

In addition to propagating trees on rootstocks designed to control size/vigour and confer disease resistance, grafting above the rootstock can be used to provide multiple cultivars of a single species, known as a family tree, or, within certain limits, HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

cultivars of different fruit species on one tree, often known as a fruit salad tree. Family trees typically combine several cultivars (two or three being most common) of apple, pear or a given species of stonefruiton a single rootstock, while fruit salad trees typically carry two or more different species from within a given genus, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

such as plum, apricot, and peach ormandarin orange, lemon, and lime. Certain combinations, including sour cherry (prunus cerasus)/sweet cherry (prunus avium), although from the same genus, are known to be difficult, although successes have sometimes been reported. Other grafts of this kind can produce the Pomato. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Rootstocks used to control tree size have been used in apple for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were probably discovered by chance in Asia. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees back to his teacher, Aristotle inGreece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a center of learning in Greece. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Dwarf apples are mentioned during the Song Dynasty in China (11th to 13th centuries) Initial propagation was likely by severing a root and causing it to sucker. The dwarfing clones were propagated in gardens for their novelty and not their efficiency. They were often trained to elaborate shapes such as pyramids, trellises and espaliers. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

In the mid-1800s,horticulturists began referring to the rootstocks by name. They were called Paradise (or French Paradise) or Doucin (or English Paradise), with the former being more dwarfing than the latter.

However, there was much variation in the plant material in size control. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Many new stocks had been introduced inaccurately under these names and undoubtedly viruses and genetic mutations had occurred in the plant material. In the late 19th century, one author described 14 different kinds of Paradise rootstocks. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

This led to research workers at the East Malling Research Station in England to gather the selections up to determine their trueness to name. They concluded that indeed, there were numerous misnamed and mixed collections of plant material.

In 1912, Ronald Hatton initiated the work of classification, testing and standardization of apple tree rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

With the help of Dr Wellington, Hatton sorted out the incorrect naming and mixtures then widespread in apple rootstocks distribute

Fruit tree pruning is the cutting and removing of parts of a fruit tree. It covers a number ofhorticultural techniques that control growth, remove dead or diseased wood, and stimulate the formation offlowers and fruit buds. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Pruning often means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely. It may also mean removal of young shoots, buds, leaves, etc. Careful attention to pruning and training young trees affects their later productivity and longevity. Good pruning and training can also prevent later injury from weak crotches (where a tree trunk splits into two or more branches) Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

that break from the weight of fruit, snow, or ice on the branches.[1]

Other sustainable agriculture or permaculture personalities, such as Sepp Holzer and Masanobu Fukuoka, advocate and practiced no-pruning methods.

To obtain a better understanding of how to prune plants properly, it is useful to have some underlying knowledge of how pruning works, and how it affects the way plants grow. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

Plants form new tissue in an area called the meristem, located near the tips of roots and shoots, where active cell division takes place. Meristem growth is aimed at ensuring that leaves are quickly elevated into sunlight, and that roots are able to penetrate deeply into the soil. Once adequate height and length is achieved by the stems and roots, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

they begin to thicken to support the plant. On the shoots, these growing tips of the plant are called apical buds. The apical meristem (or tip) produces the growth hormone auxin, which not only promotes cell division, but also diffuses downwards and inhibits the development of lateral bud growth that otherwise competes with the apical tip for light and nutrients. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Removing the apical tip and its suppressive hormone lets lower, dormant lateral buds develop, and the buds between the leaf stalk and stem produce new shoots that compete to become lead growth.

Manipulating this natural response to damage (known as the principle of apical dominance) DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

by processes such as pruning (as well as coppicing and pollarding) allows the arborist to determine the shape, size and productivity of many fruiting trees and bushes. The main aim when pruning fruit trees is usually to maximize fruit yield. Unpruned trees tend to produce large numbers of small fruits that may be difficult to reach when harvesting by hand. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Branches can become broken by the weight of the crop, and the cropping may become biennial (that is, bearing fruit only every other year). Overpruned trees on the other hand tend to produce light crops of large, flavourless fruit that does not store well. Careful pruning balances shoot growth and fruit production. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

In the early years of the tree's life, it is important to develop a framework sufficiently strong to bear the weight of crops. This requires formative pruning to reinforce the tree. Formative pruning of apple (Malus pumila) and pear (Pyrus communis) trees should be carried out in the dormant winter months. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

For the Northern hemisphere, this should occur between November and March; For the Southern hemisphere, June and September. Stonefruits—such as cherries, plums, or gages—have different requirements, and should not be pruned in dormant months.

A maiden whip (a one-year-old tree with no side shoots) Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

should be pruned to a bud with two buds below it at about 80 cm from the ground immediately after planting to produce primary branches during the first growing season. A feathered maiden (that is, a one-year-old tree with several side branches) should have its main stem pruned back to three or four strong shoots at 80 cm from the ground. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Side shoots should be shortened by two thirds of their length to an upward or outward facing bud. Lower shoots should be removed flush with the stem.

Before pruning, distinguish between spur-bearing varieties, tip-bearing varieties, and an intermediate between the two that bears both on spurs and at the tips. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Spur-bearing trees occur more frequently than tip-bearing trees, and they bear most of their fruit yearly at the end of short lateral pieces of wood (spurs) up to about 4 inches long.

Spur-bearing types include apples of the varieties Cox's Orange PippinJames Grieve and Sunset, and pears such asConference,Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Doyenne du Commice and Williams Bon Chretien. Tip-bearers on the other hand produce most of their fruit buds at the tips of slender shoots grown the previous summer, and include the apples Worcester Pearmain andIrish Peach, and the pears such as Jargonelle and Josephine de MalinesCOMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

. There are basically three types of pruning that are applied once the main shape of the tree has been established.

Renewal pruning: This also depends on the tendency of many apple and pear trees to form flower buds on unpruned two-year-old laterals. It is a technique best used for the strong laterals on the outer part of the tree where there is room for such growth. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Pruning long-neglected fruit trees is a task that should be undertaken over a lengthy period, with not more than one third of the branches that require removal being taken each year.

Regulatory pruning: This is carried out on the tree as a whole, and is aimed at keeping the tree and its environment healthy,Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

e.g., by keeping the centre open so that air can circulate; removing dead or diseased wood; preventing branches from becoming overcrowded (branches should be roughly 50 cm apart and spurs not less than 25 cm apart along the branch framework); and preventing any branches from crossing. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Tip-bearers should be pruned lightly in winter using the regulatory system (see above). Any maiden shoots less than 25 cm in length should be left untouched as they have fruit buds at their tips. Longer shoots are spur pruned to prevent overcrowding and to stimulate the production of more short-tip-bearing shoots the following year. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Branch leaders are 'tipped', removing the top three or four buds to a bud facing in the desired direction to make them branch out and so produce more tip-bearing shoots. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan, DELL yy529 CPU Fan

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Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[64HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing[65] and the genetically engineered Arctic Apples do not brown. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated waterto prevent this effect.

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[66]  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[66] using disease-resistant cultivars. A light coating of kaolin, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, also helps prevent apple sun scalding.

One form of apple allergy, often found in northern Europe, is called birch-apple syndrome, and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen.[67DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Reactions, which entailoral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat,[67] but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.[68] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed—the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. The variety of apple, maturity and storage conditions can change the amount of allergen present in individual fruits. Long storage times can increase the amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In other areas, such as the Mediterranean, some individuals have adverse reactions to apples because of their similarity to peaches.[67] This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Individuals with this form of allergy can also develop reactions to other fruits and nuts. Cooking does not break down the protein causing this particular reaction, so affected individuals can eat neither raw nor cooked apples. Freshly harvested, over-ripe fruits tend to have the highest levels of the protein that causes this reaction.[67]  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Breeding efforts have yet to produce a hypoallergenic fruit suitable for either of the two forms of apple allergy.

The seeds of apples contain small amounts of amygdalin, a sugar and cyanide compound known as a cyanogenic glycoside. Ingesting small amounts of apple seeds will cause no ill effects, but in extremely large doses can cause adverse reactions. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There is only one known case of fatal cyanide poisoning from apple seeds; in this case the individual chewed and swallowed one cup of seeds. It may take several hours before the poison takes effect, as cyanogenic glycosides must be hydrolyzed before the cyanide ion is released. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales.[70] Preliminary research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer.[71] Apple peels contain ursolic acid which, in rat studies, increases skeletal muscle and brown fat, and decreaseswhite fat, obesity, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver disease.[72] HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical apple serving weighs 242 grams and contains 126 calories with significant dietary fiber andvitamin C content.[73]

Apple peels are a source of various phytochemicals with unknown nutritional value[64] and possible antioxidant activity in vitro.[74] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[75]

Apple juice concentrate has been found in mice to increase the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.[76] Other studies have shown an "alleviation of oxidative damage and cognitive decline" in mice after the administration of apple juice.[77HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Fruit flies fed an apple extract lived 10% longer than other flies fed a normal diet.

Pollination is the process of pollen from one flower being transferred to another, required for certain plants, in this casefruit trees, to produce seeds with surrounding fruit. The material required for tree reproduction comes from separate flowers to allow transfer of genetic material from separate fruit trees. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The pollination process requires a carrier, which can be animal, wind, or human intervention. Plants can be manually cross-pollinated to make seeds that can produce trees and fruit with desired attributes. Some tree species cannot be self-pollinated.

Most apples are self-incompatible and must be cross pollinated. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A few are described as "self-fertile" and are capable of self-pollination, although even those tend to carry larger crops when cross pollinated. A relatively small number of species are "Triploid", meaning that they provide no viable pollen for themselves or other apple trees. Apples that can pollinate one another are grouped by the time they usually flower so cross-pollinators are in bloom at the same time. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Pollination management is an important component of apple culture. Before planting, it is important to arrange for pollenizers - varieties of apple orcrabapple that provide plentiful, viable and compatible pollen. Orchard blocks may alternate rows of compatible varieties, or may plant crabapple trees, orgraft on limbs of crabapple. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some varieties produce very little pollen, or the pollen is sterile, so these are not good pollenizers. Good-quality nurseries have pollenizer compatibility lists.

Growers with old orchard blocks of single varieties sometimes provide bouquets of crabapple blossoms in drums or pails in the orchard for pollenizers. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Home growers with a single tree and no other variety in the neighborhood can do the same on a smaller scale.

During the bloom each season, commercial apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybee hives are most commonly used, and arrangements may be made with a commercial beekeeper who supplies hives for a fee. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. According to Christopher O'Toole's The Red Mason BeeOsmia rufa is a much more efficient pollinator of orchard crops than the honeybee.[1] Home growers may find these more acceptable in suburban locations because they do not sting. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some wild bees such as carpenter bees and other solitary bees may help. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.

Symptoms of inadequate pollination are small and misshapen apples, and slowness to ripen. The seeds can be counted to evaluate pollination.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Well-pollinated apples have best quality, and will have seven to ten seeds. Apples with fewer than three seeds will usually not mature and will drop from the trees in the earlysummer. Inadequate pollination can result from either a lack of pollinators or pollenizers, or from poor pollinating weather at bloom time. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Multiple bee visits are usually required to deliver sufficient grains of pollen to accomplish complete pollination.

The blossoms of all California Almond varieties are self-incompatible, requiring cross-pollination with other varieties to produce a crop. The single most important factor determining a good yield is pollination during the bloom period. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

More than a million colonies of honey bees are placed in California Almond orchards at the beginning of the bloom period to pollinate the crop. California beekeepers alone cannot supply this critical need, which is why honey bees travel across the country to the San Joaqin Valley each year. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although the recommended number of hives per acre is 2 to 3, due to the high demand in conjunction with the reduced availability of commercial beehives, many almond growers have to make due with a lower hive density during pollination. These growers started using semiochemical formulations, like SPLAT Bloom,[2] to compensate for the low hive density. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

SPLAT Bloom manipulates the behavior of the bees, inciting them to spend more time foraging, and thus pollinating flowers in entire the almond orchard (increasing pollination and fruit set), not only close to the hive.Pears are similar to apples, with the notable exception that pear blossoms are much less attractive to bees, due to lower sugar content than apple or contemporaneous wildflower nectar. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bees may abandon the pear blossoms to visit dandelions or a nearby apple orchard. There are three methods used that commercial growers use to compensate for this low attractiveness of pear flowers. One is saturation pollination, that is to stock so many bees that all area blossoms are worked regardless of the attractiveness to the bees. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The second is to delay the movement of the beehives into the orchards until there is about 30 per cent bloom. The bees are moved into the orchard during the night and will usually visit the pear blossoms for a few hours until they discover the richer nectar sources. The third method is to use semiochemical formulations, like SPLAT Bloom,[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

to manipulate the behavior of the bees, inciting them to spend more time foraging in the pear orchard, thus increasing pollination and fruit set. The recommended number of hives per acre is 1.

