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Stallone later commented that he believed Lundgren had the athletic ability and talent to fight in the professional heavyweight division of boxing.[3]

Additionally, Stallone claimed that Lundgren nearly forced Carl Weathers to quit in the middle of filming the Apollo versus Drago exhibition fight. HP Pavilion DV6-1020EI Battery

In one take for the Creed-Drago fight scene, Lundgren tossed Weathers into the corner of the boxing ring. Weathers shouted profanities at Lundgren while leaving the ring and announcing that he was quitting the movie and calling his agent. Only after Stallone forced the two actors to reconcile did the movie continue. HP Pavilion DV6-1020EJ Battery

This event caused a four day work stoppage while Weathers was talked back into the part and Lundgren had to be forced into toning down his aggressiveness.

Sportscaster Stu Nahan makes his fourth appearance in the series as commentator for the Apollo/Drago fight. HP Pavilion DV6-1020EK Battery

Warner Wolf replaces Bill Baldwin, who died following filming for Rocky III, as co-commentator. For the fight between Rocky and Drago, commentators Barry Tompkins and Al Bandiero portray themselves as USA Network broadcasters.

Apollo Creed's wife Mary Anne (Sylvia Meals) made her third and final appearance in the series, HP Pavilion DV6-1020EL Battery

the first being Rocky II, although the character was mainly featured in "Rocky II". Stallone's then-wife, Brigitte Nielsen, appeared as Drago's wife, Ludmilla.

The Soviet premier in the sky box during the Rocky-Drago match strongly resembles contemporary Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. HP Pavilion DV6-1020EQ Battery

Actor David Lloyd Austin later played Gorbachev in The Naked Gun and played Russian characters in other films.The soundtrack for the movie included "Living in America" by James Brown; the film's music was composed by Vince DiCola (who also composed the soundtrack forThe Transformers: The Movie that same year), HP Pavilion DV6-1020ET Battery

and also included songs by John Cafferty ("Hearts on Fire", featuring Vince DiCola), Survivor, Kenny Loggins, andRobert Tepper. Go West wrote "One Way Street" for the movie by request of Sylvester Stallone. Europe's hit "The Final Countdown", written earlier in the decade by lead singer Joey Tempest, HP Pavilion DV6-1022EL Battery

is often incorrectly stated as being featured in the film - no doubt due to its similarity to DiCola's "Training Montage." However, Europe's track was not released as a single until late 1986.

DiCola replaced Bill Conti as the film's composer. Conti, who was too busy with the first two Karate Kid films at the time, HP Pavilion DV6-1023EF Battery

would return for Rocky V and Rocky BalboaRocky IV is the only film in the series not to feature original music by Conti. However, it does features arrangements of themes composed by Conti from the previous film in the series such as "The Final Bell".

Conti's famous piece of music from the Rocky series, "Gonna Fly Now", HP Pavilion DV6-1023EM Battery

does not appear at all in Rocky IV (the first time in the series this happened), though a few bars of it are incorporated into DiCola's training montage instrumental.

According to singer Peter Cetera, he originally wrote his best-selling solo single "Glory of Love" as the end title for this film, but was passed over by United Artists, and instead used as the theme for The Karate Kid Part IIHP Pavilion DV6-1025EF Battery

The film has generated scholarly analysis and speculation.

Paulie's Robot, an item that through the years has enjoyed a cult following of its own, was created by the International Robotics Inc. in New York City. The robot's voice was the company's CEO Robert Doornick. HP Pavilion DV6-1025EI Battery

The robot is identified by robotic engineers as "SICO" and is/was a member of the Screen Actors Guild and toured with James Brown in the 1980s.[7] Rocky IV has been interpreted as a commentary on the power struggle between technology and humans, illustrated by both Paulie's Robot and the technology utilized by Drago. HP Pavilion DV6-1025EZ Battery

The infamous robot has also been characterized as a "pleasure-bot" to service the needs of Paulie was also performing the duty of watching Balboa's son while he and Adrian are in Moscow.[9]The film is recognized as being ahead of its time in its demonstration of groundbreaking high-tech sporting equipment, HP Pavilion DV6-1027EF Battery

some of which was experimental and twenty years from public use.[10][11]

Rocky IV has been noted as a prime example of propaganda through film, with both the stark culture contrast of Apollo's patriotic showing in Las Vegas and Drago's cold, subdued performance in the USSR and the ubiquitous yet ineffective KGB officers stationed around Balboa's cabin outside Krasnoyarsk.[12] HP Pavilion DV6-1030CA Battery

Rocky IV is one of the few sport movies that applies genuine sound effects from actual hits, bonafide training methods created by consultants and a bevy ofspecial effects that in turn creates a film that has grown in popularity.[13] One prominent film critic has noted not only the increase in popularity of the film over the years, HP Pavilion DV6-1030EC Battery

but that Stallone felt (much to his chagrin) his creative powers peaked at this chapter of the saga.[14] Stallone has also been quoted as saying the enormous financial success and fan following of Rocky IV once had him envisioning another Rocky movie devoted to Drago and his post-boxing life HP Pavilion DV6-1030ED Battery

 (although Stallone acknowledged he was in better shape, he was excommunicated from his country), with Balboa's storyline parallel. However, he noted the damage both boxers sustained in the fight made them "incapable of reason" and thus planned Rocky V as a showcase of the results, though the film failed to resolve the saga.[15] HP Pavilion DV6-1030EF Battery

Scholars have examined Rocky IV and note the film's strong, yet formulaic structure that emphasizes the power of the individual, particularly an idealistic American.[16] One author has noted the totalitarian regime Ivan Drago represents, his power demonstrated when he topples an arrogant opponent, and his subsequent defeat by the inventive, determined foe.[17] HP Pavilion DV6-1030EM Battery

At Comic-Con 2010, Sylvester Stallone and Dolph Lundgren accepted the Guinness World Record for the ‘Most Successful Sports Movie Franchise’ for Rocky.

Rocky V is a 1990 American film. The fifth film in the Rocky series, it stars Sylvester Stallone, HP Pavilion DV6-1030EO Battery

Talia Shire, Stallone's real life son Sage, and real life boxer Tommy Morrison as boxer Tommy Gunn, a talented yet raw boxer.[1] Sage played Robert Balboa, whose relationship with his famous father is explored.

After Stallone directed the second through fourth films in the series, HP Pavilion DV6-1030EQ Battery

Rocky V saw the return of director John G. Avildsen, whose direction of the first film won him an Academy Award for Best Director.

Rocky Balboa (Sylvester Stallone) and his trainer Tony "Duke" Evers (Tony Burton) are in their dressing room after theDrago fight.HP Pavilion DV6-1030US Battery

Tony praises Rocky for his victory and for honoring Apollo Creed's memory, but Rocky, seen to be in some form of severe physical discomfort, asks Tony to summon his wife Adrian (Talia Shire). His hands are shaking, and he cannot make them stop. In distress, he mistakenly calls out for "Mick", the name of his deceased former trainer, Mickey Goldmill. HP Pavilion DV6-1038CA Battery

Rocky returns home from the Soviet Union and is greeted by his son, Robert (Sage Stallone). At a press conference, a promoter named George Washington Duke (Richard Gant) tries to goad Rocky into fighting Union Cane, the new #1 contender to his championship in Tokyo, HP Pavilion DV6-1040EB Battery

but with Adrian insisting on her husband's retirement, Rocky decides, at least for the time being, not to take the fight with Cane.

Rocky, Adrian and Paulie (Burt Young) return home to find that Paulie had unknowingly signed a 'power of attorney' over to Balboa's accountant, HP Pavilion DV6-1040ED Battery

who had, in turn, squandered all of Rocky's money on bad business deals (it is also revealed the accountant had not paid Rocky's income taxes in 6 years). Now bankrupt, Rocky decides to take the fight with Cane, but having suffered significant brain damage during the Drago bout, he can no longer fight without further risking his health and officially retires. HP Pavilion DV6-1040EI Battery

Rocky is then forced to move back into his old working-class Philadelphia neighborhood, where he and his family must try to start their lives all over again. The only thing Rocky doesn't lose is Mickey's gym, which Mickey had willed to Robert. Rocky then begins training boxers at Mickey's gym, HP Pavilion DV6-1040EJ Battery

Adrian gets her old job back at the pet store across the street and Paulie goes back to the meat packing plant.

Things start to look up when Rocky meets a hungry young fighter from Oklahoma named Tommy Gunn (Tommy Morrison) and takes him under his wing. HP Pavilion DV6-1040EK Battery

Training the young fighter gives Rocky a sense of purpose, and Tommy fights his way up the ladder to become a top contender. Rocky eventually becomes so distracted with Tommy's training that he winds up neglecting Robert who becomes withdrawn and angry. He falls in with the wrong crowd at school and as a result, he begins acting out at home. HP Pavilion DV6-1040EL Battery

Meanwhile, Tommy's impressive rise through the ranks catches the eye of Duke, who uses the promise of a title shot against Cane (now the champion) to lure him away from Rocky. Duke pulls up outside the Balboa house with Tommy in tow, who has now been deceived into thinking that Rocky doesn't have his best interests in mind. HP Pavilion DV6-1040EV Battery

When Rocky tries to convince him otherwise, Tommy drives off in a huff, leaving Rocky for good.When Adrian attempts to comfort him, Rocky's frustrations finally boil over. He confesses his life had meaning again when he was able to live vicariously through Tommy's success. HP Pavilion DV6-1040EZ Battery

She reasons with him, telling him Tommy never had his heart and spirit – something he could never learn. When this realization hits him, Rocky embraces his wife and they begin to pick up the pieces. After finding Robert hanging out on a street corner, Rocky apologizes to his son and they mend their broken relationship. HP Pavilion DV6-1042EL Battery

Tommy wins the heavyweight title by knocking out Union Cane in the first round, but is booed by spectators and hounded by reporters after the fight. They insist Cane was nothing but a "paper champion", because Cane didn't win the title from Balboa. Therefore, the public would never consider Tommy the real champion unless he fights a worthy opponent. HP Pavilion DV6-1044EL Battery

With Tommy enraged by the press's reaction, Duke convinces Tommy he needs to fight Rocky man to man. Duke and Tommy show up at a local bar to goad Rocky into accepting a fight. But after Tommy hits Paulie, Rocky challenges Tommy to a street fight on the spot. Despite Duke's warnings to keep the fight in the ring, Tommy accepts. HP Pavilion DV6-1045EE Battery

As the fight goes on, Rocky is eventually beaten down by Tommy and is seemingly out for the count. He then hears the voice of his old mentor urging him to get up and get back in the fight, to go just "one more round". Rocky gets back up and, utilizing his vast street fighting knowledge, is able to knock out his former protégé. HP Pavilion DV6-1045EI Battery

Afterwards, Duke commends Rocky, trying to appeal to him. Duke threatens to sue if Rocky touches him, but after a brief hesitation, Rocky punches Duke in the gut anyway, knocking him onto the hood of a car. The crowd cheers as the bankrupt Rocky shrugs and quips "Sue me for what?" HP Pavilion DV6-1045EO Battery

The next day, Rocky and Robert take a trip to the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Rocky gives his son Rocky Marciano's cuff-link, given to him years ago as a gift from Mickey. The film ends with a shot of Rocky's statue looking out over Philadelphia.

The film contains cameos by several sportswriters and boxing analysts, HP Pavilion DV6-1045EZ Battery

most notably Al Bernstein, Stan Hochman and Al Meltzer. Sportscaster Stu Nahan makes his fifth and final appearance in the Rocky series, this time as a sports journalist.

Rocky's priest friend Father Carmine (Paul Micale) makes his second of two appearances in the Rocky series, the first being in Rocky IIHP Pavilion DV6-1046EL Battery

The character "Tommy Gunn" was played by Tommy Morrison. Morrison's nickname in boxing was "The Duke" similar to George Washington Duke, who becomes his manager in the movie. Morrison has claimed to be the grandnephew of John "The Duke" Wayne.

Michael Williams (III), who plays Union Cane, was also a real-life boxer. HP Pavilion DV6-1050EF Battery

He and Morrison were to have an actual match about a month after Rocky V was released, but had to be canceled when Williams was hurt. The match was being hyped as "The Real Cane vs. Gunn Match".George Washington Duke (Richard Gant) is the main antagonist of the film, and based on Don King. HP Pavilion DV6-1050EI Battery

Jodi Letizia, who played street kid Marie in the original Rocky (1976), was supposed to reprise her role here. Her character was shown to have ended up as Rocky predicted she would: a whore, but the scene ended up on the cutting room floor. Although she can briefly be seen during the street fight at the end, HP Pavilion DV6-1050EN Battery

the character would eventually reappear in Rocky Balboa (2006), as a bartender and confidante to the aging Rocky. Actress Geraldine Hughes took over the role.

Kevin Connolly, who gained success as Eric Murphy on HBO's Entourage, was in his first acting role as neighborhood bully Chickie. HP Pavilion DV6-1050EO Battery

Some of the fight sequences were filmed at The Blue Horizon in Philadelphia, a venue which was a mecca for boxing in the city during the 1970s.

Scenes with Mickey, played by Burgess Meredith, were trimmed in the final film when Rocky fights Tommy. HP Pavilion DV6-1050EP Battery

Mickey appeared in ghost form on top of the railway bridge, giving words of encouragement. In the final film, this was made into flashbacks. The speech Mickey gives to Rocky in the flashback sequence is based on an interview with Cus D'Amato given in 1985, shortly after Mike Tyson's first professional bout. HP Pavilion DV6-1050ET Battery

The image of Gunn's first professional fight, the pullback from the mural of Jesus over the boxing ring, mirrors the opening shot of the first Rocky movie. Adrian goes back to working at the pet shop she first worked at in the original Rocky.The golden glove necklace featured so prominently in this film was first seen in Rocky II (worn by Apollo Creed), then again throughout Rocky III and IVHP Pavilion DV6-1050US Battery

As a promotional gimmick, replicas of the necklace were distributed to moviegoers at the Hollywood premiere of Rocky V at Grauman's Chinese Theatre.

The famous red, white and blue boxing trunks first worn by Apollo Creed in his fight with Rocky in the first film make their fifth and final appearance in this film. HP Pavilion DV6-1053CL Battery

Rocky's leather coat introduced in Rocky IV makes its second and final appearance in the franchise at the start of the movie.

The Ring Magazine belt in Rocky's basement and the identical belt Morrison wins in the ring have changed slightly from the previous movies; HP Pavilion DV6-1055EE Battery

they are missing the four side panels showing famous champions George Foreman, James J. Corbett, James J. Braddock, and Floyd Patterson.

According to Stallone, pro wrestling legend Terry Funk helped choreograph much of the street fight between Rocky and Tommy Gunn. HP Pavilion DV6-1056EL Battery

In the original script, Rocky is killed during the final fight with Tommy, dying in Adrian's arms in the street.[4] Through most of the filming and production, this was to be the outcome; it wasn't until the film was nearing completion that Stallone decided against Rocky's death and went with the current ending. HP Pavilion DV6-1058EL Battery

According to him, the director, and the studio had second thoughts. Eventually, Stallone rewrote the ending, saying that he decided to change it because Rocky was supposed to be about perseverance and redemption, and having him die in a street brawl would be against the roots of the series. HP Pavilion DV6-1060EL Battery

In the ensuing years following the film's release, Stallone acknowledged that the injury Rocky suffers subsequently forcing him to retire, referenced in the film as a potentially lethal form of 'Brain Damage', was inaccurate.[5] Stallone stated that having discussed the story with many boxing medical professionals, HP Pavilion DV6-1060EO Battery

the injury Rocky suffered was a milder form of brain damage, similar to that of a long term concussion that many boxers suffer from and by modern day standards are still able to gain licenses to box and would not have prevented Rocky from gaining a license to box nor killed him.[6] HP Pavilion DV6-1060ES Battery

Tony Burton briefly reprises his role as Duke at the beginning of the film. However, during his scenes, Rocky refers to him as "Tony". In the credits, Burton is credited as playing "Tony," as opposed to "Duke" (perhaps to avoid confusion with the George Washington Duke character) Rocky V is the second time in the series to do so, HP Pavilion DV6-1060EV Battery

with the first being Rocky II as Apollo asked "What are you afraid of, Tony?" Rocky Balboa names Burton's character, "Duke Evers". Most fans take this to imply that his name is Tony 'Duke' Evers.

Anticipated to be one of the big hits of the 1990 holiday season, Rocky V finished second in its opening weekend to Home Alone and never recovered. HP Pavilion DV6-1062EL Battery

The film earned $14 million on its opening weekend and $40 million in total US box-office sales, about one-third of its predecessor's take. Rocky V however made almost twice as much overseas and thereby a total of $119.9 million worldwide.

In addition to its disappointing numbers at the box office, Rotten Tomatoes reports that Rocky V has a 27% "rotten" rating on its site. HP Pavilion DV6-1066EL Battery

The film departed from the standard Rocky formula on display in the previous four films, which made it extremely unpopular with the audiences that had been drawn to the previous sequels. Stallone himself has gone on record in agreeing that he wasn't satisfied with the finished product, HP Pavilion DV6-1068EL Battery

saying "I wanted to finish the series on a high and emotional note, and Rocky V didn't do that." He also faced critique over the decision to bring John G.Avilsden back to direct the film having done the first, as opposed to directing the film himself as he had done with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th installments. HP Pavilion DV6-1070EO Battery

Stallone claimed that he wanted to work an easier schedule than what he had done previously, and therefore had less input on the film's production as well as post-production. Criticism was also drawn from the film's ending, claiming following Stallone's last minute decision not to kill Rocky, the film's build-up and narrative was lost. HP Pavilion DV6-1080EL Battery

On July 8, 2010, in an interview with The Sun, Stallone was interviewed about the Rocky films. When he came to Rocky V, Stallone replied he made it out of greed, and reiterated that this was part of his motivation in making Rocky Balboa, a 6th installment to the series.[8] HP Pavilion DV6-1080EQ Battery

Nonetheless, Stallone was still praised for his performance and the film received some positive feedback from some fans, with the Los Angeles Times regarding it as the best of the Rocky sequels.

Rocky Balboa (also known as Rocky VI) is the sixth installment in the Rocky franchise, directed by and starringSylvester Stallone. HP Pavilion DV6-1080ES Battery

The film, which was also written by Stallone who plays underdog boxer Rocky Balboa, is the sixth film in the Rocky series that began with the Academy Award-winning Rocky thirty years earlier in 1976. The film portrays Balboa in retirement, a widower living in Philadelphia, and the owner and operator of a local Italian restaurant called "Adrian's", named after his late wife.HP Pavilion DV6-1090EO Battery

Rocky Balboa was produced as another sequel to the Academy Award-winning Rocky. According to Stallone, he was "negligent" in the production of Rocky V leaving him and many of the fans disappointed with the presumed end of the series. Stallone also mentioned that the storyline of Rocky Balboa parallels his own struggles and triumphs in recent times.[3] HP Pavilion DV6-1090ES Battery

In addition to Stallone, the film stars Burt Young as Paulie, Rocky's brother-in-law, and real-life boxer Antonio Tarveras Mason "The Line" Dixon, the current World Heavyweight Champion in the film. Boxing promoter Lou DiBella plays himself in the movie and acts as Dixon's promoter in the film. HP Pavilion DV6-1099EF Battery

Milo Ventimiglia plays Rocky's son Robert, now an adult. It also features the return of two minor characters from the original movie into larger roles in this film: Marie, the young woman that Rocky attempts to steer away from trouble; and Spider Rico, the first opponent that Rocky is shown fighting in the original film. HP Pavilion DV6-1100EO Battery

The film also holds many references to people and objects from previous instalments in the series, especially the first.

The film was released on December 20, 2006, by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Columbia Pictures and Revolution Studios. HP Pavilion DV6-1100ES Battery

It exceeded box office expectations and critical reaction was positive. The film was released in several formats for its home media release, and DVD sales have exceeded $34 million.

Rocky Balboa (Sylvester Stallone), in his late fifties and retired from boxing for sixteen years, lives a quiet life as a widower; HP Pavilion DV6-1100SO Battery

his wife Adrian Pennino Balboa (Talia Shire) had died from cancer in 2002. He runs a small but very successful Italian restaurant named after her, where he regales his patrons with stories of his past. He also battles personal demons involving his grief over Adrian's death, the changing times, HP Pavilion DV6-1100SS Battery

and his eroding relationship with his son Robert (Milo Ventimiglia), a struggling corporate employee. Paul "Paulie" (Burt Young), Rocky's brother-in-law and longtime friend, continues to support him whenever he can.

Late one night, Rocky reunites with a much older "Little" Marie (Geraldine Hughes), HP Pavilion DV6-1100SV Battery

a once mischievous neighborhood girl (whom he first met in Rocky) now working as a bartender at the Lucky Seven, a tavern Rocky once frequented in the mid-70s, and a single parent of a teenaged son born out of wedlock: Stephenson, nicknamed "Steps" (James Francis Kelly III). HP Pavilion DV6-1101AU Battery

Rocky's friendship with the two quickly blossoms over the following weeks, and Steps takes to him as a father figure. A budding romantic relationship between Rocky and Marie was implied, but never fully explored by Rocky out of his reverence for Adrian. Meanwhile on the professional boxing circuit, the newly crowned world heavyweight champion, HP Pavilion DV6-1101AX Battery

Mason "The Line" Dixon (Antonio Tarver), reigns undefeated, but he is ridiculed for having never gone up against a real contender. This frustrates the champ, causing tension with the public and his promoters, and encouraging him to return to his roots - the small gym he first trained in, HP Pavilion DV6-1101SO Battery

as well as his old trainer who sagely tells him that he will inevitably earn back his respect (and more importantly, his self-respect) through fighting a true opponent.

ESPN broadcasts a computer simulation of a fight between Rocky (in his prime) and Mason, likened to a modern-day version of The Super Fight that ends in a controversial KO victory for Balboa, HP Pavilion DV6-1101TU Battery

further riling the champ. In contrast, the simulation inspires Rocky to take up boxing again — an intention that goes public when he successfully renews his license. Dixon's promoters pitch the idea of holding a charity exhibition bout at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino inLas Vegas to bolster Dixon's falling popularity. HP Pavilion DV6-1101TX Battery

With some hesitation, both men agree to the match, creating a media buzz that stabs at Rocky's has-been status and Dixon's credibility. Robert later makes an effort to discourage Rocky from fighting, blaming his own personal failings on his father's celebrity shadow, but Rocky rebukes him with some advice; HP Pavilion DV6-1102AU Battery

that to succeed in life, "it ain't about how hard you hit; it's about how hard you can get hit, and keep moving forward", and that blaming others won't help him. The next day, father and son meet over Adrian's grave and reconcile; Robert has quit his job to be at Rocky's side. HP Pavilion DV6-1102AX Battery

Rocky sets straight to training with Apollo Creed's old trainer Duke (Tony Burton) who quickly surmises that the slow and arthritic Rocky can only compete by building his strength and punching power as much as possible. The fight ends up becoming an HBO Pay-per-View event with Michael Buffer as the ring announcer. HP Pavilion DV6-1102TU Battery

The bout itself is a back and forth affair, with Dixon easily dominating the first round only to injure his left hand in the second on Rocky's hip, after which Rocky makes a dramatic comeback: he manages to knock Dixon down once, then continues to surprise the audience with his prowess and chin against the much younger and faster fighter. HP Pavilion DV6-1102TX Battery

Dixon sends Rocky to one knee in the final round, but the elder fighter pulls himself to his feet for one last assault. The two opponents then continue to punish each other severely throughout the remainder of the final round, ending with both men still standing. Rocky thanks an appreciative Dixon for the fight, and leaves the ring to the adulation of the crowd as the result is announced: Rocky losing by split decision. HP Pavilion DV6-1103AU Battery

In the closing shot, Rocky returns home and visits Adrian's grave again to thank her for helping him, saying: "Yo Adrian, we did it". Adrian's tombstone is still at Laurel Hill Cemetery in the East Falls section of Philadelphia, just to the southeast of the main entrance. HP Pavilion DV6-1103AX Battery

Talia Shire as Adrian Balboa, was in the first few drafts of the script of what was originally called Rocky VI: Puncher's Chance. At this point, the story revolved around Rocky running a local gym for youths. However, Stallone felt that the film lacked the necessary emotional impact it needed. HP Pavilion DV6-1103EE Battery

So, he and Shire came to an agreement that her character would be best left out of the film, as this would create an emotional chasm for Rocky from the very first moment of the film. To ensure that fans didn't think she'd been written out of the film because of a dispute with Stallone or because she refused to be in it, HP Pavilion DV6-1103EI Battery

Shire made a public statement supporting Stallone's decision to kill off the character. Her character does not appear in the film except during flashbacks, using footage from earlier Rocky films, but she is still fully credited for the role in the final credits.

Filming began in December 2005 in Las Vegas, Nevada. HP Pavilion DV6-1103EO Battery

In 2006, it moved to Los Angeles, California and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[4] The production budget on the 38-day shoot was projected to be $24 million. The film was scheduled for release during the President's Day holiday in 2007, but was moved up to right before Christmas 2006. HP Pavilion DV6-1103TU Battery

In late March 2006, the first movie teaser was released on the Internet. The full-length trailer accompanied the theatrical release of Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest on July 7 in select theaters.

The film gives nods to previous installments via the casting. The most obvious is the return of Stallone, HP Pavilion DV6-1103TX Battery

Young and Burton: the only actors to portray the same characters in all six installments. Tarver's appearance in the film marks the sixth time an active professional boxer has appeared in the series. Previously,Joe Frazier (Rocky), Pedro Lovell (Rocky), Roberto Durán (Rocky II), Tommy Morrison (Rocky V), HP Pavilion DV6-1104AU Battery

and Michael Williams (Rocky V) have appeared in the series. Stallone initially wanted Roy Jones, Jr. to portray Dixon, but after Jones did not return Stallone's phone calls, he tapped Antonio Tarver to fill the role.[6]Tarver accidentally knocked out Stallone during the filming of one of the segments of the fight.[7] HP Pavilion DV6-1104AX Battery

The character of Marie appeared in the original Rocky; she was portrayed by Jodi Letizia.[8] For the final film, Marie is portrayed by Geraldine Hughes. (Although Letizia did reprise the role for Rocky V, the sole scene in which she appeared was deleted. In it, Marie was homeless on the streets of Philadelphia.) HP Pavilion DV6-1104TU Battery

Another recognizable character who appeared in the previous five films, sportscaster Stu Nahan, provided the commentary for the computer-generated fight between Dixon and Balboa. Nahan was part of the ringside commentary team during all the bouts in the first three films and the Apollo Creed/Ivan Drago fight in Rocky IVHP Pavilion DV6-1104TX Battery

He was diagnosed with lymphoma during the Rocky Balboa filming, though, and died on December 26, 2007.[9] Finally, Pedro Lovell, who portrayed Spider Rico in the original film, returns to the role in Rocky Balboa as a guest and later employee at Rocky's restaurant.

A number of sports personalities portray themselves. HP Pavilion DV6-1105AU Battery

Jim Lampley, Larry Merchant, and Max Kellerman comprise the ringside broadcast team (all three are commentators for HBO Boxing). Sportswriters such as Bert Sugar, Bernard Fernandez and Steve Springer also appear. As for actual boxers, Mike Tyson (who had retired by the film's release) makes a cameo appearance, HP Pavilion DV6-1105AX Battery

taunting Dixon as the fighter enters the ring. Lou DiBella, a real-life boxing promoter, portrays himself as Dixon's promoter. Several of ESPN's personalities also portray themselves. SportsCenter anchor (and Friday Night Fights host) Brian Kenny is the host of the fictional Then and Now series, while Cold Pizza and 1st and 10 hosts Jay Crawford, HP Pavilion DV6-1105EE Battery

Dana Jacobson, Skip Bayless, and Woody Paige also appear. Ring announcer Michael Buffer appeared as himself, as did referee Joe Cortez.

Regarding his decision not to have Shire reprise her role as Adrian, Stallone told USA Today that, "in the original script, she was alive. HP Pavilion DV6-1105EI Battery

But it just didn't have the same dramatic punch. I thought, 'What if she's gone?' That would cut Rocky's heart out and drop him down to ground zero".[10] Shire herself said that, in her view, "The film has great regard for the process of mourning. Sly utilizes mourning to empower Rocky, and Adrian is made very mythical." HP Pavilion DV6-1105EO Battery

A plot element from the fifth film is not addressed in Rocky Balboa's plot. In the previous film, Rocky was diagnosed with brain damage and advised never to fight again. Stallone clarified this apparent inconsistency in an interview, remarking:

"When Rocky was diagnosed with brain damage, it must be noted that many athletes have a form of brain damage including football players, HP Pavilion DV6-1105ES Battery

soccer players, and other individuals in contact sports such as rugby, etc. Rocky never went for a second opinion and yielded to his wife's wishes to stop. So with the advent of new research techniques into brain damage, Rocky was found to be normal among fighters, and he was suffering the results of a severe concussion. By today's standards Rocky Balboa would be given a clean bill of health for fighters." HP Pavilion DV6-1105SL Battery

While in the original theatrical screenplay, at the end of the match, Rocky loses by split decision, in the alternative ending, the last (and the third) jury decision goes in favor of Rocky, making him the winner. The speaker starts "and still..." for which Dixon enthuses while he continues "still... the Philadelphia champion Rocky Balboa...". HP Pavilion DV6-1105TU Battery

Dixon's crew boos while the crowd roars. Further part is same as in the original.

While the dramatic portions of the movie are shot in an obviously cinematic style, the bout between Balboa and Dixon is shot in a number of different ways. The lead-in to the bout, as well as the first two rounds, are shot in a style similar to a major pay-per-view broadcast. HP Pavilion DV6-1105TX Battery

Clips from fights in previous Rocky movies are used during the introductory teaser to introduce Balboa, while stock footage from actual Tarver fights, as well as footage from Dixon's previous fight (shown at the beginning of the film) are used as clips for Dixon's part of the teaser. HP Pavilion DV6-1106AU Battery

The fight itself was shot in high definition to further enhance the TV-style look of the fight.[11]

After the first two rounds, the bout is shot in a more "cinematic" style, reminiscent of the way the fights in the other Rocky films were shot. However, unlike the other films in the series, HP Pavilion DV6-1106AX Battery

the fight is less choreographed and more improvised than previous installments and is closer to an actual boxing match than a choreographed fight.[12] This is a departure from the previous films, where every punch, feint, and step was carefully scripted and practiced.[13]

According to the behind-the-scenes documentary portions of the film's DVD, HP Pavilion DV6-1106TX Battery

there were slight continuity problems during the filming of the fight. This was said to have been due to the fact that real punches were thrown by both Stallone and Tarver, resulting in some swelling and nosebleeds earlier than scripted. The DVD release features an alternate ending in which Rocky wins the fight (also by a split decision). HP Pavilion DV6-1107AU Battery

Composed by Academy Award winner Bill Conti, the Rocky Balboa film score is both an updated composition of Rocky music and a tribute to the music that has been featured in previous Rocky films. Conti, who has acted as composer on every Rocky film except Rocky IVHP Pavilion DV6-1107AX Battery

 (which was instead helmed by Vince DiCola when Conti had other commitments at the time), chose to compose the score almost entirely from musical themes used in the previous movies. Only one original theme was written specifically for Rocky Balboa, which is the theme written to represent the character of Marie. HP Pavilion DV6-1107EL Battery

The roughly 40-minute score was recorded in the summer of 2006 at Capitol Studios in Hollywood, California. Conti chose to pre-record the string, brass and piano tracks and then have those tracks mixed with the work of a 44-piece orchestra which he conducted. HP Pavilion DV6-1107TX Battery

He also performed all of the piano work himself which is something he has done with each movie for which he has composed the score. Stallone also was involved in every part of the process and attended several of the recording sessions.[14]

In addition to the score, the film features original tracks performed by Natasha Bedingfield, HP Pavilion DV6-1108AU Battery

Three 6 Mafia, and Frank Stallone as well as classic tracks such as Frank Sinatra's "High Hopes" and The Miracles' "Ooh Baby Baby".[15] Of the original tracks, the most significant is the Diane Warren song "Still Here", performed by Bedingfield, which was reported to be the film's theme in early articles. HP Pavilion DV6-1108AX Battery

Though it is still listed in the credits, the song was dropped from the film.

Rocky Balboa represents a partnership between Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Revolution Studios, and Columbia Pictures (Columbia's corporate parent Sony holds a 20% stake in MGM). HP Pavilion DV6-1108CA Battery

Since the Rocky series was originally produced and distributed by United Artists (now MGM's subsidiary studio), the partners jointly decided that the film could and should take advantage of MGM's newly reinvigorated domestic distribution apparatus.[17] 20th Century Fox handles its theatrical and DVD distributions outside of the United States and Canada, HP Pavilion DV6-1108TX Battery

while Sony Pictures Home Entertainment handled its American and Canadian video distributions. In thePhilippines and Switzerland, Fox released the film through joint ventures with Warner Bros. Entertainment. In Japan, the film was promoted by Fox as Rocky: The Final. It opened across Japan on April 20, 2007. HP Pavilion DV6-1109AU Battery

The film was well received by critics and fans alike. The film garners a "Certified Fresh" rating of 76% on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on a sample of 174 reviews, with an average score of 6.5/10.[19] At the website Metacritic, which utilizes a normalized rating system, the film earned a favorable rating of 63/100 based on 33 reviews by mainstream critics.[20]HP Pavilion DV6-1109AX Battery

On the television show Ebert & Roeper, both Richard Roeper and guest reviewer Aisha Tyler gave the film a "thumbs up" rating.[21] Among other positive reviews were those from Variety,[22] David Edelstien of New York magazine,[23] Ethan Alter of Premiere Magazine,[24] Victoria Alexander of Filmsinreview.com,[25] HP Pavilion DV6-1109TX Battery

Jeanne Aufmuth of Palo Alto Weekly,[26] Brett Buckalew of Filmstew.com,[27] The Hollywood Reporter,[28] and Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly.[29]

Some criticism came from Christy Lemire, who described the film as self-parody.[30] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times also criticized the film's premise as implausible and derivative, HP Pavilion DV6-1110EC Battery

and the plot development as cursory, while Colm Andrew of the Manx Independent said the film "captures the look and feel of the first Rocky but becomes too much of a sentimental homage" and overall "there is little point in joining Stallone on this ultimately dull nostalgia trip".[31] HP Pavilion DV6-1110EG Battery

Stallone was quoted as having told reporters that he would rather "do something that he enjoyed badly, than feel bad about not doing something he enjoyed."