Many citrus varieties are seedless and are produced parthenocarpically without pollination. Some varieties may be capable of producing fruit either way, having seeds in the segments, if pollinated, and no seeds if not. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Citrus that requires pollination may be self-compatible, thus pollen must be moved only a short distance from the anther to the stigma by a pollinator. Some citrus, such as Meyer Lemons, are popular container plants. When these bloom indoors, they often suffer from blossom drop because no pollinators have access.Hand pollinate by a human pollinator is a solution, HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

though it is important to learn A few citrus varieties,[3] including some tangelos and tangerines are self-incompatible, and require cross pollination. Pollinizers must be planned when groves are planted. This last group generally requires the addition of managed honeybee hives at bloom time for adequate pollination. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Malus sieversii is a wild apple native to the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, eastern Uzbekistan,Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Northern Afghanistan and Xinjiang, China. It has recently been shown to be the sole ancestor of mostcultivars of the domesticated apple (Malus domestica). DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It was first described (as Pyrus sieversii) in 1833 by Carl Friedrich von Ledebour, a German naturalist who saw them growing in the Altai Mountains.

It is a deciduous tree growing to 5 to 12 metres (16 to 39 ft), very similar in appearance to the domestic apple. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Its fruitis the largest of any species of Malus, up to 7 cm diameter, equal in size to many modern apple cultivars. Unlike domesticated varieties its leaves go red in autumn: 62.2% of the trees in the wild do this compared to only 2.8% of the 2,170 English cultivated varieties.[2] The species is now considered vulnerable to extinction. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence.[3] A DNA analysis in 2010[4] confirmed M. sieversii as the progenitor of the cultivated apple. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A third species that has been thought to have made contributions to the genome of the domestic apples is Malus baccata, but there is no evidence for this in older apple cultivars.[citation needed]

Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan, and formerly its capital, derives its name from the Kazakh word for 'apple' (алма), and is often translated as "full of apples" HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(the region surrounding Almaty is home to forests of Malus sieversii);alma is also 'apple' in other Turkic languages, as well as in Hungarian. The Soviet-era name, Alma-Ata, is Kazakh for "Father of Apples." Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These and other Malus species have been used in some recent breeding programmes to develop apples suitable for growing in climates unsuitable for M. domestica, mainly for increased cold tolerance.[5]

Malus sieversii has recently been cultivated by the United States Agricultural Research Service,  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

in hopes of finding genetic information of value in the breeding of the modern apple plant. Some, but not all, of the resulting trees show unusual disease resistance. The variation in their response to disease on an individual basis is, itself, a sign of how much more genetically diverse they are than their domesticated descendants.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock.

Perennial plants can be propagated either by sexual or vegetative means. Sexual reproduction begins when a male germ cell (pollen) from one flower fertilises a female germ cell (ovule, incipient seed) of the same species, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

initiating the development of a fruit containing seeds. Each seed, when germinated, can grow to become a new specimen tree. However, the new tree inherits characteristics of both its parents, and it will not grow 'true' to the variety of either parent from which it came. That is, it will be a fresh individual with an unpredictable combination of characteristics of its own. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although this is desirable in terms of producing novel combinations from the richness of the gene pool of the two parent plants (such sexual recombination is the source of new cultivars), only rarely will the resulting new fruit tree be directly useful or attractive to the tastes of humankind.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Most new plants will have characteristics that lie somewhere between those of the two parents.

Therefore, from the orchard grower or gardener's point of view, it is preferable to propagate fruit cultivars vegetatively in order to ensure reliability. This involves taking a cutting (or scion) of wood from a desirable parent tree which is then grown on to produce a new plant or 'clone' of the original. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In effect this means that the original Bramley apple tree, for example, was a successful variety grown from a pip, but that every Bramley since then has been propagated by taking cuttings of living matter from that tree, or one of its descendants.

The simplest method of propagating a tree vegetatively is rooting or taking cuttingsACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A cutting (usually a piece of stem of the parent plant) is cut off and stuck into soil. Artificial rooting hormones are sometimes used to improve chances of success. If the cutting does not die from rot-inducing fungi ordesiccation first, roots grow from the buried portion of the cutting to become a new complete plant. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However although this works well for some plants (such asfigs and olives), for most fruit tree cultivars this method has much too low a success rate to be commercially viable. Root cuttings (pieces of root cut off and induced to grow a new trunk) are also not used to propagate fruit trees, although this method is successful with some herbaceous plants. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A refinement on rooting is layering. This is rooting a piece of a wood that is still attached to its parent and continues to receive nourishment from it. The new plant is severed only after it has successfully grown roots. Layering is the technique most used for propagation of clonal apple rootstocks. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The most common method of propagating fruit trees, suitable for nearly all species, is grafting onto rootstocks. This in essence involves physically joining part of a shoot of a hybrid cultivar onto the roots of a different but closely related species or cultivar, so that the two parts grow together as one plant. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The process of joining the two varieties must ensure maximum contact between the cambium (the layer just below the bark) of each, so that they grow together successfully. Grafting is a preferred method because it not only propagates a new plant of the desired hybrid cultivar, DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

it usually also confers extra advantages as a result of the characteristics of the rootstocks (or stocks), which are selected for characteristics such as their vigour of growth, hardiness and soil tolerance, as well as compatibility with the desired variety that will form the aerial part of the plant (called the scion). ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

For example, grape rootstocks descended from North American grapes allow European grapes to be grown in areas infested with Phylloxera, a soil-dwelling insect that attacks and kills European grapes when grown on their own roots. Two of the most common grafting techniques are 'whip and tongue', carried out in spring as the sap rises, and 'budding', which is performed around the end of summer. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

One reason for grafting onto rootstocks is that this enables the grower to determine the tree's eventual size. Apple tree size classes number from one to ten in increasing height and breadth.[1] A "1" is a dwarf which can be productive and as short as 3 feet (0.91 m) with proper pruning. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A "10" is the standard sized tree with no dwarfing and will grow to 20 feet (6.1 m) tall and wide or more, dependent upon the variety chosen. In general the class range is (1) 10-20% of full size, (2) 20-30%, (3) 30-40% and so forth to size 10 which is 100% of full size.

The following are a selection of apple tree rootstocks.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They are referred to by numbers prefixed by letters indicating the developer of the rootstock.

"Bud 118" A winter hardy early bearing replacement for MM 111 bred in the Soviet Union. Full sized tree unless allowed to bear young which will stunt its growth. Hardy to USDA zone 3.

"Bud 9" A winter- hardy, early- bearing replacement for M9 bred in the Soviet Union. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Dwarf tree resistant to crown rot and less susceptible to drought than most other dwarfing stocks. Produces large fruit, is precocious and hardy to USDA zone 3.

"M" designates Malling series developed stocks. East Malling Research is a pioneer in the development of dwarfing rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

East Malling Research Station in Kent, England collected clones of the Paradise stocks from France in 1912 from which 24 "M" were designated with no particular order to the rootstock characteristics other than where they were located in the garden at the time the numbers were assigned. In other words, M.2 is larger tree than M.9 while M.27 is smaller than M.26.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

"MM" designates Malling-Merton stocks developed from joint breeding program by John Innes Institute, in Merton, England, & East Malling Research Station in the early 1950s.[3] The "MM" series was developed primarily to provide resistance to Woolly Apple Aphid(Eriosomatinae) infestation.[4]

"EMLA" designates East Malling / Long Ashton research statiHP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

ons who took the "M" stocks and developed virus free versions. E.g., EMLA 7 is M 7 with a guaranteed virus free stock.[5] EMLA characteristics are often different from the parent "M" rootstock. Note that nearly all the apple rootstocks in the industry are now virus free.[2] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

"CG" or "G" designates Cornell-Geneva stocks which are those developed via the Cornell & USDA collaboration at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The "G" is the old designation. All newer stocks are "CG" followed by numbers that actually provide some information about the stock. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

As one might surmise, this is a huge improvement in the classical naming scheme which has no identification method at all.

M.27 Malling 27: A very dwarfing rootstock. Unless the central leader is supported, the tree will be very small. Often only used as an intermediate stem piece on MM. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

106 or MM.111. If handled and spaced properly, it can be a very productive stock for a vertical axe system.[5] Trees can be grown three to four feet tall and produce about 45 fruit, roughly 2 pecks, depending on fruit cultivar.[7]

M.9: Very dwarfing - Reaches a height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m), HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

coming into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full capacity of 50 to 65 pounds (23 to 29 kg) after 5 to 6 years. It will grow under average soil conditions, but needs a good rich soil to thrive. A good choice where space is limited and fertility is high. Permanent staking is required, as is routine feeding and watering.[ HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

on this rootstock always require leader support. The rootstock is very susceptible to fire blight and can develop burr knots.[5]

G.41 Geneva 41, released in 2005, produces trees the size of M.9. The rootstock was developed from a cross between M.27 and Robusta 5 made in 1975. Resistant to Crown|Collar|Root rot(Phytopthora) and fire blight.[5] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

M.26: Dwarfing - Similar to M9 in effect, although somewhat more vigorous and generally stronger, with a higher expected eventual yield of 65–75 pounds (29–34 kg) and height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m). A good choice where soil quality is average and compact growth is required. Comes into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full cropping capacity after 5 to 6 years. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Staking needed for first five years of its life. It is susceptible to collar rot and fire blight and should not be planted in a wet site. Certain varieties when grafted onto this rootstock may exhibit signs of graft union incompatibility(i.e., the union breaks).[5]

G.11 Geneva 11 is the second release of the Cornell breeding program similar in size to M.26(Class 4) but more productive. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Has the advantage of being resistant to fire blight and crown rot as well as only rarely producing suckers or burr knots.[5]

G.202 Geneva 202(CG 4202) is a semidwarfing rootstock that produces a tree in class 5 slightly larger than M.26(Size Class 4) and is more productive than M.26. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

It was developed from a cross of M.27(Size Class 1) and Robusta 5 to be fire blight and Phytopthora resistant as well as having resistance to woolly apple aphids. In a 9-year study with the scion cultivar of the "Liberty" apple, G.202 was about 50 percent smaller than M.7 but had much greater production efficiency.[5] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

M.7 Malling 7 rootstock produces a semidwarf tree of Class 6[1] that is freestanding in deep well drained soils but in rocky, steep, or shallow soils, it tends to lean. The rootstock may sucker profusely and is susceptible to collar rot(Phytopthora).[5]

MM.106: Semi-dwarfing - Sometimes referred to as semi-vigorous, this is the most widely used of rootstocks.[ HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

It is probably the best choice for the average garden under average conditions, being tolerant of a wide range of soils, and producing a tree with an eventual size of 14 to 18 ft (4.3 to 5.5 m).[citation needed] Trees on this stock begin producing fruit within three to four years, and yield 90 to 110 pounds (41 to 50 kg) after some seven or eight years.[ HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

MM106 is very suitable for use with weaker varieties that would produce under sized bushes with more dwarfing rootstocks. Can be trained as a half standard tree, but is rather too vigorous for cordons unless the soil is poor. Requires staking for the first five years or so of its life.[citation needed] Trees on MM. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

106 are highly susceptible to collar rot especially when planted in soils that remain wet(poor percolation).[5]

M.111 : Vigorous - Not generally suitable for garden scale growing, being both too large and spreading (18-25'), and too slow to come into cropping. They are however suitable for growing as specimen standards in the large garden, or for producing medium sized bushes on poorer soils. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Begins to fruit after six or seven years, reaching full capacity of 160 to 360 lb (73 to 163 kg) after eight to nine years. It is not winter hardy in US zone 3 unless you receive abundant snow cover. Bud 118 was developed in the Soviet Union to replace MM 111, Bud 118 is winter hardy in zone 3 and very precocious. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

(Early bearing). Planting depth of this rootstock is critical. The union should be no higher than 1 to 2 inches above the final soil line.[5]

M.25: Very vigorous - Suitable for a grassed orchard, and to grow on as a full standard. Plant 20 ft (6.1 m) apart, makes a tree of 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 m) or more height and spread, eventually yielding 200 to 400 lb (91 to 181 kg) per tree.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

This rootstock is primarily used in UK and is rarely seen in USA where M.111(size Class 8)[1] is used for this size tree.