The film was greeted warmly by the majority of the boxing community, HP Pavilion DV6-1110EH Battery

with many experts believing the Rocky character is still a key symbol of the sport and that the boxing scenes were the most realistic of any film. On the DVD, Stallone attributes this to the fact that he used realistic sound effects HP Pavilion DV6-1110EJ Battery

(the previous installments had become notorious for their unrealistic and loud sounds of punches landing) and the fact that both Stallone and Tarver threw real punches at each other.HP Pavilion DV6-1110EL Battery,HP Pavilion DV6-1110EO Battery,HP Pavilion DV6-1110EQ Battery

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Rocky is a 1976 American sports drama film directed by John G. Avildsen and both written by and starring Sylvester Stallone. It tells the rags to riches American Dream story of Rocky Balboa, an uneducated but kind-hearted debt collector for a loan shark in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

Rocky starts out as a club fighter who later gets a shot at the world heavyweight championship. It also stars Talia Shire as Adrian, Burt Young as Adrian's brother Paulie, Burgess Meredith as Rocky's trainer Mickey Goldmill, and Carl Weathers as the champion, Apollo Creed.

The film, made on a budget of less than $1 million and shot in 28 days, was a sleeper hitSony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

it made over $225 million[1] the highest grossing film of 1976, and won three Oscars, including Best Picture. The film received many positive reviews and turned Stallone into a major star.[4] It spawned five sequels: Rocky II, III, IV, V and Rocky Balboa.Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

On November 25, 1975, Rocky Balboa (Sylvester Stallone) is introduced as a small-time boxer and collector for Anthony Gazzo (Joe Spinell), a loan shark, living in the Kensington neighborhood of Philadelphia. The World Heavyweight Championship bout is scheduled for New Year's Day 1976, the year of the United States Bicentennial. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

When the opponent of undefeated heavyweight champion Apollo Creed (Carl Weathers) is injured, Creed comes up with the idea of giving a local underdog a shot at the title and, because he likes Rocky's nickname, "The Italian Stallion", he selects the relatively unknown fighter. He puts it in lights by proclaiming "Apollo Creed meets 'The Italian Stallion'". Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

The fight promoter says the decision is "very American", but Creed adds it is also "very smart".

To prepare for the fight Rocky trains with a 1920s-era ex-bantamweight fighter and gym owner, Mickey Goldmill (Burgess Meredith). Mickey always considered Rocky's potential to be better than his effort, and the two conflict over Mickey's motives for training Rocky for the big fight. Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery

Rocky's good friend Paulie (Burt Young), a meat-packing-plant worker, lets him practice his punches on the carcasses hanging in the freezers. During training Rocky dates Paulie's shy, quiet sister, Adrian (Talia Shire), who works as a clerk in a local pet store.Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery

The night before the fight Rocky confides to Adrian that he does not expect to beat Creed, and that all he wants is to go the distance with Creed (which no fighter had ever done), meaning that lasting 15 rounds (the typical scheduled length of championship fights at the time) against him would mean he "... wasn't just another bum from the neighborhood".Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery

On New Year's Day the climactic boxing match begins. Apollo Creed does not initially take the fight seriously, and Rocky unexpectedly knocks him down in the first round, embarrassing Creed, and the match turns intense. The fight indeed lasts 15 rounds, with both fighters suffering many injuries; Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery

Rocky suffers his first broken nose, and Creed sustains brutal blows to his ribs. As the match progresses, Creed's superior skill is countered by Rocky's apparently unlimited ability to absorb punishment, and his dogged refusal to be knocked out. As the final round bell sounds, with both fighters locked in each other's arms, Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

an exhausted Creed vows "Ain't gonna be no re-match," to which an equally spent Rocky replies "Don't want one." After the fight Rocky calls out for Adrian, who runs down to the ring. As the ring announcer declares the fight for Apollo Creed by virtue of a split decision (8:7, 7:8, 9:6), Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

Adrian and Rocky embrace while they profess their love to one another, not caring about the result of the fight.

Boxer Joe Frazier has a cameo appearance in the film. The character of Apollo Creed was influenced by outspoken boxer Muhammad Ali who fought Frazier three times. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

During the Academy Awards ceremony, Ali and Stallone staged a brief comic confrontation to show Ali was not offended by the film. Some of the plot's most memorable moments—Rocky's carcass-punching scenes and Rocky running up the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, as part of his training regime—are taken from the real-life exploits of Joe Frazier, for which he received no credit.[6] Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

Due to the film's low budget, members of Stallone's family played minor roles. His father rings the bell to signal the start and end of a round, his brother Frank plays a street corner singer, and his first wife, Sasha, was stills photographer.[7] Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

Other cameos include Los Angeles television sportscasterStu Nahan playing himself, alongside radio and TV broadcaster Bill Baldwin and Lloyd Kaufman, founder of the independent film company Troma, appearing as a drunk. Longtime Detroit Channel 7 Action News anchor Diana Lewis has a small scene as a TV news reporter. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

 Tony Burton appeared as Apollo Creed's trainer, Tony "Duke" Evers, a role he would reprise in the entire Rocky series, though he is not given an official name until Rocky II. Though uncredited, Michael Dorn made his acting debut as Creed's bodyguard.

United Artists liked Stallone's script, and viewed it as a possible vehicle for a well-established star such as Robert Redford, Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

 Ryan O'Neal, Burt Reynolds, orJames Caan. Stallone appealed to the producers to be given a chance to star in the film. He later said that he would never have forgiven himself if the film became a success with someone else in the lead. He also knew that producers Irwin Winkler and Robert Chartoff's contract with the studio enabled them to "greenlight" a project if the budget was kept low enough. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

Certain elements of the story were altered during filming. The original script had a darker tone: Mickey was portrayed as racist and the script ended with Rocky throwing the fight after realizing he did not want to be part of the professional boxing world after all.[9] Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

Although Chartoff and Winkler were enthusiastic about the script and the idea of Stallone playing the lead character, they were hesitant about having an unknown headline the film. The producers also had trouble casting other major characters in the story, with Adrian and Apollo Creed cast unusually late by production standards (both were ultimately cast on the same day). Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

Real-life boxer Ken Norton was initially sought for the role of Apollo Creed, but he pulled out and the role was ultimately given to Carl Weathers. Norton had had three fights with Muhammad Ali, upon whom Creed was loosely based. According to The Rocky ScrapbookSony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

Carrie Snodgress was originally chosen to play Adrian, but a money dispute forced the producers to look elsewhere. Susan Sarandon auditioned for the role but was deemed too pretty for the character. After Talia Shire's ensuing audition, Chartoff and Winkler, along with Avildsen, insisted that she play the part. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

Inventor/operator Garrett Brown's new Steadicam was used to accomplish smooth photography while running alongside Rocky during the film's Philadelphia street jogging/training sequences and the run up the Art Museum's flight of stairs. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

It was also used for some of the shots in the fight scenes and can be openly seen at the ringside during some wide shots of the final fight. (Rocky is often erroneously cited as the first film to use the Steadicam, although it was actually the third, after Bound for Glory and Marathon Man.[10]Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

While filming Rocky, both Stallone and Weathers suffered injuries during the shooting of the final fight; Stallone suffered bruised ribs and Weathers suffered a damaged nose, the opposite injuries of what their characters had.Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

The poster seen above the ring before Rocky fights Apollo Creed shows Rocky wearing red shorts with a white stripe when he actually wears white shorts with a red stripe. When Rocky points this out he is told that "it doesn't really matter does it?". According to director Avildsen's DVD commentary, Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

this was an actual mistake made by the props department that they could not afford to rectify, so Stallone wrote the brief scene to ensure the audience didn't see it as a goof. Avildsen said that the same situation arose with Rocky's robe. When it came back from the costume department, it was far too baggy for Stallone. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

And because the robe arrived on the day of filming the scene and there was no chance of replacing or altering it, instead of ignoring this and risk the audience laughing at it, Stallone wrote the dialogue where Rocky himself points out the robe is too big.

The first date between Rocky and Adrian, in which Rocky bribes a janitor to allow them to skate after closing hours in a deserted ice skating rink, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

was shot that way only because of budgetary pressures. This scene was originally scheduled to be shot in a skating rink during regular business hours. However, the producers ultimately decided that they couldn't afford to hire the hundreds of extras that would have been necessary for that scene. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

Rocky has the 7th highest return of investment of any film ever made.[11] With a production budget of less than 1 million dollars,[2][3] it eventually earned worldwide box-office receipts exceeding $225 million.[1]

Stallone was inspired to create the film by Rocky Marciano and the famous fight between Muhammad Ali and Chuck Wepner at Richfield Coliseum in Richfield, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

Ohioon March 24, 1975. Wepner had been TKO'd in the 15th round by Ali, but nobody ever expected him to last as long as he did. Wepner recalls in a January 2000 interview, "Sly (Stallone) called me about two weeks after the Ali fight and told me he was gonna make the movie." Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

The famous scene of Rocky running up the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art has become a cultural icon. In 1982, a statue of Rocky, commissioned by Stallone for Rocky III, was placed at the top of the Rocky Steps. City Commerce Director Dick Doran claimed that Stallone and Rocky had done more for the city's image than "anyone sinceBen Franklin." Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

Differing opinions of the statue and its placement led to a relocation to the sidewalk outside the Philadelphia Spectrum Arena, although the statue was temporarily returned to the top of the steps in 1990 for Rocky V, and again in 2006 for the 30th anniversary of the original Rocky (although this time it was placed at the bottom of the steps). Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Later that year, it was permanently moved to a spot next to the steps.[12]

The scene is frequently parodied in the media. In The Simpsons episode "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can", Lisa Simpson runs up a flight of stairs wearing a tracksuit similar to the one worn by Rocky. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

 In You Don't Mess with the Zohan, Zohan's nemesis, Phantom, goes through a parodied training sequence finishing with him running up a desert dune and raising his hands in victory. In the fourth season's finale of The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, as the credits roll at the end of the episode, Will is seen running up the same steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art; Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

however, as he celebrates after finishing his climb, he passes out in exhaustion, and while he lies unconscious on the ground, a pickpocket steals his wallet and his wool hat. Also in The Nutty Professor, there is a scene where Eddie Murphy is running up the stairs and throwing punches at the top. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

In 2006, E! named the "Rocky Steps" scene #13 in its 101 Most Awesome Moments in Entertainment.[14]

During the 1996 Summer Olympics torch relay, Philadelphia native Dawn Staley was chosen to run up the museum steps. Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

In 2004, Presidential candidate John Kerry ended his pre-convention campaign at the foot of the steps before going to Boston to accept his party's nomination for President.

Rocky received mixed reviews at the time of its release. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, however, Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

gave Rocky4 out of 4 stars and said that Stallone reminded him of "the young Marlon Brando.[16] " Box Office Magazineclaimed that audiences would be "touting Sylvester 'Sly' Stallone as a new star".[17][18] The film, however, did not escape criticism. Vincent Canby, of the New York TimesSony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

called it "pure '30s make believe" and dismissed both Stallone's acting and Avildsen's directing, calling the latter "none too decisive".[19] Frank Rich liked the film, calling it "almost 100 per cent schmaltz," but favoring it over the cynicism that was prevalent in movies at that time, although he referred to the plot as "gimmicky" and the script "heavy-handed". Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

He attributed all of the film's weaknesses to Avildsen, describing him as responsible for some of the "most tawdry movies of recent years", and who "has an instinct for making serious emotions look tawdry" and said of Rocky, "He'll go for a cheap touch whenever he can" and "tries to falsify material that was suspect from the beginning. ... Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery

Even by the standards of fairy tales, it strains logic." Rich also criticised the film's "stupid song with couplets like 'feeling strong now/won't be long now.'"[20]

Several reviews, including Richard Eder's (as well as Canby's negative review), compared the work to that of Frank Capra. Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery

Andrew Sarris found the Capra comparisons disingenuous: "Capra's movies projected more despair deep down than a movie like Rocky could envisage, and most previous ring movies have been much more cynical about the fight scene," and, commenting on Rocky's work as a loan shark, says that the film "teeters on the edge of sentimentalizing gangsters. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

" Sarris also found Meredith "oddly cast in the kind of part the late James Gleason used to pick his teeth." Sarris also took issue with Avildsen's direction, which he described as having been done with "an insidious smirk" with "condescension toward everything and everybody," specifically finding fault, for example, Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

with Avildsen's multiple shots of a chintzy lamp in Rocky's apartment. Sarris also found Stallone's acting style "a bit mystifying" and his character "all rough" as opposed to "a diamond in the rough" like Terry Malloy.[21]

More than 30 years later, the film enjoys a reputation as a classic and still receives positive reviews; Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery

Rocky holds a 91% "Certified Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes.[22] Another positive online review came from the BBC Films website, with both reviewer Almar Haflidason and BBC online users giving it 5/5 stars.[23]In Steven J. Schneider's 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, Schneider says the film is "often overlooked as schmaltz."[24] Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery

In 2006, Rocky was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[25][26]

In June 2008, AFI revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery

 Rocky was acknowledged as the second-best film in the sports genre, after Raging Bull.[27][28]

In 2008, Rocky was chosen by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.

Rocky's soundtrack was composed by Bill Conti. Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery

The main theme song, "Gonna Fly Now", made it to number one on theBillboard magazine's Hot 100 list for one week (from July 2 to July 8, 1977) and the American Film Institute placed it 58th on its AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs.[37][38] The complete soundtrack was re-released in 1988 by EMI on CD andcassette.[39] Conti was also the composer for RockysIIIIIV, and Rocky Balboa.[40] Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

The version of "Gonna Fly Now" used in the film is different from the versions released on later CDs and records. The vocals and guitars are much more emphasized than the versions released. The "movie version" has yet to be released.

Although the Conti version of "Gonna Fly Now" is the most recognizable arrangement, Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

a cover of the song performed by legendary trumpeter Maynard Ferguson on hisConquistador album prior to the release of the motion picture soundtrack actually outsold the soundtrack itself.

Rocky II is a 1979 American film that is the sequel to Rocky, a motion picture in which an unknown boxer had been given a chance to go the distance with the World Heavyweight Champion. Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery

 Sylvester Stallone, Carl Weathers, Tony Burton, Burgess Meredith, Burt Young and Talia Shire reprised their original roles. Although this film was released in 1979, the ring announcers say that it takes place ten months after Rocky's first fight with Apollo Creed, putting the Rocky II fight with Apollo in November 1976. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery

The Ring Magazine heavyweight championship belt makes its first appearance in the series.

The film opens with the ending of its predecessor, Rocky, with Apollo Creed (Carl Weathers) successfully defending his world heavyweight title courtesy of a split decision. Both fighters are taken to the same hospital due to the extent of their injuries from the match, Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery

where Apollo challenges Rocky (Sylvester Stallone) to a rematch in front of press. Rocky declines and declares his retirement, his decision supported by his girlfriend, Adrian (Talia Shire), and doctors, who reveal he will require surgery for a detached retina which could lead to permanent blindness. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery

After Rocky is discharged from the hospital, he begins to enjoy the benefits of his life's changes resulting from the match: Rocky's new fame attracts him an agent who sees Rocky as a potential endorsement and sponsorship goldmine and his sudden wealth encourages him to propose to Adrian. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

She happily accepts and they marry in a small ceremony. Soon after, Rocky and Adrian happily learn that Adrian is pregnant with their first child.

Meanwhile, fueled by hate mail he has started to receive, Apollo becomes obsessed with the idea that a rematch is the only way to prove that Rocky's performance was simply a fluke. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

Determined to rectify his boxing career's only blemish, Apollo ignores all pleas by his friends and family to move on to other potential opponents and demands his team do whatever necessary to goad Rocky out of retirement and into a rematch.

Rocky at first seems unaffected by Apollo's smear campaign, but his inexperience with money causes him to run into financial problems. Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery

After largely unsuccessful attempts to find employment, Rocky visits Mickey Goldmill (Burgess Meredith), his trainer, at his gym to talk about the possibility of returning to the ring. At first, Mickey refuses, worried about Rocky's health, but changes his mind after Apollo publicly insults Rocky on television. Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery

News of the rematch quickly spreads with Adrian hearing about it through the news. She confronts Rocky about it and reminds him of the risk to his eyesight. Rocky argues he knows nothing else so this is the only way he can provide. Adrian, angry at Rocky for breaking his promise, refuses to support him. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery

Rocky and Mickey begin training, but it soon becomes apparent Rocky is lacking motivation. Adrian's brother, Paulie (Burt Young), confronts his sister about not supporting her husband, but she faints during the confrontation and is rushed to the hospital where she goes into labor. Despite being premature, the baby is healthy but Adrian falls into a coma. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery

Rocky blames himself for what has happened and refuses to leave Adrian's bedside until she wakes up, and will not go to see his new baby until they can see it together. When Adrian comes out of her coma, she finds Rocky by her bedside and the couple are shown their new baby, a boy, which they name after Rocky. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery

Adrian gives her blessing to the rematch which enables Rocky to refocus on his training and he quickly gets into shape for the fight.

The night of the fight arrives and Apollo has made a public goal of beating Rocky in no more than two rounds to prove the first fight going the full 15 rounds was a fluke. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery

Rocky is not able to mount much of an offensive effort through the first two rounds but manages to survive them disproving Apollo's theory that the first fight's result was a fluke. As before, the fight once again reaches the 15th round, by which point Apollo has built a lead on points that Rocky cannot possibly beat. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery

However, Apollo's obsession with knocking Rocky out (against the advice of his corner men) leads him to trade blows with Rocky despite his lead. Rocky lands a devastating blow on Apollo that knocks the champ down, but an exhausted Rocky loses his balance and falls to the canvas as well. Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery

Rocky manages to stand up before the referee counts to ten, while Apollo is counted out. Rocky thus wins the fight by knockout and becomes the heavyweight champion of the world. In his post-fight announcement Rocky, who has won back the respect of his fans and his wife Adrian, humbly thanks Apollo. Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery

Rocky III is a 1982 American film that is the third installment in the Rocky film series. It is written and directed by and stars Sylvester Stallone as the title character, with Carl Weathers as former boxing rival Apollo Creed, Burgess Meredith as Rocky's trainer Mickey, and Talia Shire as Rocky's wife, Adrian. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Rocky's opponent is James "Clubber" Lang, played by Mr. T. Lang is a younger and more aggressive boxer than Rocky. He is brash, arrogant, outspoken, and immensely strong. The film also features professional wrestler Terry "Hulk Hogan" Bollea as the supporting character "Thunderlips".Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery

The film's theme song "Eye of the Tiger", was written by the group Survivor at the request of Stallone, and became a smash hit single, topping the US Billboard music charts and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Song.

In the three and a half years since winning the world heavyweight title, Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery

Rocky has had a string of successful title defenses (10) and has seen his fame, wealth and celebrity increase. Now 1981, while unveiling a statue of himself at thesteps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Rocky is publicly challenged by James "Clubber" Lang (Mr. T), a ferocious new boxer rapidly climbing the ranks. HP 448007-001 battery

Lang accuses Rocky of intentionally accepting challenges from lesser opponents and after sexually insulting Rocky's wife Adrian (Talia Shire), his challenge is accepted.

Rocky's trainer Mickey (Burgess Meredith) initially wants no part of it and admits to the champion that Lang was right, HP Pavilion DV7 battery

he had handpicked Rocky's opponents to protect him and to ensure Rocky remained successful and healthy. He also informs Rocky that Lang is young and hungry and that Rocky has no chance of beating him, as he has not retained his edge as a fighter. Rocky manages to convince Mickey to train him regardless, HP DV6-1120SA battery

but his Las Vegas-style training camp is filled with distractions and Rocky clearly does not take the challenge seriously.

Lang and Rocky meet at Philadelphia's Spectrum. During a melee before the fight, Mickey is shoved out of the way by Lang and suffers a heart attack. HP DV6-1210SA battery

A now distraught Rocky wants to call the fight off, but Mickey angrily urges him on while he stays in the dressing room. By the time of the fight, Rocky is both enraged and severely distracted by his mentor's condition. The fight begins with Rocky pounding Lang with several huge blows, going for an early knockout, Compaq CQ50 battery

but the stronger and better prepared Lang is unfazed and quickly takes charge, dominating Rocky and knocking him out with ahaymaker in the second round. Beaten, Rocky makes his way back to the dressing room and to the dying Mickey. Kneeling at his side, Rocky speaks to his friend, telling him that the fight ended in the second round by a knockout, which Mickey misinterprets as a win for Rocky, shortly before dying. HP Pavilion DV8 battery

Stopping by Mickey's closed gym, Rocky is confronted by his former nemesis Apollo Creed (Carl Weathers) who offers to help train him for a rematch with Lang in exchange for "a big favor." At first, Rocky is too demoralized to put forth his best efforts which frustrates Apollo, but pulls himself together after Adrian helps him come to terms with Mickey's death. Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

The rematch is held at Madison Square Garden in New York City. At the start of the fight, Rocky sprints from his corner, fighting with a level of skill and spirit that no one including Lang expected. As a result, Rocky completely dominates the first round, demonstrating his new-found speed. HP DV9700 battery

After the bell, Lang is in a fit of rage over what has just happened and has to be restrained by his trainers. In the second round, Lang gains the upper hand, and Rocky adopts an entirely different strategy that bewilders Apollo by intentionally taking a beating from Lang, Compaq CQ35-100 battery

and even gets knocked down at one point but manages to get up before he is counted out whilst taunting Lang for being unable to knock him out.

In the third round, Lang (who is used to winning fights swiftly with knockouts in the early rounds) Sony VGP-BPS11 battery

becomes increasingly angry and quickly exhausts his energy trying to finish Rocky off with repeated knockout blows, most of which miss the newly-agile Rocky entirely. Rocky taunts the champion in order to psych him out and the aggressive Lang is infuriated. He attacks even harder walking right into Rocky's trap. HP Pavilion DV6 Battery

The tide turns and Rocky is able to overpower the winded and outboxed Lang, landing blow after blow and dodging attempted punches before knocking him out and re-gaining the heavyweight championship of the world.

Afterwards, Rocky fulfills Apollo's vague "big favor": a private rematch with him. HP Pavilion DV6-1000ET Battery

The film concludes with both of the fighters throwing their first punch simultaneously, but this time, they fight in the spirit of friendly competition rather than as fierce rivals.

A bronze statue of Rocky, called "ROCKY", was commissioned by Sylvester Stallone and created by A. Thomas Schomberg in 1981.HP Pavilion DV6-1001TX Battery

Three statues were created, and one was placed on the top of the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art for the filming of Rocky III. After filming was complete, a furious debate erupted in Philadelphia between the Art Museum and the City's Art Commission over the meaning of "art". HP Pavilion DV6-1001XX Battery

Claiming the statue was not "art" but rather a "movie prop" the city considered various alternate locations and settled upon the front of the Spectrum in South Philadelphia. It was later returned to the Art Museum where it was used in the filming of Rocky V, as well as Mannequin and PhiladelphiaHP Pavilion DV6-1002TX Battery

Afterward, it was again moved to the front of the Spectrum. The statue was returned to the museum's steps on September 8, 2006.

In Rocky Balboa, when Rocky told Paulie that he is going to make a comeback, Paulie suggested "you mad because they took down your statue?" which Rocky denied. HP Pavilion DV6-1003TX Battery

The third of the three statues was listed on eBay in early 2005, with a starting bid of $5 million. It was being auctioned to raise funds for the International Institute for Sport and Olympic History. It failed to sell and was listed again for $3 million; after receiving only one bid, which turned out to be fraudulent, it has been re-listed several times for $1 million. HP Pavilion DV6-1004TX Battery

The statues weigh 800 pounds each and stand about 8'6" tall.

Rocky IV is a 1985 American film written by, directed by, and starring Sylvester Stallone. It is the fourth and financially most successful entry in the Rocky franchise. In the film, Rocky Balboa plans to retire from boxing after regaining his title from HP Pavilion DV6-1005EA Battery

Clubber Lang in Rocky III while an amateur boxer from the Soviet Union, Ivan Drago (played byDolph Lundgren), makes a bid to enter professional boxing.

After winning his title back in Rocky III, Rocky Balboa,(Sylvester Stallone) returns home with his family to go into retirement and live a private life. HP Pavilion DV6-1005EZ Battery

However, in 1985, Ivan Drago (Dolph Lundgren), a highly intimidating 6-foot 5 inch, 261-pound Soviet boxer, arrives in America with his wife Ludmilla (Brigitte Nielsen), and a team of trainers from the USSR and Cuba. His manager, Nicolai Koloff (Michael Pataki), takes every opportunity to promote Drago's athleticism as a hallmark of Soviet superiority. HP Pavilion DV6-1005TX Battery

After seeing on T.V., and motivated by patriotism and an innate desire to prove himself, Apollo Creed (Carl Weathers) challenges Drago to an exhibition bout. Rocky (Sylvester Stallone) has reservations, but agrees to train Apollo, as he considers it a return favor for Apollo training him in Rocky III. HP Pavilion DV6-1006TX Battery

Apollo enters the ring in an over-the-top patriotic entrance with James Brown performing Living in America. The fight turns from positive to serious, as Drago beats Apollo mercilessly. Apollo is in dire straits and taking the worst beating of his life as the first round ends. HP Pavilion DV6-1007TX Battery

Rocky and Apollo's trainer Duke (Tony Burton) plead with him to give up, but Apollo refuses to do so, and tells Rocky not to stop the fight no matter what happens. Drago's vicious assault continues in the second round, and despite Duke begging Rocky to throw in the towel, Rocky chooses to honor Apollo's wish. HP Pavilion DV6-1008TX Battery

This proves to have fatal consequences, as Apollo tragically dies in the ring from his injuries. In the immediate aftermath, Drago displays no sense of remorse, commenting to the assembled media: "If he dies ... he dies."

Incensed by Drago's cold indifference and feeling a deep sense of guilt, HP Pavilion DV6-1009EL Battery

Rocky decides to avenge Apollo's death by agreeing to relinquish his title and fight Drago in Russia on Christmas Day in an unsanctioned 15-round bout. Rocky then leaves for Russia without Adrian, who doesnt agree with Rocky's decision, saying that he won't have any moral victories, and that Apollo is dead, win or lose. HP Pavilion DV6-1009TX Battery

Rocky leaves, setting up his training base in Krasnoyarsk with only Duke and brother-in-law Paulie (Burt Young) to accompany him. Duke encourages Rocky,saying that he will win, and honor Apollo's memory, who Duke said was like his son, and a piece of him died along with Apollo. HP Pavilion DV6-1010EA Battery

To prepare for the fight, Drago uses very high-tech equipment with (implied) use of anabolic steroids and a team of trainers and doctors monitoring his every fiber. Rocky, on the other hand, throws heavy logs, chops down trees, pulls an overloaded snow sleigh, jogs in heavy snow and treacherous icy conditions and climbs a mountain. HP Pavilion DV6-1010ED Battery

Despite having doubted his chances for victory, Adrian (Talia Shire) shows up unexpectedly to give Rocky her support, lending an added focus to Rocky's training.

At the fight, Drago is introduced with an elaborate, patriotic ceremony that puts the Russian crowd squarely on Drago's side, the same as the fight in Vegas, where Apollo was cheered and Drago was booed. HP Pavilion DV6-1010ET Battery

Rocky is booed by all in attendance. In contrast to his fight with Apollo, Drago immediately goes on the offensive and Rocky takes a fierce pounding. Rocky comes back toward the end of the second round and silences the Russian crowd with a strong right hook that cuts Drago just below his left eye. HP Pavilion DV6-1010TX Battery

With Drago visibly shaken, Rocky presses his advantage and begins to pummel the Russian through the end of the round. While Duke and Paulie cheer Rocky for his heroism, they remind him that Drago is not a machine, but a man. Ironically, Drago comments that Rocky "is not human",HP Pavilion DV6-1011TX Battery

with his own corner reprimanding him for being "weak" in comparison to the "small American."

The two boxers continue their battle over the next dozen rounds, with Rocky holding his ground despite Drago's powerful punches. HP Pavilion DV6-1012TX Battery

His resilience rallies the previously hostile Soviet crowd to his side, which unsettles Drago to the point that he shoves away Koloff for berating his performance. Rocky finally knocks out Drago in the final round to the shock of the Soviet Politburo watching the fight. A bloody and battered Rocky then gives a victory speech, HP Pavilion DV6-1013EA Battery

comparing the initial and mutual disdain between himself and the crowd to the general disdain between Russians and Americans, and acknowledging how they've come to respect and admire each other during the course of the fight. He finishes by saying that everybody can "change." HP Pavilion DV6-1013TX Battery

The Soviet General Secretary stands and passionately applauds Rocky and his aides follow suit. Rocky ends his speech by wishing his son a Merry Christmas, and throws his arms into the air in victory as the crowd applauds.