Seedling: Very vigorous trees produced on a rootstock grown from seed. There is greater variability than with the vegetatively propagated rootstocks. Apples used for production of seedling rootstocks include 'Dolgo' and 'Antonovka', which are both extremely hardy and vigorous.[ ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The Malling series and clones have been standard rootstocks for apples for many years and remain the "workhorses" for the commercial industry in the USA[5] and the UK. However, since most of them are susceptible to disease some Malling rootstocks are being replaced by new breeds, including the Cornell-Geneva series, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

which has resistance to the major problems preventing quality production of apples utilizing organic control systems. One of the newest rootstocks of the "CG" series, only released commercially in 2004, is CG5202(G.202) which adds resistance to the woolly apple aphid, and when combined with highly resistant cultivars such as "Liberty" it is showing great potential.[8][9] HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Another desirable characteristic of rootstocks is environmental adaptability. This may be tolerance to wet/dry soil conditions, acidity/alkalinity of soil or even hot/cold air temperature.[2] Rootstocks based on Siberian Crab apple are being used in colder areas for more cold tolerance.[10] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The ability of new rootstocks to modify or augment characteristics of fruit trees is limited and may disappoint in the long term. It takes ten years to get a full picture of the effects of any one rootstock, so a rootstock that appears promising in the first five years of a trial may fail in the last five years. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

The Mark rootstock was such a stock and has now fallen mostly into disfavor.[5] Another, the G.30, has proved to be an excellent stock for production but it was only after a number of years of trials that it was found to be somewhat incompatible with the cultivar 'Gala', so that it is now recommended to be staked and wired.[5] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

An industry consortium undertakes trials of different rootstocks - called the "NC-140" trials.[11] These test many pome rootstocks in many different sites across the USA and thereby provide growers a clearer picture of what to expect when growing fruit trees on specific stock, in specific planting methods in their specific area of the USA. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

This information has the potential to create economic benefits to both growers and consumers, as well as helping to reduce the need to spray pesticides as frequently as is currently required.

Pears are usually grafted onto quince rootstocks, which produce small to medium sized trees. Some varieties however are not compatible with quince, and these require double working. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

This means that a piece of pear graft-work compatible with both the quince rootstock and the pear variety is used as an intermediate between the two. If this is not done the pear and the rootstock could eventually separate at the graft. Varieties that require double working include 'Bristol Cross', 'Dr Jules Guyot', 'Doyenné d' été' and 'Williams Bon Chrétien'. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Quince C: Moderately vigorous- Makes a bush pear tree about 8 to 18 ft (2.4 to 5.5 m) tall, bearing fruit within four to eight years. Suitable for highly fertile soils and vigorous varieties, but not where conditions are poor. Used for bush, cordon and espalier growing. Old stocks of Quince C may be infected with a virus, so care should be taken to obtain certified virus free stock. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

If in doubt, use Quince A as there is not a great amount of difference in vigour between the two.

Quince A: Medium vigour- Slightly more vigorous than Quince C, this is the most common variety upon which pears are grafted. Bears fruit between four to eight years, making a tree of some 10 to 20 ft (3.0 to 6.1 m) in height and spread. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Suitable for all forms of pear trees except standards.

Pear stock: Very vigorous- Pears grafted onto pear rootstocks make very large standard trees, not suitable for most gardens.

Until the 1970s, cherries were grown on the vigorous Malling F12/1, Mazzard (Prunus avium), or Maheleb (P. maheleb) rootstocks, which required much space and time before cropping began, thus the growing of cherries was not a realistic option on a garden scale. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

The introduction of the rootstock 'Colt' enabled trees reaching a maximum height of 12 to 15 ft (3.7 to 4.6 m) to be grown, and if trained as a pyramid it is possible to restrict growth to about 10 ft (3.0 m).[13]The popular sweet variety 'Stella' can even be successfully grown in a pot on the patio when grafted onto a 'Colt' rootstock.[13] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

A newer rootstock, Gisela 5,[14]is slowly becoming available to gardeners and produces a tree smaller still than Colt, making netting for bird protection much easier.

Many species of fruit (e.g. fig, filbert, olive, and pomegranate) are commonly grown on their own roots, as there may be no great advantages to using a special rootstock, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

or suitable rootstocks may not be readily available. However even for fruit trees which usually are grown grafted on a rootstock, there can be advantages in growing them on their own roots instead, particularly in the traditional coppicing systems advocated in both sustainable agriculture andpermaculture. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Disadvantages of using own root trees can include excessive size and excessive production of wood (thus very long times until the start of fruit production), although training branches horizontally and limiting pruning to summer only may help encourage fruit production at an earlier age.[15][16][17] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

There is a lack of research on the use of the own root method in large scale systems.

In addition to propagating trees on rootstocks designed to control size/vigour and confer disease resistance, grafting above the rootstock can be used to provide multiple cultivars of a single species, known as a family tree, or, within certain limits, HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

cultivars of different fruit species on one tree, often known as a fruit salad tree. Family trees typically combine several cultivars (two or three being most common) of apple, pear or a given species of stonefruiton a single rootstock, while fruit salad trees typically carry two or more different species from within a given genus, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

such as plum, apricot, and peach ormandarin orange, lemon, and lime. Certain combinations, including sour cherry (prunus cerasus)/sweet cherry (prunus avium), although from the same genus, are known to be difficult, although successes have sometimes been reported. Other grafts of this kind can produce the Pomato. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Rootstocks used to control tree size have been used in apple for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were probably discovered by chance in Asia. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees back to his teacher, Aristotle inGreece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a center of learning in Greece. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Dwarf apples are mentioned during the Song Dynasty in China (11th to 13th centuries) Initial propagation was likely by severing a root and causing it to sucker. The dwarfing clones were propagated in gardens for their novelty and not their efficiency. They were often trained to elaborate shapes such as pyramids, trellises and espaliers. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

In the mid-1800s,horticulturists began referring to the rootstocks by name. They were called Paradise (or French Paradise) or Doucin (or English Paradise), with the former being more dwarfing than the latter.

However, there was much variation in the plant material in size control. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Many new stocks had been introduced inaccurately under these names and undoubtedly viruses and genetic mutations had occurred in the plant material. In the late 19th century, one author described 14 different kinds of Paradise rootstocks. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

This led to research workers at the East Malling Research Station in England to gather the selections up to determine their trueness to name. They concluded that indeed, there were numerous misnamed and mixed collections of plant material.

In 1912, Ronald Hatton initiated the work of classification, testing and standardization of apple tree rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

With the help of Dr Wellington, Hatton sorted out the incorrect naming and mixtures then widespread in apple rootstocks distribute

Fruit tree pruning is the cutting and removing of parts of a fruit tree. It covers a number ofhorticultural techniques that control growth, remove dead or diseased wood, and stimulate the formation offlowers and fruit buds. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Pruning often means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely. It may also mean removal of young shoots, buds, leaves, etc. Careful attention to pruning and training young trees affects their later productivity and longevity. Good pruning and training can also prevent later injury from weak crotches (where a tree trunk splits into two or more branches) Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

that break from the weight of fruit, snow, or ice on the branches.[1]

Other sustainable agriculture or permaculture personalities, such as Sepp Holzer and Masanobu Fukuoka, advocate and practiced no-pruning methods.

To obtain a better understanding of how to prune plants properly, it is useful to have some underlying knowledge of how pruning works, and how it affects the way plants grow. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

Plants form new tissue in an area called the meristem, located near the tips of roots and shoots, where active cell division takes place. Meristem growth is aimed at ensuring that leaves are quickly elevated into sunlight, and that roots are able to penetrate deeply into the soil. Once adequate height and length is achieved by the stems and roots, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

they begin to thicken to support the plant. On the shoots, these growing tips of the plant are called apical buds. The apical meristem (or tip) produces the growth hormone auxin, which not only promotes cell division, but also diffuses downwards and inhibits the development of lateral bud growth that otherwise competes with the apical tip for light and nutrients. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Removing the apical tip and its suppressive hormone lets lower, dormant lateral buds develop, and the buds between the leaf stalk and stem produce new shoots that compete to become lead growth.

Manipulating this natural response to damage (known as the principle of apical dominance) DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

by processes such as pruning (as well as coppicing and pollarding) allows the arborist to determine the shape, size and productivity of many fruiting trees and bushes. The main aim when pruning fruit trees is usually to maximize fruit yield. Unpruned trees tend to produce large numbers of small fruits that may be difficult to reach when harvesting by hand. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Branches can become broken by the weight of the crop, and the cropping may become biennial (that is, bearing fruit only every other year). Overpruned trees on the other hand tend to produce light crops of large, flavourless fruit that does not store well. Careful pruning balances shoot growth and fruit production. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

In the early years of the tree's life, it is important to develop a framework sufficiently strong to bear the weight of crops. This requires formative pruning to reinforce the tree. Formative pruning of apple (Malus pumila) and pear (Pyrus communis) trees should be carried out in the dormant winter months. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

For the Northern hemisphere, this should occur between November and March; For the Southern hemisphere, June and September. Stonefruits—such as cherries, plums, or gages—have different requirements, and should not be pruned in dormant months.

A maiden whip (a one-year-old tree with no side shoots) Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

should be pruned to a bud with two buds below it at about 80 cm from the ground immediately after planting to produce primary branches during the first growing season. A feathered maiden (that is, a one-year-old tree with several side branches) should have its main stem pruned back to three or four strong shoots at 80 cm from the ground. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Side shoots should be shortened by two thirds of their length to an upward or outward facing bud. Lower shoots should be removed flush with the stem.

Before pruning, distinguish between spur-bearing varieties, tip-bearing varieties, and an intermediate between the two that bears both on spurs and at the tips. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Spur-bearing trees occur more frequently than tip-bearing trees, and they bear most of their fruit yearly at the end of short lateral pieces of wood (spurs) up to about 4 inches long.

Spur-bearing types include apples of the varieties Cox's Orange PippinJames Grieve and Sunset, and pears such asConference,Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Doyenne du Commice and Williams Bon Chretien. Tip-bearers on the other hand produce most of their fruit buds at the tips of slender shoots grown the previous summer, and include the apples Worcester Pearmain andIrish Peach, and the pears such as Jargonelle and Josephine de MalinesCOMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

. There are basically three types of pruning that are applied once the main shape of the tree has been established.

Renewal pruning: This also depends on the tendency of many apple and pear trees to form flower buds on unpruned two-year-old laterals. It is a technique best used for the strong laterals on the outer part of the tree where there is room for such growth. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Pruning long-neglected fruit trees is a task that should be undertaken over a lengthy period, with not more than one third of the branches that require removal being taken each year.

Regulatory pruning: This is carried out on the tree as a whole, and is aimed at keeping the tree and its environment healthy,Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

e.g., by keeping the centre open so that air can circulate; removing dead or diseased wood; preventing branches from becoming overcrowded (branches should be roughly 50 cm apart and spurs not less than 25 cm apart along the branch framework); and preventing any branches from crossing. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Tip-bearers should be pruned lightly in winter using the regulatory system (see above). Any maiden shoots less than 25 cm in length should be left untouched as they have fruit buds at their tips. Longer shoots are spur pruned to prevent overcrowding and to stimulate the production of more short-tip-bearing shoots the following year. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Branch leaders are 'tipped', removing the top three or four buds to a bud facing in the desired direction to make them branch out and so produce more tip-bearing shoots. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan, DELL yy529 CPU Fan

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The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on small, deciduous trees. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan

The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures, including Norse, Greek and Christian traditions. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, fresh eating and cider production. HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means.

About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

The United Statesis the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects are thought to result from eating apples; Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan 

however, two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit.

The apple forms a tree that is small and deciduous, generally standing 1.8 to 4.6 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in cultivation and up to 9.1 m (30 ft) in the wild. When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density is determined by rootstock selection and trimming method.Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides.[3]

Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves, and are produced on spurs and some long shoots.Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

The 3 to 4 cm (1.2 to 1.6 in) flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, with aninflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; it opens first, and can develop a larger fruit.[3][4]

The fruit matures in autumn, and varieties exist with a wide range of sizes. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Commercial growers aim to produce an apple that is 7.0 to 8.3 cm (2.75 to 3.25 in) in diameter, due to market preference. Some consumers, especially those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 5.7 cm (2.25 in) are generally used for making juice and have little fresh market value. Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

The skin of ripe apples is generally red, yellow, green or pink, although many bi- or tri-colored varieties may be found.[5] The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer

The original wild ancestor of Malus domestica was Malus sieversiiLenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China.[3][7] Cultivation of the species, most likely beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples to be more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had decoded the complete genome of the apple in collaboration with horticultural genomicists at Washington State University,[11] using the Golden delicious variety.[12] It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date[13] and more genes than the human genome (about 30,000).[14] HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

This new understanding of the apple genome will help scientists in identifying genes and gene variants that contribute to resistance to disease and drought, and other desirable characteristics. Understanding the genes behind these characteristics will allow scientists to perform more knowledgeable selective breeding. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Decoding the genome also provided proof that Malus sieversii was the wild ancestor of the domestic apple—an issue that had been long-debated in the scientific community.

The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated,[16] IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in Asia in 328 BCE;[3] those he brought back to Macedonia might have been the progenitors of dwarfing root stocks. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia.[16] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Apples were brought to North America by colonists in the 17th century,[3] and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was planted in Boston by Reverend William Blaxton in 1625.[17] The only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples".[18] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Apple varieties brought as seed from Europe were spread along Native American trade routes, as well as being cultivated on Colonial farms. An 1845 United States apples nursery catalogue sold 350 of the "best" varieties, showing the proliferation of new North American varieties by the early 19th century.[18] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of the multibillion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading product.[3]

Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage.[19][20] In the 21st century, long-term storage again came into popularity, as "controlled atmosphere" facilities were used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilities use high humidity and low oxygen and carbon dioxide levels to maintain fruit freshness. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

She points out that buckets of apples were found in the Oseberg ship burial site in Norway, and that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as being transformed into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been found in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England and elsewhere on the continent of Europe, ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

which may have had a symbolic meaning, and that nuts are still a recognized symbol of fertility in southwest England.[22]

Davidson notes a connection between apples and the Vanir, a tribe of gods associated with fertility in Norse mythology, citing an instance of eleven "golden apples" being given to woo the beautiful Gerðr by Skírnir, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

who was acting as messenger for the major Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound.[23] Rerir's wife's consumption of the apple results in a six-year pregnancy and the Caesarean section birth of their son—the hero Völsung.[24]

Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th-century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson.FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

She states this may imply that the apple was thought of by Brúnarson as the food of the dead. Further, Davidson notes that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels exist in early Irish stories. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Davidson asserts that while cultivation of the apple in Northern Europe extends back to at least the time of the Roman Empire and came to Europe from the Near East, the native varieties of apple trees growing in Northern Europe are small and bitter. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world." Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion,mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit, other than berries, including nuts, as late as the 17th century.[25] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

For instance, in Greek mythology, the Greek hero Heracles, as a part of his Twelve Labours, was required to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center.

The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.[ Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

In retaliation, she tossed a golden apple inscribed Καλλίστη (Kalliste, sometimes transliterated Kallisti, 'For the most beautiful one'), into the wedding party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

After being bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.

The apple was thus considered, in ancient Greece, to be sacred to Aphrodite, and to throw an apple at someone was to symbolically declare one's love; HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

and similarly, to catch it was to symbolically show one's acceptance of that love.[30] An epigram claiming authorship by Plato states:

I throw the apple at you, and if you are willing to love me, take it and share your girlhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I pray they are not, even then take it, and consider how short-lived is beauty. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (also known as Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both "apple" and fruit in general),[27] who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand.

Though the forbidden fruit of Eden in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her.[32]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The origin of the popular identification with a fruit unknown in the Middle East in biblical times is found in confusion between the Latin words mālum (an apple) and mălum (an evil), each of which is normally written malum.[33] The tree of the forbidden fruit is called "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" in Genesis 2:17, and the Latin for "good and evil" isbonum et malum.[34]Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Renaissance painters may also have been influenced by the story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. Thelarynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit remaining in the throat of Adam.[ SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply human sexuality, possibly in an ironic vein.

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples.[35] Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.[36] Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The UK's National Fruit Collection, which is the responsibility of the Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs, has a collection of over 2,000 accessions in Kent.[37] The University of Reading, which is responsible for developing the UK national collection database, provides access to search the national collection. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The University of Reading's work is part of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources of which there are 38 countries participating in the Malus/Pyrus work group.[38]

The UK's national fruit collection database contains a wealth of information on the characteristics and origin of many apples,Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including alternative names for what is essentially the same 'genetic' apple variety. Most of these cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), though some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producingcider. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavor that dessert apples cannot.[39] HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Commercially popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colorful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, common apple shape, and developed flavor.[36] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Modern apples are generally sweeter than older cultivars, as popular tastes in apples have varied over time. Most North Americans and Europeans favor sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following.[40] Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavor are popular in Asia[40] and especially India.[39] Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colors. Some find them to have a better flavor than modern cultivars,[41] but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable from low yield, disease susceptibility, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been preserved by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance exist; HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. In the United Kingdom, old cultivars such as 'Cox's Orange Pippin' and 'Egremont Russet' are still commercially important even though by modern standards they are low yielding and susceptible to disease. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the wild, apples grow readily from seeds. However, like most perennial fruits, apples are ordinarily propagated asexually by grafting. This is because seedling apples are an example of "extreme heterozygotes", in that rather than inheriting DNA from their parents to create a new apple with those characteristics, they are instead significantly different from their parents.[42HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Triploid varieties have an additional reproductive barrier in that 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be divided evenly during meiosis, yielding unequal segregation of the chromosomes (aneuploids). Even in the case when a triploid plant can produce a seed (apples are an example), it occurs infrequently, and seedlings rarely survive.[43] HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Because apples do not breed true when planted as seeds, grafting is generally used to produce new apple trees. The rootstockused for the bottom of the graft can be selected to produce trees of a large variety of sizes, as well as changing the winter hardiness, insect and disease resistance, and soil preference of the resulting tree. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Dwarf rootstocks can be used to produce very small trees (less than 3.0 m (10 ft) high at maturity), which bear fruit earlier in their life cycle than full size trees.[44] Dwarf rootstocks for apple trees can be traced as far back as 300 BC, to the area of Persia and Asia Minor.Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees to Aristotle's Lyceum.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Dwarf rootstocks became common by the 15th century, and later went through several cycles of popularity and decline throughout the world.[45] The majority of the rootstocks used today to control size in apples were developed in England in the early 1900s. The East Malling Research Station conducted extensive research into rootstocks, SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and today their rootstocks are given an "M" prefix to designate their origin. Rootstocks marked with an "MM" prefix are Malling-series varieties later crossed with trees of the Northern Spy variety in Merton, England.Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics.[4Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

7]The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apples can also form bud sports(mutations on a single branch). Some bud sports turn out to be improved strains of the parent cultivar. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars.[48] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Since the 1930s, the Excelsior Experiment Station at the University of Minnesota has introduced a steady progression of important apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by local orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its most important contributions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apples have been acclimatized in Ecuador at very high altitudes, where they provide crops twice per year because of constant temperate conditions year-round.

Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. During the flowering each season, apple growers often utilize pollinators to carry pollen. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Honey bees are most commonly used. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Bumblebee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.

Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some cultivars, if left unpruned, will grow very large, which allows them to bear much more fruit, but makes harvesting very difficult. Depending on the tree density (number of trees planted per unit surface area), mature trees typically bear 40–200 kg (88–441 lb) of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Trees grafted on dwarfing rootstocks will bear about 10–80 kg (22–176 lb) of fruit per year.[48]

Crops ripen at different times of the year according to the variety of apple. Varieties that yield their crop in the summer include Gala, Golden Supreme, McIntosh, APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Transparent, Primate, Sweet Bough, and Duchess; fall producers include Fuji, Jonagold, Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Chenango, Gravenstein, Wealthy, McIntosh, Snow, and Blenheim; winter producers include Winesap, Granny Smith, King, Wagener, Swayzie, Greening, and Tolman Sweet. HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced ripening. Apples are commonly stored in chambers with higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and high air filtration. This prevents ethylene concentrations from rising to higher amounts and preventing ripening from occurring too quickly. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ripening continues when the fruit is removed from storage.[51] For home storage, most varieties of apple can be held for approximately two weeks when kept at the coolest part of the refrigerator (i.e. below 5 °C). Some types, including the Granny Smith and Fuji, can be stored up to a year without significant degradation. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apple trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests. Many commercial orchards pursue an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. A trend in orchard management is the use of organic methods. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These ban the use of some pesticides, though some older pesticides are allowed.Organic methods include, for instance, introducing its natural predator to reduce the population of a particular pest.

A wide range of pests and diseases can affect the plant; three of the more common diseases/pests are mildew, aphids and apple scab. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Mildew: which is characterized by light grey powdery patches appearing on the leaves, shoots and flowers, normally in spring. The flowers will turn a creamy yellow color and will not develop correctly. This can be treated in a manner not dissimilar from treating Botrytis; eliminating the conditions which caused the disease in the first place and burning the infected plants are among the recommended actions to take.[54] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Aphids: There are five species of aphids commonly found on apples: apple grain aphid, rosy apple aphid, apple aphid, spirea aphid and the woolly apple aphid. The aphid species can be identified by their color, the time of year when they are present and by differences in the cornicles, which are small paired projections from the rear of aphids.[54] HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Aphids feed on foliage using needle-like mouth parts to suck out plant juices. When present in high numbers, certain species reduce tree growth and vigor.[55]

Apple scab: Apple scab causes leaves to develop olive-brown spots with a velvety texture that later turn brown and become cork-like in texture. The disease also affects the fruit, which also develops similar brown spots with velvety or cork-like textures.Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apple scab is spread through fungus growing in old apple leaves on the ground and spreads during warm spring weather to infect the new year's growth.[56]

Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, and black spot, two fungal diseases.[55]  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Codling moths andapple maggots are two other pests which affect apple trees. Young apple trees are also prone to mammal pests like mice and deer, which feed on the soft bark of the trees, especially in winter.

About 63 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2012, with China producing almost half of this total. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. The largest exporters of apples in 2009 were China, the U.S., Turkey, Poland, Italy,Iran, and India while the biggest importers in the same year were Russia, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands.[58]

In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples sold commercially are grown in Washington.[59] ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with U.S. production and increasing each year.[60]

Most of Australia's apple production is for domestic consumption. Imports from New Zealand have been disallowed under quarantine regulations for fireblight since 1921.[61]  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Other countries with a significant production are Brazil, Argentina, Ukraine, Germany and South Africa.

Apples are often eaten raw. The whole fruit including the skin is suitable for human consumption except for the seeds, which may affect some consumers. The core is often not eaten and is discarded. Varieties bred for raw consumption are termed dessert or table apples.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apples can be canned or juiced. They are milled or pressed to produce apple juice, which may be drunk unfiltered (called apple ciderin North America), or filtered. The juice can be fermented to make cider (called hard cider in North America), ciderkin, andvinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados,[62] and apfelwein. Apple seed oil[63] and pectin may also be produced.  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes.In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the U.S. are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallized sugar syrup), and caramel apples, HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

coated with cooledcaramel.Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will purchase.

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Species that are highly dependent upon meadow habitat include Great Grey Owl, Willow Flycatcher, Yosemite Toad, and Mountain Beaver.Despite the richness of high-quality habitats in Yosemite, the Brown Bear, California Condor, and Least Bell's Vireo have become extinct in the park within historical time,[59] and another 37 species currently have special status under either California or federal endangered species legislation. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The most serious current threats to Yosemite's wildlife and the ecosystems they occupy include loss of a natural fire regime, exotic species, air pollution,habitat fragmentation, and climate change. On a more local basis, factors such as road kills and the availability of human food have affected some wildlife species. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The black bears of Yosemite were once famous for breaking into parked cars to steal food. They were also an encouraged tourist sight for many years at the park's garbage dumps, where bears congregated to eat park visitors' garbage and tourists gathered to photograph the bears. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Increasing encounters between bears and humans and increasing damage to property led to an aggressive campaign to discourage bears from relying on human food or interacting with people and their property. The open-air dumps were closed; all trash receptacles were replaced withbear-proof receptacles; HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

all campgrounds were equipped with bear-proof food lockers so that people would not leave food in their vehicles, which were easy targets for the powerful and resourceful bears. Because bears who show aggression towards people usually are eventually destroyed, park personnel have continued to come up with innovative ways to have bears associate humans and their property with unpleasant experiences, Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

such as being hit with rubber bullets. Today, about 30 bears a year are captured and ear-tagged and their DNA is sampled so that, when bear damage occurs, rangers can ascertain which bear is causing the problem.[60]

Increasing ozone pollution is causing tissue damage to the massive Giant Sequoia trees in the park. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This makes them more vulnerable to insect infestation and disease. Since the cones of these trees require fire-touched soil to germinate, historic fire suppressionhas reduced these trees' ability to reproduce. The current policy of setting prescribed fires is expected to help the germination issue.