Wyoming doubled for the frozen expanse of the Soviet Union. HP Pavilion DV6-1016EZ Battery

The small farm where Rocky lived and trained was in Jackson Hole, and the Grand Teton National Parkwas used for filming many of the outdoor sequences in Russia. The PNE Agrodome at Hastings Park in Vancouver, British Columbia, served as the location of Rocky's Soviet bout. HP Pavilion DV6-1018EL Battery

Sylvester Stallone has stated that the original punching scenes filmed between him and Dolph Lundgren in the first portion of the fight are completely authentic. Stallone wanted to capture a realistic scene and Lundgren agreed that they would engage in legitimate sparring. HP Pavilion DV6-1020EC Battery

One particularly forceful Lundgren punch to Stallone's chest slammed his heart against his breastbone, causing the heart to swell and his breathing to become laboured. Stallone, suffering from laboured breathing and a blood pressure over 200, was flown from the set in Canada to St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica and was forced into intensive care for eight days. HP Pavilion DV6-1020ED Battery


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Aleister Crowley Aleister Crowley (/ˈkroʊli/ kroh-lee; 12 October 1875–1 December 1947), born Edward Alexander Crowley, and also known as both Frater Perdurabo and The Great Beast 666,  HP Pavilion G6-1139TX Laptop Keyboard was an English occultist, mystic, ceremonial magician, poet andmountaineer, who was responsible for founding the religious philosophy of Thelema. In his role as the founder of the Thelemite philosophy, he came to see himself as the prophet who was entrusted with informing humanity that it was entering the new Aeon of Horus in the early 20th century. SONY 147996611 Laptop Keyboard Born into a wealthy upper-class family, as a young man he became an influential member of the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn after befriending the order's leader, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers. Subsequently believing that he was being contacted by his Holy Guardian Angel, an entity known as Aiwass, while staying in Egypt in 1904, HP COMPAQ NX6120 Laptop Keyboard he "received" a text known as The Book of the Law from what he believed was a divine source, and around which he would come to develop his new philosophy of Thelema. He would go on to found his own occult society, the A∴A∴ and eventually rose to become a leader ofOrdo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.), SONY KFRMBA221A Laptop Keyboard before founding a religious commune in Cefalù known as the Abbey of Thelema, which he led from 1920 through till 1923. After abandoning the Abbey amid widespread opposition, Crowley returned to Britain, where he continued to promote Thelema until his death. ACER 90.4CD07.S1D Laptop Keyboard Crowley was also pansexual, a recreational drug experimenter and a social critic. In many of these roles he "was in revolt against the moral and religious values of his time", espousing a form of libertinism based upon the rule of "Do What Thou Wilt".[1] Because of this, he gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, and was denounced in the popular press of the day as "the wickedest man in the world".HP Pavilion DV6-1210sa Laptop Keyboard Crowley has remained an influential figure and is widely thought of as the most influential occultist of all time. In 2002, a BBC poll described him as being the seventy-third greatest Briton of all time.[2] SONY VAIO PCG-FR215H Laptop Keyboard References to him can be found in the works of numerous writers, musicians and filmmakers,[3] and he has also been cited as a key influence on many later esoteric groups and individuals, including Kenneth Grant, Kenneth Anger, Jack Parsons, Gerald Gardner, Robert Anton Wilson and, to some degree, Austin Osman Spare.[4]Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

Childhood: 1875–1894

Aleister was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, England, between 11 pm and midnight on 12 October 1875.[5][6] His father, Edward Crowley (c.1830–1887), was trained as an engineer but, according to Aleister, never worked as one, instead owning shares in a lucrative family brewing business, Crowley's Alton Ales, DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard which allowed him to retire before Aleister was born.[7][8] His mother, Emily Bertha Bishop (1848–1917), drew roots from a Devonshire-Somerset family and was despised by her son, whom she described as "the Beast", a name that he revelled in.[9][10] The couple had been married at Kensington Registry Office in London during November 1874.[11]SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Satellite M640 Laptop Keyboard The Crowley family were Christian; Aleister's father had been born a Quaker, but had converted to the Exclusive Brethren, a more conservative faction of a denomination known as the Plymouth Brethren. Upon marriage, Emily had also converted to the Exclusive Brethren. Aleister's father was particularly devout, spending his time as a travelling preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife and son after breakfast every day.[12][13] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7220 Laptop Keyboard Aged 8, Aleister was sent to H.T. Habershon's evangelical Christian boarding school in Hastings, and then to a preparatory school in Cambridge run by the Reverend Hendry d'Arcy Champney, whom Aleister considered a sadist.[14]HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard On 5 March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer. Aleister would describe this as a turning point in his life,[15][16] and he always maintained some admiration for his father, describing him as "his hero and his friend".[17] Inheriting his father's wealth, he was subsequently sent to Ebor School in Cambridge, a private Plymouth Brethren school, but was expelled for misbehaviour.[18] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Following this he attended Malvern College and then Tonbridge School, both of which he despised and soon left after only a few terms, instead beginning studies at Eastbourne College.[19][20][21] He became increasingly sceptical about Christianity, pointing out logical inconsistencies in the Bible to his religious teachers,[22][23] COMPAQ 367777-001 Laptop Keyboard and went against the Christian morality of his upbringing, for instance embracing sex both with girls whom he met and by visiting female prostitutes, including one from whom he contracted gonorrhea.[24][25]HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard In 1895 Crowley, who soon adopted the new name of Aleister over his birth name of Edward, began a three year course atTrinity College, Cambridge, where he was entered for the Moral Science Tripos studying philosophy, but with approval from his personal tutor he switched to English literature, which was not then a part of the curriculum offered.[27][28][29]HP 317443-001 Keyboard Crowley largely spent his time at university engaged in his pastimes, one of which was mountaineering; he went on holiday to the Alps to do so every year from 1894 to 1898, and various other mountaineers who knew him at this time recognised him as "a promising climber, although somewhat erratic".[30] DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard Another of his hobbies was writing poetry, which he had been doing since the age of 10, and in 1898 he privately published one hundred copies of one of his poems, Aceldama, but it was not a particular success.[31]ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard That same year he published a string of other poems, the most notable of which was White Stains, a piece of erotica that had to be printed abroad as a safety measure in case it caused trouble with the British authorities. SONY VAIO VGN-FS775P/H Laptop Keyboard  [33] A third hobby of his was the game of chess, and he joined the university's chess club, where, he later stated, he beat the president in his first year and practised two hours a day towards becoming a champion, but he eventually gave this idea up.[34]HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard It was while on a winter holiday in Sweden in December 1896 that he had his first significant mystical experience.[35][36]Several later biographers, including Lawrence Sutin and Tobias Churton, believed that this was the result of Crowley's first homosexual experience.[36][37] Following this experience, Crowley began to read up on the subject of occultism andmysticism, and by the next year he had begun reading books by alchemists and magicians.[38]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard At university, he also maintained a vigorous sex life, which was largely conducted with prostitutes and girls he picked up at local pubs and cigar shops, but eventually he took part in same-sex activities including receptive anal sex.[39] This was despite the fact that homosexual acts were illegal and punishable with imprisonment at that time. In 1897, Crowley met a man named Herbert Charles Pollitt, Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard the president of the Cambridge University Footlights Dramatic Club, and the two entered into a relationship but broke up because Pollitt did not share Crowley's increasing interest in the esoteric.[40][41] Crowley himself later stated that "I told him frankly that I had given my life to religion and that he did not fit into the scheme. I see now how imbecile I was, SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard how hideously wrong and weak it is to reject any part of one's personality."[42] In October a brief illness triggered considerations of mortality and "the futility of all human endeavour", or at least the futility of the diplomatic career that Crowley had previously considered,[43] and instead, he decided to devote his life to the occult. SONY VAIO VGN-NR10 Laptop Keyboard In 1897 he left Cambridge, not having taken any degree at all despite a "first class" showing in his spring 1897 exams and consistent "second class honours" results before that.[44] That summer, he then travelled to St Petersburg in Russia; later biographers Richard Spence and Tobias Churton suggested that Crowley had done so under the employ of the British secret service, but this remains inconclusive.[45][46]TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard

The Golden Dawn: 1898–1899

In 1898, Crowley was staying in Zermatt, Switzerland, where he met the chemist Julian L. Baker, and the two began talking about their common interest in alchemy. Upon their return to England, Baker introduced Crowley to George Cecil Jones, a member of the occult society known as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, which had been founded in 1888. HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Crowley was subsequently initiated into the Outer Order of the Golden Dawn on 18 November 1898 by the group's leader, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers (1854–1918). The ceremony itself took place at Mark Masons Hall in London, where Crowley accepted his motto and magical name of "Frater Perdurabo", a Latin term meaning "I shall endure to the end".[47][48]HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard Crowley moved from the elegant accommodation at the Hotel Cecil to his own luxury flat at 67–69 Chancery Lane. He soon invited a Golden Dawn associate, Allan Bennett (1872–1923), to live with him, and Bennett became his personal tutor, teaching him more about ceremonial magic and the ritual usage of drugs.[49] IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard In 1900, Bennett left London for Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka) to study Buddhism,[50]while in 1899 Crowley acquired Boleskine House in Foyers on the shore of Loch Ness in Scotland. He subsequently developed a love of Scottish culture, describing himself as the "Laird of Boleskine" and took to wearing traditional highland dress, even during visits back to London.[51]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard However, a schism had developed in the Golden Dawn, with MacGregor Mathers, the organisation's leader, being ousted by a group of members who were unhappy with his autocratic rule. Crowley had previously approached this group of rebels, asking to be initiated into the further orders of the Golden Dawn, but they had declined him.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Unfazed, he went directly to Mathers, who still held the post of chief and who agreed to initiate him into the Second Order.[52] Now loyal to Mathers, Crowley (with the help of his then mistress and fellow initiate Elaine Simpson) attempted to help crush the rebellion and unsuccessfully tried to seize a London temple space known as the Vault ofRosenkreutz from the rebels.[53]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Crowley had also developed personal feuds with some of the Golden Dawn's members; he disliked the poet W.B. Yeats, who had been one of the rebels, because Yeats had not been particularly favourable towards one of his own poems, Jephthat.[54] He also disliked Arthur Edward Waite, who would rouse the anger of his fellows at the Golden Dawn with his pedantry.[55] Lenovo ThinkPad T410s-2912 Laptop Keyboard Crowley voiced the view that Waite was a pretentious bore through searing critiques of Waite's writings and editorials of other authors' writings. In his periodical The Equinox, Crowley titled one diatribe, "Wisdom While You Waite", and his mock-obituary on the passing of Waite bore the title "Dead Waite".[56]HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard In 1900, Crowley travelled to Mexico via the United States on a whim, taking a local woman as his mistress, and with his good friend Oscar Eckenstein (1859–1921) proceeded to climb several mountains, including Iztaccihuatl, Popocatepetl and evenColima, the latter of which they had to abandon owing to a volcanic eruption.[57] HP G61-405SL Laptop Keyboard During this period, Eckenstein revealed mystical leanings of his own and told Crowley that he needed to improve the control of his mind, recommending the Indian practice of raja yoga in order to do so. Crowley had continued his magical experimentation on his own after leaving Mathers and the Golden Dawn, and his writings suggest that he developed the magical word Abrahadabra during this time.[58]HP G62-b20SA Laptop Keyboard Leaving Mexico, a country that he would always remain fond of, Crowley visited San Francisco, Hawaii, Japan, Hong Kong and Ceylon, where he met up with Allan Bennett and devoted himself further to yoga, from which he claimed to have achieved the spiritual state of dhyana. It was during this visit that Bennett decided to become a Buddhist monk in the Theravadatradition, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard travelling to Burma, while Crowley went on to India, studying various Hindu practices.[59] In 1902, he was joined in India by Eckenstein and several other mountaineers; Guy Knowles, H. Pfannl, V. Wesseley, and Dr Jules Jacot-Guillarmod. Together the Eckenstein-Crowley expedition attempted to climb K2. On the journey, TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard Crowley was afflicted with influenza,malaria, and snow blindness, while other expedition members were similarly struck with illness. They reached an altitude of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) before deciding to turn back.[60]HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard In 1903 Crowley wed Rose Edith Kelly, the sister of his friend, the painter Gerald Festus Kelly, in a "marriage of convenience". However, soon after their marriage, Crowley actually fell in love with her and set about to successfully prove his affections.[61] Gerald Kelly was a good friend of W. Somerset Maugham, who after briefly meeting Crowley would later use him as a model for the protagonist of his novel The Magician, published 1908.[62][63]HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard In 1904, Crowley and his new wife Rose travelled to Egypt using the pseudonym of Prince and Princess Chioa Khan, titles which Crowley claimed had been bestowed upon him by an eastern potentate.[64] According to Crowley's own account, Rose, who was pregnant, began to experience visions while in the country, regularly informing him that "they are waiting for you",Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard but not providing him with any further information as to who "they" were. It was on 18 March, after Crowley sought the aid of the Egyptian god Thoth in a magical rite, that she actually revealed who "they" were – the ancient Egyptian god Horus and his alleged messenger. She then led him to a nearby museum in Cairo where she showed him a seventh century BCE mortuary steleknown as the Stele of Ankh-ef-en-Khonsu (it later came to be revered in Thelema as the "Stele of Revealing");HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard Crowley was astounded for the exhibit's number was 666, the number of the beast in Christian belief.[65] Crowley took this all to be a sign from a divine entity and on 20 March began performing ritual invocations of the god Horus in his rented room. It was after this invocation that Rose, or as he now referred to her, Ouarda the Seeress, informed him that "the Equinox of the Gods had come".[66]ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard It was on 8 April, when the couple were still staying in Cairo, that Crowley first heard a disembodied voice talking to him, claiming that it was coming from a being known as Aiwass, the true nature of whom Crowley never understood. Crowley's disciple and later secretary Israel Regardie believed that this voice came from Crowley'ssubconscious, HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard but opinions among Thelemites differ widely.[67] Aiwass claimed to be a messenger from the god Horus, who was also referred to by him as Hoor-Paar-Kraat. Crowley wrote down everything the voice told him over the course of the next three days, and subsequently titled it Liber AL vel Legis or The Book of the Law.[68][69] SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard The god's commands explained that a new Aeon for mankind had begun, and that Crowley would serve as its prophet. As a supreme moral law, it declared "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law", and that people should learn to live in tune with their "True Will". Although this event would prove to be a cornerstone in Crowley's life, being the origin of the philosophy of Thelema, ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard at the time he was unsure what to think about the whole situation. He was "dumbfounded about what to do with The Book of the Law" and eventually decided to ignore the instructions that it commanded him to perform, which included taking the Stele of Revealing from the museum, fortifying his own island and translating the Book into all the world's languages. Instead he simply sent typescripts of the work to several occultists whom he knew, and then "put aside the book with relief".[70]SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard

Kangchenjunga and China: 1905–1906

Returning to Boleskine, Crowley came to believe, for reasons that are documented in Crowley's diaries, that his former friend Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathershad become so jealous of his progression as a ceremonial magician that he had begun using magic against him, and the relationship between the two broke down.[71]HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard On 28 July 1905, Rose gave birth to Crowley's first child, a daughter, whom he named Nuit Ma Ahathoor Hecate Sappho Jezebel Lilith, although she would commonly be referred to simply by her last name.[72] He also founded a publishing company, naming it the Society for the Propagation of Religious Truth in parody of theSociety for Promoting Christian Knowledge, HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard and through this released more of his own poetry, including The Sword of Song.[73] While his poetry often received strong reviews (either positive or negative), it never sold well, and attempting to gain more publicity, he issued a reward of £100 for whomever could write the best essay on the topic of his work. The winner of this would prove to be J.F.C. Fuller (1878–1966), a British Army officer and military historian, whose essay, The Star in the West, heralded Crowley's poetry as some of the greatest ever written.[74]ASUS Z91E Laptop Keyboard Crowley decided to climb another of the world's greatest mountains, and for this chose Kangchenjunga in theHimalayas, widely thought of as "the most treacherous mountain in the world" by climbers at the time. Assembling a team consisting of Dr Jacot-Guillarmod, a veteran of the K2 climb, as well as several other continental Europeans including Charles Adolphe Reymond, DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard Alexis Pache and Alcesti C. Rigo de Righi, the group travelled to British India to undertake the task. Throughout the expedition, there was much argument between Crowley and the others who felt that he was reckless. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard They eventually mutinied against Crowley's control, with the other climbers heading back down the mountain as nightfall approached despite Crowley's warnings that it was too dangerous. Crowley was proved right as Pache and several porters were subsequently killed in an accident.[75]HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard Returning from this expedition, he met up with Rose and Lilith in Kolkata before being forced to leave India after shooting dead a native who had tried to mug him.[76] Travelling to China, Crowley soon fell down a forty foot cliff; finding himself unscathed, he believed that he was being protected for some prophetic purpose, and underwent a religious experience that he felt bestowed on him the rank of Exempt Adept,  HP Probook 4320s Laptop Keyboard the highest grade of the Second Order of the Golden Dawn. Devoting himself fully to spiritual and magical work, he began studying theGoetia, and recited the grimoire's preliminary invocation daily in order to try to get in contact with his Holy Guardian Angel. The Crowleys spent the next few months travelling around China, but it was decided that in March 1906, they would return to Britain.[77]HP G71-442NR Laptop Keyboard Rose took Lilith with her and set off for Europe via India, while Crowley himself decided to travel back via the United States, where he hoped he would be able to get support for a second expedition to Kangchenjunga. Before departing, Crowley visited his friend Elaine Simpson in Shanghai, a fellow occultist who had been his colleague in the Golden Dawn. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7135 Laptop Keyboard She was fascinated by The Book of the Law and the prophetic message that it contained, something he had been ignoring, and together they performed a ritual to invoke Aiwass once more. The ritual proved successful, and Aiwass provided Crowley with the message that he should "Return to Egypt, with same surroundings.  SONY 91160363 Laptop Keyboard There I will give thee signs." Nonetheless, Crowley ignored the advice of Aiwass, instead heading off to America. Stopping off at the Japanese port of Kobe along the way, Crowley had a vision which he interpreted as meaning that the great spiritual beings known as theSecret Chiefs had admitted him into the Third Order of the Golden Dawn. Subsequently arriving in America, he found no support for his proposed mountaineering expedition, and so set sail to return to TOSHIBA Satellite 2805-s201 Laptop Keyboard

The A∴A∴ and the Holy Books of Thelema: 1907–1909

Upon arrival at Britain, Crowley learned that his daughter Lilith had died of typhoid in Rangoon and that his wife had begun suffering from alcoholism. Heartbroken, his health began to suffer, and he underwent a series of surgical operations. He began having a short-lived sexual affair with Vera "Lola" Stepp, an actress to whom he would devote some of his poetry, while Rose gave birth to his second daughter, Lola Zaza,[79] for whom Crowley devised a special ritual of thanksgiving.[80]SONY KFRMBA152A Laptop Keyboard Believing that he was now amongst the highest level of spiritual adepts, Crowley began to think about founding his own magical society. In this he was supported by his friend and fellow occultist George Cecil Jones. The pair began to practice rituals together at Jones' home in Coulsdon, and for the autumn equinox on 22 September 1907 developed a new ceremony based upon the Golden Dawn initiatory rite, ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard for which Crowley composed a verse liturgy entitled "Liber 671", and later dubbed "Liber Pyramidos". The pair repeated this ritual again on 9 October, when they had made some alterations to it. In Crowley's eyes, this ritual would prove to be one of the "greatest events of his career" during which he "attained the knowledge and conversation of his holy guardian angel" and "entered the trance of samadhi, union with godhead". HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard He therefore finally succeeded with the aim of his Abramelin operation – as set out in the grimoire known as The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage– which he had been working on for months.[82][83] Because of his spiritual attainment Crowley came to believe that he could finally enter into conversation with his Holy Guardian Angel, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard the entity known as Aiwass, and as a result of this, on 30 October 1907 penned "Liber VII", a text that he believed to have been dictated to him by Aiwass through automatic writing. Following The Book of the Law, which had been received in 1904, "Liber VII" would prove to be the second book in a series of Holy Books of Thelema. Over the next few days, he also received a further Holy Book, "Liber Cordis Cincti Serpente".[84]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard Soon, Crowley, Jones and J.F.C. Fuller decided to found a new magical order as a successor to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, which would be known as theA∴A∴, the Argenteum Astrum or the Silver Star.[85] Following the order's foundation, Crowley continued to write down more received Thelemic Holy Books during the last two months of the year, TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard including "Liber LXVI", "Liber Arcanorum", "Liber Porta Lucis, Sub Figura X", "Liber Tau", "Liber Trigrammaton" and "Liber DCCCXIII vel Ararita".[86] Meanwhile, effectively separated from his wife Rose by this point, Crowley entered into a romantic and sexual affair with Ada Leverson(1862–1933), HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard an author and friend of Oscar Wilde.[87] This affair was brief, and in February 1908, Crowley was reunited with his wife as she had overcome her alcoholism, and together the couple travelled to Eastbourne for a holiday. Rose however relapsed and Crowley, who disliked her when drunk, fled to Paris.[88] In 1909, when doctors stated that Rose required institutionalisation for her alcoholism, IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard Crowley finally decided that it was time to get a divorce, but because he didn't want the proceedings to reflect badly upon her, he agreed that she could divorce him for infidelity, thereby meaning that any bad appearances would instead be reflected upon him, and he remained her friend following the proceedings.[89]ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard Trying to gain more members for his A∴A∴, Crowley decided to begin publishing a biannual journal, The Equinox, which was billed as "The Review of Scientific Illuminism". Starting with a first issue in 1909, The Equinox contained pieces by Crowley, Fuller and a young poet Crowley had met in 1907 named Victor Neuburg.[90]  IBM 42T3737 Laptop Keyboard Soon other occultists had joined the order, including solicitor Richard Noel Warren, artist Austin Osman Spare, Horace Sheridan-Bickers, author George Raffalovich, Francis Henry Everard Joseph Fielding, engineer Herbert Edward Inman, Kenneth Ward and Charles Stansfeld Jones.[91]HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard

Victor Neuburg and Algeria: 1910–1911

In 1907, Crowley had been introduced to a Jewish Londoner named Victor Neuburg, a poet who was interested in the esoteric.[92] In Paris during October 1908, he again produced Samadhi by the use of ritual and this time did so without hashish. He published an account of this success in order to show that his method worked and that one could achieve great mystical results without living as a hermit. On 30 December 1908, Aleister Crowley using the pseudonym Oliver Haddo made accusations of plagiarism against Somerset Maugham, SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard author of the novel The Magician. Crowley's article appeared in Vanity Fair, edited then by Frank Harris who admired Crowley and who would later write the famous work My Life and Loves. Admittedly, Maugham did model the character of his magician Oliver Haddo after Crowley himself and Crowley stated that Maugham acquiesced privately on the question of plagiarism.[93]TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard In 1909, Crowley and Rose divorced, largely due to her alcoholism. She was subsequently admitted to an asylum suffering from alcoholic dementia. Meanwhile, Crowley soon moved on and took a woman named Leila Waddell as his lover or "Scarlet Woman".[94] In 1910, Crowley performed his series of dramatic rites, theRites of Eleusis, with A∴A∴ members Leila Waddell (Laylah) and Victor Benjamin Neuburg. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard

Ordo Templi Orientis: 1912–1913

According to Crowley, Theodor Reuss called on him in 1912 to accuse him of publishing O.T.O. secrets, which Crowley dismissed on the grounds of having never attained the grade in which these secrets were given (IXth Degree). Reuss opened up Crowley's latest book, The Book of Lies, and showed Crowley the passage. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard This sparked a long conversation which led to Crowley assuming the Xth Degree of O.T.O. and becoming Grand Master of the English-speaking section of O.T.O. called Mysteria Mystica Maxima.[95]HP G62-b50SA Laptop Keyboard Crowley would eventually introduce the practice of male homosexual sex magick into O.T.O. as one of the highest degrees of the Order for he believed it to be the most powerful formula.[96] Crowley placed the new degree above the Tenth Degree – not to be confused with any title in his own Order – and numbered it the Eleventh Degree.[97] There was a protest from some members of O.T.O. in Germany and the rest of continental Europe that occasioned a persistent rift with Crowley.[98]HP G62-a26SA Laptop Keyboard In March 1913, producer Crowley introduced Leila Waddell in The Ragged Ragtime Girls follies review at the Old Tivoli in London where it enjoyed a brief run. In July 1913, the production enjoyed a six-week run in Moscow where Crowley met a young Hungarian girl named Anny Ringler. Crowley went on to practice sado-masochistic sex with Ringler. According to Crowley, "...  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard She had passed beyond the region where pleasure had meaning for her. She could only feel through pain, and my own means of making her happy was to inflict physical cruelties as she directed. The kind of relation was altogether new to me; and it was because of this, intensified as it was by the environment of the self-torturing soul of Russia, that I became inspired to create by the next six weeks." SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard While in Moscow, Crowley would see Anny for an hour and then he would write poetry. During this summer in Moscow, Crowley would write two of his most memorable works, the Hymn to Pan and the Gnostic Mass or Ecclesiae Gnosticae Catholicae Canon Missae. The Hymn to Pan would be read at his funeral thirty four years later. Certain Thelemites regularly perform the Gnostic Mass to this day. It symbolises the act of sex as a magical or religious ritual.[99]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Upon returning to London in the autumn of 1913, Crowley published the tenth and final number of volume one of The Equinox. In December 1913 in Paris, Crowley would engage Victor Benjamin Neuburg in The Paris Working. The first ritual took place on New Year's Eve 1914. In a period of seven weeks, DELL Latitude 131L Laptop Keyboard HP Pavilion DV3550el Laptop Keyboard Crowley and Neuburg performed a total of twenty four rituals which they recorded in the 'holy' or partially holy book formally entitled Opus Lutetianum.[100] Around eight months later Neuburg had a nervous breakdown. Afterward, Crowley and Neuburg would never see each other again.[101]HP Pavilion G7-1085NR Laptop Keyboard

United States: 1914–1918

During his time in the U.S., Crowley practised the task of a Magister Templi in the A∴A∴ as he conceived it, namely interpreting every phenomenon as a particular dealing of "God" with his soul.[102] He began to see various women he met as officers in his ongoing initiation, associating them with priests wearing animal masks in Egyptian ritual.[103]  HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard A meditation during his relationship with one of these women, the poet Jeanne Robert Foster, led him to claim the title of Magus, also referring to the system of the A∴A∴. In June 1915, Crowley met Jeanne Robert Foster in the company of her friend Hellen Hollis, a journalist; Crowley would have affairs with both women. Foster was a famous New York fashion model, APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard journalist, editor, poet and married. Crowley's plan with Foster was to produce his first son; but in spite of a series of magical operations she did not get pregnant. By the end of 1915, the affair would be over.[104] During a trip to Vancouver in 1915, Crowley met Wilfred Smith, Frater 132 of the Vancouver Lodge of O.T.O., HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard and in 1930 granted him permission to establish Agape Lodge in Southern California.[105] During the same trip in 1915, Crowley stopped over at Parke Davis in Detroit for some mescaline.[106]HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard In early 1916, Crowley had an illicit liaison with Alice Richardson, the wife of Ananda Coomaraswamy, one of the greatest art historians of the day. On the stage, Richardson was known as Ratan Devi, mezzo-soprano interpreter of East Indian music. Richardson became pregnant but on a voyage back to England, in mid-1916, she had a miscarriage. Just before his affair with Ratan Devi, Crowley was practising sex magick with Gerda Maria von Kothek, a German prostitute.[107]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard Two periods of magical experimentation followed. In June 1916, he began the first of these at the New Hampshire cottage ofEvangeline Adams, having ghostwritten most of her two books on astrology.[108] His diaries at first show discontent at the gap between his view of the grade of Magus and his view of himself: "HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard It is no good making up my mind to do anything material; for I have no means. But this would vanish if I could make up my mind." Despite his objections to sacrificing a living animal, he resolved to crucify a frog as part of a rehearsal of the life of Jesus in the Gospels (afterward declaring it his willing familiar), "with the idea ... HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard that some supreme violation of all the laws of my being would break down my Karma or dissolve the spell that seems to bind me".[109] Slightly more than a month later, having taken ether (ethyl oxide), he had a vision of the universe from a modern scientific cosmology that he frequently referred to in later writings.[110]Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard Crowley began another period of magical work on an island in the Hudson River after buying large amounts of red paint instead of food. Having painted "Do what thou wilt" on the cliffs at both sides of the island, he received gifts from curious visitors. Here at the island he had visions of seeming past lives, though he refused to endorse any theory of what they meant beyond linking them to his unconscious. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Towards the end of his stay, he had a shocking experience he linked to "the Chinese wisdom" which made even Thelema appear insignificant.[111] Nevertheless, he continued in his work. Before leaving the country he formed a sexual and magical relationship with Leah Hirsig, whom he had met earlier, and with her help began painting canvases with more creativity and passion.[112]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard Richard B. Spence writes in his 2008 book Secret Agent 666: Aleister Crowley, British Intelligence and the Occult that Crowley could have been a lifelong agent for British Intelligence. While this may have already been the case during his many travels to Tsarist Russia, Switzerland, Asia, Mexico and North Africa that had started in his student days, Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard he could have been involved with this line of work during his life in America during the First World War, under a cover of being a German propaganda agent and a supporter of Irish independence. Crowley's mission might have been to gather information about the German intelligence network, the Irish independent activists and produce aberrant propaganda, TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard aiming at compromising the German and Irish ideals. As an agent provocateur he could have played some role in provoking the sinking of the RMS Lusitania, thereby bringing the United States closer to active involvement in the war alongside theAllies.[113] He also used German magazines The Fatherland and The International as outlets for his other writings. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard The question of whether Crowley was a spy has always been subject to debate, but Spence uncovered a document from the US Army's old Military Intelligence Division supporting Crowley's own claim to having been a spy: ACER Aspire 1640 Laptop Keyboard Aleister Crowley was an employee of the British Government ... in this country on official business of which the British Consul, New York City has full cognizance.[114] DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard

Abbey of Thelema: 1920–1923

Soon after moving from West 9th St. in Greenwich Village, New York City, to Palermo, Sicily with their newborn daughter Anne Leah (nicknamed Poupée, born February 1920, died in a hospital in Palermo 14 October 1920), Crowley, along with Leah Hirsig, founded theAbbey of Thelema in Cefalù (Palermo) on 14 April 1920, the day the lease for the villa Santa Barbara was signed by Sir Alastor de Kerval (Crowley) and Contessa Lea Harcourt (Leah Hirsig). TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard The Crowleys arrived in Cefalu on 1 April 1920.[115] During their stay at the abbey Hirsig was known as Soror Alostrael, Crowley's Scarlet Woman, the name Crowley used for his female sex magick practitioners in reference to the consort of the Beast of the Apocalypse whose number is 666.[116] The name of the abbey was borrowed fromRabelais's epic Gargantua,[117]  TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard where the "Abbey of Thélème" is described as a sort of anti-monastery where the lives of the inhabitants were "spent not in laws, statutes, or rules, but according to their own free will and pleasure".[118] This idealistic utopia was to be the model of Crowley'scommune, while also being a type of magical school, giving it the designation "Collegium ad Spiritum Sanctum",SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Laptop Keyboard The College of the Holy Spirit. The general programme was in line with the A∴A∴ course of training, and included daily adorations to the Sun, a study of Crowley's writings, regular yogic and ritual practices (which were to be recorded), as well as general domestic labour. The object, naturally, was for students to devote themselves to the Great Work of discovering and manifesting their True Wills. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard Two women, Hirsig and Shumway (her magical name was Sister Cypris after Aphrodite), were both carrying Crowley's seed. Hirsig had a two-year old son named Hansi and Shumway had a three-year old boy named Howard; they were not Crowley's but he nicknamed them Dionysus and Hermes respectively. After Poupée died, Hirsig had a miscarriage but Shumway gave birth to a daughter, TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1MC Laptop Keyboard Astarte Lulu Panthea. Hirsig suspected Shumway's Black Magic foul play and what Crowley found when reading Shumway's magical diary (everybody had to keep one while at the abbey for reasons explained in Liber E) appalled him. Shumway was banished from the abbey and the Beast lamented the death of his children. However, Shumway was soon back in the abbey again to take care of her offspring.[119]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Mussolini's Fascist government expelled Crowley from the country at the end of April 1923. In February 1924, Crowley visited Gurdjieff's Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man. He did not meet the founder on that occasion, but called Gurdjieff a "tip-top man" in his diary.[120] Crowley privately criticised some of the Institute's practices and teachings, but doubted that what he heard from disciple Pindar reflected the master's true position. LENOVO Ideapad U550 Laptop Keyboard Some claim that on a later visit he met Gurdjieff—who firmly repudiated Crowley.[121] Biographer Sutin expresses scepticism,[122] and Gurdjieff's student C.S. Nott tells a different version. Nott perceives Crowley as a black or at least ignorant magician and says his teacher "kept a sharp watch" on the visitor, but mentions no open confrontation.[123]TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard On 16 August 1929, Crowley married Maria de Miramar, a Nicaraguan, while in Leipzig. They separated by 1930, but were never divorced.[124] In July 1931, de Miramar was admitted to the Colney Hatch Mental Hospital in New Southgate where she remained until her death thirty years later.[125]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard In September 1930, Crowley was in Lisbon to meet the poet Fernando Pessoa, who translated his poem "Hymn To Pan" into Portuguese. With the assistance of Pessoa Crowley faked his own death at a notorious rock formation on the shore called Boca do Inferno (Mouth of Hell). Crowley then left the country and enjoyed the newspaper reports of his death, and reappeared three weeks later at an exhibition in Berlin.[126]HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard In 1934, Crowley was declared bankrupt after losing a court case in which he sued the artist Nina Hamnett for calling him a black magician in her 1932 book, Laughing Torso. In addressing the jury, Mr. Justice Swift said:  HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard I have been over forty years engaged in the administration of the law in one capacity or another. I thought that I knew of every conceivable form of wickedness. I thought that everything which was vicious and bad had been produced at one time or another before me. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard I have learnt in this case that we can always learn something more if we live long enough. I have never heard such dreadful, horrible, blasphemous and abominable stuff as that which has been produced by the man (Crowley) who describes himself to you as the greatest living poet. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Patricia "Deirdre" MacAlpine approached Crowley on the day of the verdict and offered to bear him a child, whom he named Aleister Atatürk. She sought no mystical or religious role in Crowley's life and rarely saw him after the birth, "an arrangement that suited them both".[127]Lenovo 45N2141 Laptop Keyboard In March 1939, Dion Fortune and Aleister Crowley met publicly for the first time. Fortune had already used Crowley as a model for the black magician Hugo Astley in her 1935 novel The Winged Bull.[128] ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard During the Second World War, future James Bond author Ian Fleming (then a Navy intelligence officer) along with other colleagues proposed a disinformation plot in which Crowley would have helped an MI5 agent supply Nazi official Rudolf Hess with faked horoscopes. They could then pass along false information about an alleged pro-German circle in Britain. SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard The government abandoned this plan when Hess flew to Scotland, crashing his plane on the moors near Eaglesham, and was captured. Fleming then suggested using Crowley as an interrogator to determine the influence of astrology on other Nazi leaders, but his superiors rejected this plan. At some point, Fleming also suggested that Britain could use Enochian as a code in order to plant evidence.[129]Compaq Presario CQ57-314 Laptop Keyboard On 21 March 1944, Crowley undertook what he considered his crowning achievement, the publication of The Book of Thoth, "strictly limited to 200 numbered and signed copies bound in Morocco leather and printed on pre-wartime paper". Crowley sold ₤1,500 worth of the edition in less than three months.[130] In April 1944, Crowley moved from 93 Jermyn St. to Bell Inn at Aston Clinton, Bucks. Daphne Harris was the landlady.[131]Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard


In January 1945, Crowley moved to Netherwood, a Hastings boarding house where in the first three months he was visited twice by Dion Fortune; she died of leukaemia in January 1946. On 14 March 1945, in a letter Fortune wrote to Crowley, she declares: "... SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard The acknowledgement I made in the introduction of The Mystical Qabalah of my indebtness to your work, which seemed to me to be no more than common literary honesty, has been used as a rod for my back by people who look on you as Antichrist".[132]HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard Crowley died at Netherwood on 1 December 1947 at the age of 72. According to one biographer the cause of death was arespiratory infection.[133] He had become addicted to heroin after being prescribed morphine for his asthma and bronchitismany years earlier.[134] He and his last doctor died within 24 hours of each other; newspapers would claim, in differing accounts, that Dr. Thomson had refused to continue his opiate prescription and that Crowley had put a curse on him.[135]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard Biographer Lawrence Sutin passes on various stories about Crowley's death and last words. Frieda Harris supposedly reported him saying, "I am perplexed", though she did not see him at the very end. According to John Symonds, a Mr. Rowe witnessed Crowley's death along with a nurse, and reported his last words as "Sometimes I hate myself". TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Biographer Gerald Susteraccepted the version of events he received from a "Mr W.H." who worked at the house, in which Crowley dies pacing in his living room.[133] Supposedly Mr W.H. heard a crash while polishing furniture on the floor below, and entered Crowley's rooms to find him dead on the floor. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard Patricia "Deirdre" MacAlpine, who visited Crowley with their son and her three other children, denied all this and reports a sudden gust of wind and peal of thunder at the (otherwise quiet) moment of his death. According to MacAlpine, Crowley remained bedridden for the last few days of his life, but was in light spirits and conversational. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard                                                                               Readings at the cremation service in nearby Brighton included excerpts from Crowley's works, among them his poem Hymn to Pan, and newspapers referred to the service as a Black Mass. The Brighton council subsequently resolved to take all the necessary steps to prevent such an incident from occurring again.[133]TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard


Thelema is the mystical cosmology Crowley announced in 1904 and expanded upon for the remainder of his life. The diversity of his writings illustrate his difficulty in classifying Thelema from any one vantage. It can be considered a form of magical philosophy, religious traditionalism,humanistic positivism, and/or an elitist meritocracy. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard The chief precept of Thelema, derived from the works of François Rabelais, is the sovereignty of Will: "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law". Crowley's idea of will, however, is not simply the individual's desires or wishes, but also incorporates a sense of the person's destiny or greater purpose: what he termed "True Will".SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard The second precept of Thelema is "Love is the law, love under will"—and Crowley's meaning of "Love" is as complex as that of "Will". It is frequently sexual: Crowley's system, like elements of the Golden Dawn before him, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard sees the dichotomy and tension between the male and female as fundam

ental to existence, and sexual "magick" and metaphor form a significant part of Thelemic ritual. However, Love is also discussed as the Union of Opposites, which Crowley thought was the key to enlightenment. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Crowley quickly realized that the post-Yarker era meant change. He was not rebellious by reflex, at least where old British institutions were concerned. He undoubtedly believed O.T.O. had authority from Yarker to work the Ancient and Primitive Rite's equivalent to the Craft degrees in England, but once made aware of the issue of regularity when having his own French Masonic credentials declined, DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard he was not defiant and on his own made changes to the O.T.O. to avoid conflict. He inserted notices into the last number of The Equinox to the effect that the O.T.O. did not infringe upon the just privileges of the Grand Lodge Of England TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard During WWI Crowley worked slightly revised English Craft rituals in America, but despite the absence of a central Grand Lodge, he met with objections from masonic authorities. He then rewrote the O.T.O. rituals for I° – III° so that they no longer resembled Craft masonry degrees in language, theme or intent.[138]HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard He frequently expressed views about sex that were radical for his time, and published numerous poems and tracts combining religious themes with sexual imagery both heterosexual and homosexual,  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard as well as pederastic. One of his most notorious poetry collections, titled "White Stains" (1898), was published in Amsterdamin 1898 and dealt specifically with sexually explicit subject matter. However, most of the hundred copies printed for the initial release were later seized and destroyed by British customs.[140] HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard Crowley's magical and initiatory system has amongst its innermost reaches a set of teachings on sex magick. Sex magick is the use of the sex act—or the energies, passions or arousal states it evokes—as a point upon which to focus the will or magical desire for effects in the non-sexual world. In the view ofAllen Greenfield,[141] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Crowley was inspired by Paschal Beverly Randolph, an American Abolitionist, Spiritualist medium, and author of the mid-19th century who wrote (in Eulis!, 1874) of using the "nuptive moment" (orgasm) as the time to make a "prayer" for events to occur. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard Crowley often introduced new terminology for spiritual and magickal practices and theory. In The Book of the Law and The Vision and the Voice, the Aramaic magickal formula Abracadabra was changed to Abrahadabra, which he called the new formula of the Aeon. He also famously spelled magic in the archaic manner, asmagick, to differentiate "the true science of the Magi from all its counterfeits".[142]ASUS Z9100L Laptop Keyboard He urged his students to learn to control their own mental and behavioural habits, to the point of switching political views and personalities at will. For control of speech (symbolised as the unicorn) he recommended to choose a commonly used word, letter, or pronouns and adjectives of the first person (such as the word "I"), HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard and avoid using it for a week or more. Should they say the word he instructed them to cut themselves with a blade on each occasion to serve as warning or reminder. Later the student could move on to the "Horse" of action and the "Ox" of thought.[143] (These symbols derive from the cabala of Crowley's book 777.) Crowley has also been labelled by some anthropologists as a practitioner of neoshamanism and revivalist of shamanistic philosophies in the early 20th century.[144]ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard


In this vein many of Crowley's more audacious and outright shocking writings were often thinly veiled attempts to communicate methods of sexual magick, often using words like "blood", "death" and "kill" to replace "semen", "ecstasy" and "ejaculation" in the yet puritanical sexual environment of late 19th/early 20th century England. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Take for instance the highly repeated quote from his thickly veiled Book Four: "It would be unwise to condemn as irrational the practice of devouring the heart and liver of an adversary while yet warm. For the highest spiritual working one must choose that victim which contains the greatest and purest force; a male child of perfect innocence and high intelligence is the most satisfactory."[146] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Author Robert Anton Wilson, in his 1977 The Final Secret of the Illuminati (aka Cosmic Trigger Volume One), interpreted the child as a reference to genes in sperm. Crowley added in a footnote to the text on sacrifice, "the intelligence and innocence of that male child are the perfect understanding of the Magician, his one aim, without lust of result".TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In the "New Comment" to The Book of the Law, "the Beast 666 adviseth that all children shall be accustomed from infancy to witness every type of sexual act, as also the process of birth, lest falsehood fog, and mystery stupefy, their minds ... Politeness has forbidden any direct reference to the subject of sex to secure no happier result than to allow Sigmund Freud and others to prove that our every thought, speech, and gesture, conscious or unconscious, is an indirect reference!" DELL TR334 Laptop Keyboard Crowley was a habitual drug user and also maintained a meticulous record of his drug-induced experiences with opium, cocaine, hashish,cannabis, alcohol, ether, mescaline, morphine, and heroin.[147] Allan Bennett, Crowley's mentor, was said to have "instructed Crowley in the magical use of drugs".[148]SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard The Cairo revelation from Aiwass/Aiwaz specifically recommended indulgence in "strange drugs". While in Paris during the 1920s, Crowley experimented with psychedelic substances, specifically Anhalonium lewinii, an obsolete scientific name for the mescaline-bearing cactus peyote and initiated the writers Katherine Mansfield and Theodore Dreiser in its use.[149] TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard In October 1930, Crowley dined with Aldous Huxley in Berlin, and to this day rumours persist that he introduced Huxley to peyote on that occasion.[150] Biographer Lawrence Sutin stated that "blatant bigotry is a persistent minor element in Crowley's writings".[153] He also calls Crowley "a spoiled scion of a wealthy Victorian family who embodied many of the worst John Bull racial and social prejudices of his upper-class contemporaries",[154SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard ] noting that, "Crowley embodied the contradiction that writhed within many Western intellectuals of the time: deeply held racist viewpoints courtesy of their culture, coupled with a fascination with people of colour".[155]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard Crowley's published expressions of anti-semitism were disturbing enough to later editors of his works that one of them, Israel Regardie, who had also been a student of Crowley, attempted to suppress them. In 777 and Other Qabalistic Writings of Aleister Crowley (Samuel Weiser, 1975), Regardie, who was Jewish, explained his complete removal of Crowley's anti-semitic commentary on the Kabbalah in the sixth unnumbered page of his editorial introduction: HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Laptop Keyboard "I am ... omitting Crowley's Preface to the book. It is a nasty, malicious piece of writing, and does not do justice to the system with which he is dealing."[156] What Regardie had removed was Crowley's "Preface to Sepher Sephiroth", originally published in Equinox 1:8. Written in 1911,[157] which contained a statement of Crowley's belief in the blood libel against the Jews:[158]TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard Human sacrifices are today still practised by the Jews of Eastern Europe, as is set forth at length by Sir Richard Burton in the MS which the wealthy Jews of England have compassed heaven and earth to suppress,[159] and evidenced by the ever-recurring Pogroms against which so senseless an outcry is made by those who live among those degenerate Jews who are at least not cannibals. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard Crowley rhetorically asked how a system of value such as Qabalah could come from what "the general position of the ethnologist" called "an entirely barbarous race, devoid of any spiritual pursuit", and "polytheists" to boot.[158] As Crowley himself practised polytheism, some read these remarks as deliberate irony.[160]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Crowley studied and promoted the mystical and magical teachings of some of the same ethnic groups he attacked, in particular Indian yoga, Jewish Kabbalah andgoetia, and the Chinese I Ching. Also, in Confessions Chapter 86,[161] as well as a private diary which Lawrence Sutin quotes in Do What Thou Wilt chapter 7, HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Crowley recorded a memory of a "past life" as the Chinese Taoist writer Ko Hsuan. In another remembered life, Crowley said, he took part in a "Council of Masters" that included many from Asia. He has this to say about the virtues of "Eurasians" and then Jews: DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard I do not believe that their universally admitted baseness is due to a mixture of blood or the presumable peculiarity of their parents; but that they are forced into vileness by the attitude of both their white and coloured neighbours. A similar case is presented by the Jew, who really does only too often possess the bad qualities for which he is disliked; but they are not proper to his race. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard No people can show finer specimens of humanity. The Hebrew poets and prophets are sublime. The Jewish soldier is courageous, the Jewish rich man generous. The race possesses imagination, romance, loyalty, probity and humanity in an exceptional degree. Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard But the Jew has been persecuted so relentlessly that his survival has depended on the development of his worst qualities; avarice, servility, falseness, cunning and the rest. Even the highest-class Eurasians such as Ananda Koomaraswamy suffer acutely from the shame of being considered outcast. The irrationality and injustice of their neighbours heightens the feeling and it breeds the very abominations which the snobbish inhumanity of their fellow-men expects of them.[162]DELL 3C048 Laptop Keyboard All these remarks must necessarily be contrasted with Crowley's explicit philosophical instructions in his last book Magick Without Tears. Chapter 73, which is titled "'Monsters', Niggers, Jews, etc," and which states his essentially individualistic and anti-racialist views: SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard ... you say, "Every man and every woman is a star." does need some attention to the definition of "man" and "woman." What is the position, you say, of "monsters"? And men of "inferior" races, like the Veddah, Hottentot and the Australian Blackfellow? There must be a line somewhere, and will I please draw it? ... Not only does it seem to me the only conceivable way of reconciling this and similar passages with "Every man and every woman is a star." HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard to assert the sovereignty of the individual, and to deny the right-to-exist to "class-consciousness," "crowd-psychology," and so to mob-rule and Lynch-Law, but also the only practicable plan whereby we may each one of us settle down peaceably to mind his own business, to pursue his True Will, and to accomplish the Great Work. HP Pavilion G60-118EM Laptop Keyboard The "Thelemic" philosophical position which he taught in this volume (which is a series of letters of direct personal instruction to a student of Magick) is clearly an anti-racist one. Even in private comments on Mein Kampf, Crowley said that his own preferred "master class" was above all distinctions of race.[163]  ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard

Views on women

Biographer Lawrence Sutin stated that Crowley "largely accepted the notion, implicitly embodied in Victorian sexology, of women as secondary social beings in terms of intellect and sensibility".[164] Occult scholar Tim Maroney compared him to other figures and movements of the time and suggests that some others might have shown more respect for women.[165]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Another biographer, Martin Booth, while describing Crowley's misogyny, asserts that in other ways he was pro-feminist who thought women were badly served by the law. He considered abortion to be tantamount to murder and thought little of a society that condoned it, believing that women, when left to choose outside of prevailing social influences, would never want to end a pregnancy.[166]Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard Crowley stated that women, except "a few rare individuals", care most about having children and will conspire against their husbands if they lack children to whom to devote themselves.[167] In Confessions, Crowley says he learned this from his first marriage.[168] He claimed that their intentions were to force a man to abandon his life's work for their interests. He found women "tolerable", TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard he wrote, only when they served the sole role of helping a man in his life's work. However, he said that they were incapable of actually understanding the nature of this work itself.[169] He also claimed that women did not have individuality and were solely guided by their habits or impulses.[170]  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard Nevertheless, when he sought what he called the supreme magical-mystical attainment, Crowley asked Leah Hirsig to direct his ordeals, marking the first time since the schism in the Golden Dawn that another person verifiably took charge of his initiation.[171] In the Hierophant section of The Book of Thoth, Crowley interprets a verse from The Book of the Law that speaks of "the woman girt with a sword; HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard she represents the Scarlet Woman in the hierarchy of the new Aeon. […] This woman represents Venus as she now is in this new aeon; no longer the mere vehicle of her male counterpart, but armed and militant." COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Laptop Keyboard In his Commentaries on The Book of the Law Crowley stated what he considered to be the correct Thelemic position towards women: We of Thelema say that "Every man and every woman is a star." We do not fool and flatter women; we do not despise and abuse them. To us, a woman is herself, absolute, original, independent, free, self-justified, exactly as a man is.[172]HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard Aleister Crowley was a highly prolific writer, who published works on a wide variety of topics, including his philosophy of Thelema, mysticism, ceremonial magic, as well as non-occult topics like politics, philosophy and culture. Widely seen as his most important work was The Book of the Law (1904), the central text of the philosophy of Thelema, HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard although he claimed that he himself was not its writer, but merely its scribe for the angelic being Aiwass. This was just one of many books that he believed that he had channelled from a spiritual being, which collectively came to be termed The Holy Books of Thelema.[173]HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Laptop Keyboard He also wrote books on ceremonial magick, namely Magick (Book 4) (1912), The Vision and the Voice and 777 and other Qabalistic writings, and edited a copy of the grimoire known as The Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon the King. Another of his important works was a book on mysticism, The Book of Lies (1912), while another was a collection of different essays entitled Little Essays Toward Truth (1938). HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop Keyboard He also penned an autobiography, entitled The Confessions of Aleister Crowley (1929). Throughout his lifetime he wrote many letters and meticulously kept diaries, some of which were posthumously published as Magick Without Tears. During his lifetime he also edited and produced a series of publications in book form called The Equinox (subtitled "The Review of Scientific Illuminism"),DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard which served as the voice of his magical order, the A∴A∴. Although the entire set is influential and remains one of the definitive works on occultism, some of the more notable issues are "The Blue Equinox", "The Equinox of the Gods", "Eight Lectures on Yoga", "The Book of Thoth" and "Liber Aleph".TOSHIBA KFRSBA064A Laptop Keyboard Crowley also wrote fiction, including plays and later novels, most of which have not received significant notice outside of occult circles. His most notable fictional works include Moonchild (1917), Diary of a Drug Fiend (1922) and The Stratagem and other Stories (1929). He also self-published much of his poetry, including the erotic White Stains (1898) and Clouds without Water (1909), HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard although perhaps his best known poem was his ode to the ancient god Pan, Hymn to Pan(1929).[174] The influence of Crowley's poetry can be seen through the fact that three of his compositions, "The Quest",[175] "The Neophyte",[176] and "The Rose and the Cross",[177] were included in the 1917 collection The Oxford Book of English Mystical Verse, however The Oxford Companion to English Literature entry on him describes him as a "bad but prolific poet".[178]HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard


After Crowley's death, various of his colleagues and fellow Thelemites continued with his work. One of his British disciples, Kenneth Grant, subsequently founded the Typhonian O.T.O. in the 1950s. In America, his followers also continued, one of the most prominent of whom was Jack Parsons, the influential rocket scientist. DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard Parsons performed what he described as the Babalon Working in 1946, and subsequently claimed to have been taught the fourth part of the Book of the Law. Parsons would also later work with and influence L. Ron Hubbard, the later founder of Scientology. HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard Crowley inspired and influenced a number of later Malvernians including Major-General John Fuller, the inventor of artificial moonlight, and Cecil Williamson, the neo-pagan witch. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard One of Crowley's acquaintances in the last months of his life was Gerald Gardner, who was initiated into O.T.O. by Crowley and subsequently went on to found theNeopagan religion of Wicca. Various scholars on early Wiccan history, such as Ronald Hutton, Philip Heselton and Leo Ruickbie concur that witchcraft's early rituals, as devised by Gardner,  APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard contained much from Crowley's writings such as the Gnostic Mass. The third degree initiation ceremony in Gardnerian Wicca (including the Great Rite) is derived almost completely from the Gnostic Mass.[179] Indeed, Gardner liked Crowley's writings because he believed that they "breathed the very spirit of paganism".[citation needed]TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard

Popular culture

Fictionalised accounts of Crowley or characters based upon him have been included in a number of literary works, published both during his life and after. The writer W. Somerset Maugham used him as the model for the character in his novel The Magician, published in 1908.[62] Crowley was flattered by Maugham's fictionalised depiction of himself, stating that "he had done more than justice to the qualities of which I was proud... ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard The Magician was, in fact, an appreciation of my genius such as I had never dreamed of inspiring."[180] Similarly, in Dennis Wheatley's popular thriller The Devil Rides Out, the Satanic cult leader Mocata is inspired by Crowley, and in turn the deceased Satanist Adrian Marcato referred to in Ira Levin's Rosemary's Baby is likewise a Crowley-like figure. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard Long after his death Crowley is still being used for similar purposes, appearing as a main character in Robert Anton Wilson's 1981 novel Masks of the Illuminati and Jake Arnott's 2009 novel The Devil's Paintbrush. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard The association of Crowley's name with various Satanic or dark individuals occurs widely in published works, especially those oriented toward a younger but technologically literate demographic target audience. In the cyberpunk novel Hammerjack (2005), author Marc D. Giller introduces the "Crowleys" on the second page of that sci-fi thriller, HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard as one of the groups of "street species" inhabiting the cities. The long-running American TV series "Supernatural" also includes a major character named Crowley, who plays key roles in dealings with evil forces. DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard The acclaimed comic book author Alan Moore, himself a practitioner of ceremonial magic, has also included Crowley in several of his works. In Moore's From Hell, he appears in a cameo as a young boy declaring that magic is real, while in the series Promethea he appears several times existing in a realm of the imagination called the Immateria. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard Moore has also discussed Crowley's associations with the Highbury area of London in his recorded magical working, The Highbury Working.[181] Other comic book writers have also made use of him, with Pat Mills and Olivier Ledroit portraying him as a reincarnated vampire in their seriesRequiem Chevalier Vampire. Crowley also is referenced in the Batman comic Arkham Asylum: ACER AEZR1R00110 Laptop Keyboard A Serious House on Serious Earth where the character Amadeus Arkhammeets with him, discuss the symbolism of Egyptian tarot, and they play chess. He has also appeared in Japanese media, such as D.Gray-Man and Toaru Majutsu no Index, as well as the hentai series Bible Black, where he has a fictional daughter named Jody Crowley who continues her father's search for the Scarlet Woman.  HP Pavilion tx2532la Laptop Keyboard He is also depicted in the Original PlayStation game Nightmare Creatures as a powerful demonic resurrection of himself.[182] Ian Fleming used Crowley as a model for Le Chiffre, villain in the first James Bond novel Casino Royale. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard Crowley has been an influence for a string of popular musicians throughout the 20th century. The hugely popular band The Beatles included him as one of the many figures on the cover sleeve of their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, where he is situated between Sri Yukteswar Giri and Mae West. A more intent interest in Crowley was held by Jimmy Page, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard the guitarist and co-founder of 1970s rock band Led Zeppelin. Despite not describing himself as a Thelemite or being a member of the Ordo Templi Orientis, Page was still fascinated by Crowley, and owned some of his clothing, manuscripts and ritual objects, and during the 1970s bought Boleskine House, which also appears in the band's movie The Song Remains the Same. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard On the back cover of the Doors 13 album, Jim Morrison and the other members of the Doors are shown posing with a bust of Aleister Crowley. Author Paulo Coelho introduced the writings of Aleister Crowley to Brazilian rocker Raul Seixas, who went on to write and perform songs (most notably, "Viva a Sociedade Alternativa" and "Novo Aeon") that were strongly influenced by Crowley.[183]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard The later rock musician Ozzy Osbourne released a song titled "Mr. Crowley" on his solo album Blizzard of Ozz, while a comparison of Crowley and Osbourne in the context of their media portrayals can be found in the Journal of Religion and Popular Culture.[184] Crowley has also been a favourite of Swiss Avant-Garde metal band Celtic Frost. TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard In fact, the song Os Abysmi Vel Daath from Monotheist is based partially on some of his writings. In the early 1990s, British Indie band Five Thirty carried with them on tour a front door which they alleged had belonged to Crowley. The door was placed prominently on stage during their gigs.[185]HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard Crowley has also had an influence in cinema; in particular, he was a major influence and inspiration to the work on the radical avant garde underground film-maker Kenneth Anger, especially his Magick Lantern Cycle series of works. One of Anger's works is a film of Crowley's paintings,[186] and in 2009 he gave a lecture on the subject of Crowley.[187] ACER Aspire 5538 Laptop Keyboard Bruce Dickinson, singer with Iron Maiden, wrote the screenplay of Chemical Wedding (released in America on DVD asCrowley),[188] which features Simon Callow as Oliver Haddo, DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard the name taken from the Magician-villain character in the Somerset Maugham book "The Magician", who was in turn inspired by Maugham's meeting with Crowley[189] He also appeared as himself in the animated television show The Venture Bros in the season three episode entitled "Orb." DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard The Italian historian of esotericism Giordano Berti, in his book Tarocchi di Aleister Crowley (1998) quotes a number of literary works and films inspired by Crowley's life and legends. Some of the films are The Magician (1926) by Rex Ingram, based upon the eponymous book written by William Somerset Maugham (1908); HP Pavilion dv6-2010ep Laptop Keyboard Night of the Demon (1957) by Jacques Tourneur, based on the story "Casting the Runes" by M. R. James; and The Devils Rides Out (1968) by Terence Fisher, from the eponymous thriller by Dennis Wheatley. Also: "Dance To The Music of Time" by Anthony Powell, "Black Easter" by James Blish, and "The Winged Bull" by Dion Fortune.[190]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop Keyboard

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The Godfather is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola and produced by Albert S. Ruddy from a screenplay by Mario Puzo and Coppola. Based on Puzo's 1969 novel of the same name, the film stars Marlon Brando and Al Pacino as the leaders of a powerful New York crime family. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

The story, spanning the years 1945 to 1955, centers on the ascension of Michael Corleone (Pacino) from reluctant family outsider to ruthless Mafia boss while also chronicling theCorleone family under the patriarch Vito Corleone (Brando).

The Godfather is widely regarded as one of the greatest films in world cinema[4] – and as one of the most influential, especially in the gangster genre. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

Now ranked as the second greatest film in American cinema (behindCitizen Kane) by the American Film Institute,[5] it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1990.[6] The film's success spawned two sequels: The Godfather Part II in 1974, and The Godfather Part III in 1990. Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

The film was for a time the highest grossing picture ever made, and remains the box office leader for 1972. It won threeOscars that year: for Best Picture, for Best Actor (Brando) and in the category Best Adapted Screenplay for Puzo and Coppola. Its nominations in seven other categories included Pacino, Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

James Caan and Robert Duvall for Best Supporting Actor and Coppola for Best Director.

On the day of his only daughter's wedding, Vito Corleone (Marlon Brando) hears requests in his role as the Godfather, theDon of his New York crime family. Vito's youngest son Michael (Al Pacino), on military leave, introduces his girlfriend, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

Kay Adams (Diane Keaton), to his family at the sprawling reception. Vito's godson Johnny Fontane (Al Martino), a popular singer, pleads for help securing a coveted movie role, so Vito dispatches his consigliere Tom Hagen (Robert Duvall) to the abrasive studio head, Jack Woltz (John Marley), to secure the casting. Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery

Woltz is unmoved until the morning he wakes up in bed with the severed head of his prized stud horse.Shortly before Christmas 1945, drug baron Virgil "The Turk" Sollozzo (Al Lettieri), backed by the Corleones' rivals, the Tattaglias, asks Vito for investment and protection through his political connections, but Vito disapproves of drug dealers. Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery

Instead, he sends his enforcer, Luca Brasi (Lenny Montana) to spy on them, but a fish is returned to the family wrapped in Brasi's vest, confirming he "sleeps with the fishes". Sollozzo's assassination attempt on Vito lands Vito in the hospital, so eldest son, Sonny (James Caan), takes command. Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery

Sollozzo kidnaps Hagen to pressure Sonny to accept his deal. Michael thwarts a second assassination attempt on his father at the hospital, but is accosted by corrupt police Captain McCluskey (Sterling Hayden), who breaks his jaw.

Sonny retaliates by having Bruno, Tattaglia's son, killed. Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery

Michael comes up with a plan to hit Sollozzo and McCluskey that his brother approves over Hagen's objections. On the pretext of settling the dispute, Michael lures the pair to a restaurant, retrieves a planted handgun and murders them. Despite a clamp down from the authorities, the Five Families erupt in open warfare and the brothers fear for their safety.Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

Michael takes refuge in Sicily, and Fredo (John Cazale) is sheltered by associate Moe Greene (Alex Rocco) in Las Vegas. Sonny attacks his brother-in-law Carlo on the street for abusing his sister Connie (Talia Shire). When it happens again, Sonny speeds for her home but assassins ambush him at a highway toll booth and riddle him with machine gun fire. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

Vito is saddened to learn that, despite his hopes, Michael has become involved in the family business. However, Michael has fallen in love with Apollonia Vitelli (Simonetta Stefanelli) and married her in Sicily. His peace is shattered when a car bomb intended for him takes the life of his new wife. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

To end the feuds, Vito meets with the heads of the Five Families, withdrawing his opposition to the Tattaglias' heroin business and swearing to forego revenge for Sonny's murder. He deduces that the Tattaglias were under orders of the now dominant Don Emilio Barzini (Richard Conte). Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

With his safety guaranteed, Michael returns home and over a year later marries Kay. Seeing his father at the end of his career and his surviving brother too weak, Michael takes the reins of the family and promises his wife to make it legitimate within five years.

Biding his time, Michael allows rival families to pressure Corleone enterprises and plans to move family operations to Nevada,Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

while delegating New York operations to members who stay behind. Michael also replaces Hagen with his father as his consigliere; Vito explains to an upset Hagen that they have long range plans for him and the family. Later, Michael travels to Las Vegas, intending to buy out Greene's stake in the family's casinos. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

Instead, Greene derides the Corleones as a fading power, and Michael's anger is fueled when Fredo falls under Greene's sway.

Vito collapses and dies in his garden in 1955 while playing with Michael’s son Anthony. At the funeral, Salvatore Tessio (Abe Vigoda) arranges a meeting between Michael and Don Barzini,Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

signalling his treachery as Vito had warned. The meeting is set for the same day as the christening of Connie and Carlo's son, to whom Michael will stand as godfather. As the christening proceeds, on Michael's orders, Corleone assassins murder the other New York dons and Moe Greene. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

Tessio is told that Michael is aware of his betrayal and taken off to his death. After Carlo is questioned by Michael on his involvement in setting up Sonny's murder and confesses he was contacted by Barzini, he is escorted to a car whereupon Clemenza kills him with a garrotte. Michael is confronted by Connie, who accuses him of having her husband killed. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

He denies killing Carlo when questioned by Kay, an answer she accepts. As Kay watches warily, Michael receives his capos, who address him as the new Don Corleone.

Coppola was not Paramount Pictures' first choice to direct. Italian director Sergio Leone was offered the job first, but he declined in order to direct his own gangster opus, Once Upon a Time in America, which focused on Jewish-American gangsters. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

Peter Bogdanovich was then approached but he also declined the offer and made What's Up, Doc? instead. According to Robert Evans, head of Paramount at the time, Coppola also did not initially want to direct the film because he feared it would glorify the Mafia and violence, and thus reflect poorly on his Sicilian and Italian heritage; Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

on the other hand, Evans specifically wanted an Italian-American to direct the film because his research had shown that previous films about the Mafia that were directed by non-Italians had fared dismally at the box office, and he wanted to, in his own words, "smell the spaghetti".Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

When Coppola hit upon the idea of making it a metaphor for American capitalism, however, he eagerly agreed to take the helm.[9] At the time, Coppola had directed five feature films, the most notable of which was the adaptation of the stage musical Finian's Rainbow – although he had also received an Academy Award for co-writing Patton in 1970. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

Coppola was in debt to Warner Bros. for $400,000 following budget overruns on George Lucas's THX 1138, which Coppola had produced, and he took The Godfather on Lucas's advice.[11] Years later, he said that Paramount chose him because he was a young director, turning 31 just a month after shooting began. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

There was intense friction between Coppola and Paramount, and several times Coppola was almost replaced. As early as the first week, Coppola was nearly fired when Pacino was badly injured, delaying production. Paramount maintains that its skepticism was due to a rocky start to production, though Coppola believes that the first week went extremely well. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

The studio thought that Coppola failed to stay on schedule, frequently made production and casting errors, and insisted on unnecessary expenses, and two producers unsuccessfully tried to convince another filmmaker to take Coppola's place. The producers scapegoated the other filmmaker when their attempt to fire Coppola became known. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

Because the producers told him that the other filmmaker had attempted a coup, Coppola says he was shadowed by a replacement director, who was ready to take over if Coppola was fired. Despite such intense pressure, he managed to defend his decisions and avoid being replaced. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

Paramount was in financial trouble at the time of production and was desperate for a "big hit" to boost business, hence the pressure Coppola faced during filming. They wanted The Godfather to appeal to a wide audience and threatened Coppola with a "violence coach" to make the film more exciting. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

Coppola added a few more violent scenes to keep the studio happy. The scene in which Connie smashed kitchen dishes after finding out Carlo was cheating was added for this reason.[12]

The film was originally budgeted for $2 million, and was scripted as a modern adaptation. However, when Coppola got his hands on the script, Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

he was adamant that it be set in the same time period as the book, from 1945 to 1955. This required a large number of second unit shots, some of which embarrassed Coppola at the time.[12]

Screenwriter Robert Towne did uncredited work on the script, in particular the Pacino-Brando tomato garden scene. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

Coppola's casting choices were unpopular with studio executives at Paramount Pictures, particularly Marlon Brando as Don Vito Corleone. Coppola's first two choices for the role were both Brando and Laurence Olivier, but Olivier's agent refused the role, saying, "Lord Olivier is not taking any jobs. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

He's very sick. He's gonna die soon and he's not interested" (Olivier lived 18 years after the refusal). Paramount, which wanted Ernest Borgnine, originally refused to allow Coppola to cast Brando in the role, citing difficulties Brando had on recent film sets. One studio executive proposed Danny Thomas for the role citing the fact that Don Corleone was a strong "family man. "Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

At one point, Coppola was told by Paramount president Charles Bludhorn that "Marlon Brando will never appear in this motion picture". After pleading with the executives, Coppola was allowed to cast Brando only if he appeared in the film for much less salary than his previous films, perform a screen-test, and put up a bond saying that he would not cause a delay in the production (as he had done on previous film sets). Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Coppola chose Brando over Borgnine on the basis of his screen test, which also won over the Paramount leadership. Bludhorn in particular was captivated by Brando's screen test; when he saw it, he exclaimed, "What are we watching? Who is this old guinea?" Brando later won an Academy Award for his portrayal, which he refused to accept in order to call attention to harmful Hollywood stereotypes of Native Americans. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

The studio originally wanted Robert Redford or Ryan O'Neal to play Michael Corleone, but Coppola wanted an unknown who looked like an Italian-American, whom he found in Al Pacino.[12] Pacino was not well known at the time, having appeared in only two minor films, and the studio did not consider him right for the part,[15] in part because of his height. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

Jack Nicholson, Dustin Hoffman, Warren Beatty, Martin Sheen, and James Caan also auditioned.[15] At one point, Caan was the first choice to play Michael, while Carmine Caridi was signed as elder brother Sonny. Pacino was given the role only after Coppola threatened to quit the production; Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

Caan stated that Coppola envisioned Michael to be the Sicilian-looking one and Sonny was the Americanized version. The studio agreed to Pacino on the condition that Caan was cast as Sonny instead of Caridi, despite the former's Jewish heritage and the latter closely matching the character in the novel (a six-foot-four, black-haired Italian-American bull). Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

Coppola and Puzo would subsequently create a role for Caridi in the sequels.[18]

Bruce Dern, Paul Newman, and Steve McQueen were considered for the role of Tom Hagen that eventually went to Robert Duvall. Sylvester Stallone auditioned for Carlo Rizzi and Paulie Gatto, Anthony Perkins for Sonny, and Mia Farrow auditioned for Kay. Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

William Devane was seen for the role of Moe Greene. Mario Adorf was approached for a role as well. A then-unknown Robert De Niro auditioned for the roles of Michael, Sonny, Carlo, and Paulie. He was cast as Paulie, but Coppola arranged a "trade" with The Gang That Couldn't Shoot Straight to get Al Pacino from that film. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

De Niro later played the young Vito Corleone in Part II, winning an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for the role.

To some extent, the film was a family affair for Francis Ford Coppola. Carmine Coppola, his father, who had a distinguished career as a composer, conductor and arranger, Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

wrote additional music for the film and appeared in a bit part as a piano player, and Carmine's wife, Italia Coppola, was an extra. The director's sister, Talia Shire, was cast as Connie Corleone, and his infant daughter, Sofia, played Connie's and Carlo's newborn son, Michael Francis Rizzi, in the climactic baptism scene near the movie's end. Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery

Coppola also cast his sons as Tom Hagen's sons, Frank and Andrew. They are seen in the Sonny-Carlo street fight scene and behind Pacino and Duvall during the funeral scene.

Most of the principal photography took place from March 29, 1971 to August 6, 1971, although a scene with Pacino and Keaton was shot in the autumn. Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery

There were a total of 77 days of shooting, fewer than the 83 for which the production had budgeted.The opening shot is a long, slow pullback, starting with a close-up of Bonasera, who is petitioning Don Corleone, and ending with the Godfather, seen from behind, framing the picture. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

This move, which lasts for about three minutes, was shot with a computer-controlled zoom lens designed by Tony Karp.[20]

The scene of Michael driving with McCluskey and Sollozzo avoided the cost of back-projection. Instead, technicians moved lights behind the car to create the illusion. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

The cat in the opening scene used to hang around the studio, and was simply dropped in Brando's lap at the last minute by the director.[21][22]

One of the movie's most shocking moments involved the real severed head of a horse. Animal rights groups protested the inclusion of the scene. Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery

Coppola later stated that the horse's head was delivered to him from a dog food company; a horse had not been killed specifically for the movie.[12][15]

In the novel, Jack Woltz, the movie producer whose horse's head is put in his bed, is also shown to be a pedophile as Tom Hagen sees a young girl (presumably one of Woltz's child stars) crying while walking out of Woltz's room. Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery

This scene was cut from the theatrical release but can be found on the DVD (though Woltz can still briefly be seen kissing the girl on the cheek in his studio in the film).