Yosemite National Park has documented more than 130 non-native plant species within park boundaries. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These non-native plants were introduced into Yosemite following the migration of early Euro-American settlers in the late 1850s. Natural and human-caused disturbances, such as wildland fires and construction activities, have contributed to a rapid increase in the spread of non-native plants.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A number of these species aggressively invade and displace the native plant communities, resulting in impacts on the park's resources. Non-native plants can bring about significant changes in park ecosystems by altering the native plant communities and the processes that support them. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some non-native species may cause an increase in the fire frequency of an area or increase the available nitrogen in the soil that may allow more non-native plants to become established. Many non-native species, such as Yellow Star Thistle (Centaurea solstitialis), are able to produce a long tap root that allows them to out-compete the native plants for available water.[61] HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare), Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus), and Klamath Weed (Hypericum perforatum) have been identified as noxious pests in Yosemite since the 1940s. Additional species that have been recognized more recently as aggressive and requiring control are Yellow Star Thistle (Centaurea solstitialis), Sweet Clover (Melilot spp.), Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), Cut-leaved Blackberry (Rubus laciniatus) and Large Periwinkle (Vinca major).

Yosemite Valley is open year-round, but much of the remaining park is closed in late autumn because of snow and re-opens in mid to late spring. Open-air tours around Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias are available. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Many people enjoy short walks and longer hikes to waterfalls in Yosemite Valley, or walks amongst Giant Sequoias in the Mariposa, Tuolumne, or Merced Groves. Others like to drive or take a tour bus to Glacier Point (summer-fall) to see a spectacular view of Yosemite Valley and the high country, or drive along the scenic Tioga Road to Tuolumne Meadows (summer-fall) and go for a walk or hike. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Most park visitors stay just for the day, and only visit locations within Yosemite Valley that are easily accessible by automobile. There is a US$20 per automobile user fee to enter the park.[62] Traffic congestion in the valley is a serious problem during peak season, in summer. A free shuttle bus system operates year-round in the valley, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and park rangersencourage people to use this system since parking within the valley during the summer is often nearly impossible to find.[63]

In addition to exploring the natural features of the park, visitors can also learn about the natural and cultural history of Yosemite Valley at a number of facilities in the valley: the Yosemite Valley Visitor Center, HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the adjoining Yosemite Museum, and the Nature Center at Happy Isles. There are also twoNational Historic Landmarks: the LeConte Memorial Lodge (Yosemite's first public visitor center), and the world-famous Ahwahnee Hotel. Camp 4 was added to theNational Register of Historic Places in 2003. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Over 800 miles (1,300 km) of trails are available to hikers[5]—anything from the easy stroll, to the grueling hikes up several park mountains, to multiple-daybackpack trips.

The park can be divided into 5 sections for the day-user—Yosemite Valley, Wawona/Mariposa Grove/ Glacier Point, Tuolumne Meadows, Hetch Hetchy, and Crane Flat/White Wolf. [65] HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Numerous books describe park trails, and free information is available from the Park Service in Yosemite. Park rangers encourage visitors to experience portions of the park in addition to Yosemite Valley.

Between late spring and early fall, much of the park is open to multiple-day backpack trips. All overnight trips into the back country require a wilderness permit[66] and most require approved bear-resistant food storage. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

While some locations in Yosemite require hiking, other locations can be observed via automobile transportation. Driving locations also allow guests to observe the night sky in locations other than their campsite or lodge. All of the roads in Yosemite are scenic, but the most famous is the Tioga Road, typically open from late May or early June through November. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As an alternative to driving, bicycles are allowed on the roads. However, bicycles are only allowed off-road on 12 miles (19 km) of paved trails in Yosemite Valley itself; mountain biking is not allowed.

Rock climbing is an important part of Yosemite.[70] Camp 4, a walk-in campground in Yosemite Valley, was instrumental in the development of rock climbing as a sport, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[71] HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Climbers can generally be spotted in the snow-free months on anything from ten-foot-high (3 m) boulders to the 3,300-foot (1.0 km) face ofEl Capitan. Classes are offered by numerous groups on rock climbing.

Many of the roads in the park close because of heavy snow in winter; HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

however, Yosemite Valley is open all year long. Downhill skiing is available at the Badger Pass Ski Area—the oldest downhill skiing area in California, offering downhill skiing from mid-December through early April.[72] Much of the park is open to cross-country skiing and snowshoeing, with several backcountry ski huts open for use.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Wilderness permits are required for backcountry overnight ski trips.[66]

The Bracebridge dinner is an annual holiday event, held since 1927 at the Ahwahnee Hotel, inspired by Washington Irving's descriptions of Squire Bracebridge and English Christmas traditions of the 18th century in his Sketch Book. Between 1929 and 1973, the show was organized by Ansel Adams. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Bicycle rentals are available in Yosemite Valley spring through fall. Over 12 miles (19 km) of paved bike paths are available in Yosemite Valley. In addition, bicyclists can ride on regular roads. Helmets are required by law for children under 18 years of age. Off-trail riding and mountain biking are not permitted in Yosemite National Park.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Water activities are plentiful during warmer months. Rafting can be done through the Yosemite Valley on the Merced River. There is also a swimming pool available at Curry Village.

 In 2010, Yosemite National Park was honored with its own quarter under the America the Beautiful Quarters program.

The exposed geology of the Yosemite area includes primarily granitic rocks with some oldermetamorphic rock.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first rocks were laid down in Precambrian times, when the area aroundYosemite National Park was on the edge of a very young North American continent. The sediment that formed the area first settled in the waters of a shallow sea, and compressive forces from asubduction zone in the mid-Paleozoic fused the seabed rocks and sediments, appending them to the continent. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Heat generated from the subduction created island arcs of volcanoes (not unlike Japan) that were also thrust into the area of the park. In time, the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the area were later heavily metamorphosed.Most of the rock now exposed in the park is granitic, having been formed 210 to 80 million years ago as igneous diapirs 6 miles (10 km) below the surface. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Over time, most of the overlying rock was uplifted along with the rest of the Sierra Nevada and was removed from the area by erosion. This exposed the granitic rock to much lower pressure, and it was also subjected to erosion in the forms of exfoliation and mass wasting.Starting about 3 million years ago a series of glaciations further modified the area by accelerating the erosion.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During that time large glaciers periodically filled the valleys andcanyons. Landslides and river erosion have been the primary erosive forces since the end of thelast glacial period, which ended in this area around 10,000 BCE.The area of the park was astride a passive continental margin (similar to the east coast of present-day United States) during the Precambrian and early Paleozoic.HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sediment was derived from continental sources and was deposited in shallow water. The limestones, sandstones, and shales thus created have since been metamorphosed into marble, quartzite, and slate. These rocks are now exposed on isolated pendants in the northern and central parts of the park (Snow Lake Pendant in the Emigrant Wilderness is a good example). ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Starting in the mid-Paleozoic and lasting into the early Mesozoic, a Convergent Plate Boundary transported many of the above-mentioned seabed sediments into the area of the park (possibly during the Antler orogeny). Heat generated from the subduction led to the creation of an island arc of volcanoes on the west coast ofLaurentia (proto-North America) between the late Devonian and Permian periods. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These rocks were incorporated into proto-North America by the middle of theTriassic, some of them finding their way to the area of the park. Most of these igneous and sedimentary rocks have since been heavily metamorphosed, upliftedand eroded away.Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Outcrops of the resulting Shoo Fly Complex (made of schists and gneisses) and younger Calaveras Complex (a mélange of shale, siltstone, andchert with mafic inclusions) are now found in the western side of the park.Later volcanism in the Jurassic intruded and covered these rocks in what may have been magmatic activity associated with the early stages of the creation of theSierra Nevada Batholith. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

95% of these rocks were eventually removed by uplifted-accelerated erosion. Most of the remaining rocks are exposed as 'roof pendants' in the eastern metamorphic zone. Mount Dana and Mount Gibbs are made of these metavolcanic rocks. Only 5% of the rocks exposed in Yosemite National Park are metamorphic. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first phase of regional plutonism started 210 million years ago in the late Triassic and continued throughout the Jurassic to about 150 million years BP. Also starting 150 million years ago was an increase in the westward drift rate of the North American Plate. The resulting orogeny (mountain-building event) is called the Nevadan orogeny by geologists. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The resulting Nevadan mountain range (also called the Ancestral Sierra Nevada) was 15,000 feet (4500 m) high and was made of sections of seafloor and mélange.

These rocks were later metamorphosed and today can be seen in the gold-bearing metamorphic belt of California's Mother Lode country. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the area of the park these rocks are exposed along the Merced River and State Route 140. This was directly part of the creation of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, and the resulting rocks were mostly granitic in composition and emplaced about 6 miles (10 km) below the surface.

The second, major pluton emplacement phase lasted from about 120 million to 80 million years ago during the Cretaceous. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This was part of the Sevier orogeny. All told there have been more than 50 plutons found in the park. A few miles (several km) of material was eroded away, leaving the Nevadan mountains as a long series of hills a few hundred feet (tens of meters) high by 25 million years ago.

Starting 20 million years ago and lasting until 5 million years ago a now-extinct extension of Cascade Range volcanoes erupted, bringing large amounts of igneous material in the area. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These igneous deposits blanketed the region north of the Yosemite area. Some lava associated with this activity poured into the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne and formed Little Devils Postpile (a smaller but much older version of the columnar basalt palisades in nearby Devils Postpile National Monument).  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the late Cenozoic, extensive volcanism occurred east of the park area. Within the Yosemite region, andesitic lava flows and lahars flowed north of the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne and volcanic dikes and plugs developed from faults on the flanks of Mount Dana. There is also evidence for a great deal of rhyolitic ash covering the northern part of the Yosemite region 30 million years ago. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This and later ash deposits have been almost completely eroded away (especially during the ice ages).

Volcanic activity persisted past 5 million years BP east of the current park borders in the Mono Lake and Long Valley areas. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

The most significant activity was the creation of the Long Valley Caldera about 700,000 years ago in which about 600 times as much material was erupted than in the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens. The most recent activity was the eruption of the Mono-Inyo Craters from 40,000 to 600 years ago.

10 million years ago, vertical movement along the Sierra fault started to uplift the Sierra Nevada.[1HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

] Subsequent tilting of the Sierra block and the resulting accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada increased the gradient of western-flowing streams. The streams consequently ran faster and thus cut their valleys more quickly. Tributary streams ran more-or-less in line with the Sierras, therefore not having their gradients increased. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Thus their rate of valley cutting was not significantly affected. The results were hanging valleys and cascading waterfalls where the tributaries met the main streams. Additional uplift occurred when major faults developed to the east, especially the creation of Owens Valley from Basin and Range-associated extensional forces. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Uplift of the Sierra accelerated again about two million years ago during the Pleistocene. However, Yosemite valley was not created by streams or fault lines (to create a graben valley), such was suggested by geologist Josiah Whitney. Glaciers shaped the Yosemite Valley, and can easily be confused with a graben valley. (Example of a graben valley isDeath Valley in California) HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

The uplifting and increased erosion exposed granitic rocks in the area to surface pressures, resulting in exfoliation (responsible for the rounded shape of the many granite domes in the park) and mass wasting following the numerous fracture joint planes (cracks; especially vertical ones) in the now solidified plutons. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Pleistocene glaciers further accelerated this process and the larger ones transported the resulting talus and till from valley floors.