The shooting of Moe Greene through the eye was inspired by the death of gangster Bugsy Siegel. To achieve the effect, actor Alex Rocco's glasses had two tubes hidden in their frames. Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery

One had fake blood in it, and the other had a BB and compressed air. When the gun was shot, the compressed air shot the BB through the glasses, shattering them from the inside. The other tube then released the fake blood.

The equally startling scene of McCluskey's shooting was accomplished by building a fake forehead on top of actor Sterling Hayden.Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery

A gap was cut in the center, filled with fake blood, and capped off with a plug of prosthetic flesh. The plug was quickly yanked out with monofilament fishing line, making a bloody hole suddenly appear in Hayden's head.

The most complicated shooting was the death of Sonny Corleone at the toll plaza. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

Inspired by the final scene in Bonnie and Clyde, James Caan's suit was rigged with 127 squibs of fake blood that exploded in a simulation of machine-gun hits.Locations[23] around New York City were used for the film, including the then-closed flagship store of Best & Company on Fifth Avenue, which was dressed up and used for the scene in which Pacino and Keaton are Christmas shopping. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

At least one location in Los Angeles was used also (for the exterior of Woltz's mansion), for which neither Robert Duvall nor John Marley were available; in some shots, it is possible to see that extras are standing in for the two actors. A scene with Pacino and Keaton was filmed in the town of Ross, California. Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery

The Sicilian towns of Savoca and Forza d'Agrò outside of Taormina were also used for exterior locations. Interiors were shot at Filmways Studio in New York.

A side entrance to Bellevue Hospital was used for Michael's confrontation with police Captain McCluskey. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery

As of 2007, the steps and gate to the hospital were still there but victim to neglect. The hospital interiors, when Michael visits his father there, were filmed at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary on 14th Street, in Manhattan, New York City.

The scene in which Don Barzini is assassinated was filmed on the steps of the New York State Supreme Court building on Foley Square in Manhattan, New York City. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery

The wedding scene at the Corleone family compound was shot at 110 Longfellow Avenue in the Todt Hill section of Staten Island. The numerous Tudor homes on the block gave the impression that they were part of the same "compound. " Paramount built a Plexiglas "stone wall" which traversed the street – the same wall where Santino smashed the camera. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery

Many of the extras in the wedding scene were local Italian-Americans who were asked by Coppola to drink homemade wine, enjoy the traditional Italian food, and participate in the scene as though it were an actual wedding. Food was catered by "Demyan's Hofbrau" a restaurant on Van Duzer Street which is no longer in existence. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

The wedding cake was prepared by a bakery on Port Richmond Avenue.

Two churches were used to film the baptism scene. The interior shots were filmed at Old St. Patrick's in New York. For the baptism, Bach's Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582 was used, as were other Bach works for the pipe organ. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

The exterior scenes following the baptism were filmed at The Church of St. Joachim and St. Anne in the Pleasant Plains section of Staten Island. In 1973 much of the church was destroyed in a fire. Only the façade and steeple of the original church remained, and were later incorporated into a new structure. Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery

The funeral scene was filmed at Calvary Cemetery in Woodside, Queens.[26] The toll booth scene was filmed at the then construction site of Nassau Coliseum inUniondale, New York on Long Island. It also utilized the former Mitchel Field, and the roadway used was once a runway. Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery

he Godfather was a huge financial success, breaking many box office records to become the highest grossing film of 1972. It earned at least $75 million intheatrical rentals in North America, displacing Gone with the Wind, which had earned $72.9 million, becoming the highest grossing film of all time,[28] until the debut of Jaws in 1975. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery

It was also the first film in history to reach $100 million in North America,[28] and according to an article in The Sunday Telegraph, the worldwide box office for the film was $114 million by August 1972.Profits were so high for The Godfather that earnings for Gulf & Western Industries, Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery

Inc., which owned Paramount Pictures, jumped from seventy-seven cents per share to three dollars and thirty cents a share for the year, according to a Los Angeles Times article, dated December 13, 1972.[28]

The film ultimately grossed nearly $135 million at the domestic box office and $133 million in international markets, bringing its worldwide earnings to $268,500,000. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery

Since its release, The Godfather has received universal critical acclaim.[30] Rotten Tomatoes reports that 100% of 74 critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 9.1/10. The website's critical consensus for the film was "The Godfather gets everything right; not only did the movie transcend expectations, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery

it established new benchmarks for American cinema, " and the film was lauded as "one of Hollywood's greatest critical and commercial successes".[31] Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a perfect weighted average score of 100 (out of 100) based on 14 reviews from mainstream critics, considered to be "universal acclaim".Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery

Both The Godfather and The Godfather Part II were selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1990 and 1993, respectively. International critics routinely list these two among cinema's pinnacle achievements, sometimes considering them as one work. Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery

In the decennial 2002 Sight & Soundpoll of film directors, the pair was ranked as the second best film of all time.[32] The critics poll separately voted it fourth. The American Film Institute[5]has listed it second in U.S. film history behind Citizen Kane. Other polls and publications have it first, as well, among them Entertainment Weekly,[33] andEmpire magazine (November 2008). Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery

The soundtrack's main theme by Nino Rota was also critically acclaimed; the main theme ("Speak Softly Love") is well-known and widely used (see Score Controversy for more information).Director Stanley Kubrick believed that The Godfather was possibly the greatest movie ever made, and had without question the best cast. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Previous Mafia movies had looked at the gangs from the perspective of an outraged outsider.[36] In contrast, The Godfather presents the gangster's perspective of the Mafia as a response to corrupt society.Although the Corleone family is presented as immensely rich and powerful, Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery

no scenes depict prostitution, gambling, loan sharking or other forms of racketeering.[37] Some critics argue that the setting of a criminal counterculture allows for unapologetic gender stereotyping, and is an important part of the film's appeal ("You can act like a man!", Don Vito tells a weepy Johnny Fontane).[38] Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery

Real-life gangsters responded enthusiastically to the film, with many of them feeling it was a portrayal of how they were supposed to act.[39] Salvatore "Sammy the Bull" Gravano, the former Underboss in the Gambino crime family,[40] stated: "I left the movie stunned... I mean I floated out of the theater. Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

Maybe it was fiction, but for me, then, that was our life. It was incredible. I remember talking to a multitude of guys, made guys, who felt exactly the same way. " According to Anthony Fiato after seeing the film, Patriarca crime family members Paulie Intiso and Nicky Giso altered their speech patterns closer to that of Vito Corleone's. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

Intiso would frequently swear and use poor grammar; but after the movie came out, he started to articulate and philosophize more.Remarking on the 40th anniversary of the film's release, film critic John Podhoretz praised The Godfather as "arguably the great American work of popular art" and "the summa of all great moviemaking before it".Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

The Godfather won three Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Actor for Marlon Brando and Best Adapted Screenplay for both Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola. The film had been nominated for eight other Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actor for Al Pacino, James Caan, and Robert Duvall, Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Best Director for Coppola, Best Costume Design, Best Film Editing, and Best Sound.[43] The film also had a Best Original Score nomination but was disqualified when found out thatNino Rota had used a similar score in another film. Despite having three nominees for the Best Supporting Actor award, they all lost to Joel Grey in CabaretSony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

It also lost the Best Director, Best Sound and Best Film Editing to Cabaret.

The film won five Golden Globes out of seven nominations. It won the Golden Globe for Best Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Score and Best Actor – Drama for Brando. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

It received two nominations for Best Actor – Drama for Pacino and Best Supporting Actor for Caan.

Nino Rota won the Grammy Award for Best Original Score for a Motion Picture or TV Special for the film's soundtrack. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

At the BAFTA Awards, Nino Rota won the Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music while Brando, Duvall and Pacino received nominations for Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor and Most Promising Newcomer, respectively. Anna Hill Johnstone was also nominated for Best Costume Design. Sony VGP-BPS13AS Battery

Marlon Brando and Al Pacino boycott

Marlon Brando won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance, but turned down the Oscar, becoming the second actor to refuse a Best Actor award (the first being George C. Scott for Patton). Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Brando boycotted the Academy Award ceremony, sending instead American Indian Rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather, who appeared in full Apache dress, to state Brando's reasons, which were based on his objection to the depiction of American Indians[44] by Hollywood and television. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

Al Pacino also boycotted the Academy Award ceremony, as he was insulted at being nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor award, noting that he had more screen time than his co-star and Best Actor winner Marlon Brando and thus he should have received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

Nino Rota's score was removed at the last minute from the list of 1973 Academy Award nominees when it was discovered that he had used the theme in Eduardo De Filippo's 1958 comedy Fortunella. Although in the earlier film the theme was played in a brisk, staccato and comedic style, Sony VGP-BPS13Q Battery

the melody was the same as the love theme from The Godfather, and for that reason was deemed ineligible for an Oscar.[46] Despite this, The Godfather Part II won a 1974 Oscar for Best Original Score, although it featured the same love theme that made the 1972 score ineligible. Sony VGP-BPS13S Battery

Although many films about gangsters had been made before The Godfather, Coppola's sympathetic treatment of the Corleone family and their associates, and his portrayal of mobsters as characters of considerable psychological depth and complexity[52] was hardly usual in the genre. Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery

This was even more the case with The Godfather Part II, and the success of those two films, critically, artistically and financially, opened the doors for more and varied depictions of mobster life, including films such as Martin Scorsese's Goodfellas and TV series such as David Chase's The SopranosSony VGP-BPS21 Battery

The image of the Mafia as being a feudal organization with the Don being both the protector of the small fry and the collector of obligations from them to repay his services, which The Godfather helped to popularize, is now an easily recognizable cultural trope, as is that of the Don's family as a "royal family". Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

(This has spread into the real world as well – cf. John Gotti – the "Dapper Don", and his celebritized family.) This portrayal stands in contrast to the more sordid reality of lower level Mafia "familial" entanglements, as depicted in various post-Godfather Mafia fare, such as Scorsese's Mean Streets and Casino, and also to the grittier hard-boiled pre-Godfather films.Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

In the 1999 film Analyze This, which starred Robert De Niro and Billy Crystal, many references are made both directly and indirectly to The Godfather. One dream scene is almost a shot by shot replica of the attempted assassination of Vito Corleone (Crystal playing the Don and De Niro playing Fredo). Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

In the 1990 comedyThe Freshman, Marlon Brando plays a role reminiscent of Don Corleone. And one of those most unlikely homages to this film came in 2004, when the PG-rated, animated family film Shark Tale was released with a storyline that nodded at this and other movies about the Mafia. Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

Similarly, Rugrats in Paris, based on aNickelodeon children's show, began with an extended parody of The Godfather.The 2005 Indian film Sarkar, directed by Ram Gopal Varma, with Amitabh Bachchan in the lead role as a "Don" and his son Abhishek Bachchan as the equivalent of Michael, HP EliteBook 2530P Battery

is modeled on The Godfather with due credits appearing at the beginning of the film.

In the DVD commentary for Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, George Lucas stated that the interwoven scenes of Anakin Skywalker killing Separatist leaders and Palpatine announcing the beginning of the Galactic Empire was an homage to the christening and assassination sequence in The GodfatherHP EliteBook 2730P Battery

The Godfather, along with the other films in the trilogy, had a strong impact on the public at large. Don Vito Corleone's line "I'm gonna make him an offer he can't refuse" was voted as the second most memorable line in cinema history in AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes by the American Film Institute. HP EliteBook 2740P Tablet Battery

The line actually originates in the French novel Le Père Goriot, by Honoré de Balzac, where Vautrin tells Eugène that he is "making him an offer that he cannot refuse".

An indication of the continuing influence of The Godfather and its sequels can be gleaned HP EliteBook 6930P Battery

from the many references to it which have appeared in every medium of popular culture in the decades since the film's initial release. That these homages, quotations, visual references, satires and parodies continue to pop up even now shows clearly the film's enduring impact. In the television show The SopranosHP EliteBook 8440P Battery

Tony Soprano's topless bar is named Bada Bing after the line in The Godfatherwhen Sonny says, "You've gotta get up close like this and bada-bing! You blow their brains all over your nice Ivy League suit. "

The Simpsons makes numerous references to The GodfatherHP EliteBook 8440W Battery

including one scene in the episode "Strong Arms of the Ma" that parodies the Sonny-Carlo streetfight scene, with Marge Simpson beating a mugger in front of an animated version of the same New York streetscape, including using the lid of a trash can during the fight. HP EliteBook 8530P Battery

The "All's Fair in Oven War" final scene shows James Caan being ambushed by hillbillies (Cletus relatives) at a toll booth, a parody of the scene when Sonny Corleone (portrayed by Caan) is shot and killed. The later episode "The Mook, the Chef, the Wife and Her Homer" parodies the film's ending scene, HP EliteBook 8530W Battery

withLisa Simpson taking Kay Adams' role and Fat Tony's son Michael standing in for Michael Corleone.

The Warner Bros. animated show Animaniacs featured several segments called "Goodfeathers, " with pigeons spoofing characters from various gangster films. HP EliteBook 8730P Battery

One of the characters is "The Godpigeon", an obvious parody of Brando's portrayal of Vito Corleone.

John Belushi appeared in a Saturday Night Live sketch as Vito Corleone in a therapy session trying to properly express his inner feelings towards the Tattaglia Family, HP EliteBook 8730W Battery

who, in addition to muscling in on his territory, "also, they shot my son Santino 56 times.

The theatrical version of The Godfather debuted on network television in 1974 with only minor edits. The next year, Coppola created The Godfather Saga expressly for American television in a release that combinedVoodoo Envy 133

The Godfather and The Godfather Part II with unused footage from those two films in a chronological telling that, because it toned down the violent, sexual, and profane material, received a rating of TV-14 for its NBC debut on November 18, 1977. In 1981, Paramount released the Godfather Epic boxed set, HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4010NA Battery

which also told the story of the first two films in chronological order, again with additional scenes, but not redacted for broadcast sensibilities. Coppola returned to the film again in 1992 when he updated that release with footage from The Godfather Part III and more unreleased material. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4015NA Battery

This home viewing release, under the title The Godfather Trilogy 1901–1980, had a total run time of 583 minutes (9 hours, 43 minutes), not including the set's bonus documentary by Jeff Werner on the making of the films, "The Godfather Family: A Look Inside".HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4020NA Battery

The Godfather DVD Collection was released on October 9, 2001 in a package[54] that contained all three films—each with a commentary track by Coppola—and a bonus disc that featured a 73-minute documentary from 1991 entitled The Godfather Family: A Look Inside and other miscellany about the film: HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4040NA Battery

the additional scenes originally contained in The Godfather SagaFrancis Coppola's Notebook (a look inside a notebook the director kept with him at all times during the production of the film); rehearsal footage; a promotional featurette from 1971; and video segments on Gordon Willis's cinematography, HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4042NA Battery

Nino Rota's and Carmine Coppola's music, the director, the locations and Mario Puzo's screenplays. The DVD also held a Corleone family tree, a "Godfather" timeline, and footage of the Academy Award acceptance speeches.[55] HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4045NA Battery

The restoration was confirmed by Francis Ford Coppola during a question-and-answer session for The Godfather Part III, when he said that he had just seen the new transfer and it was "terrific".HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4050NA Battery

The Godfather Part II is a 1974 American epic crime film that Francis Ford Coppola produced, directed, and co-wrote with Mario Puzo, starring Al Pacino, Robert Duvall, Diane Keaton, and Robert De Niro. Partially based on Puzo's 1969novel, HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4065NA Battery

The Godfather, the film is in part both a sequel and a prequel to The Godfather, presenting two parallel dramas. The main storyline, following the events of the first film, centers on Michael Corleone (Pacino), the new Don of theCorleone crime family, trying to hold his business ventures together from 1958 to 1959; HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4070NA Battery

the other is a series offlashbacks following his father, Vito Corleone (De Niro), from his childhood in Sicily in 1901 to his founding of the Corleone family in New York City.

The film was released in 1974 to great critical acclaim, some even deeming it superior to the original.[3] HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4075NA Battery

Nominated for 11 Academy Awards and the first sequel to win for Best Picture, its six Oscars included Best Director for Coppola, Best Supporting Actor for De Niro and Best Adapted Screenplay for Coppola and Puzo. Pacino won the BAFTA Award for Best Actorand received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4080NA Battery

Like its predecessor, the sequel remains a highly influential film in the gangster genre. It was ranked as the thirty-second greatest film in American cinematic history by the American Film Institute in 1997 and it kept its rank10 years later.[4] It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1993.[5] HP Envy 17 Notebook PC Battery

A sequel, The Godfather Part III, was released 16 years later in 1990.

In 1958 Nevada, Don Michael Corleone, with his caporegimes Al Neri, Rocco Lampone, and consigliere Tom Hagen, meetSenator Pat Geary during the First Communion party of Michael's son Anthony. HP Envy 17-1000 Battery

Geary is rebuffed when he insultingly demands a high price from Michael for a new casino license. Johnny Ola, on behalf of Jewish gangster Hyman Roth, tells Michael that Roth is supportive. Meanwhile, Michael attempts to manage his depressed sister Connie and older brotherFredo. HP Envy 17-1001TX Battery

The Rosato brothers are encroaching on the New York territory controlled by capo Frank Pentangeli, who is furious that Michael will take no action. That night, Michael survives an assassination attempt at his home and puts Tom in charge, reassuring him of their fraternal bond. HP Envy 17-1001XX Battery

In 1917, Vito Corleone, (Robert De Niro) now married and living in a tenement with his wife Carmela and son (Santino), works in a New York grocery store owned by the father of his close friend Genco Abbandando, who looked after him after he came to New York. HP Envy 17-1002TX Battery

The neighborhood is controlled by a member of the Black Hand, Don Fanucci, who extorts protection payments from local businesses. Abbandando Senior is forced to fire Vito and give his job to Fanucci's nephew. One night, Vito's neighbor Peter Clemenza asks him to hide a stash of guns for him, HP Envy 17-1003XX Battery

and later, to repay the favor, takes him to a fancy apartment where they commit their first crime together, stealing an expensive rug, which finishes up in Vito's home.

In Miami, Michael tells Roth that Pentangeli was behind the assassination attempt and then tells Pentangeli that Roth ordered it. He asks Pentangeli to cooperate. HP Envy 17-1006TX Battery

Pentangeli meets the Rosatos but their men garrote him, saying they act on Michael's orders.

Geary finds himself in Fredo's brothel with a dead prostitute and no memory of how he got there; he accepts Tom's offer of "friendship" to cover up the incident. HP Envy 17T Battery

After witnessing a rebel suicide bombing in Havana, Cuba, Michael becomes convinced of their resolve to overthrow Dictator Fulgencio Batista. Fredo brings Michael the money for a deal with Roth. Instead of turning over the money, Michael asks Roth who gave the order to have Pentangeli killed. HP Envy 17T-1000 Battery

Roth avoids the question, instead alluding to the murder of his old friend and ally Moe Greene – who Michael ordered to be killed years previously – saying, "This is the business we've chosen. I didn't ask who gave the order because it had nothing to do with business!" At a New Year's Eve party, Fredo lets slip that he knew Johnny Ola despite his previous denial. HP G3000 Battery

Dismayed, Michael embraces his brother, revealing that he knows he was behind the plot on his life, and a frightened Fredo flees in the chaos. Michael's bodyguard strangles Ola but is killed by police before he can finish off the ailing Roth. Back home, Hagen informs Michael that Roth is recovering in Miami and that Kay has miscarried. HP G42-100 Battery

In New York, in 1920, Don Fanucci has become aware of the partnership between Vito, Clemenza and Sal Tessio. He collars Vito in his delivery truck and tells him that he knows the trio has recently committed a robbery. He demands that they "wet his beak" or the police (on Fanucci's payroll) will arrest Vito, and his family will be ruined. HP G42-200 Battery

Clemenza and Tessio agree to pay, but Vito - guessing that Fanucci's grip on his ghetto was only one man deep - asks his friends to allow him to convince Fanucci to accept less money, telling them, "I make him an offer he don't refuse. " Vito manages to get Fanucci to take one hundred dollars instead of the original six hundred he had demanded HP G5000 Battery

 ($50 from each of his friends, but holding his own back - money he took back after killing Fanucci anyway). Immediately afterward – despite having earned Fanucci's respect and an offer of employment – Vito shoots him dead in a darkened stairway outside Fanucci's apartment during a neighborhood festa, and escapes across the rooftops. Michael is born. HP G6000 Battery

In Washington, D.C., a Senate committee investigating the Corleone family cannot find evidence to implicate Michael until a surprise witness is called. Pentangeli, ensconced in FBI witness protection and ready to avenge the attempt on his life, is prepared to confirm accusations against Michael until his Sicilian brother attends the hearing at the Don's side; HP G7000 Battery

Pentangeli denies his sworn statements and the hearing dissolves in an uproar.

In New York, in the early 1920s, Vito has become a respected figure in his community. He confronts a landlord who is evicting a widow. Vito offers him extra money to let her stay. HP G50 Battery

He refuses, saying he has promised the apartment to another and becomes angry when Vito demands that she also be allowed to keep her dog. A few days later the landlord, having learnt with whom he is dealing, returns terrified and assures Vito that the widow can stay, along with her dog, at a reduced rent. HP G60 Battery

Michael and Hagen observe that Roth's strategy to destroy Michael is well planned. Fredo has been found and persuaded to return to Nevada, and in a private meeting he explains his betrayal to Michael; he was upset about being passed over to head the family, and helped Roth, thinking there would be something in it for him. HP G61 Battery

He swears he was unaware of their plan to kill Michael. He tells Michael that the Senate Committee's chief counsel is on Roth's payroll. Michael disowns Fredo and instructs Al Neri that " nothing is to happen to him while my mother's alive." Afterwards, Michael violently prevents Kay from leaving with their children; HP G62-100 Battery

she retaliates with the revelation that her miscarriage was actually an abortion.

In 1923, Vito, together with his young family, visits Sicily for the first time since leav

ing for America. He is introduced to the elderly Don Ciccio by Don Tommasino as the man who imports their olive oil to America, and who wants his blessing. HP G62-200 Battery

When Ciccio asks Vito who his father was, Vito says, "My father's name was Antonio Andolini, and this is for you!" He then plunges a large knife into the old man's stomach and carves it open, thereby avenging the deaths of his father, mother, and brother. As they flee, Tommasino is shot, confining him to a wheelchair for the rest of his life. HP G62T-100 Battery

Michael's mother dies. At the funeral, a reformed Connie implores Michael to forgive Fredo. Michael relents and embraces Fredo, but glances at Neri. Roth is refused asylum and even entry to Israel. Over Hagen's dissent, Michael plans his revenge. Hagen visits Pentangeli and offers to spare his family, HP G70 Battery

reminding him that failed plotters against the Roman Emperor took their own lives.

Connie helps Kay visit her children, but Michael closes the door on any forgiveness.

As he arrives in Miami to be taken into custody, Hyman Roth is shot in the stomach and killed by Lampone, who is immediately shot dead by FBI agents. HP G71 Battery

Frank Pentangeli is dead in his bathtub with slit wrists. Neri shoots Fredo while they are fishing on Lake Tahoe.

The Corleone family gathers to surprise Vito for his fiftieth birthday. Sonny introduces Carlo Rizzi to Connie. HP G72-100 Battery

Tessio comes in with the cake, and they discuss the attack on Pearl Harbor earlier in the month. Michael announces he has left college to enlist in the Marines, leaving Sonny furious, Tom incredulous, and Fredo supportive. Vito is heard at the door and all but Michael leave the room to greet him. HP G72-200 Battery

The Godfather Part II was shot between October 1, 1973 and June 19, 1974, and was the last major American motion picture to be printed with Technicolor's dye imbibition process until the late 1990s. The scenes that took place in Cuba were shot in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.[6] HP G72T-100 Battery

Charles Bluhdorn, whose Gulf+Western conglomerate owned Paramount, felt strongly about developing the Dominican Republic as a movie-making site.

The Lake Tahoe house and grounds portrayed in the film are Fleur du Lac, the summer estate of Henry J. Kaiser on the California side of the lake. HP HDX X16 Battery

The only structures used in the movie that still remain are the complex of old native stone boathouses with their wrought iron gates. Although Fleur du Lac is private property and no one is allowed ashore there, the boathouses and multi-million dollar condominiums may be viewed from the lake. HP HDX X18 Battery

Unlike with the first film, Coppola was given near-complete control over production. In his commentary, he said this resulted in a film that ran very smoothly, considering that it was shot in multiple locations and told two parallel stories within one film.[7]

It was the last major American motion picture to be filmed in Technicolor. HP 2133 Mini PC Battery

In the director's commentary on the DVDedition of the film released in 2002, Coppola states that this film was the first major motion picture to use "Part II" in its title. Paramount was initially opposed to his decision to name the movie The Godfather Part II. According to Coppola, HP 500 Series Battery

the studio's objection stemmed from the belief that audiences would be reluctant to see a film with such a title, as the audience would supposedly believe that, having already seen The Godfather, there was little reason to see an addition to the original story. The success of The Godfather Part II began the Hollywood tradition of numbered sequels. HP Mini 1000 Battery

Production nearly ended before it began when Pacino's lawyers told Coppola that he had grave misgivings with the script and wasn't coming. Coppola spent an entire night rewriting it before giving it to Pacino for his review. Pacino approved, allowing shooting to go forward.[7] HP Mini 1100 Battery

In the documentary The Godfather Family: A look Inside, Coppola stated that three weeks prior to Part II being released, film critics and journalists pronounced the film a disaster, claiming the parallel stories between Vito and Michael were uncomfortably fast, not allowing enough time for the stories to leave a lasting impression on the audience. HP Mini 311 Battery

Coppola stated that he and the editors returned to the cutting room to change the film's narrative structure, but could not complete the full re-arrangement in time, leaving the final scenes of the film poorly timed.

Coppola shot The Godfather Part II shortly after The Conversation, which was released eight months earlier. HP Mini 5101 Battery

Both films earned Coppola nominations for Best Picture of 1974, with Part II winning.

The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film directed and produced by Francis Ford Coppola, and written byMario Puzo and Coppola. It completes the story of Michael Corleone, a Mafia kingpin who tries to legitimize his criminal empire. HP Mini 700 Battery

The movie also weaves into its plot a fictionalized account of real-life events—the 1978 death of Pope John Paul I and the Papal banking scandal of 1981–1982—and links them with each other and with the affairs of Michael Corleone. The film stars Al Pacino, Diane Keaton, Talia Shire, and Andy García, and features Eli Wallach, Joe Mantegna, George Hamilton, Bridget Fonda, and Sofia Coppola. HP OmniBook 500 Battery

Coppola and Puzo originally wanted the title to be The Death of Michael Corleone. However, Paramount Pictures would not accept that title. Coppola states that The Godfather series is in fact two films, and Part III is the epilogue. Part III received mixed to positive reviews, grossed $136,766,062 and was nominated for seven Academy Awards. HP OmniBook 6000 Series Battery

In 1979,[2][3] Michael Corleone (Al Pacino) is nearing 60 and wracked with guilt for his ruthless rise to power, especially ordering the murder of his brother Fredo. By now, he has mostly retired from the Mafia, leaving the Corleone family's criminal interests in the hands of enforcer Joey Zasa (Joe Mantegna), HP OmniBook 7100 Battery

and is using his tremendous wealth and power to restore his reputation via numerous acts of charity. Michael and Kay (Diane Keaton) have been divorced since 1960, and Michael gave her custody of their children, Anthony (Franc D'Ambrosio) and Mary (Sofia Coppola). HP OmniBook 7150 Battery

At a ceremony in St. Patrick's Old Cathedral, Michael is named a Commander of the Order of St. Sebastian. At a party following the ceremony, Anthony tells his father that he is going to drop out of law school to pursue a career as anopera singer. Kay supports his choice, but Michael disagrees, HP OmniBook VT6200 Battery

wishing that his son would either finish law school or join the family business, but Anthony refuses to have anything to do with his father's "legacy". Michael and Kay have an uneasy reunion, in which Kay tells him that Anthony knows the truth about Fredo's death.HP OmniBook XE Series Battery

Meanwhile, Vincent Mancini (Andy Garcia), the illegitimate son of Michael's late brother Sonny, shows up at the party. He is embroiled in a feud with Zasa, who has involved the Corleone family in major drug trafficking and turned Little Italyinto a slum. Michael's sister Connie (Talia Shire) arranges a "sit-down" between Vincent and Zasa in Michael's study. HP OmniBook XE2 Series Battery

The discussion erupts into a fight, in which Vincent bites Zasa in the ear. That night Vincent has a one-night stand with ajournalist named Grace Hamilton (Bridget Fonda). Two men armed with knives and a gun break in and try to kill him. Vincent kills them both, but not before learning that Zasa sent them. HP OmniBook XE3 Series Battery

Michael is troubled by Vincent's fiery temper, but is nonetheless impressed by his loyalty, and agrees to take his nephew under his wing.

Meanwhile, Michael busies himself with the biggest deal of his career: He has recently bought up enough stock inInternational Immobiliare, HP OmniBook XE4000 Battery

an international real estate holding company known as "the world's biggest landlord", to become its largest single shareholder, with six seats on the company's 13-member board of directors. He now makes atender offer to buy the Vatican's 25% interest in the company, HP OmniBook XT1000 Series Battery

which will give him controlling interest. Knowing thatArchbishop Gilday (Donal Donnelly), who serves as head of the Vatican Bank, has run up a massive deficit, he negotiates a deal to pay $600 million to the Bank in exchange for the shares. The deal is quickly approved by Immobiliare's board. HP OmniBook XT6200 Battery

However, it must be ratified in Rome by Pope Paul VI, who is gravely ill. Without his word, the deal is in limbo.

Don Altobello (Eli Wallach), an elderly New York Mafia boss and old friend of the Corleones (as well as Connie's godfather), HP DM1 Battery

soon visits Michael, telling him that his old partners on the Commission want in on the Immobiliare deal. Michael, however, is adamant that the deal shall be untainted by Mafia involvement. A meeting is arranged, and Michael appeases most of the Mafia bosses with payoffs from the sale of his Las Vegas holdings. HP DM3 Battery

Zasa, however, gets nothing and declares that Michael is his enemy and storms out. Altobello tells Michael that he will try to reason with Zasa and follows close behind. Minutes later, a helicopter hovers outside the conference room and sprays it with submachine gun fire. HP DM3A Battery

Most of the other mob bosses are killed, but Michael, Vincent, and Michael's bodyguard, Al Neri (Richard Bright), escape. Back at his penthouse in New York, Vincent tells Michael that those mob bosses who escaped the massacre made deals with Zasa. HP DM3I Battery

Michael knows that Zasa was not the mastermind of the massacre due to Zasa's being "muscle" and not having the cunning to organize such a scheme. Vincent wants to kill Zasa, but Michael refuses. As he considers how to respond to the situation, he suffers a diabetic stroke and is hospitalized, but not before realizing Altobello is the traitor. HP DM3T Battery

As Michael recuperates, Vincent begins a romantic relationship with Mary and plots revenge against Zasa. Neri and Connie give Vincent permission to act. During a street festival hosted by Zasa's Italian American civil rights group, Vincent's men gun down Zasa's bodyguards. Vincent, disguised as a policeman on horseback, shoots Zasa dead. HP DM3Z Battery

When Michael discovers this, he berates Vincent for his rashness. Michael also insists that Vincent end his relationship with Mary, because Vincent's involvement in the family's criminal enterprises puts her life in jeopardy.

The family takes a vacation to Sicily in preparation for Anthony's operatic debut in Palermo. HP DM4 Battery

They stay at the villa of Corleone family friend Don Tommasino(Vittorio Duse). Michael tells Vincent to speak with Altobello and tell him that he is planning to leave the Corleone family. Altobello supports the idea of Vincent's switching his allegiance, and introduces him to Don Licio Lucchesi (Enzo Robutti), HP DM4-1000 Battery

a powerful Italian political figure and Immobiliare's chairman. Michael realizes that the Immobiliare deal is an elaborate conspiracy among Lucchesi, Archbishop Gilday, and Vatican accountant Frederick Keinszig (Helmut Berger) to swindle him out of his money, and visits Cardinal Lamberto (Raf Vallone), HP DV1000 Battery

the man favored to become the next Pope, to speak about the deal. Lamberto convinces Michael to make his first confession in 30 years, in which he tearfully admits to ordering Fredo's murder. Lamberto tells Michael that he deserves to suffer for his sins, but that his life could still be redeemed. HP DV1200 Battery

Shortly after the meeting between Vincent and Lucchesi, Altobello travels to the small village of Montelepre, where he hires Mosca (Mario Donatone), a veteranhitman, to assassinate Michael. A few days later, Mosca and his son Lupe, disguised as priests, attempt to kidnap Don Tommasino and force him to allow them entry to his villa. HP DV1300 Battery

Tommasino refuses, and Mosca kills him. While touring Sicily with Kay, who has arrived for Anthony’s operatic debut, Michael asks for her forgiveness. As they both admit that they still love each other, Michael receives word that Tommasino is dead. At Tommassino's funeral, Michael swears over his old friend's coffin to sin no more. HP DV1400 Battery

After the death of Pope Paul VI, Cardinal Lamberto is elected Pope John Paul I, which means that the Immobiliare deal will likely be ratified. The new Pope's intentions come as a death knell to the plot against the ratification of the Immobiliare deal, prompting frantic attempts by the plotters to cover their own tracks. HP DV1500 Battery

Vincent tells Michael that he has learned from Altobello of Mosca's plot on his life. Michael sees that his nephew is a changed man, and makes him the new Don of the Corleone family. In exchange, Vincent agrees to put an end to his relationship with Mary.

The family travels to Palermo to see Anthony perform the lead in Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticanaHP DV1600 Battery

Meanwhile, Vincent exacts his revenge:

  • Keinszig is abducted by Vincent's men, who smother him with a pillow and hang him from a bridge to make his death look like a suicide.