Numerous vertical joint planes controlled where and how fast erosion took place. Most of these long, linear and very deep cracks trend northeast or northwest and form parallel, often regularly spaced sets. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

They were created by uplift-associated pressure release and by the unloading of overlying rock via erosion. The great majority of Yosemite Valley's widening, for example, was due to joint-controlled rockfall. In fact, only 10% of its widening and 12% of its excavation are thought to be the result of glaciation (Yosemite: A Visitors Companion, pgs 75-76). HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Large, relatively unjointed volumes of granite form domes such as Half Dome and monoliths like the 3604 feet (1098 m) high El Capitan. Closely spaced joints lead to the creation of columns, pillers, and pinnacles such as Washington Column, Cathedral Spires, and Split Pinnacle. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Starting about 2 to 3 million years ago a series of glaciations further modified the area by accelerating mass wastingthrough ice-wedging, glacial plucking, scouring/abrasion and the release of pressure after the retreat of each glaciation. Severe glaciations formed very large glaciers that tended to strip and transport top soil and talus piles far down glacial valleys, while less-severe glaciations deposited a great deal of glacial till further up in the valleys. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

At least 4 major glaciations have occurred in the Sierra Nevada; locally called the Sherwin (also called the pre-Tahoe), Tahoe, Tenaya, and Tioga. The Sherwin glaciers were the largest, filling Yosemite and other valleys, while later stages produced much smaller glaciers. The Sherwin may have lasted almost 300 thousand years and ended about 1 million years ago. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

A Sherwin-age glacier was almost surely responsible for the major excavation and shaping of Yosemite Valley and other canyons in the area.The Tahoe, Tenaya, and Tioga stages were part of the Wisconsinan glaciation. The Tahoe glacial stage is thought to have reached its maximum extent around 70,000 to 130,000 years ago; little is known about the more recent Tenaya. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Evidence also suggests that the most recent local glacial stage, the Tioga, started about 28,000 cal (calibrated Radiocarbon dating#Measurements and scales) years ago, reached its maximum extent 20,000 to 25,000 cal yr ago, and ended by ~15,000 cal yr ago. Glaciers reformed in the highest cirques during a minor late-glacial readvance, the Recess Peak event, between about 14,200 and 13,100 yr ago. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

After that, glaciers appear to have been absent from the range until about 3200 cal yr ago, when small glaciers reappeared in the highest cirques. This readvance records the onset of Neoglaciation in the Sierra Nevada. Neoglaciation in the range culminated during the "Little Ice Age," a term originally coined by Francois Matthes in the Sierra Nevada, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

but now widely accepted as referring to a period of global glacial expansion between about AD 1250 to 1900. Moraines in the Sierra Nevada related to the Little Ice Age event are termed Matthes deposits. They are common in north-facing cirques and below modern glaciers in the High Sierra and are typically fresh, unstable, and often ice-cored. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Good examples of Matthes moraines can be found below the Palisade Glacier (the largest glacier in the range), Lyell and Maclure glaciers in southern Yosemite N.P., and the smaller glaciers below Mount Dana, Kuna Peak, Mount Conness, and Matterhorn Peak.

Glacial systems reached depths of up to 4000 feet (1200 m) and left their marks in the Yosemite area. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

The longest glacier in the Yosemite area ran down the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne River for 60 miles (95 km), passing well beyond Hetch Hetchy Valley. Merced Glacier flowed out of Yosemite Valley and into the Merced River Gorge. Lee Vining Glacier carved Lee Vining Canyon and emptied into Lake Russell (the much enlarged ice age version of Mono Lake). HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Only the highest peaks, such as Mount Dana and Mount Conness, were not covered by glaciers. Retreating glaciers often left recessional moraines that impounded lakes such as Lake Yosemite (a shallow lake that periodically covered much of the floor of Yosemite Valley).

Some domes in the park were covered by glaciers and modified into roche moutonnées, Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

which are characterized by having a smooth, rounded side and a steep face. The rounded side was where the glacier flowed over the dome and the steep side is where the glacier flowed away from it. The steepness is caused by glacial plucking of rock along fracture joints. Good examples in the park are Liberty Cap, Lembert Dome, and Mount Broderick. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Half Dome was created by a different process, but erosion acting on jointing planes was still the major factor.

The origin of the geological landscapes of the park have been under debate since 1865. At that time, Josiah Whitney, then chief geologist of California, proposed that Yosemite Valley is a graben: ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

a downdropped block of land surrounded by faults.John Muir proposed that Yosemite Valley and Hetch Hetchy Valley were formed purely by glacial action. In 1930, Francois Matthes proposed a hybrid hypothesis, where most of the depth of the valley was gouged by water erosion, the rest by glacial action. The glacial action also claimed to have widened the valley. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

More recently, the debate has been reopened by Jeffrey Schaffer, who suggests that the role of glaciers and other erosion processes has been dramatically overstated. Schaffer states that Yosemite Valley above 5600 feet (1700 m), for example, has changed relatively little in the past 30 million years. Other than being slightly larger, HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

if one could look back in time and see them, the major features would be recognizable to the modern eye. Schaffer believes that the numerous joint planes have had the greatest impact on the geomorphology of the Park's major features. This is in contradiction to the consensus view that huge highly abrasive glaciers HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

acting on joint planes combined with a great deal of uplift over just the past couple million years was the primary shaping force of the features (such rapid uplift would have greatly accelerated all types of erosion).

Yosemite West (pronounced "Yo-SEM-it-tee") is an unincorporated community private community of resort homes located just outside of the southern area of Yosemite National Park just off Wawona Road, HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

a continuation of   State Route 41from Fresno. It is situated one mile (1.6 km) south of the Chinquapin intersection of Wawona Road with the Glacier Point Road at an altitude of 5,100–6,300 ft (1,550–1,900 m). The elevation reported by the USGS is 5866 feet (1788 m).[1] The GPS coordinates are N 37° 38.938’ W 119° 43.310’ [1]. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Although appearing to be very near to the community of El Portal this community is part of Henness Ridge, towering nearly 3,000 feet (900 m) above the southern banks of the Merced River and the   State Route 140 from Mariposa. Therefore, there is no direct access to Yosemite West from HWY 140. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

To get to Yosemite West from this direction, you need to enter the park through the Arch Rock entrance along Hwy 140 from Merced. This stretch of HWY 140, also known as El Portal Road, connects with the Wawona Road in the Yosemite Valley ( Bridalveil Falls) where you continue south to the entrance to Yosemite West. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

As part of Mariposa County, Yosemite West is a subdivision of 294 lots on approximately 120 acres (49 ha), complete with underground utilities and paved roads. To date there are 173 developed lots with houses, including two condominium buildings with a total of 48 units. It is surrounded on three sides by Yosemite National Park and Sierra National Forest. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Some homes are owned by permanent residents of the area while others are resort homes, some of which are rented on a daily and weekly basis by visitors to Yosemite National Park. These vacation rentals provide much needed funds for infrastructure repairs.

Occupation of the Yosemite West area did not begin, however with the subdivision that opened in 1967. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

It began many centuries earlier with the North American IndianTribes of the Sierra. Before the advent of the white man, Indians used Yosemite West as their camp ground and hunting area. Even today a search for the obsidian chips used as arrowheads can provide an interesting days outing in Yosemite West. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Yosemite Institute (YI) Plans for an Environmental Education Center (EEC) at Henness Ridge (Near Yosemite West). As per the report (page 79)[2], "the total number of students in the park per session would be approximately 490. Under this alternative, 224 students would be housed at the Henness Ridge campus and approximately 266 in Yosemite Valley HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

(approximately 74 fewer students than in historic programming). The new facilities at Henness Ridge would provide indoor and outdoor learning environments that are tailored to teaching and learning. The new dining hall and classroom, as well as the circulation of students during their stay, would significantly improve the students’ indoor educational experience. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

A diversity of trails around the campus at Henness Ridge would provide the environmental education program opportunities for exploration." In April 2010, a record of decision was received in favor of the new center to be built at Henness Ridge. "HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

The new center will provide a permanent home for environmental education in Yosemite National Park and will enable Yosemite Institute to provide improved and expanded educational opportunities for its students."

As early as 1912 the cutting of timber in the Chinquapin area was started and logs were hauled to Merced Falls. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The Yosemite Valley Railroad was built to carry out the lumber harvested from the vast supply of Sugar Pines found along the Merced River canyon. Immortalized in author Hank Johnston’s book, “Whistles Blow No More”[4], the Yosemite Lumber Company logged in this area. In fact, the remains of the longest Incline rail system ever built are located at what is now Camp One Resort[5], Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

just a short distance away from the Yosemite West development. The incline rose to a height of 3,100 feet (950 m) above the Merced River. The Camp One incline was used to lower logs to the Merced River at El Portal from the logging area. One of the stops on the Yosemite Valley Railroad line was the lumber mill built by the Yosemite Lumber Company where the wood was planed, HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

finished, dried and stored. The lumber company is gone now and trees have fully returned with most 80+ feet (24+ m) tall, surrounding most homes on the hill. The old Shay logging train grades have been replaced with paved roads and underground utilities, giving it a pleasant rural atmosphere.

You can drive up Highway 41 through Fresno and Madera counties to enter the Park through the South Entrance. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

This is the best way to go if you want to see the Mariposa Grove, the Wawona area, and Glacier Point on the way to Yosemite Valley. Highway 41 becomes the Wawona Road when it enters Yosemite. Henness Ridge Road is the junction off HWY 41 which leads to Yosemite West.[6]

North of Yosemite West is Chinquapin junction. Located midway between Wawona, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Glacier Point, and the Yosemite Valley, the junction is the turn off for Badger Pass Ski Area Resort [7] and Glacier Point. During the winter months, Badger Pass skiing is just minutes away.

Several trails begin at the border of Yosemite West, a private community. Some of them follow the old railroad beds left by the Yosemite Lumber Company. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

One such trail is across Hwy 41 near the Henness Ridge Road turn off to Yosemite West. Here you can find a parking area and the trailhead for Deer Camp Trail.[8] This trailhead is just south of Chinquapin and Glacier Point Road. As you hike along the trail above Hwy 41, it passes over Rail Creek and Strawberry Creek on its way to Deer Camp on Empire Meadow. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Alder Creek Trail branches off from Deer Camp Trail. Along Alder Creek Trail you will come to Alder Creek Fall and the remnants of the old Yosemite Lumber Company railroad. You will see old railroad ties and pieces of track. In spring, Alder Creek Fall, which cascades down about 100 ft., can be a lovely sight. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Some of the areas along the trail were at one time almost completely clear-cut by the lumber company. But now the area has dense stands of conifers and a few oaks and is well populated with birds in its full canopy. The trail is moderate in difficulty but the terrain is smooth. Towards the last mile or so it is steep as you hike down toward the end of the trail at Wawona. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

Another hiking experience is the Henness Ridge Fire Lookout Trail. This unmarked trailhead starts at the end of Azalea Lane in Yosemite West. Using the asphalt access road to the right, hike past the water towers and continue 0.7 miles to the Henness Ridge fire lookout tower. This historic site is one of two remaining four rustic-style lookouts in the state. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

Built in 1939 by CCC, it was used by US Park Service for fire detection during the 60's and 70's,[2] and is now historic structure number 5300.[3] 360 degree panoramic views of Yosemite can be seen from this vantage point.

Another branch of the trail starting at Azalea Road. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Take the path to the left and proceed a quarter mile northeast distance, the trail turns south. You are now on the Eleven-mile Trail also known as the Old Wawona Road, which parallels the current Wawona Road. Follow this old road bed south. The trail branches at the Eleven-mile Creek. Follow the trail, which parallels the creek bed, to the right to arrive at Eleven- mile Meadow. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Eleven-mile meadow has had many different uses through the years. The Meadow had been used for cattle grazing operations until the early 1930s, as a logging camp and as a CCC camp which was established in 1933.[4] Earlier on, Stage coaches brought travelers to the area with a stop at the Eleven Mile Change Station which was near Chinquapin.[5] HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

As the 20th century approached, the roadbed was converted to a rail bed. The Yosemite Lumber Company used it transport logs to the incline at Henness Ridge. The incline lowered logs to the Merced River far below.

Using the old railroad bed, the hike to the 11 mile trail meadow is an easy walk from Yosemite West and is about 2.8 miles in length, each way. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Yosemite West is a community of more than 151 private residences and resort homes which can be accessed from HWY41 via Henness Ridge Road, approximately seventeen miles (27 km) inside the South Entrance of the Park. In addition, located high on top of Yosemite West at an elevation of 6,200 feet, there is a 48 unit condominium complex. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Most condos are available for daily rental to guests of Yosemite National Park, while others are private vacation residences.

The land for this community was purchased and developed in the 1960s by Yosemite Highlands, Inc., a group of business and professional men from the San Jose area. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

They envisioned a unique Mountain Resort area accessible year round for leisure time recreation. A complete economic feasibility study was made by the Economic Research Association. [9] Six development schemes produced by Victor Gruen Associates [10] of Los Angeles, were analyzed before settling on the one now in effect. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

This family oriented environment is unique in Yosemite. Unlike other communities in the park, this area was designed with all utilities underground. There are no power poles or telephone lines to detract from the serenity of living in a forest. Views from your windows are filled with evergreens, oaks and manzanita. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Mule deer, squirrels, coyotes, Steller's Jays and other animals frequent the area, so it is common to see them from your window, even an occasional bear [11]. With an approximate altitude of 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Yosemite West is higher than accommodations in the valley. During the summer, this affords a cooler environment by 10 to 20 °F (5 to 10 °C) than in the Valley. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan,Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan,ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan,Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

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Yosemite National Park (/joʊˈsɛmɨtiː/ yoh-sem-it-ee) is a United States National Park spanning eastern portions ofTuolumne, Mariposa and Madera counties in the central eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. The park, which is managed by the National Park Service, covers an area of 747,956 acres (3,026.87 km2)[2] and reaches across the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain chain.[4] http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/

Over 3.7 million people visit Yosemite each year:[3] most spend their time in the seven square miles (18 km2) of Yosemite Valley.[5] Designated a World Heritage Site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its spectacular granite cliffs, waterfalls, clear streams, Giant Sequoiagroves, and biological diversity.[5] HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan

Almost 95% of the park is designated wilderness.[6] Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. First, Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development, ultimately leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864. Later, John Muirled a successful movement to establish a larger national park encompassing not just the valley, HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan

but surrounding mountains and forests as well - paving the way for the United States national park system.[7]

Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, and the park supports a diversity of plants and animals. The park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet (648 to 3,997 m) and contains five major vegetation zones: Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan

chaparral/oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, and alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% within Yosemite. There is suitable habitat or documentation for more than 160 rare plants in the park, with rare localgeologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy.[5] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic rocks and remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and then tilted to form its relatively gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes. The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in formation of deep, narrow canyons. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

About 1 million years ago, snow and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet (1,200 m) during the early glacial episode. The downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today.[5] Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

The park is well known for its population ofbobcats.

As revealed by archeological finds, the Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3000 years. ThePaiute and Sierra Miwok peoples lived in the area long before the first explorations by American settlers into the region. A band of Paiute called the Ahwahneechee were living in the Yosemite Valleywhen the first known group of European Americans entered it.[8] Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

The California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century dramatically increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan

United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley. He was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya.[9]

Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

who later wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya. Bunnell wrote that Chief Tenaya was the founder of the Pai-Ute Colony of Ah-wah-nee.[8] The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, and most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be especially violent because of their frequent territorial disputes. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers".[10][11] Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area.

Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were eventually captured and their village burned; they were removed to a reservation near Fresno, California. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The chief and some others were later allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, and then moved east to flee law enforcement. [12] Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute. They stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe.A reconstructed "Indian Village of Ahwahnee" has been erected behind the Yosemite Museum, located next to the Yosemite Valley Visitor Center.In 1855, entrepreneur James Mason Hutchings, artist Thomas Ayres and two others were the first to tour the area.[9] HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Hutchings and Ayres were responsible for much of the earliest publicity about Yosemite, writing articles and special magazine issues about the Valley.[13] Ayres' style in art was highly detailed with exaggerated angularity. His works and written accounts were distributed nationally, and an art exhibition of his drawings was held in New York City. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

Hutchings' publicity efforts between 1855 and 1860 led to an increase in tourism to Yosemite.[14]

Wawona was an Indian encampment in what is now the southwestern part of the park. Settler Galen Clark discovered the Mariposa Groveof Giant Sequoia in Wawona in 1857. He had simple lodgings built, and roads to the area. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

In 1879, the Wawona Hotel was built to serve tourists visiting Mariposa Grove. As tourism increased, so did the number of trails and hotels developed by people intending to build on the trade.

The Wawona Tree, also known as the Tunnel Tree, was a famous giant sequoia that stood in the Mariposa Grove. It was 227 feet (69 m) tall, and was 90 ft (27 m) in circumference. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

When a carriage-wide tunnel was cut through the tree in 1881, it became even more popular as a tourist photo attraction. Everything from horse-drawn carriages in the late 19th century, to automobiles in the first part of the 20th century, traveled the road which passed through that tree. The Wawona Tree fell in 1969 under a heavy load of snow. It was estimated to have been 2,300 years old. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Yosemite's first concession was established in 1884 when John Degnan and his wife established a bakery and store.[15] In 1916, the National Park Service granted a 20-year concession to the Desmond Park Service Company. It bought out or built hotels, stores, camps, a dairy, a garage, and other park services.[16] FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Desmond changed its name to the Yosemite National Park Company in December 1917 and was reorganized in 1920.The Curry Company had been started in 1899 by David and Jennie Curry to provide concessions in the park. They also founded Camp Curry, now known as Curry Village. The Currys lobbied reluctant park supervisors to allow expansion of concession operations and development in the area. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

Administrators in the National Park Service felt that limiting the number of concessionaires in each national park would be more financially sound. The Curry Company and its rival, the Yosemite National Park Company, were forced to merge in 1925 to form the Yosemite Park & Curry Company (YP&CC).[19] The company built the Ahwahnee Hotel in 1927. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

Concerned by the effects of commercial interests, prominent citizens including Galen Clark and Senator John Conness advocated for protection of the area. A park bill was prepared with the assistance of the General Land Office in the Interior Department.[20] The bill passed both houses of the 38th United States Congress, and was signed by President Abraham Lincolnon June 30, 1864, creating the Yosemite Grant.[ ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

This is the first instance of park land being set aside specifically for preservation and public use by action of the U.S. federal government, and set a precedent for the 1872 creation ofYellowstone as the first national park.[7] Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove were ceded to California as a state park, and a board of commissioners was proclaimed two years later. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Galen Clark was appointed by the commission as the Grant's first guardian, but neither Clark nor the commissioners had the authority to evict homesteaders (which included Hutchings).[21] The issue was not settled until 1872 when the homesteader land holdings were invalidated by the U.S. Supreme Court.[23HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

] Clark and the reigning commissioners were ousted in 1880, this dispute also reaching the Supreme Court in 1880.[24] The two Supreme Court decisions affecting management of the Yosemite Grant are considered important precedents in land management law.[25] Hutchings became the new park guardian.[26] FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

Access to the park by tourists improved in the early years of the park, and conditions in the Valley were made more hospitable. Tourism significantly increased after the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869, but the long horseback ride to reach the area was a deterrent.[21] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Three stagecoach roads were built in the mid-1870s to provide better access for the growing number of visitors to Yosemite Valley.

Scottish-born naturalist John Muir wrote articles popularizing the area and increasing scientific interest in it. Muir was one of the first to theorize that the major landforms in Yosemite Valley were created by large alpine glaciers, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

bucking established scientists such as Josiah Whitney, who regarded Muir as an amateur.[26] Muir wrote scientific papers on the area's biology. Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted emphasized the importance of conservation of Yosemite Valley.

Overgrazing of meadows (especially by sheep), logging of Giant Sequoia, and other damage caused Muir to become an advocate for further protection. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Muir convinced prominent guests of the importance of putting the area under federal protection; one such guest was Robert Underwood Johnson, editor of Century Magazine. Muir and Johnson lobbied Congress for the Act that created Yosemite National Park on October 1, 1890.[27] The State of California, however, retained control of Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Muir also helped persuade local officials to virtually eliminate grazing from the Yosemite high country.

The newly created national park came under the jurisdiction of the United States Army's Troop I of the 4th Cavalry on May 19, 1891, which set up camp in Wawona with Captain Abram Epperson Wood as acting superintendent.[27] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

By the late 1890s, sheep grazing was no longer a problem, and the Army made many other improvements. The cavalry could not intervene to ease the worsening condition of Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove. The cavalry left another legacy in the park, the ranger hat. From 1899 to 1913, cavalry regiments of the Western Department, HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

including the all Black 9th Cavalry (known as the "Buffalo Soldiers") and the 1st Cavalry, stationed two troops at Yosemite and brought with them the trooper's campaign hat with its distinctive Montana Peak we recognize today as the "ranger hat." This peak had been formed into the trooper's stetson by veterans of the 1898 Spanish American War to better shed tropical rain. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Muir and his Sierra Club continued to lobby the government and influential people for the creation of a unified Yosemite National Park. In May 1903, PresidentTheodore Roosevelt camped with Muir near Glacier Point for three days. On that trip, Muir convinced Roosevelt to take control of Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove away from California and return it to the federal government. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

In 1906, Roosevelt signed a bill that did precisely that.

The National Park Service was formed in 1916, and Yosemite was transferred to that agency's jurisdiction. Tuolumne Meadows Lodge, Tioga Pass Road, and campgrounds at Tenaya and Merced lakes were also completed in 1916.[28]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Automobiles started to enter the park in ever-increasing numbers following the construction of all-weather highways to the park. The Yosemite Museumwas founded in 1926 through the efforts of Ansel Franklin Hall.[29]

In 1903, a dam in the northern portion of the park was proposed. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Located in the Hetch Hetchy Valley, its purpose was to provide water and hydroelectric power to San Francisco. Muir and the Sierra Club opposed the project, while others, includingGifford Pinchot, supported it.[30] In 1913, the U.S. Congress authorized the O'Shaughnessy Dam through passage of the Raker Act.[31] SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

In the late 1920s, in an attempt that would be impossible to make today, a bid for Yosemite for the 1932 Winter Olympics was put forward.[32] (Ultimately, Lake Placid, New York, hosted.)

More recently, preservationists persuaded Congress to designate 677,600 acres (274,200 ha), or about 89% of the park, as the Yosemite Wilderness—a highly protected wilderness area.[33] HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Park Service has reduced artificial inducements to visit the park, such as the Firefall, in which red-hot embers were pushed off a cliff near Glacier Point at night. Traffic congestion in Yosemite Valley during the summer months has become a concern. Two electric buses commenced service in September 1995. The buses are quiet and do not emit pollutants. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Eventually, all the buses in Yosemite will be electric.[34] The 1996 Yosemite Valley Landslide killed a hiker and the January 1997 Merced River flood damaged many roads and several campgrounds.

Yosemite National Park is located in the central Sierra Nevada of California. Three wilderness areas are adjacent to Yosemite: the Ansel Adams Wilderness to the southeast, the Hoover Wilderness to the northeast, and the Emigrant Wilderness to the north.Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 1,189 sq mi (3,080 km2) park is roughly the size of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and contains thousands of lakes andponds, 1,600 miles (2,600 km) of streams, 800 miles (1,300 km) of hiking trails, and 350 miles (560 km) of roads.[35] Two federally designated Wild and Scenic Rivers, the Merced and the Tuolumne, HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

begin within Yosemite's borders and flow westward through the Sierra foothills, into the Central Valley of California. Annual park visitation exceeds 3.5 million, with most visitor use concentrated in the seven-square-mile (18 km2) area of Yosemite Valley. HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Almost all of the landforms in the Yosemite area are cut from the granitic rock of  the Sierra Nevada Batholith (a batholith is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock that formed deep below the surface).[36] About 5% of the park's landforms (mostly in its eastern margin near Mount Dana) are metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks.[37] Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These rocks are called roof pendants because they were once the roof of the underlying granitic rock.[38]

Erosion acting upon different types of uplift-created joint and fracture systems is responsible for creating the valleys, canyons, domes, and other features we see today. These joints and fracture systems do not move, and are therefore notfaults.[39]IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Spacing between joints is controlled by the amount of silica in the granite and granodiorite rocks; more silica tends to create a more resistant rock, resulting in larger spaces between joints and fractures.[40]

Pillars and columns, such as Washington Column and Lost Arrow, are created by cross joints. Erosion acting on master joints is responsible for creating valleys and later canyons.[40] HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The single most erosive force over the last few million years has been large alpine glaciers, which have turned the previously V-shaped river-cut valleys into U-shaped glacial-cut canyons (such as Yosemite Valley and Hetch Hetchy Valley). Exfoliation (caused by the tendency of crystals inplutonic rocks to expand at the surface) acting on granitic rock with widely spaced joints is responsible for creating domes such as Half Dome and North Domeand inset arches like Royal Arches.SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Yosemite Valley represents only one percent of the park area, but this is where most visitors arrive and stay. The Tunnel View is the first view of the Valley for many visitors and is extensively photographed. El Capitan, a prominent granite cliff that looms over Yosemite Valley, is one of the most popular rock climbing destinations in the world because of its diverse range of climbing routes in addition to its year-round accessibility. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Granite domes such as Sentinel Dome and Half Dome rise 3,000 and 4,800 feet (910 and 1,460 m), respectively, above the valley floor.