Don Altobello, also attending the opera, eats poisoned cannoli that his goddaughter Connie gives him. He dies as Connie watches sadly from her box. HP DV1700 Battery

  • Al Neri travels to the Vatican, where he shoots Archbishop Gilday.

Finally, Calò (Tommasino's former bodyguard) meets with Don Lucchesi at his office, claiming to bear a message from Michael. As he pretends to whisper the message to Lucchesi, Calò stabs him in the throat with his own glasses. HP DV2 Battery

The killings are too late to save the Pope, however. Just hours after he approves the Immobiliare deal, the Pope drinks poisoned tea provided to him by Archbishop Gilday and soon dies in his bed.

Mosca, still disguised as a priest and armed with a sniper rifle, HP DV2Z Battery

descends upon the opera house during Anthony's performance, killing three of Vincent's men and preparing to shoot his target from a box, but the opera ends before he has the chance to pull the trigger. The assassin retreats to the opera house façade's staircase and tries to shoot Michael there. HP DV2000 Battery

At the same moment, Mary confronts her father about the forced break-up with Vincent. Mosca fires twice, wounding Michael and accidentally killing Mary. Vincent then shoots him dead. As Kay and Connie weep, Michael cradles Mary's body in his arms and screams in agony.HP DV2100 Battery

The scene dissolves to a short montage of Michael's memories of all the women he has lost, composed of scenes with Mary, Kay, and his first wife, Apollonia.

The film ends with Michael, an old man, sitting in the garden of Don Tommasino's Sicilian villa. HP DV2200 Battery

He slumps over in his chair, falls sideways to the ground, and dies alone, apart from his dog.

Coppola felt that the first two films had told the complete Corleone saga. In his audio commentary for Part II, he stated that only a dire financial situation caused by the failure of New York Stories compelled him to take up Paramount's long-standing offer to make a third installment.[4] HP DV2300 Battery

According to an article in Premiere,Coppola and Puzo requested six months to complete a first draft of the script with a release date of Easter 1991. Paramount agreed to give them six weeks for the script and, lacking a holiday movie, a release date of Christmas Day 1990. HP DV2400 Battery

Al Pacino, Diane Keaton, and Talia Shire reprise their roles from the first two films. According to Coppola's audio commentary on the film in The Godfather DVD Collection, Robert Duvall refused to take part unless he was paid a salary comparable to Pacino's. On an episode of Inside the Actor's StudioHP DV2500 Battery

Duvall said he understood that Pacino was the star but felt insulted by the difference in their salaries, saying "if they paid Pacino twice what they paid me, that's fine, but not three or four times, which is what they did."[5] When Duvall dropped out, Coppola rewrote the screenplay to portray Tom Hagen as having died before the story begins. HP DV2600 Battery

Coppola created the character B. J. Harrison, played by George Hamilton, to replace the Hagen character in the story. The director further states that, to him, the movie feels incomplete "without [Robert] Duvall's participation." According to Coppola, had Duvall agreed to take part in the film, HP DV2700 Battery

the Hagen character would have been heavily involved in running the Corleone charities.

The first draft of a script had been written by Dean Riesner in 1979, based on a story by Mario Puzo. This script centered around Michael Corleone's son,Anthony, a naval officer working for the CIA, HP DV2800 Battery

and the Corleone family's involvement with a plot to assassinate a Central American dictator.[6] Almost none of the elements of this early script carried over to the final film, but one scene from the film — in which two men break into Vincent's house — exists in the Riesner draft and is nearly unchanged.[7] HP DV2900 Battery

Coppola says that he felt The Godfather saga was essentially Michael's story, one about how "a good man becomes evil," as the writer/director puts it on the same commentary track referenced above. Coppola says he felt that Michael had not really "paid for his sins" committed in the second film, and wanted this final chapter to demonstrate that. HP DV3 Battery

In keeping with this theme, Coppola completely re-wrote the script.

Julia Roberts was originally cast as Mary, but dropped out due to scheduling conflicts. Madonna wanted to play the role, but Coppola felt she was too old for the part. HP DV3-1000 Battery

Rebecca Schaeffer was set to audition, but she was murdered. Winona Ryder dropped out of the film at the last minute. Ultimately Sofia Coppola, the director's daughter, was given the role of Michael Corleone's daughter. Her much-criticized performance resulted in her father being accused of nepotism, HP DV3-2000 Battery

a charge Coppola denies in the commentary track, asserting that, in his opinion, critics, "beginning with an article in Vanity Fair," were "using [my] daughter to attack me," something he finds ironic in light of the film's denouement when the Mary character pays the ultimate price for her father's sins. HP DV3-2100 Battery

As an infant, Sofia Coppola had played Michael Corleone's infant nephew in The Godfather, during the climactic baptism/murder montage at the end of that film. (Sofia Coppola also appeared in The Godfather Part II, as a small immigrant child in the scene where the nine-year-old Vito Corleone arrives by steamer at Ellis Island.) HP DV3-2300 Battery

The character of Michael's sister Connie is played by Francis Ford Coppola's sister, Talia Shire (making her both Mary and Sofia's aunt). Other Coppola relatives with cameos in the film included his mother, father (who wrote and conducted much of the music in the film), uncle and granddaughter, HP DV3T Battery

Gia. Michele Russo, who plays the son of the assassin Mosca, is also a distant Coppola relative, from the same town as Francis Ford Coppola's great-grandmother. In addition, Coppola cast Catherine Scorsese, mother of Martin Scorsese, in a small part.

At Rotten Tomatoes, the film received a generally positive response with a 68% "fresh" rating. HP DV3T-2000 Battery

At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 60, based on 19 reviews, which indicates "mixed or average reviews".[10] The Godfather Part III is almost unanimously considered to be the weakest of the three Godfather films. HP DV3Z Battery

Common criticisms include Sofia Coppola's acting, the plot being too outlandish and convoluted, as well as the storyline being too based on continuity, rather than just a "stand alone" story. In his review, Roger Ebertstated that it is "not even possible to understand this film without knowing the first two." HP DV3Z-1000 Battery

Ebert did, however, write a very enthusiastic review, awarding the film three-and-a-half stars, which is the same rating that he gave The Godfather Part II.[13] He also defended the casting of Sofia Coppola, who he felt wasn’t miscast, stating, “There is no way to predict what kind of performance Francis Ford Coppola might have obtained from Winona Ryder, HP DV3000 Battery

the experienced and talented young actress, who was originally set to play this role. But I think Sofia Coppola brings a quality of her own to Mary Corleone. A certain up-front vulnerability and simplicity that I think are appropriate and right for the role.” Ebert's colleague, HP DV3100 Battery

Gene Siskel, also highly praised the film and placed it on his list of the ten best films of 1990 (#10). Siskel did admit that the ending was the film's weakest part, citing Al Pacino's makeup as very poor. Leonard Maltin stated in his movie guide that the film is “masterfully told,” but the casting of Sofia Coppola was an “almost-fatal flaw.” HP DV3500 Battery

Parts of the film are very loosely based on real historical events concerning the ending of the Papacy of Paul VI, and the very short Papacy of John Paul I in 1978, and the collapse of the Banco Ambrosiano in 1982. Like the character Cardinal Lamberto, who becomes John Paul I, HP DV4 Battery

the historical John Paul I, Albino Luciani, reigned for only a very short time before being found dead in his bed.

Journalist David Yallop argues that Luciani was planning a reform of Vatican finances and that he died by poisoning; these claims are reflected in the film. HP DV4T Battery

Yallop also names as a suspect Archbishop Paul Marcinkus, who was the head of the Vatican bank, like the character Archbishop Gilday in the film. However, while Marcinkus was noted for his muscular physique and Chicago origins, Gilday is a mild Irishman. The character has also drawn comparisons to Cardinal Giuseppe Caprio, HP DV4Z Battery

as he was in charge of the Vatican finances during the approximate period of which the movie was based.[19]

The character of Frederick Keinszig, the Swiss banker who is murdered and left hanging under a bridge, mirrors the fate (and physical appearance) of Roberto Calvi, HP DV4000 Battery

the Italian head of the Banco Ambrosiano who was found hanging under Blackfriars Bridge in London in 1982 (it was unclear whether it was a case ofsuicide or, as the Italian idiom has it, "being suicided." Courts in Italy have recently ruled the latter.) 
HP DV4100 Battery

The name "Keinszig" is taken from Manuela Kleinszig, the girl friend of Flavio Carbone who was indicted as one of Roberto Calvi's murderers in 2005. [21]

On the audio commentary of the DVD, Francis Ford Coppola states that the character of Don Licio Lucchesi would be very recognizable for Italian citizens. HP DV4200 Battery

The thick-rimmed glasses, the official police bodyguard while Michael meets the Don in Sicily, and a single quote at the end of the movie are supposedly clues that Don Lucchesi is (at least partly) based on Giulio Andreotti. HP DV4300 Battery,HP DV4400 Battery,HP DV5 Battery

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A running gag in the episode is that Skipper's friends are confused and convinced he's crazy when they see him talk to Alex, since only Skipper can see him.

In Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted, it opens on Alex's birthday and after a present from his friends of a mud New York he is determined to get the penguins from Monte Carlo. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

Alex creates four phases and after a fight with his friends they are exposed and are pursued by Captain Chantel DuBois.

After cutting the DuBois' snare they fly back to New York until they crash in a trainyard. Alex is determined to get back home and tries to fix the plane but fails. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

Then he persuades Gia to let them on the train. After being let on the train Alex and the gang realized that this was a ticket home.

After a failing performance in Rome he gives a pep talk and has the circus spiced up to get the circus promoter for a tour in America. Stefano told Alex why Vitaly was grouchy. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

The London performance was better and they go to America. DuBois came to "take home" Alex but gets shot out of a cannon Alex tells them why they had to join the circus.

Alex gives another pep talk to his friends and Julien that they were wrong and they decide to go back until DuBois comes. Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

Awaken Alex realizes they are back in the zoo with iron cage links between them. Luckily the circus came and rescued him. But DuBois is still determined to get Alex's head and is taking Stefano. But Alex saves the day by saving Stefano and defeating DuBois.Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

Marty is a zebra who used to live at the Central Park Zoo, a good friend of Alex, and the deuteragonist of the films. Marty is voiced by Chris Rock in the film series and by Phil LaMarr in the games. He once had an iPod before Alex accidentally broke it. Marty likes seaweed on a stick. Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

Marty is a hopeless optimist; he usually sees the brighter side of many things, taking every situation in stride. He strives to be unique, which proves difficult when he meets his own kind in Africa, who look and act almost exactly the same. Marty is best friends with Alex and the two are rarely at odds. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

His carefree lifestyle tends to get on the nerves of his friends, but mostly serves to impress them; he is the one who helps hold the group together when things seem to get down.

In the beginning, Marty lived a life of comfort in the zoo, but comfort led to boredom. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

Marty soon saw that his tenth birthday had come and gone, meaning that his life was already half over. Marty decided, then, that he must travel to the wild, for at least a short time, never having seen the wild.At one point in the movie, Alex says he's black with white stripes, as he has 30 black, and only 29 white, Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

but this was partly because Alex had to give an explanation as to why he was licking Marty, as he thought he was the steak in his dream.

The film begins on Marty’s 10th birthday (middle-aged for a zebra). His friends try to give him a great birthday, but somehow, Marty wants more. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

He escapes theCentral Park Zoo, where he had lived for the past ten years, and makes a dash for the wild. His friends, Alex the Lion, Melman the Giraffe, and Gloria the Hippopotamus, flag him down, but as they are about to take him back to the zoo, police officers and animal control officers appear in all directions, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

tranquilize the animals, and send them on a ship to a wildlife preserve in Kenya. However, the penguins take over the ship and the four friends are washed up on the shores of Madagascar.Once on the island, the animals begin to panic, except for Marty, who has had his dream fulfilled. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

Marty sets up a "bar" on the island, known as Casa del Wild(in English Home of the Wild). Alex is mad at Marty for getting them shipped to the wild, but he later apologizes to Marty and actually begins to enjoy himself on the island. Unfortunately, his enjoyment brings on his killer instincts, causing him to attack the resident lemurs and his friends, including Marty. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

Alex does not "go savage" for long, and is later able to rejoin his friends as they head back to the zoo.

Marty, along with his friends, has only a few small cameos in The Madagascar Penguins in a Christmas CaperSony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

He, Alex, and Gloria are seen at the beginning decorating Melman's neck with Christmas lights. At the end, he, his friends, and almost all the other zoo animals are seen singing their own version of "Jingle Bells".In "Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa," Marty (along with Alex, Melman, Gloria, the lemurs, and the penguins) finds himself stranded in Africa after a failed attempt at flying to New York. Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

There, he joins a herd of zebra that all look and sound exactly like him. While he enjoys this new lifestyle at first, he quickly becomes depressed when it becomes evident he has no individuality in a herd. Marty also becomes upset when Alex is unable to tell him apart from the other zebras. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

Ultimately, Alex is able to make amends by picking Marty out of the herd (later revealed to be due to the bite mark left on his backside from the previous film, and the fact that he is black with white stripes, while the other zebras are all white with black stripes.) Marty accompanies his friend to unblock a dam set by stranded New Yorkers in the jungle (which causes the watering hole to dry up). Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

When Alex is caught, Marty gets the other animals to help rescue him.

Melman Menkowitz is a male giraffe, who is the primary tritagonist of the DreamWorks Animation film, Madagascar. He is somewhat of a hypochondriac, having doses of medicine for meals and doctor's appointments frequently. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

He even complains about having brown spots on his neck (the spots, in real life, are natural). He is voiced by David Schwimmer.He is skittish most of the time, but often has moments of profound clarity. His experience being medicated has given him insight regarding how to treat injured animals who might otherwise dig a hole and die in it. Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

His love for Gloria is deep, and is always a gentleman to her; to Marty and Alex, he's just another one of the "awkward" guys.

Melman had a residence at the Central Park Zoo, where he received constant medical treatment for problems that were all psychosomatic. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

He would undergo MRIs, CAT scans, injections, flu shots, and be put into braces and crutches for no particular purpose at all. In the Central Park Zoo, Melman was used to his cushy life taking pills and undergoing treatments. One night, however, Marty the Zebra escaped and Melman immediately informed Alex of this. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

In a flashback in Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, there is a hint that he had a crush on Gloria as a child (as he seems uncomfortable when she comments that Alex is cute). When the animals nearly die trying to fly back to New York in a salvaged air plane, he screams he is in love with Gloria; however, she is asleep and does not hear this. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

In Africa, Melman is horrified to learn that once a giraffe becomes sick, it has no way to survive and therefore must simply wait in a hole to die. He takes the position of Witch Doctor to cure sick animals, introducing them to Western medicine and giving them longer and better lives. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

While he proves to be very good at this job, he is informed by another giraffe that Melman has a brown spot on his shoulder, one which the previous Witch Doctor seemed to have gotten and "was gone" two days later. Thinking he only has two days to live, Melman initially waits in a hole, but then takes King Julien's advice and goes to declare his love to Gloria. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery

He finds her on a date and simply tells her date what a wonderful girl Gloria is and to treat her right. When the watering hole dries up and King Julien decides to sacrifice an animal for the water gods, Melman offers himself. He is saved at the last moment, when Gloria tells him that she loves him back, and the two become a couple; Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery

it becomes apparent the "brown spot" was not fatal (the previous Witch Doctor is found alive and well, the brown spot in fact being a natural giraffe spot), However there is not a scene where Melman is told of this. It is assumed that he figured it out when his "time" came and went and he was fine. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

He was last seen dancing off into the sunset with Gloria, Alex and Marty.

Gloria is a hippopotamus and secondary tritagonist who resided in the Central Park Zoo as an attraction, all the while being good friends with Alex and Marty, and Melman's girlfriend (as of Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa). Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

She acts as the older sister to the gang, often putting her foot down when the boys start to lose control. Gloria is voiced by Jada Pinkett Smith.

As a hippopotamus, Gloria is another animal in the Central Park Zoo and was one of the many attractions, drawing crowds that enjoyed seeing her swim about in her water tank. Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

She would also receive the star treatment as one of the zoo's main attractions and attend Marty’s birthday party. At this party, Marty announced his wish upon blowing out the candles on his cake: to go to the wild. Gloria, Alex and Melman tried to have Marty come to his senses by telling him life out in the wilds was savage and difficult, Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

whereas life in the zoos was adequate. Marty was unhappy at hearing this, and Gloria told Alex to go to console Marty. Later that night, however, Marty acted out his wish and headed straight for the Terminal Station so as to take a train and go to Connecticut, where Marty heard wide open spaces were found. Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

Gloria urged both Alex and Melman to come with her to find Marty and bring him back before any people would notice. They were found, regardless, along with Mason and Phil, the two chimps, and a troupe of secretive penguins, all ending up tranquilized with darts. Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

When they all came to, they found themselves in crates bound for Africa. When the penguins hijack the ship, the crates fall into the ocean and wash up on the island of Madagascar. After some confusion, they start to set up their own society and attract the attention of a lemur colony. Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, Gloria expresses a desire to join in the zoo breeding program, in the hopes of finding a boyfriend. When the animals crash land in Africa, she attracts the attention of a hippo named Moto Moto. Though she thinks he is the ideal boyfriend at first, Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

she realizes that he only loves her for her large, "plumpy" body, whereas Melman loves her for who she is. Realizing that she loves Melman back, she convinces him not to sacrifice himself into the volcano and Gloria grabs him by the horn and says, Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

"It's crazy to think that I had to go half way around the world to find the perfect guy was right next door..." and then joins the other animals in rescuing Alex from Nana.

Gloria returns in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted. With Melman, the couple find their way as they contribute to the circus' success with a spectacular trapeze act. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

King Julien XIII is a conceited, fun-loving ring-tailed lemur.

In the movies, he is voiced by Sacha Baron Cohen, who speaks in an Indian accent and has improvised many of Julien's lines throughout the movies, many of which had to be reduced or completely cut off due to time issues. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

In The Penguins of Madagascar and Merry Madagascar, he is voiced by Danny Jacobs. Inthe video game of the first film, he is voiced by Keith Ferguson.

As a self-proclaimed lord of the lemurs, Julien ruled over a great colony of lemurs in Madagascar using mostly his charisma and delegating; Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

i.e. telling other people what they should do, since he certainly had very little ability to lead. Nevertheless, he shows more intelligence and calmness compared to the other lemurs (aside from Maurice), which is shown when the very word "Fossa" drives all of them, except himself and Maurice, into a state of panic. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

Julien had parties for his people on Madagascar with much frequency, the likes of which were interrupted constantly by the fossa, which trespassed onto the lemur territory, devouring all that they could catch.The day Alex and his friends came to Madagascar, King Julien and his subjects were enjoying one of their parties when it was invaded by the fossa. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

When the fossa were scared off by Alex, Julien and his people were hiding in the trees and saw this scene, thinking Alex and his friends were giants from some faraway land, with Julien coming forward and presenting himself as the king of the lemurs - once he had ascertained they were not dangerous by tempting them with Mort. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

When asked where the people were, Julien pointed to a skeleton of a man caught in a parachute hanging from a tree. Later that night, Julien had a meeting of the lemurs and other creatures of the jungle in the plane. Julien insisted that if they could make friends with Alex and his friends, the fossa would be scared away for good. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery

Maurice was skeptical about this plan, but Julien insisted that, being king, his ideas were the best. Julien's plan failed when Alex started to get out of control and try to kill the lemurs and his friends. Although, Alex then turned back to normal and the fossa were scared away with only the actions of the four main characters and the penguins, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

Julien took the credits for its success. Interestingly though, when it went wrong, he did not foist the idea back onto Maurice.

When Alex and his friends were ready to go back to New York, Julien gifted them his crown; however he had already made himself a bigger, better one with a lizard. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, Julien, along with Maurice and Mort, accompany Alex, Marty, Gloria and Melman to New York on the plane built by the penguins. He is in the first class, ordering constant refreshments, and amusing himself with plane crash videos. As the plane crashes down to Africa after running out of fuel and momentum, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

Julien takes utter pleasure in the feeling of weightlessness caused by the high speed descent. By being in first class, he escapes the crash with a parachute, but loses his crown.

Upon arriving in Africa, Julien at first believes they are in New York, and makes himself a new crown. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery

He manages to gain some power while in Africa, although very few characters actually pay attention to him, getting to ride a flock of flamingos with Maurice, then moving on to riding ostriches and finally an elephant. Later, when the reserve's watering hole dries up, Julien suggests to the animals that they make a sacrifice to "his good friends, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery

the water gods" at the volcano to replenish the water. To convince the masses, King Julien enacts his casual conversation with the Water Gods. Later, Julien persuades Melman to volunteer for the sacrifice, who believed he was going to die soon anyway. But when Melman realized he was going to live, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

he gave up on being a sacrifice, leaving Julien disappointed at his plan's failure. However, Mort arrives soon after, followed by a persistent shark that had been attempting to eat him. This shark then falls into the volcano, and as Julien comes out of the volcano, he sees the water coming back to the reserve Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

(due, in fact, to a dam constructed by Nana being destroyed by Alex and Zuba), and is convinced of his plan's success. From this King Julien concludes that the Water Gods like sea food more.Julien appears in The Penguins of Madagascar regularly, often noisily and unintentionally annoying Skipper and pretty much everyone. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

He is the self-proclaimed "King of the Zoo" no doubt due to his former king status on Madagascar. Only Mort and Maurice truly believe and respect him as their king, the rest just show up to his "proclamation of royal decrees." Julien is proven to be a worthy ally in most episodes, Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

since it is he who sometimes saves the day for the penguins (like in "Dr. Blowhole's Revenge"). Julien hates having anyone touch his feet, such as passing a royal decree that anyone who touches his feet would be banished from his kingdom (the zoo). When the sewer rats went to the zoo and tricked the Penguins out of their home, Julien decided to play for the Penguins in a game of Hockey to try and win their home back. Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

They were losing until one of the rats touched his feet, after that he lost it and beat all of them on his own.In the episode "Crown Fools", Julien panics when he loses his crown and obsessively longs for it until it is revealed that he had a spare crown all along (prompting Marlene, who was trying to make him new crowns all day, to chase him with a crowbar). Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

Despite his desire for everyone to listen and do what he wants, he hates and ignores Mort, his most loyal follower, who treats him like a god. Mort responds to everything Julien tells him to do as "I like..." followed by whatever Julien said. In the episode "Haunted Habitat" he mentioned that he had a dream that he was "The last mammal on Earth". Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

Mort was just happy to be in the dream despite that he was "road kill" in it.

A recurring gag in The Penguins of Madagascar series is that Julien believes in supernatural beings, which sometimes annoys the other animals. In the episodeMisfortune Cookie, Rico gets a fortune cookie that reads "You will soon meet a fowl end." Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

The penguins deny that fortune cookies have any power, despite receiving three accurate fortunes, and dismiss it as superstition. Julien exclaims "these stitions are super," and tries to get the penguins to believe in the supernatural. King Julien actively plots to make a "foul end" fortune come true - by his own doing. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

It is also known that his believing in spirits can be used against him, seeing that Mason and Phil tricks Julien into believing that the "sky spirits" are angry with the Julien self-centrism, thing that change Julien's personality. But when Skipper notices that kind Julien is more annoying than the narcissist Julien, Skipper makes him come back to his original self. Sony VAIO VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

It is also shown that Julien gains a super-lemur level of strength if he gets mad. Visible when in "Miracle on Ice", Julien spanked and humiliated the Rat King, after one of his henchmen touched Julien's feet; In Happy King Julien Day, Maurice claims that Julien violently used a cane to spank everyone who forgot his self-proclaimed holiday. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery

In Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted, he has a bigger role of falling in love with Sonya the Bear. Also he saved the day by managing to get to the circus.

Skipper is the leader of a band of penguins bent on a secret agenda of escaping the confines of the zoo and being free in Antarctica. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery

He is voiced by Tom McGrath in all his appearances, making McGrath the only actor to have appeared in every Madagascar franchise. He has dark, sapphire-blue eyes. It is revealed that he, as well as the others, have no idea what is expected of the penguin species by humans aside from "smile and wave." Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery

It comes to the point where Private needs a bird biology book to tell the others how to act, even though it's not addressed how he, nor Kowalski, has been able to read the English language and yet still need Phil and Mason to translate in most instances.

As leader, Skipper was the mastermind behind a plot to escape the confines of the zoo and leave for Antarctica with Kowalski, Rico, and Private as his accomplices. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery

Skipper and his troupe dug under their enclosure until they reached the enclosure of Marty the zebra, thinking it to be the South Pole. Skipper explained to Marty that they would escape the zoo on the grounds that penguins do not belong in captivity and with that, ordered his accomplices to continue tunneling. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery

Late that night, Skipper and the other penguins were caught by a SWAT team, as were six other animals found outside the zoo. The penguins were tranquilized and put into a crate to be transferred.

When they awoke, Skipper was confused at the lettering on the crate where they were held and ordered a nearby chimpanzee named Mason to read it, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

with Mason's companion Phil reading it: they were all bound for a wildlife preserve in Africa. Skipper ordered Rico to pick the lock on the crate where they were held, whereupon the four penguins knocked out the crew and took command of the ship, commandeering it to reach Antarctica. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

Skipper and his mates finally reached Antarctica and were sorely disappointed by the barren, desolate terrain (as evidenced by Private's exclamation, "Well, this sucks..." Skipper had the ship return quickly from the South Pole, where it crashed into the beaches of Madagascar and a much warmer climate. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery

Upon arriving, he and the other three encountered Gloria and Melman, and saw that Alex and Marty (known as their "monochromatic friend") were gone. Skipper decided to help rescue Marty from the grim fate of being eaten by the native fossa (possibly as gratitude for his silence regarding the escape). Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

It was Skipper who helped to distract the fossa while Marty was recovered and then helped fight off a number of them.

Skipper noticed later on that Alex was still hungry, not being able to eat steak, and had Rico prepare sushi for Alex. Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery

Skipper then relinquished control of the ship to Alex, as he no longer needed it, and proceeded to sunbathe on the tropical beaches in comfort. Skipper was asked by Private if they should tell Alex and his friends that the ship was out of gas. Skipper declined, telling his troupe to "Just smile and wave, boys, smile and wave." Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery

In the sequel, Skipper leads the penguins in first salvaging a crashed airplane to fly back to New York, then fixing the plane when it crashes at Africa with the help of "more thumbs" (Mason and Phil, who also escaped). At the end of the movie, he marries a bobble head. In The Penguins of Madagascar, the bobble head is nowhere to be seen. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery

In "Tangled in the Web" and "Crown Fools" it is shown that Skipper knows karate and is an exceptionally capable fighter, he's also very strong as seen in "Launchtime" and in "Crown Fools" he said that he had taken down an angry walrus with "a wing and a prayer and another wing", but was revealed that he is terrified of needles, in the episode, "Needle Point." Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

In "Eclipsed" he mentioned that he has a dolphin enemy named "Dr. Blowhole", he apparently had a plan to extinguish the Sun, as when Private told him that the sun went dark. Skipper believed that Dr. Blowhole had succeeded in his plan. Skipper's plans and theories serve a lot as jokes Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

(however sometimes his most out there theories are proven true, since the Blowhole existence is the most extreme example of this.), such as to him there are not 7 but "8" continents as he counts Atlantis, (and appears to believe it is off the coast of Brazil), once telling Maurice that if he had Skipper's security clearance he would to, as well as thinking the new arrivals to the zoo could be flying piranha. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery

He takes his missions very seriously and is highly skilled in hand to hand combat. In the episode "Launchtime" when he asked Kowalski to search for a place where n early no lemurs can be found, he stated that he cannot set foot in Denmark and instead chose the moon; Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery

when Private questioned him on this, he replied by saying "well that's private, Private, between me and the Danes" (Although it has since been revealed that the incident was caused by Hans the Puffin).

Skipper has mentioned that there used to be two more penguins in addition to himself and the other three; Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery

this has been unconfirmed, as these claims have been and never fully explained. In "The Hidden," he mentioned that they supposedly died during a mission when they were attacked by "flying piranhas," as he said "we had to bury what was left of them with a tea spoon". Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

In "A kipper for skipper", Skipper says no penguin is left behind, the others note that Manfred, Johnson and possibly another penguin were, and Skipper replies that relatively few penguins get left behind. Later, in "Roger Dodger," he told Rico that he would take him out if he had to and told him "just ask Manfredi and Johnson". Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

He told of them in "An Elephant Never Forgets" while he was training Private that they "fell for the exploding elephant foot". They are also mentioned by Private, who claims that they mistook the hind end of a beluga whale for an escape tunnel, while in "Maurice at Peace" Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery

it was implied that they were accidentally smothered by the others due to a misinterpretation of a message which actually said to smother them with affection, and "Smotherly Love" noted that they died a very relaxing death in a day spa (Manfredi and Johnson are two ill-fated characters in theWorld War II prisoner-of-war saga Stalag 17). Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

Although Skipper tends to try to show no emotion most of the time, whenever Private or any other member of his team is in danger or thought to be dead he becomes very upset (although he once told Private he was always bait because "is naïve and expendable" but then became upset when he was eaten). Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

In The Penguins of Madagascar he uses some Italian words such as "Sempre all'erta" (in "Haunted Habitat"), "Bravissimo" (in "The Hidden"), "Attenzione" (in "Crown Fools"), "Eccellente" (in "Kingdom Come"), "Finito!" (in "Popcorn Panic") and "Perfetto" (in "An Elephant Never Forgets"). Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

Sometimes, his Italian pronunciation is not perfect. In "The Falcon and the Snow Job," Skipper fell for a female falcon named Kitka and she felt the same way about him, so they dated for a while. However, Skipper broke up with her after it was revealed that she had swallowed Fred the squirrel. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

In "Huffin and Puffin," it is revealed Skipper cannot go to Denmark because a little incident with his enemy Hans (who had appeared in that episode), a puffin, made him public enemy number one.

Skipper also shares a very strong friendship with Marlene, a female Asian Otter living across from him and the penguins, who is also a main character in the series. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery

Despite their conflicting differences and clash of personalities, the two still remain very close and are able to keep their bond of friendship strong. Marlene is also considered as "privileged" to Skipper, due to the fact that Skipper thinks of her as a smart, which is rather ironic, considering of his scornful opinion towards mammals. He also sometimes allows her to tag along on missions.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

Skipper appears in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted with a big role. He is one of the main characters in it.

The tallest of the penguins, Kowalski is second-in-command, forms plans for the group and usually takes notes for Skipper. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

When Skipper is absent, he takes charge and his rank is First Lieutenant. He has blue eyes and tends to over-analyze situations. He is voiced by Chris Miller in the movies and games, and Jeff Bennett in the series.Kowalski is part of a rookery of devious penguins who had made it their goal to escape captivity in the Central Park Zoo and leave for Antarctica. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

Often formulating plans for the group, Kowalski was a loyal supporter of his leader, Skipper. Kowalski had escaped the zoo with the other penguins, but was promptly captured and put into a crate for transferring with his comrades. The crates were all placed on a ship bound for Africa, where all the creatures from the zoo would be kept in a wildlife preserve. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

While in the crate, Kowalski confessed that he could not read (he said the words on the side of the box were an "older code", in slight reference to Star Wars VI) and asked another transferee, a chimpanzee named Phil, to read the words on the crate. As soon as this was done, the four penguins headed to the ship's bridge, Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NAB Battery

knocked out the crew and captain, bound them up, and Kowalski plotted the ship's course to Antarctica.He is the technical one of the group and always has his notepad. While being able to formulate plans and invent things (such as a rocket ship out of a trashcan and fireworks, a rotary saw blade made of energy and multiple random objects, Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NBB Battery

or a knowledge sucking machine from just a cardboard box, a magnet, and a vacuum) he is shown to have a bit of difficulty deducing simpler machines. At the end of "Needle Point", it is revealed that he has an irrational fear of dentists, which is peculiar in that, as Private soon states after Kowalski runs off, penguins do not have teeth. Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NDB Battery

He seems to also spout nearly or completely nonsensical words, such as, "The moo cow may have a chocolate marshmallow", or "I'll be a bicycle cream cone", whenever either hit incredibly hard (as he did when body checked by a giant rat during a hockey game) or when shocked severely (as by Officer X's stun gun). Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NEB Battery

He screamed "Galileo Galilei" when he got his injection during "Needle Point". He also loves candy.

In the series he is shown to be intelligent but it is not as apparent in the films (e.g. in Madagascar he does not know how to read and in Madagascar: Sony VAIO VGN-SR190NGB Battery

Escape 2 Africa he states that the paper plane would help them fly back to NY and he does not understand that the fuel indicator was indicating that fuel is finished). He does most of his calculations on an abacus, although he was briefly in possession of a calculator that was destroyed. Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PAB Battery

He is in love with a dolphin called Doris and recorded a poem for her on DVD which highlighted her apparent non-interest in him in the "Hot Ice" episode. (She was first mentioned in "Gone in a Flash".)

It has been noted that his inventions have a habit of horribly backfiring against him regardless of his best intentions. Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PCB Battery

Some of his most significant blunders include a time machine (Or 'Chronotron') that nearly triggered a temporal rift when it resulted in three of Kowalski appearing in one place, a ray designed to return spoiled food to its fresher state turning Skipper into a chick, a mind-switching machine Sony VAIO VGN-SR190PFB Battery

(Although this only backfired in its first use because he forgot to take the warm-blooded/cold-blooded conflict into account when switching Rico with Roger), a device that stops time that left time seemingly permanently frozen when it broke down, a helmet that granted the user the power of telekinesis, an invisibility ray Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

(Or 'Transparent Matter-Maker', called 'Transmatterer' for short due to copyright issues) that turned itself invisible before being set to randomly fire, a mind-reading machine that quickly burnt out due to lack of processing power, a cloning machine that relied on a rare particle for power, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

nanites that could reprogram other machines (These were programmed to not harm a penguin, but this backfired when they locked the penguins in their habitat to 'protect' them), and the artificially engineered life-form 'Jiggles', who consumed the zoo's fruit and nearly destroyed the zoo when it grew to monstrous size. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VRN Battery

Kowalski can play a banjo and sing as seen in Concrete Jungle Survival.