The high country of Yosemite contains beautiful areas such as Tuolumne Meadows, Dana Meadows, the Clark Range, the Cathedral Range, and the Kuna Crest. The Sierra crest and the Pacific Crest HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Trail run through Yosemite, with peaks of red metamorphic rock, such as Mount Dana and Mount Gibbs, and granite peaks, such as Mount Conness. Mount Lyell is the highest point in the park, standing at 13,120 ft. The Lyell Glacier is the largest glacier in Yosemite National Park and is one of the few remaining in the Sierra Nevada today. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The park has three groves of ancient Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) trees; the Mariposa Grove (200 trees), the Tuolumne Grove (25 trees), and theMerced Grove (20 trees).[42] This species grows larger in volume than any other and is one of the tallest and longest-lived.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Tuolumne and Merced River systems originate along the crest of the Sierra Nevada in the park and have carved river canyons 3,000 to 4,000 feet (910 to 1,220 m) deep. The Tuolumne River drains the entire northern portion of the park, an area of approximately 680 square miles (1,800 km2). The Merced River begins in the park's southern peaks, SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

primarily the Cathedral and Clark Ranges, and drains an area of approximately 511 square miles (1,320 km2).

Hydrologic processes, including glaciation, flooding, and fluvial geomorphic response, have been fundamental in creating landforms in the park.[44] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The park also contains approximately 3,200 lakes (greater than 100 m²), two reservoirs, and 1,700 miles (2,700 km) of streams, all of which help form these two large watersheds.[45] Wetlands in Yosemite occur in valley bottoms throughout the park, and are often hydrologically linked to nearby lakes and rivers through seasonal flooding and groundwater movement. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Meadow habitats, distributed at elevations from 3,000 to 11,000 feet (910 to 3,350 m) in the park, are generally wetlands, as are the riparian habitats found on the banks of Yosemite's numerous streams and rivers.

Yosemite is famous for its high concentration of waterfalls in a small area. Numerous sheer drops, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

glacial steps and hanging valleys in the park provide many places forwaterfalls to exist, especially during April, May, and June (the snowmelt season). Located in Yosemite Valley, the Yosemite Falls is the highest in North America at 2,425-foot (739 m). Also in Yosemite Valley is the much lower volume Ribbon Falls, which has the highest single vertical drop, 1,612 feet (491 m).[HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Perhaps the most prominent of the Yosemite Valley waterfalls isBridalveil Fall, which is the waterfall seen from the Tunnel View viewpoint at the east end of the Wawona Tunnel. Wapama Falls in Hetch Hetchy Valley is another notable waterfall. Hundreds of ephemeral waterfalls also exist in the park. SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

All glaciers in the park are relatively small glaciers that occupy areas that are in almost permanent shade, such as north- and northeast-facing cirques. Lyell Glacier is the largest glacier in Yosemite (the Palisades Glaciers are the largest in the Sierra Nevada) and covers 160 acres (65 ha).[47] None of the Yosemite glaciers are a remnant of the much, HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

much larger Ice Age alpine glaciers responsible for sculpting the Yosemite landscape. Instead, they were formed during one of the neoglacial episodes that have occurred since the thawing of the Ice Age (such as the Little Ice Age).[42] Climate change has reduced the number and size of glaciers around the world. Many Yosemite glaciers, APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including Merced Glacier, which was discovered by John Muir in 1871 and bolstered his glacial origins theory of the Yosemite area, have disappeared and most of the others have lost up to 75% of their surface area.

Yosemite has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), meaning most precipitation falls during the mild winter, HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and the other seasons are nearly dry (less than 3% of precipitation falls during the long, hot summers).[48] Because of orographic lift, precipitation increases with elevation up to 8,000 feet (2,400 m) where it slowly decreases to the crest. Precipitation amounts vary from 36 inches (910 mm) at 4,000 feet (1,200 m) elevation to 50 inches (1,300 mm) at 8,600 feet (2,600 m). HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Snow does not typically persist on the ground until November in the high country. It accumulates all winter and into March or early April.[49]

Mean daily temperatures range from 25 °F (−4 °C) to 53 °F (12 °C) at Tuolumne Meadows at 8,600 feet (2,600 m). At the Wawona Entrance (elevation 5,130 feet or 1,560 metres), mean daily temperature ranges from 36 to 67 °F (2 to 19 °C). HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the lower elevations below 5,000 feet (1,500 m), temperatures are hotter; the mean daily high temperature at Yosemite Valley (elevation 3,966 feet or 1,209 metres) varies from 46 to 90 °F (8 to 32 °C). At elevations above 8,000 feet (2,400 m), the hot, dry summer temperatures are moderated by frequent summer thunderstorms, along with snow that can persist into July.Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The combination of dryvegetation, low relative humidity, and thunderstorms results in frequent lightning-caused fires as well.[49]

At the park headquarters, with an elevation of 3,966 feet (1,209 m), January averages 38.2 °F (3.4 °C), while July averages 73.0 °F (22.8 °C), though in summer the nights are much cooler than the hot days.[50] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There are an average of 39.5 days with highs of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher and an average of 97.9 nights with freezing temperatures.[50] Freezing temperatures have been recorded in every month of the year. The record high temperature was 115 °F (46 °C) on July 20, 1915, while the record low temperature was −6 °F (−21 °C) on January 2, 1924 and on January 21, 1937.[ HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Average annual precipitation is nearly 37 inches (940 mm), falling on 65 days. The wettest year was 1983 with 68.94 inches (1,751 mm) and the dryest year was 1976 with 14.84 inches (377 mm).[51] The most precipitation in one month was 29.61 inches (752 mm) in December 1955 and the most in one day was 6.92 inches (176 mm) on December 23, 1955.[51] HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Average annual snowfall is 65.6 inches (1.67 m). The snowiest year was 1967 with 154.9 inches (3.93 m). The most snow in one month was 140.8 inches (3.58 m) in January 1993.

The area of the park was astride a passive continental margin during the Precambrian and early Paleozoic.[52] Sediment was derived from continental sources and was deposited in shallow water. These rocks have since been metamorphosed. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Heat generated from the Farallon Plate subducting below the North American Plate led to the creation of an island arc of volcanoes on the west coast of proto-North America between the late Devonian and Permian periods.[52] Later volcanism in the Jurassic intruded and covered these rocks in what may have been magmatic activity associated with the early stages of the creation of the Sierra Nevada Batholith.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

95% of these rocks were eventually removed by uplifted-accelerated erosion.

The first phase of regional plutonism started 210 million years ago in the late Triassic and continued throughout the Jurassic to about 150 million years before present (BP).[36] Around the same time, the Nevadan orogeny built the Nevadan mountain range (also called the Ancestral Sierra Nevada) to a height of 15,000 feet (4,600 m). HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This was directly part of the creation of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, and the resulting rocks were mostly granitic in composition and emplaced about 6 miles (9.7 km) below the surface.[53] The second major pluton emplacement phase lasted from about 120 million to 80 million years ago during theCretaceous.[36] This was part of the Sevier orogeny. ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Starting 20 million years ago (in the Cenozoic) and lasting until 5 million years ago, a now-extinct extension of Cascade Range volcanoes erupted, bringing large amounts of igneous material in the area. These igneous deposits blanketed the region north of the Yosemite region. Volcanic activity persisted past 5 million years BP east of the current park borders in the Mono Lake and Long Valley areas.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Starting 10 million years ago, vertical movement along the Sierra fault started to uplift the Sierra Nevada. Subsequent tilting of the Sierra block and the resulting accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada increased the gradient of western-flowing streams.[54] The streams consequently ran faster and thus cut their valleys more quickly.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Additional uplift occurred when major faults developed to the east, especially the creation of Owens Valley from Basin and Range-associated extensional forces. Uplift of the Sierra accelerated again about two million years ago during the Pleistocene.

The uplifting and increased erosion exposed granitic rocks in the area to surface pressures,  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

resulting in exfoliation(responsible for the rounded shape of the many domes in the park) and mass wasting following the numerous fracture joint planes (cracks; especially vertical ones) in the now solidified plutons.[41] Pleistocene glaciers further accelerated this process and the larger ones transported the resulting talus and till from valley floors.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Numerous vertical joint planes controlled where and how fast erosion took place. Most of these long, linear and very deep cracks trend northeast or northwest and form parallel, often regularly spaced sets. They were created by uplift-associated pressure release and by the unloading of overlying rock via erosion. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A series of glaciations further modified the region starting about 2 to 3 million years ago and ending sometime around 10,000BP. At least four major glaciations have occurred in the Sierra Nevada, locally called the Sherwin (also called the pre-Tahoe), Tahoe, Tenaya, and Tioga.[54] The Sherwin glaciers were the largest, filling Yosemite and other valleys, while later stages produced much smaller glaciers. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A Sherwin-age glacier was almost surely responsible for the major excavation and shaping of Yosemite Valley and other canyons in the area.Glacial systems reached depths of up to 4,000 feet (1,200 m) and left their marks in the Yosemite area. The longest glacier in the Yosemite area ran down the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne River for 60 miles (97 km), passing well beyond Hetch Hetchy Valley.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Merced Glacier flowed out of Yosemite Valley and into theMerced River Gorge. Lee Vining Glacier carved Lee Vining Canyon and emptied into Lake Russel (the much-enlarged ice age version of Mono Lake). Only the highest peaks, such as Mount Dana and Mount Conness, were not covered by glaciers. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Retreating glaciers often left recessional moraines that impounded lakes such as the 5.5 miles (9 km) long Lake Yosemite (a shallow lake that periodically covered much of the floor of Yosemite Valley).

With its scrubby sun-baked chaparral, stately groves of pine, fir, and sequoia, and expanses of alpine woodlands and meadows,HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Yosemite National Park preserves a Sierra Nevada landscape as it prevailed before Euro-American settlement.[56] In contrast to surrounding lands, which have been significantly altered by logging, the park still contains some 225,510 acres (91,260 ha) of old-growth forest.[57] Taken together, the park's varied habitats support over 250 species of vertebrates, which include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Along much of Yosemite's western boundary, habitats are dominated by mixed coniferous forests of Ponderosa Pine, Sugar Pine, Incense-cedar, White Fir, Douglas Fir, and a few stands of Giant Sequoia, interspersed by areas of Black Oak and Canyon Live Oak. A relatively high diversity of wildlife species is supported by these habitats, HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

because of relatively mild, lower-elevation climate and the mixture of habitat types and plant species. Wildlife species typically found in these habitats include American black bear,Bobcat, Cougar, Gray fox, Mule deer, Mountain kingsnake, Gilbert's skink, White-headed Woodpecker, Brown Creeper, Spotted Owl, and a wide variety of bat species. In the case of bats, large snags are important as roost sites.[58]  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Going higher in elevation, the coniferous forests become purer stands of Red Fir, Western White Pine, Jeffrey Pine, Lodgepole Pine, and the occasional Foxtail pine. Fewer wildlife species tend to be found in these habitats, because of their higher elevation and lower complexity. Species likely to be found include Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel, Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Chickaree, Fisher,Steller's Jay, Hermit Thrush, and Northern Goshawk. Reptiles are not common, but include Rubber Boa, western fence lizard, and Northern Alligator Lizard.

As the landscape rises, trees become smaller and more sparse, with stands broken by areas of exposed granite. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These includeLodgepole Pine, Whitebark Pine, and Mountain Hemlock that, at highest elevations, give way to vast expanses of granite as treeline is reached. The climate in these habitats is harsh and the growing season is short, but species such as Pika,Yellow-bellied Marmot, White-tailed Jackrabbit, Clark's Nutcracker, and Black Rosy Finch are adapted to these conditions. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Also, the treeless alpine habitats are the areas favored by Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep. This species, however, is now found in the Yosemite area only around Tioga Pass, where a small, reintroduced population exists.[58]

At a variety of elevations, meadows provide important, productive habitat for wildlife. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Animals come to feed on the greengrasses and use the flowing and standing water found in many meadows. Predators, in turn, are attracted to these areas. The interface between meadow and forest is also favored by many animal species because of the proximity of open areas for foraging and cover for protection. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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