Rico, voiced by John DiMaggio, does not really talk much. He is similar in physical features to the other penguins in the movies, but he has a tuft of feathers shaped like a Mohawk and a scar of unknown origin on his left cheek in the television series. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

Skipper describes him as a "world-class psychopath." Rico appears to be not merely particularly psychotic, but also mentally deficient. In "Friend in a Box" Kowalski points a mind-reading device at him which, while functioning for everybody else, picks up only the word "Fish" being thought by Rico. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

According to Skipper, it was a mystery how Rico passed the psych test.

He mostly communicates with various grunts, squeals, and gibberish, (though his language seems to have improved by the second season, as he is able to speak short fragments such as "Allow me" and "You're the King") and has displayed a fondness for a plastic doll toy. Sony VAIO VGN-SR210J/S Battery

He's the team's weapons expert and his main function is to regurgitate any necessary tools that Skipper may need for a mission (as the fact that his stomach operates as a hammer space, several items being as big as himself or weighing a large amount, with no effect on himself or anything/any character he might be on). Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

He's very fond of explosives, and his answer to problems would always be "Kaboom!", if Skipper did not hinder him to blow up a stick of dynamite. In one notable episode, "All Choked Up", the penguins attempt to destroy a robotic zoo guide that has recently been installed, assuming that they will be replaced by robotic animals. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

Rico eventually regurgitates a time bomb that Skipper then activates. Meanwhile, Alice, upon noticing that Rico is constantly regurgitating, forces him to drink a liquid medicine as a remedy. The penguins then must try to get him to regurgitate the bomb before it explodes inside Rico. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/S Battery

The penguins try many methods of making Rico regurgitate but none help until the end in which he regurgitates due to the fact the penguins think it is too late and start sobbing over him, Rico finally regurgitating the bomb, out of disgust of what is to him sickening "mushy stuff". The bomb lands in the robotic zookeeper's hands, and explodes, destroying the robot.Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/B Battery

It is revealed that Rico has little tolerance for "mushy" stuff, and often becomes sick when Private gets overly emotional and "lovey-dovey" about something. On the other hand he seems to be the second most emotional penguin next to Private and is deeply in love with a doll called Ms. Perky. Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/H Battery

Another characteristic of Rico is that he might be incredibly superstitious, as, after receiving a rather dismal sounding fortune in a fortune cookie, Rico was a victim of pranks by King Julien who was trying to prove he was right. Even after revealing that Julien was behind the accidents, Rico still needed to have him "take away the curse." Sony VAIO VGN-SR240J/B Battery

He is also insanely skilled with knives and bladed objects, able to make sashimi or carve a Christmas tree from ice in a matter of seconds and destroy bowling pins with a chainsaw while blindfolded.

Rico's psychosis needs to be kept at bay at all times, by Skipper limiting his use of destructive solutions, often involving explosions. Sony VAIO VGN-SR240N/B Battery

Giving him free rein to destroy to his heart's desire, Rico builds up enough psychotic pressure that he literally becomes a vortex of destruction, spinning out of control and destroying everything in his path. Kowalski once estimated Rico was capable of destroying the entire zoo in this state. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTH Battery

Rico appears to have outstanding opera voice when excited (as seen in episode "Go Fish", "Herring Impaired", etc.).

Private is the youngest and shortest of the penguins. He is voiced by Christopher Knights in the movies/games and by James Patrick Stuart in the series. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTJ Battery

He has light blue eyes and speaks with a British accent (though the other penguins think his accent is fake).[2] Private has been known to be a rather curious penguin. He was overprotective of the egg in the episode "Paternal Egg-Stinct", though given how his team mates were treating it Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTQ Battery

(Skipper put it through a dangerous obstacle course, Kowalski tried to use a machine to increase its intelligence with a painful shock, and Rico was flying it with a hang glider), this was (somewhat) rational. Private is very good at deciphering code. Private is also the shyest and least experienced in the group. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVB/C Battery

Private also has a sugar addiction, as seen on the episode Skorka, where he ate the whole box of Peanut Butter Winkies.Private loves and almost religiously worships unicorns. He watches their t.v. show in many episodes, and gives lessons from them to others. He wishes to learn from it and chooses to watch it in his spare time. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVH/C Battery

Private has been known to give life lessons like in "Mort Unbound" when he told Mort "There is a natural order of things" but then he was thrown all the way to the penguins HQ and became giant, and in "Two Feet High and Rising" when he told Mort that Julien's feet "are just feet; not love". Private is emotionally sensitive. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290NTB Battery

Private has been known to say "Um, Skipper?", "Is it safe?", "Goodbye, telly old chum," and "Oh, dear!" Despite his sensitive nature, he is often portrayed as more observant or down to earth than the others (noticing that Skipper's ankle tag had not been taken off, indicating that he did not get a shot or suggesting that Maurice had stumbled back because of being blinded by a camera flash,Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN/S Battery

which Skipper quickly labeled as preposterous though he nevertheless told Kowalski to run a scenario) as well as having fighting skills slightly below or at least on par with Rico and Skipper, as he was able to block rapid strikes from Skipper and disarm him with his feet while spinning on his head, all while blindfolded. Sony VAIO VGN-SR29XN/S Battery

On the wall of the Penguin's house is a stuffed fish with a sign "Private's First Prize", which hiding behind it (as well as a bunch of other electronic precautions) is his most prized possession: a butterscotch lollipop. Like Kowalski, he loves candy, but eating too much of it causes him to hallucinate. Sony VAIO VGN-SR2RVN/S Battery

He has an abnormal fear of badgers and cockroaches, as shown in the "Badger Pride" and "Stop Bugging Me" episodes respectively. When Private is the last available penguin to fix a situation (such as when it's revealed that the penguins had spied on the rest of the zoo occupants or during 'Untouchable'), he is able to rise up to the occasion and reach an end that benefits everyone. Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAB Battery

In the episode "Cute-Astrophe", it is revealed that Private has a "hyper-cute" ability, wherein he achieves a state of over 132% adorability, that will make everyone around him pass out as they cannot cope with how absolutely cute he is. At first, Skipper abused the hyper-cute, using it on everyone around them, so Private swore to never use it again. Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAH Battery

Despite his vow, the hyper-cute made appearances in other episodes. This ability was attempted in one episode when Private was moulting, but instead of knocking an observer out with adorability, it frightened and panicked anybody seeing him use the ability.In the "Concrete Jungle Survival" episode, Private received the rank of Private First Class after successfully passing a test in the city. 
Sony VAIO VGN-NS92JS Battery

He had been just aPrivate beforehand.In the Christmas special "Merry Madagascar" Private finds himself falling in love with Cupid, one of Santa's reindeer. The relationship is short lived however, as Cupid must return and work with Santa. Private reminded her that they would "Always have Madagascar!" as she flew off. Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery

Maurice is a "big boned" (overweight) Aye-Aye (even though he is missing the Aye-Aye's famous long skinny middle finger and has a completely different color scheme).

He is voiced by Cedric the Entertainer in the movies, by Kevin Michael Richardson in the television series, and by John Cothran, Jr. in the video games. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

Maurice is King Julien's advisor - not that Julien ever listens to him - and is highly skeptical of his ruler's mad plans. He has a long squirrel-like bushy tail. He lived alongside a tribe of other lemurs and witnessed newcomers to their home: a quartet of zoo animals. Maurice was suspicious of Alex, a lion among them, thinking him to be somewhat dangerous. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery

Maurice expressed this concern during a meeting of the other lemurs and animals of the jungle, but was ignored by Julien. The next day, Maurice took part in the festival in the honor of the newcomers, and shortly after explained the trouble with having Alex the lion around. He knew that Alex was a meat-eater and that he would need to eat steak. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery

It was then that he opted for Alex to leave and go to the carnivore side of the island.

Shortly after, Maurice witnessed Gloria, Melman, and Marty working with a group of penguins overtaking the fossa that were attacking the lemur tribe. Maurice had to concur that King Julien's plan had worked and that fossa would no longer be of any worry. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

Maurice saw the newcomers out when they decided to leave and was obligated to wave King Julien's arm for him, as the king was tired of waving it.

In the sequel Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, Maurice does not have much of a prominent role, basically agreeing to whatever King Julien says. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery

He acts like a strict big brother to Mort and knows him so well that in "The Penguin Stays in the Picture" he is shocked to find that Mort only ate half of his popsicle, prompting Skipper to go find him because he suspected Mort went missing, which was correct.

He paints well, and in "The Hidden," it is shown that he can speak chameleon. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

In "The Lost Treasure of the Golden Squirrel" his desire to control an army of Julien manservants is revealed. Despite being overweight, however, he was still able to hold his own when he got into a physical fight with Kowalski and Rico in "The Lost Treasure of the Golden Squirrel." Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery

Mort, voiced by Andy Richter in the films and television series and by Dee Bradley Baker in the games, is a small cute and cuddly mouse lemur.

Though quite timid, Mort can also be shrill and vocal in confrontations. Julien finds Mort incredibly annoying, and does not hesitate in proclaiming so. Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Despite this, Mort does not show any lasting unhappiness, and his expression changes within the same scene. Mort has an obsession with Julien's feet for reasons never stated, although in the episode "Sting Operation" when the penguins turn into idiots, they had the same obsession for feet just like him which could be the reason why he loves feet so much, which Julien despises.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

In his anger, Julien once banished Mort from their habitat at the zoo, forcing Mort to seek a "cure".[3] Mort makes his first appearance in Madagascar, wherein he lives among the other native lemurs under Julien. Julien uses him as a test to see if Alex and the others eat lemurs, and Mort quickly decides that he likes them, Sony VAIO VGN-NW35E Battery

as he is later shown to have a tendency to like everything. Later, Julien notes that if Alex does not like fish and still hungers for steak, Mort is "Plan B". Mort is last seen in the film with the other lemurs wishing the zoo animals farewell, and Julien uses him as a makeshift foot-rest.

In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, Mort plays a much smaller role. Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/S Battery

He attempts to follow Julien and Maurice on the penguins' plane, but Julien goes to extremes to keep him out of the plane, declaring that Mort had "scissors and hand cream" (he did in fact, have a pair of scissors).Mort, however, succeeds in attaching himself to the outside of the plane, and promptly falls into the ocean shortly before it crashed. Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/T Battery

After reaching a shore at Africa, Mort is pursued by a persistent shark, which follows him onto the African preserve. Mort (still followed by the shark) finds Julien at a volcano where Melman had just decided that he would not sacrifice himself to return the preserve's water. Sony VAIO VGN-NW50JB Battery

The shark accidentally falls into the volcano just as Alex and Zuba destroy the dam blocking the river, thus leading Julien to believe that his plan to give a sacrifice to bring back the water was successful.

Mort makes appearances through The Penguins of Madagascar, along with Julien and Maurice. Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

At one point, stuffed "Mort" dolls became very popular, and out of jealousy Julien throws them into the skunk habitat.[4] Mort is accidentally shipped back to the factory with the dolls, and must be rescued. In the episode, King Julien also reveals that the only reason he allows Mort to stay with them is so he can express his dislike for Mort in front of him, Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

and keep himself entertained.[3] Mort is also shown to be unhappy with his past self after growing in size and muscle mass due to an invention from Kowalski. However, after being turned back into his regular self, Mort expresses that he is happy with who he is.[5] In the television series, whenever an animal or object is falling it almost always lands on Mort. Sony VAIO VGN-NW70JB Battery

Despite the fact that Mort is often treated poorly by King Julien, the other characters show concern for him as Maurice tries to (if with limited success) save Mort when he may be in danger to be King Julien's biggest concern, and Skipper, who refers to Mort as "sad-eyes", dived in the way of the mutant rat overlord to save Mort. Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

Mason and Phil are the sophisticated chimpanzees at the Central Park Zoo, who prefer to drink cups of coffee and "read" the newspaper in the morning. Mason is voiced by Conrad Vernon and speaks with a stereo-typical British accent, while Phil communicates through American Sign Language. Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

While Mason is unable to read, Phil can and is used to decipher writing while Mason translates the ASL. Both escape the zoo after Gloria breaks through its outer wall; Mason mentions Tom Wolfe giving a lecture, and they plan to attend to "throw poo at him."[6] Along with other characters, Phil and Mason are captured and sent to a wildlife reserve. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91FS Battery

However, their crates are not thrown off the boat, and they are not seen until a final scene, in which they are still in crates waving farewell to the Madagascar natives.

In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, the chimps call upon chimpanzees living in Africa to help rebuild the wrecked plane that was supposed to fly them back to New York. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91GS Battery

They later go on strike, asking for maternity leaves and breaks (Skipper argues that they are all males); eventually, they blackmail Skipper into agreeing.

In The Penguins of Madagascar, Mason and Phil have sporadic appearances throughout the series, and are shown to be annoyed by Julien's partying. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91VS Battery

They attempt to rid him of his ways by tricking Julien into thinking a solar eclipse was a sign that the "sky spirits" disapproved of his behavior.[7] They also frequently mention throwing poo and are used to read the English language. Phil may be the most temperamental or "potty mouthed" of the two, Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

as after being told there is no checkmate in checkers, he makes several signs which Mason responds with "You groom your mother with those hands?!" Phil and Mason may also sometimes lose things in the translation of what they are made to read. An instance of this is when the zoo occupants were ordered to make a cake for King Julien, and Mason mistakes "sugar" for "booger". Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

This does not mean that Phil is unable to communicate well however, in fact, even though he is unable to truly speak, he was still able to win over the heart of Lulu, a female chimp visiting from the Hoboken Zoo in New Jersey for a weekend, While Lulu did appear in a later episode where the penguins ended up accidentally finding themselves in the Hoboken Zoo, it is unknown if she keeps in touch with Phil. Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D Battery

McGrath explained that originally their "first scene was just deciphering the code on the shipping label".[1] The crew "got this girl who knew American Sign Language" to give them hand gestures. They wanted gestures to be "really frenetic", and "she signed out, 'Tell the tiny pea-brained birds that the sign reads: Ship to ...'".Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D/B Battery

Afterward, the crew returned to the scene where Mason notes Tom Wolfe's lecture, and she signed "Can we throw our poo at his stupid white suit?"Mason is named after legendary British actor James Mason, whose urbane, sophisticated vocal styling is mimicked by Vernon. Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D/P Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR140D/S Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR140E Battery

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William Booth William Booth (10 April 1829 – 20 August 1912) was a British Methodist preacher who founded The Salvation Army and became its first General (1878–1912). The Christian movement with a quasi-military structure and government founded in 1865 has spread from London, England to many parts of the world and is known for being one of the largest distributors of humanitarian aid. SONY KFRMBA152A Laptop Keyboard William Booth was born in Sneinton, Nottingham, England, the only son of four surviving children born to Samuel Booth andMary Moss.[1] Booth's father was wealthy by the standards of the time, but during his childhood, as a result of bad investments, the family descended into poverty and his father became an alcoholic. In 1842, Samuel Booth, who by then was bankrupt, could no longer afford his son's school fees, and 13-year-old William Booth was apprenticed to a pawnbroker. Samuel Booth died later that same year.[2]ASUS F5R Laptop Keyboard Two years into his apprenticeship Booth was converted to Methodism.[3] He then read extensively and trained himself in writing and in speech, becoming a Methodist lay preacher. Booth was encouraged to be an evangelist primarily through his best friend, Will Sansom. Sansom and Booth both began in the 1840s to preach to the poor and the sinners of Nottingham,  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard and Booth would probably have remained as Sansom's partner in his new Mission ministry, as Sansom titled it, had Sansom not died of tuberculosis, in 1848.[4] When his apprenticeship ended in 1848, Booth spent a year looking in vain for more suitable work than pawnbroking, which he disliked and considered ungodly.[5] In 1849, Booth reluctantly left his family and moved to London, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard where he found work and lodging in a pawnbroker's shop. Booth tried to continue lay preaching in London, but the small amount of preaching work that came his way frustrated him, and so he resigned as a lay preacher and took to open-air evangelising in the streets and on Kennington Common. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7467 Laptop Keyboard In 1851, Booth joined the Reformers (Methodist Reform Church), and on 10 April 1852, his 23rd birthday, he left pawnbroking and became a full-time preacher at their headquarters at Binfield Chapel in Clapham. William styled his preaching after therevivalist American James Caughey, who had made frequent visits to England and preached at Booth's favourite church, IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Broad StreetChapel. Just over a month after he started full-time preaching, on 15 May 1852, William Booth became formally engaged to Catherine Mumford. In November 1853, Booth was invited to become the Reformers' minister at Spalding, in Lincolnshire. Booth married Catherine Mumford on 16 June 1855 at Stockwell Green Congregational Church in London. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard Their wedding was very simple, as they wanted to use their time and money for his ministry. Even on their honeymoon Booth was asked to speak at meetings. Though Booth became a prominent Methodist evangelist, he was unhappy that the annual conference of the denomination kept assigning him to a pastorate, the duties of which he had to neglect to respond to the frequent requests that he do evangelistic campaigns. At the Liverpool conference in 1861, after having spent three years at Gateshead, his request to be freed for evangelism full-time was refused yet again, and Booth resigned from the ministry of the Methodist New Connexion.  IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard Soon he was barred from campaigning in Methodist congregations, so he became an independent evangelist. His doctrine remained much the same, though; he preached that eternal punishment was the fate of those who do not believe the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the necessity of repentance from sin, and the promise ofholiness. SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard He taught that this belief would manifest itself in a life of love for God and mankind. Eventually, the Booths' children became involved in the ministry. William then became the leader of the salvation army. DELL Latitude 131L Laptop Keyboard In 1865 Booth was in the East End of London, preaching to crowds of people in the streets. Outside The Blind Beggar public house some missioners heard him speaking and were so impressed by his preaching that they invited him to lead a series of meetings they were holding in a large tent. SONY VAIO VGN-AR770 Laptop Keyboard The tent was set up on an old Quaker burial ground on Mile End Waste in Whitechapel. The first of these meetings was held on 2 July 1865. To the poor and destitute of London's East End, Booth brought the good news of Jesus Christ and his love for all.[6]SAMSUNG NP-NC10-JP01 Laptop Keyboard Booth soon realised he had found his destiny, and later in 1865 he and his wife Catherine opened 'The Christian Revival Society' in theEast End of London, where they held meetings every evening and on Sundays, to share the repentance that salvation can bring through accepting Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior to the poorest and most needy, including alcoholics, criminals and prostitutes. The Christian Revival Society was later renamed The Christian Mission. Lenovo ThinkPad T410s-2912 Laptop Keyboard Slowly The Christian Mission began to grow but the work was difficult and Booth would "stumble home night after night haggard with fatigue, often his clothes were torn and bloody bandages swathed his head where a stone had struck", wrote his wife. Evening meetings were held in an old warehouse where urchins threw stones and fireworks through the window. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard Outposts were eventually established and in time attracted converts, yet the results were discouraging. The Christian Mission was just one of about 500 charitable and religious groups trying to help the poor and needy in London's East End.[6]HP G61-405SL Laptop Keyboard Booth and his fellow brethren in Christ practised what they preached and performed self-sacrificing Christian and social work, such as opening “Food for the Million” shops (soup kitchens), not caring if they were scoffed at or derided for their work. HP G62-b20SA Laptop Keyboard HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

The Salvation Army

The name The Salvation Army developed from an incident in May 1878. William Booth was dictating a letter to his secretary George Scott Railton and said, "We are a volunteer army." Bramwell Boothheard his father and said, "Volunteer, I'm no volunteer, I'm a regular!" Railton was instructed to cross out the word "volunteer" and substitute the word "salvation".[7] TOSHIBA Satellite L555-S7929 Laptop Keyboard The Salvation Army was modelled after the military, with its own flag (or colours) and its own music, often with Christian words to popular and folkloric tunes sung in the pubs. Booth and the other soldiers in "God's Army" would wear the Army's own uniform, 'putting on the armour,' for meetings and ministry work. He became the "General" and his other ministers were given appropriate ranks as "officers". Other members became "soldiers".HP 599572-001 Laptop Keyboard Though the early years were lean ones, with the need of money to help the needy an ever growing issue, Booth and The Salvation Army persevered. In the early 1880s, operations were extended to other countries, notably the United States, France, Switzerland, Sweden and others, including to most of the countries of the British Empire: Australia, Canada, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Jamaica, etc. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard Often the beginnings in other countries occurred through "salvationist" activities by non-officers who had emigrated. With some initial success they would contact London to 'send officers.' In other cases, like in Argentina, a non-salvationist told Booth that there were thousands of British people there who needed salvation. Compaq Presario CQ57-311 Laptop Keyboard The four officers sent in 1890 found that those British were scattered all over the pampas. But the missionaries started ministry in Spanish and the work spread throughout the country – initially following the rail-road development, since the British in charge of building the rail-roads were usually sympathetic to the movement. HP G56-141US Laptop Keyboard During his lifetime, William Booth established Army work in 58 countries and colonies, travelling extensively and holding, "salvation meetings." Booth regularly published a magazine and was the author of a number of books; he also composed several songs. His book In Darkest England and the Way Out not only became a best-seller after its 1890 release, it set the foundation for the Army's modern social welfare schemes. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard It compared what was considered "civilised" England with "Darkest Africa" – a land then considered poor and backward. What Booth suggested was that much of London and greater England after the Industrial Revolution was not better off in the quality of life than those in the underdeveloped world. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard He proposed a strategy to apply the Christian Gospel and work ethic to the problems. The book speaks of abolishing vice and poverty by establishing homes for the homeless, farmcommunities where the urban poor can be trained in agriculture, training centres for prospective emigrants, homes for fallen women and released prisoners, SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard aid for the poor, and help for drunkards. He also lays down schemes for poor men’s lawyers, banks, clinics, industrial schools and even a seaside resort. He says that if the state fails to meet its social obligations it will be the task of each Christian to step into the breach. However, Booth was not departing from his spiritual convictions to set-up a socialist or communist society or sub-class, supported by people forced to finance his plans; Booth's ultimate aim was to get people "saved." HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Booth asserts in his introduction, I have no intention to depart in the smallest degree from the main principles on which I have acted in the past. My only hope for the permanent deliverance of mankind from misery, either in this world or the next, IBM Thinkpad R61i Laptop Keyboard is the regeneration or remaking of the individual by the power of the Holy Ghost through Jesus Christ. But in providing for the relief of temporal misery I reckon that I am only making it easy where it is now difficult, and possible where it is now all but impossible, for men and women to find their way to the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard It was asserted in some circles that In Darkest England was actually written by the crusading journalist, W.T. Stead, who, in his own words, acted as a "literary hack" for the General when Mrs. Booth lay dying. However, this assumption was swiftly dismissed by Stead some years later, declaring that, "The idea of Darkest England.. was the General's own. My part, of which I had no wish to speak.. was strictly subordinate throughout.[8] IBM 42T3737 Laptop Keyboard In Darkest England and the Way Out was reprinted several times and lately in 2006. During its early years The Salvation Army faced a great deal of opposition, especially from those in the alcohol-selling industry who were concerned that the activities of Booth and his followers would persuade the poorer classes to stop drinking. One group opposed to Booth and The Salvation Army was the Skeleton Army, HP G62-225NR Laptop Keyboard a diffuse group, particularly in Southern England, that opposed and disrupted The Salvation Army's marches against alcohol from the early 1880s until about 1892. Clashes between the two groups lead to the deaths of several Salvationists and injuries to many others. During 1882 alone 662 Salvation Army soldiers were assaulted: 251 of them were women and 23 of them were under fifteen years of age.[9]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Other accusations centred around the fact that Booth appointed his own children to posts for which others were better qualified, leading to claims that The Salvation Army was a Booth family-business. For example, he appointed his daughter Emma Booth as the Principal of the Officers' Training Home, The Salvation Army's first training school for women when she was just 19. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7226 Laptop Keyboard Others believed that Booth was creating a dynasty, as was suggested by the fact that he insisted that his sons-in-law added 'Booth' to their own names (see Frederick Booth-Tucker and Arthur Booth-Clibborn).[10] This was further borne out when Booth appointed his son, Bramwell Booth, as his successor as General in his will. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-156 Laptop Keyboard The press was often hostile to Booth and The Salvation Army as well because their methods and message were widely misinterpreted. The Army's motto ‘Blood & Fire’, which had deep theological meaning representing the saving ‘blood of Jesus’ and the sanctifying ‘fire of the Holy Spirit’, was erroneously thought to mean the blood of sinners and the fire of hell. There was also suspicion about the Army's motives, with Booth often portrayed as a charlatan only out to make money.[11]IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard The Church of England was at first also extremely hostile to the activities of Booth and The Salvation Army. The philanthropist, politician and evangelist Lord Shaftesbury even went so far as to describe Booth as the "Anti-Christ". One of the main complaints against Booth was his "elevation of women to man's status".[12]HP Pavilion DV6-1013tx Laptop Keyboard Many found him dictatorial and hard to work with. Some of his own children denounced him as their leader and turned their backs on The Salvation Army, including his daughter Kate Booth and his sonsHerbert and Ballington Booth, the latter founding a separate organisation, the Volunteers of America with himself as 'General'. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard The evangelist Rodney "Gipsy" Smith left him because of his rigidity and D.L. Moody would not support him because he felt there was a threat to the local Church. But no one could deny his compassion for the sufferings of his fellow man.[13]HP G62-b50SA Laptop Keyboard

Later years

Opinion of The Salvation Army and William Booth eventually changed to that of favour. In his later years, he was received in audience by kings, emperors and presidents, who were among his ardent admirers. Even the mass media began to use his title of 'General' with reverence. HP G62-a26SA Laptop Keyboard In 1899, Booth suffered from blindness in both eyes, but with a short rest, was able to recover his sight. In 1904 he took part in a 'motorcade' when he was driven around Great Britain, ASUS Z91E Laptop Keyboard stopping off in cities, towns and villages to preach to the assembled crowds from inside his open-top car. In 1906 Booth was made a Freeman of the City of London, and was granted an honorary degree from the University of Oxford. In 1902 he was invited to attend the coronation of King Edward VII. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard His last visit to the United States was made in 1907, and in 1909 he embarked on a six month motor tour of the United Kingdom. During this tour he discovered he was blind in his right eye and the sight in his left eye was dimmed by cataracts. HP Pavilion DV3550el Laptop Keyboard The rest of the tour had to be cancelled. On 21 August 1909 a surgeon at Guy's Hospital removed his right eye. Despite this setback, in 1910 Booth campaigned in Holland, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. On his return to England he embarked on his seventh and last motor tour. SAMSUNG R20 Laptop Keyboard William Booth was 83 years old when he died (or was Promoted to Glory) at his home in Hadley Wood, London. At the three day lying in state at Clapton Congress Hall 150,000 people filed past his casket. On 27 August 1912 Booth's funeral service was held at London’sOlympia where 40,000 people attended, including Queen Mary, who sat almost unrecognised far to the rear of the great hall. DELL Studio 1558 Laptop Keyboard The following day Booth's funeral procession set out from International Headquarters. As it moved off 10,000 uniformed Salvationists fell in behind. Forty Salvation Army bands played the ‘Dead March’ from Handel’s Saul as the vast procession set off. He was buried with his wife Catherine Booth in the main London burial ground for 19th century non-conformist ministers and tutors, the non-denominational Abney Park Cemetery in Stoke Newington.[14]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard In Booth's honour, Vachel Lindsay wrote the poem, "General William Booth Enters Into Heaven".[15] Charles Ives, who had been Evangeline Booth's neighbour, set the poem to music. In 1990 a diesel locomotive in the British Rail fleet was named 'The William Booth'.[16]HP G61-110SA Laptop Keyboard The William Booth rose, developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, was named in his honour.[17] The William Booth Memorial Training College in Denmark Hill, London, the College for Officer Training of The Salvation Army in the United Kingdom, is named after him,[18] as is the William Booth Primary School in his native Nottingham and William Booth Lane in central Birmingham. Also the William Booth memorial statue in Whitechapel, London.  HP Probook 4320s Laptop Keyboard Samuel Booth (1775–1842), the father of William Booth, was born in Belper, Amber Valley, Derbyshire, England. He was tall and often wore clothes that made him look like a Quaker; knee-breeches, drab-cloth suits, and cut-away coats. He marriedSarah Lockitt in 1797. At that time, he was a nail-maker. HP G71-442NR Laptop Keyboard The industrial revolution made his job redundant, therefore he tried to set up some building companies and became an architect. This provided him with sufficient funds to buy a house atColston Bassett. Samuel and Sarah had a son named William, but he was not the William Booth who founded The Salvation Army. Sarah died in 1819 and William died five years later. TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7135 Laptop Keyboard When Samuel Booth went to Ashby-de-la-Zouch to drink the water in hopes that it would cure his rheumatism, he met Mary Moss. He proposed, but she declined. He soon renewed his proposal and pursued her until she agreed, although he was sixteen years her senior. They married and had five children: Henry, Ann, William, Emma, and Mary. Henry died at the age of three SONY 91160363 Laptop Keyboard This William became the founder of The Salvation Army. Emma was an invalid from birth and she died without ever marrying at the age of forty. Mary eventually became Mary Newell, and she lived until she was 69. TOSHIBA Satellite 2805-s201 Laptop Keyboard As Samuel was forced into bankruptcy by successive trade recessions, he moved to Nottingham. William was eventually to say of him: "My father was a Grab, a Get. He had been born in poverty. He determined to grow rich; and he did. He grew very rich, because he lived without God and simply worked for money; and when he lost it all, his heart broke with it, and he died miserably." Compaq Presario CQ57-314 Laptop Keyboard Samuel Booth was not a religious man, and although he had little interest in his children, he insisted that they attend church regularly. Samuel began to lose more money and he was forced to move into a house on Sneinton Road in a poorer neighbourhood, but he eventually moved back to Nottingham. It was there that he died. Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard He was baptised on his deathbed, after which he committed his wife and children to God. Those who surrounded him, including his son William, sang Rock of Ages as he died. Catherine Booth (17 January 1829 – 4 October 1890) was the wife of the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. Because of her influence in the formation of The Salvation Army she was known as the 'Army Mother'. HP Pavilion G7-1085NR Laptop Keyboard She was born as Catherine Mumford in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England, the daughter of John Mumford and Sarah Milward. Her father was a coach builder. Her family later moved to Boston, Lincolnshire, and later lived in Brixton, London. From an early age, Catherine was a serious and sensitive girl. She had a strongChristian upbringing and was said to have read the Bible through eight times before the age of 12.  HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard At age 14, she was seriously ill and spent a great deal of time in bed. She kept herself busy, however, and was especially concerned about the problems of alcohol. She wrote articles for a temperance magazine, which encouraged people not to drink. Catherine was a member of the local Band of Hope and a supporter of the nationalTemperance Society. She met William Booth, a Methodist minister, when he came to preach at her church in 1852. They soon fell in love and became engaged. During their three year engagement, Catherine constantly wrote letters of encouragement to William as he performed the tiring work of a preacher. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard They were married on 16 June 1855 at Stockwell Green Congregational Church in London. Their wedding was very simple, as they wanted to use their time and money for his ministry. Even on their honeymoon, William was asked to speak at meetings. Together they accepted this challenge. Catherine began to be more active in the work of the church at Brighouse. Though she was extremely nervous, she enjoyed working with young people and found the courage to speak in children's meetings.  HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard At that time, it was unheard of for women to speak in adult meetings. She was convinced that women had an equal right to speak, however, and when the opportunity was given for public testimony at Gateshead, she went forward. It was the beginning of a tremendous ministry, as people were greatly challenged by her preaching. She also spoke to people in their homes, especially to alcoholics, whom she helped to make a new start in life. Often she held cottage meetings for converts. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard The Booths had eight children: Bramwell Booth, Ballington Booth, Kate Booth, Emma Booth, Herbert Booth, Marie Booth,Evangeline Booth and Lucy Booth, and were dedicated to giving them a firm Christian knowledge. Two of their offspring, Bramwell and Evangeline, later became Generals of The Salvation Army. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard They began the work of The Christian Mission in 1865. William preached to the poor and ragged and Catherine spoke to the wealthy, gaining support for their financially demanding ministry. She eventually began to hold her own campaigns. HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard When the name was changed in 1878 to The Salvation Army and William Booth became known as the General, Catherine became known as the Mother of the Army. She was behind many of the changes in the new organization, designing the flag and bonnets for the ladies, and contributed to the Army's ideas on many important issues and matters of belief. HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard Catherine Booth died at age 61 in Clacton-on-Sea at Crossley house; subsequently the house was donated to people with learning disabilities, and provided many summer holidays, until being sold to property developers in 2005. The Booths had rented a small villa in sight of the sea that she loved, and on 4 October 1890 she died in her husband's arms with her family around her. She is interred with her husband in Abney Park Cemetery, London. Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard It is believed the term “breadline,” entered the popular lexicon in the 1880s. It was during those years that a noteworthy bakery in New York City’s Greenwich Village, “Fleischmann Model Viennese Bakery,” instituted a policy of distributing unsold baked goods to the poor at the end of their business day.[1]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard The concept of soup kitchens hit the mainstream of United States consciousness during the Great Depression. One soup kitchen in Chicago was even sponsored by American mobster Al Capone in an effort to clean up his image.[2] Inventor Benjamin Thompson, contemporary to the Founding Fathers of the United States, is said to have invented the soup kitchen.[3]SONY VAIO VGN-NR21Z/S Laptop Keyboard A 1985 pilot study found that 95% of homeless men served by a soup kitchen had vitamin deficiencies.[4] This shows the need for emphasis on selecting menu ingredients containing appropriate vitamins, including vitamin C and B9.[dated info]Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry V (11 August 1086[1] – 23 May 1125) was King of Germany (from 1099 to 1125) and Holy Roman Emperor (from 1111 to 1125), the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. Henry's reign coincided with the final phase of the greatInvestiture Controversy, which had pitted pope against emperor. By the settlement of the Concordat of Worms, he surrendered to the demands of the second generation of Gregorian reformers. TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard He was a son of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha of Savoy. His maternal grandparents were Otto of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa. On 6 January 1099, his father Henry IV had him crowned King of Germany at Aachen in place of his older brother, the rebelConrad.[2] He took an oath to take no part in the business of the Empire during his father's lifetime, but was induced by his father's enemies to revolt in 1104, securing a dispensation from the oath by Pope Paschal II,[3] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard and some of the princes did homage to him at Mainz in January 1105. Despite the initial setbacks of the rebels, Henry IV was forced to abdicate and died soon after.[4] Order was soon restored in Germany, the citizens of Cologne were punished with a fine, and an expedition against Robert II, Count of Flanders, brought this rebel to his knees.[5]TOSHIBA P205-S7469 Laptop Keyboard In 1107, Henry undertook a campaign to restore Borivoi II in Bohemia, which was only partially successful. Henry summonedSvatopluk the Lion, who had captured Duke Borivoi.[6] Borivoi was released at the emperor's command and made godfather to Svatopluk's new son. Nevertheless, on Svatopluk's return to Bohemia, he assumed the throne. TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard In 1108, Henry went to war withColoman of Hungary on behalf of Prince Álmos. An attack by Boleslaus III of Poland and Borivoi on Svatopluk forced Henry to give up his campaign. Instead, he invaded Poland to compel them to renew their accustomed tribute, but was defeated at theBattles of Głogów and the Hundsfeld.[7] In 1110, he succeeded in securing the dukedom of Bohemia for Ladislaus I.  TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard

First Italian expedition

The main interest of Henry's reign was the settling of the controversy over lay investiture, which had caused a serious dispute during the previous reign. The papal party who had supported Henry in his resistance to his father hoped he would assent to the papal decrees, which had been renewed by Paschal II at the synod of Guastalla in 1106. SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Laptop Keyboard The king, however, continued to invest the bishops, but wished the pope to hold a council in Germany to settle the question. After some hesitation, Paschal preferred France to Germany, and, after holding a council at Troyes,[8] renewed his prohibition of lay investiture. The matter slumbered until 1110, when, negotiations between king and pope having failed, Paschal renewed his decrees and Henry invaded Italy with a large army. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard The strength of his forces helped him to secure general recognition in Lombardy, where archbishop Grossolano was intended to crown him with the Iron Crown of Lombardy,[9][10] and at Sutri he concluded an arrangement with Paschal by which he renounced the rite of investiture in return for a promise of coronation, and the restoration to the Empire of all Christendom, TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1MC Laptop Keyboard which had been in the hands of the German state and church since the time of Charlemagne.[11] It was a treaty impossible to execute, and Henry, whose consent to it is said to have been conditional on its acceptance by the princes and bishops of Germany, probably foresaw that it would occasion a breach between the German clergy and the pope. SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard Having entered Rome and sworn the usual oaths, the king presented himself at St Peter's Basilica on 12 February 1111 for his coronation and the ratification of the treaty. The words commanding the clergy to restore the fiefs of the crown to Henry were read amid a tumult of indignation, whereupon the pope refused to crown the king, who in return declined to hand over his renunciation of the right of investiture.[12] LENOVO Ideapad U550 Laptop Keyboard Paschal, along with sixteen cardinals, were seized by Henry's soldiers[13] and, in the general disorder which followed, an attempt to liberate the pontiff was thwarted in a struggle during which the king himself was wounded. A Norman army sent by Prince Robert I of Capua to rescue the papists was turned back by the imperialist count of Tusculum, Ptolemy I of Tusculum. TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard

Return to Germany

Henry left Rome carrying the pope with him; and Paschal's failure to obtain assistance drew from him a confirmation of the king's right of investiture and a promise to crown him emperor.[14] The coronation ceremony accordingly took place on 13 April, after which the emperor returned to Germany, where he sought to strengthen his power by granting privileges to the inhabitants of the region of the upper Rhine.[15]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard In 1112, Lothair of Supplinburg, Duke of Saxony, rose in arms against Henry, but was easily quelled. In 1113, however, a quarrel over the succession to the counties of Weimar and Orlamünde gave occasion for a fresh outbreak on the part of Lothair, whose troops were defeated at the Battle of Warnstadt,[16] though the duke was later pardoned. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard Having been married at Mainz on 7 January 1114 to Matilda, the daughter of Henry I of England, the emperor was confronted with a further rising, initiated by the citizens of Cologne, who were soon joined by the Saxons and others.[17]SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard  HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard Initially, Henry took the fortified town of Dütz, which lay across the Rhine from Cologne. His control of Dütz allowed him to cut Cologne off from all river trade and transportation. At this point, the citizens of Cologne assembled a large force, including bowmen, and crossed the river, formed their ranks and prepared to meet Henry's army.[18]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard The Cologne bowmen were able to break the armor of Henry's soldiers; it was summer, the weather was sultry, and the soldiers had removed their armor to find relief from the heat. Henry subsequently withdrew. He turned south, and sacked Bonn and Jülich; on his return to Duetz, he was met by Archbishop Frederick, Duke Gottfried of Lorraine, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Henry of Zutphen, and Count Theodoric of Aar, Count Gerhard of Julich, Lambert of Mulenarke, and Eberhard of Gandernol, who put up a stout resistance in which the latter was killed, and Theodoric, Gerhard and Lambert were taken prisoner. Lenovo 45N2141 Laptop Keyboard When Frederick, Count of Westphalia arrived with his brother, also named Henry, and their substantial force, the emperor withdrew, barely escaping capture.[19]Finally, in October 1114, the two armies met on the plain at AndernachSONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard . After an initial skirmish in which Duke Henry of Lorraine was forced to withdraw, the citizen army and the emperor's force of Swabians, Bavarians, and Franconians clashed. The young men of Cologne, including many journeymen and apprentices, created a fearful din of noise, slashing at all who came near them. Theodric threw his force into the fight, and the emperor's army was forced back.[20] ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard Henry failed to take Cologne, and Lothair of Supplinburg defeated his forces at the Battle of Welfesholz (11 February 1115).[21] Eventually, complications in Italy compelled him to leave Germany to the care of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia, and his brother Conrad, afterwards the German king Conrad III. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

Second Italian expedition

After the departure of Henry from Rome in 1111 a council had declared the privilege of lay investiture, which had been extorted from Paschal, to be invalid.Guido, Archbishop of Vienne excommunicated the emperor,[22] calling upon the pope to ratify this sentence. Paschal, however, refused to take so extreme a step; and the quarrel entered upon a new stage in 1115 when Matilda of Tuscany, died leaving her vast estates to the papacy.[23] HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard Crossing the Alps in 1116, Henry won the support of town and noble by granting privileges to the one and giving presents to the other. But the papist Jordan, Archbishop of Milan, excommunicated him at San Tecla. He took possession of Matilda's lands, and was gladly received in Rome. By this time Paschal had withdrawn his consent to lay investiture[24]DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard and the excommunication had been published in Rome; but the pope was compelled to flee from the city. Some of the cardinals withstood the emperor, but by means of bribes he broke down the opposition, and was crowned a second time[25] by Maurice Bourdin, Archbishop of Braga, who was to become Antipope Gregory VIII. TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard Meanwhile the defeat at Welfesholz had given heart to Henry's enemies; many of his supporters, especially among the bishops, fell away; the excommunication was published at Cologne, and the pope, with the assistance of the Normans, began to make war.[26] In January 1118, Paschal died and was succeeded by Gelasius II. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard The emperor immediately returned from northern Italy to Rome. But as the new pope escaped from the city, Henry, despairing of making a treaty, secured the election of the Antipope Gregory VIII,[27] who was left in possession of Rome when the emperor returned across the Alps that same year. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard       After the second Italian expedition, the opposition in Germany was gradually crushed and a general peace declared atTribur,[28] while the desire for a settlement of the investiture dispute was growing. Negotiations, begun at Würzburg, were continued at Worms, where the new pope, Callistus II,[29] was represented by Cardinal Lambert, Bishop of Ostia. TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard In the Concordat of Worms, signed in September 1122, Henry renounced the right of investiture with ring and crozier, recognized the freedom of election of the clergy, and promised to restore all church property.[30] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The pope agreed to allow elections to take place in presence of the imperial envoys, and the investiture with the sceptre to be granted by the emperor as a symbol that the estates of the church were held under the crown. Henry, who had been solemnly excommunicated at Reims by Callistus in October 1119,[31] was received again into the communion of the church, after he had abandoned his nominee, Gregory, to defeat and banishment. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard The emperor's concluding years were occupied with a campaign in Holland, and with a quarrel over the succession to themargraviate of Meissen, two disputes in which his enemies were aided by Lothair of Saxony. In 1124, he led an expedition against Louis VI of France,[32] turned his arms against the citizens of Worms, and on 23 May 1125 at 3:20 pm died at a docking bay Utrecht[33] and was buried at Speyer. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard His heart and bowels are buried at the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht. Having no legitimate children, he left his possessions to his nephew, Frederick II of Swabia,[34] and on his death the line of Franconian, or Salian, emperors became extinct. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Henry and Matilda had no surviving children, though the chronicler Hériman of Tournai mentions a child who died soon after birth. Henry's illegitimate daughter Bertha married Ptolemy II of Tusculum, son of the first Ptolemy, in 1117. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard

Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry IV (German: Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) was King of the Romans (also referred to as King of the Germans[1]) from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. He was the third emperor of theSalian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by theInvestiture Controversy with the Papacy and several civil wars with pretenders to his throne in Italy and Germany. DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Henry was only six years old when he succeeded to the throne, and his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent, but in 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of a conspiracy of German nobles led by archbishop Anno II of Cologne. Henry, who was at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat lying in the RhineTOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard it was immediately unmoored and the king jumped into the stream, but was rescued by one of the conspirators and carried to Cologne. Agnes retired to a convent, and the government was placed in the hands of Anno. His first move was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had initially recognized but subsequently left without support. HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, who was called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, and his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years. ACER Aspire 1640 Laptop Keyboard The malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. Eventually, during an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only the ecclesiastical ones.  DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard In March 1065, Henry was declared of age. The whole of his future reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, it was a careful balancing act to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard In 1066, one year after his enthroning at the age of fifteen, he expelled Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment, from the Crown Council. Henry also adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had recently invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055. In the same year he assembled an army to fight, at the request of the Pope, the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had already attacked the Normans. Therefore the expedition was halted. TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha.[2] His peroration at a council in Mainz was however rejected by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court, but he was convinced that the Papal opposition aimed only at overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy.  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the national boundaries. He led expeditions against the Luticiand the margrave of a district east of Saxony; and soon afterwards he had to quell the rebellions with Rudolf of Swabia and Berthold of Carinthia. Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of Nordheim, HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king. It was decided that a trial by battle should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Laptop Keyboard he declined to appear. He was thereupon declared deposed in Bavaria, and his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard in his efforts to exact tithes from them; still more formidable was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king. He was the son of one enemy, Henry III, and the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen.  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard

Investiture Controversy

The momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated. Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier, and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert,  HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost.[3] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII, and while Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters in order to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda. HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard The tension between Empire and Church culminated in the councils of 1074–1075, which constituted a substantial attempt to undo Henry III's policies. Among other measures, they denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in office; this had dramatic effects in Germany, where bishops were often powerful feudatories who, ASUS Z9100L Laptop Keyboard in this way, were able to free themselves from imperial authority. In addition to restoring all privileges lost by the ecclesiasticals, the council's decision deprived the imperial crown of almost half its lands, with grievous consequences for national unity, especially in peripheral areas like the Kingdom of Italy. HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard Suddenly hostile to Gregory, Henry did not relent from his positions: after his defeat of Otto of Nordheim, he continued to interfere in Italian and German episcopal life, naming bishops at his will and declaring papal provisions illegitimate. In 1075, Gregory excommunicated some members of the Imperial Court and threatened to do the same to Henry himself. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard Furthermore, in a synod held in February of that year, Gregory clearly established the supreme power of the Catholic Church, with the Empire subjected to it. Henry replied with a counter-synod of his own. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard The beginning of the conflict known as the Investiture Controversy can be assigned to Christmas night of 1075: Gregory was kidnapped and imprisoned by Cencio I Frangipane, a Roman noble, while officiating at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Later freed by Roman people, Gregory accused Henry of having been behind the attempt. In the same year, the king had defeated a rebellion of Saxons in the First Battle of Langensalza, and was therefore free to accept the challenge. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard At Worms, on 24 January 1076, a synod of bishops and princes summoned by Henry declared Gregory VII deposed. Hildebrand replied by excommunicating the king and all the bishops named by him on 22 February 1076. In October of that year a diet of the German princes in Tribur attempted to find a settlement for the conflict, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard conceding Henry a year to repent from his actions, before the ratification of the excommunication that the pope was to sign in Swabia some months later. Henry did not repent, and, counting on the hostility showed by the Lombard clergy against Gregory, SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard decided to move to Italy. He left Speyer in December 1076, spent Christmas of that year in Besançon and, together with his wife and his son, he crossed the Alps with help of the Bishop of Turin and reached Pavia. DELL TR334 Laptop Keyboard Gregory, on his way to the diet of Augsburg, and hearing that Henry was approaching, took refuge in the castle of Canossa (near Reggio Emilia), belonging to Matilda. Henry's troops were nearby. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Henry's intent, however, was apparently to perform the penance required to lift his excommunication and ensure his continued rule. The choice of an Italian location for the act of repentance, instead of Augsburg, was not accidental: it aimed to consolidate the Imperial power in an area partly hostile to the Pope; to lead in person the prosecution of events; TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard and to oppose the pact signed by German feudataries and the Pope in Tribur with the strong German party that had deposed Henry at Worms, through the concrete presence of his army. SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard He stood in the snow outside the gates of the castle of Canossa for three days, from 25 January to 27 January 1077, begging the pope to rescind the sentence (popularly portrayed as without shoes, taking no food or shelter, and wearing ahairshirt - see Walk of Canossa). The Pope lifted the excommunication, imposing a vow to comply with certain conditions, which Henry soon violated. SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard

Civil war and recovery

Rudolf of Rheinfelden, a two-time brother-in-law of Henry along with allied German Aristocrats, took advantage of the momentary weakness of the king in what became known as the Great Saxon Revolt by having himself declared antiking by a council of Saxon, Bavarian, and Carinthian princes in March 1077 in Forchheim. Rudolf promised to respect the electoral concept of the monarchy and declared his willingness to submit to the pope. HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard Despite these difficulties, Henry's situation in Germany improved in the following years. When Rudolf was crowned king at Mainz in May 1077 by one of the plotters, Siegfried I, Archbishop of Mainz, the population revolted and forced him, the archbishop, and other nobles to flee to Saxony. Positioned there, Rudolf was geographically and then militarily deprived of his territories by Henry; HP Pavilion G60-118EM Laptop Keyboard ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard he was later stripped of Swabia as well. After the inconclusive battle of Mellrichstadt(7 August 1077) and the defeat of Henry's forces in the Flarchheim (27 January 1080) Gregory flip-flopped to support the revolt and launched a second anathema (excommunication) against Henry in March 1080, thereby supporting the anti-king Rudolph. However, l-keyboard.com/hp-g42-415dx-laptop-keyboard-ic.html">HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard the ample evidence that Gregory's actions were rooted in hate for the Emperor-elect instead of theology had an unfavourable personal impact on the Pope's reputation and authority, leading much of Germany to return to Henry's cause. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard On 14 October 1080 the armies of the two rival kings met at the Weisse Elster River in the battle of Elster,[4][5] in the plain of Leipzig and Henry's forces again suffered a military defeat, but won the battle with a strategic outcome— the anti-king Rudolf of Rheinfelden was mortally wounded and died the next day at nearby Merseburg, and the rebellion against Henry lost much of its momentum. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard Soon after, another anti-king, Hermann of Salm, arose as figurehead in the Great Saxon Revolt cause, but was fought successfully by Frederick I, Duke of Swabia(Frederick of Swabia) — Rudolf's Henry-appointed successor in Swabia who had married Henry's daughter Agnes of Germany. Henry convoked a synod of the highest German clergy in Bamberg and Brixen (June 1080). HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Here Henry had pope Gregory (he'd dubbed "The False Monk") again deposed and replaced by the primate ofRavenna, Guibert (now known as the antipope Clement III, though who was in the right was unclear in the day). HP Pavilion dv5-1104tu Laptop Keyboard Henry entered Pavia and was crowned here as King of Italy, receiving the Iron Crown. He also assigned a series of privileges to the Italian cities who had supported him, and marched against the hated Matilda of Tuscany, declaring her deposed for lese majesty and confiscating her possessions. Then he moved to Rome, which he besieged first in 1081: SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard he was however compelled to retire to Tuscany, where he granted privileges to various cities, and obtained monetary assistance (360,000 gold pieces)[6] from a new ally, the eastern emperor, Alexios I Komnenos, who aimed to thwart the Norman's aims against his empire. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard A second and equally unsuccessful attack on Rome was followed by a war of devastation in northern Italy with the adherents of Matilda; and towards the end of 1082 the king made a third attack on Rome. After a siege of seven months the Leonine City fell into his hands. A treaty was concluded with the Romans, who agreed that the quarrel between king and pope should be decided by a synod, TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7332 Laptop Keyboard and secretly bound themselves to induce Gregory to crown Henry as emperor, or to choose another pope. Gregory, however, shut up in Castel Sant'Angelo, would hear of no compromise; the synod was a failure, as Henry prevented the attendance of many of the pope's supporters; and the king, in pursuance of his treaty with Alexios, marched against the Normans. HP G62-361TX Laptop Keyboard The Romans soon fell away from their allegiance to the pope; and, recalled to the city, Henry entered Rome in March 1084, after which Gregory was declared deposed and Clement was recognized by the Romans. On 31 March 1084 Henry was crowned emperor by Clement, and received the patrician authority. His next step was to attack the fortresses still in the hands of Gregory.  DELL Inspiron 500m Laptop Keyboard The pope was saved by the advance of Robert Guiscard, duke of Apulia, who left the siege of Durazzo and marched towards Rome: Henry left the city and Gregory could be freed. The latter however died soon later at Salerno (1085), not before a last letter in which he exhorted the whole of Christianity to a crusade against the Emperor. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard The Emperor spent 1084 in a show of power in Germany, where the reforming instances had still ground due to the predication of Otto of Ostia, advancing up to Magdeburg in Saxony. He also declared the Peace of God in all the Imperial territories to quench any sedition. On 8 March 1088 Otto of Ostia was elected pope as Urban II: with Norman support, DELL Inspiron 1750 Laptop Keyboard he excommunicated Henry and Clement III, who was defined "a beast sprung out from the earth to wage war against the Saints of God". He also formed a large coalition against the Holy Roman Empire, HP Pavilion dv5-1126ee Laptop Keyboard including, aside from the Normans, the Rus ofKiev, the Lombard communes of Milan, Cremona, Lodi and Piacenza and Matilda of Canossa, who had remarried to Welf II of Bavaria, therefore creating a concentration of power too formidable to be neglected by the emperor. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5101CL Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1006tu Laptop Keyboard

Internecine wars and death

In 1088 Hermann of Salm died and Egbert II, Margrave of Meissen, a long-time enemy of the Emperor's, proclaimed himself the antiking's successor. Henry had him condemned by a Saxon diet and then a national one at Quedlinburg and Regensburgrespectively, ACER 9J.N1H82.01D Laptop Keyboard but was defeated by Egbert when a relief army came to the margrave's rescue during the siege of Gleichen. Egbert was murdered two years later (1090) and his ineffectual insurrection and royal pretensions fell apart. ACER Aspire 7520 Laptop Keyboard Henry then launched his third punitive expedition in Italy. After some initial success against the lands of Canossa, his defeat in 1092 caused the rebellion of the Lombard communes. The insurrection extended when Matilda managed to turn against him his elder son, Conrad, who was crowned King of Italy at Monza in 1093.  ACER TravelMate 242LC Laptop Keyboard The Emperor therefore found himself cut off from Germany. He could return there only in 1097: in Germany his power was still at its height. Matilda of Canossa had secretly transferred her property to the Church in 1089, before her marriage to Welf II of Bavaria (1072–1120). In 1095, a furious Welf left her and, together with his father, switched his allegiance to Henry IV, TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard possibly in exchange for a promise of succeeding his father as duke of Bavaria. Henry reacted by deposing Conrad at the diet of Mainz in April 1098, and designating his younger son Henry (future Henry V) as successor, under the oath sworn that he would never follow his brother's example. ACER Aspire 7336 Laptop Keyboard The situation in the Empire remained chaotic, worsened by the further excommunication against Henry launched by the new pope Paschal II, a follower of Gregory VII's reformation ideals elected in the August of 1099. APPLE MacBook pro 13 inch Laptop Keyboard But this time the Emperor, meeting with some success in his efforts to restore order, could afford to ignore the papal ban. A successful campaign in Flanders was followed in 1103 by a diet at Mainz, HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard where serious efforts were made to restore peace, and Henry IV himself promised to go on crusade. But this plan was shattered by the revolt of his son Henry in 1104, who, encouraged by the adherents of the pope, declared he owed no allegiance to an excommunicated father. Saxony and Thuringia were soon in arms, the bishops held mainly to the younger Henry, FUJITSU Lifebook E8310 Laptop Keyboard while the Emperor was supported by the towns. A desultory warfare was unfavourable, however, to the Emperor, who was taken as prisoner at an alleged reconciliation meeting at Koblenz. At a diet held in Mainz in December, Henry IV was forced to resign his crown, being subsequently imprisoned in the castle ofBöckelheim. Here he was also obliged to say that he had unjustly persecuted Gregory VII and to have illegally named Clement III as anti-pope. HP Pavilion G6-1B97CL Laptop Keyboard When these conditions became known in Germany, a strong dissent movement spread. In 1106 the loyal party set up a large army to fight Henry V and Paschal. Henry IV managed to escape to Cologne from his jail, finding considerable support in the lower Rhineland. He also entered into negotiations with England, France, and Denmark. ACER TravelMate 3002WTMi Laptop Keyboard Henry was also able to defeat his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, on 2 March 1106. However, he died soon afterwards after nine days of illness, while he was the guest of his friend Othbert, Bishop of Liège, at the age of 56. SONY 147859712 Laptop Keyboard His body was buried by the bishop of Liège with suitable ceremony, but by command of the papal legate it was unearthed, taken to Speyer and placed in the unconsecrated chapel of Saint Afra that was built on the side of the Imperial Cathedral. After being released from the sentence of excommunication, the remains were buried inSpeyer cathedral in August 1111. HP 383495-001 Laptop Keyboard Henry IV in later life displayed much diplomatic ability. His abasement at Canossa can be regarded as a move of policy to weaken the pope's position at the cost of a personal humiliation to himself. He was always regarded as a friend of the lower orders, was capable of generosity and gratitude, and showed considerable military skill and great chivalry.  ACER Aspire 2003WLMi Laptop Keyboard HP G61 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1032NR Laptop Keyboard

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Madagascar is a 2005 American computer-animated comedy film produced by DreamWorks Animation, and released in movie theaters on May 27, 2005. The film tells the story of four Central Park Zoo animals who have spent their lives in blissful captivity and are unexpectedly shipped back to Africa, getting shipwrecked on the island of Madagascar.Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

The voices of Ben Stiller, Jada Pinkett Smith, Chris Rock, and David Schwimmer are featured. Other voices include Sacha Baron Cohen, Cedric the Entertainer, and Andy Richter. Madagascar was released on DVD on November 15, 2005, along with the short film, The Madagascar Penguins in a Christmas CaperSony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

A Blu-ray Disc version was released on September 23, 2008. A sequel, Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, was released on November 7, 2008. The third film in the series, Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted, was released on June 8, 2012.

At the Central Park Zoo, Marty the zebra is celebrating his tenth birthday, Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

but longs to see the rest of the world from outside his pampered life at the zoo, believing that he can find wide-open spaces to run around in, like Connecticut. Marty's best friend, Alex the lion attempts to cheer up his friend by singing Frank Sinatra's "New York, New York" with him. Still unsatisfied, Marty gets some tips from the zoo's penguins; Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

Skipper, Kowalski, Rico and Private. The penguins are similarly trying to escape the zoo. Marty's friends—Alex the lion, Melman the giraffe and Gloria the hippopotamus—realize Marty's folly and try to follow him. The four, along with the penguins and the chimpanzees Mason and his silent friend Phil eventually find themselves at Grand Central Station, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

but are quickly sedated by tranquilizer darts when Alex's attempt to communicate with humans is mistaken for aggression. The zoo (under pressure from animal-rights activists) is forced to ship the animals, by sea, to a Kenyan wildlife preserve. During their travels, the penguins escape from their enclosure and take over the ship, intent on taking it to Antarctica.Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery

Their antics on the bridge cause the crates containing Alex, Marty, Melmen, and Gloria to fall off the boat and wash ashore on Madagascar.

The animals are soon able to regroup, initially believing themselves to be in San Diego, California. Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery

Upon exploring, however, they come across a pack of lemurs led by King Julien XIII, and quickly learn of their true location. Alex blames Marty for their predicament and attempts to signal for help to get back to civilization. Marty, on the other hand, finds the wild to be exactly what he was looking for, with Gloria and Melman soon joining him in enjoying the island.Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery

Alex eventually comes around, though his hunting instincts begin to show; he has been away from the pampered zoo life of prepacked steaks for too long. The group is accepted by the lemurs, though King Julien's adviser, Maurice, cautions them about Alex's predatory nature.Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery

King Julien ignores Maurice's concerns and persuades the group to help the lemurs fend off the fossa, who hunt the lemurs as prey. While initially Alex scares the fossa away and is worshiped by the lemurs, he later falls under his instincts and attacks Marty. Realizing that Alex is now a threat to them, Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

King Julien banishes Alex to the far side of the island, where the fossa live. Marty begins to regret his decision to leave the zoo, seeing what Alex has turned into.

The penguins, having been to Antarctica and found that it "sucks," land the boat on Madagascar. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

Seeing this as a chance to return Alex to New York, Marty rushes after his friend against the wishes of the others. Marty attempts to convince the now grizzled, starving Alex to return by using the "New York" song but Alex refuses in fear of attacking him again. The penguins, Gloria and Melman go to find Marty, but are trapped by the fossa. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

At the last minute, Alex finally overcomes his predatory nature and scares the fossa away from the lemur territory forever. The lemurs regain their respect for Alex and the penguins help him satisfy his hunger through sushi instead of steak. As the lemurs throw a bon voyage celebration for the foursome, Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

the penguins decide not to break the news that the ship has run out of fuel and that they are still stuck on the island, setting the stage for Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa.

Alex the Lion is the most popular animal at the Central Park Zoo. Nicknamed The King of New York, he is very happy with life in the zoo. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

When the characters first arrive in Madagascar, he is the loudest proponent of trying to return to the zoo. He is extremely fond of eating steaks but has no idea that they come from animals until he goes into withdrawal after 2 days of not eating after reaching Madagascar.

Marty the Zebra is the instigator behind escaping from the zoo. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

He constantly dreams about the wild (which he, due to Melman's misinformation, interprets asConnecticut) and wonders what life would be like beyond the zoo. One night, following the successful escape of the penguins, he leaves the zoo too, causing his friends to attempt a rescue at Grand Central Station. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

After they are recaptured from the train station, animal rights activists hold a rally, leading the zoo to have them and the rest of the animals shipped to a wildlife preserve in Kenya. However, the penguins hijack the ship and accidentally cause the crates containing Marty and his friends to fall off. The crates float on the ocean until they reach Madagascar. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

Melman the Giraffe is a hypochondriac who was transferred to the Central Park Zoo as a young adult. Because of his previous stay in the Bronx Zoo, Melman believes that he's a real worldly guy, the most experienced in his circle of friends. He's also on a lot of medication and has lots of experience in MRI machines. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

Gloria the Hippopotamus serves as the mediator and the nurturer of the group who takes care of the others and tends to take charge when needed and loves to eat and live the good life.

The Penguins, a group of four consisting of Skipper, Rico, Kowalski, and Private, spend their days planning an escape that will take them back to Antarctica. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

When the penguins do make it to Antarctica, they are surprised to see a cold, barren land that they do not like and so, decide to take the ship to what they consider "paradise": Florida. However, having run out of fuel, they beach the ship in Madagascar. Skipper is the leader of the group. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

Kowalski, the smartest and tallest of the penguins, thinks of plans and takes notes for Skipper. Private is distinguishable by his googly eyes and soft English accent; he is the youngest of the group. Rico is good with knives, has a fondness for explosives, and is the only one of the four seen swimming. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

He also regurgitates useful objects (a variation of the "magic satchel") such as a piece of wire for picking locks with. Alex describes the penguins as psychotic (while they say the same of him). Skipper calls Marty their "monochromatic friend", amusing since both kinds of animals are "black and white".Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

King Julien XIII the Ring-tailed Lemur is the self-proclaimed King of the Madagascar lemurs. Julien speaks with an Indian accent and loves to sing, dance, and be the center of attention. Julien is annoyed by the lemur Mort and even suggests feeding him to Alex in order to help him get over his addiction to steak. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

He wears a crown made out of leaves, and later a larger one that features a gecko. The other lemurs hang on his every word. He is slightly deranged and overly impressed by his modest intellect. Julien is also very weird and dramatic. He contrives a plan to use Alex to protect the lemurs from their natural enemies, thefossa, as long as Alex doesn't overshadow his own glory.Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

Also, according to the song "I Like to Move It" King Julien XIII is about 68 (or six to eight?) years old. According to a May 26, 2005 interview with Director Tom McGrath in the Seattle Post Intelligencer, "We had this two-line character, Julian [sic], and we got a tape of the show 'Ali G' with Sacha Baron Cohen. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

He came in and he invented this Indian accent. We gave him a couple of lines and he turned them into eight minutes of dialogue. We were just in tears on the floor and thought, 'This guy has to be the king.' So that was just a two-line part that he invented and it turned into that role."[1] Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

Maurice the Aye-aye is Julien's assistant and second in command of the lemurs. He is in charge of announcing Julien to his court, though he finds this task tedious. He is generally less impressed by Julien than the other lemurs. Maurice shows the most intelligence in Julien's court, and is the only one to recognize Alex as a potentially greater threat than the fossa. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

Mort is a Mouse lemur that most animals find adorable, but King Julien is highly annoyed by him, eventually shouting "Oh, shut up, you're so annoying!" in response to his inane chatter. Mort responds to this by giggling and looking flattered. He has an obsession with feet; to be precise, King Julien's feet. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

In the commentary for the film, the director mentioned that Mort was actually 35, despite his childish behavior.The Fossas are predators native to Madagascar, who resemble hyenas or half-cat half-dog creatures. Known as the top predators in the island of Madagascar, the fossa are the villains of the movie, constantly trying to kill and eat the lemurs. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

According to Julien, "they're always annoying us by trespassing, interrupting our parties, and ripping our limbs off". They are cowards, however, and always flee when confronted by a bigger predator, such as Alex. They also use foreign objects such as salt and pepper shakers. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

Despite appearances, the pronunciation in the film ("foo-sah") is accurate, however the spelling (Foosa or Fousa) is not, as shown in one of the signs on the island.

Mason and Phil are the sophisticated chimpanzees at the Central Park Zoo, preferring to "read" the newspaper and enjoy a cup of coffee in the morning; Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

for them, freedom means attending a Tom Wolfe lecture to "fling poo at him." Mason speaks with a RP accent and plans the daily affairs for Phil and himself, but is unable to read. He is named for James Mason, whose voice inspired the character's portrayal. Phil doesn't speak, making him initially seem less intelligent and more primitive than his comrade, Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

but can read English and "speaks" American Sign Language (which he uses to communicate with Mason), which instills the idea that Phil is perhaps the more cerebral of the two. Both escape from the zoo in the beginning of the movie after Alex, Gloria, and Melman leave for Grand Central Station; they are later caught at Grand Central trying to rob a teller. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

They are also sent to the wildlife reserve along with the main characters. Unlike the main characters, they don't wash up on the shores of Madagascar, however they do appear in the background of the final scene in their crate on the ship. In their first scene in the movie, they raid a waste basket for leftover coffee, a bagel, and a newspaper. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

Their crate on the ship is full of aluminum cans (in the DVD, it is indicated that they contain root beer, not beer, likely implemented in order to make the film more family-friendly). According to a May 26, 2005 interview with Director Tom McGrath in the Seattle Post Intelligencerthe chimp's "first scene was just deciphering the code on the shipping label. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

We got this girl who knew American Sign Language. We wanted (the gestures) to be really frenetic so she signed out, 'Tell the tiny pea-brained birds that the sign reads: Ship to ...' and it gave us enough hand gestures. Then we went back to 'I see that Tom Wolfe is speaking at Lincoln Center,' and she gestured, 'Can we throw our poo at his stupid white suit?'".Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

Critical reception

The film gained mixed reviews from critics, from excellent to terrible. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film received a 55% approval rating based on 178 reviews.[3] On Rotten Tomatoes' "Cream of the Crop", 37% of critics gave positive reviews based on 35 reviews.[4] Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

On Metacritic, the film has 57% approval rating based on 36 reviews falling under the "Mixed or Average" category.[5]

Box office

Despite the mixed response from critics, the film was a commercial success. On its opening weekend, Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

the film grossed $47,224,594 with a $11,431 average from 4,131 theaters making it the number 3 movie of that weekend behind Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith and The Longest Yard.[6] However, the film managed to claim the top position in the U.S. box office the following week with a gross of $28,110,235.[7] Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

In the United States, the film eventually grossed $193,595,521, and in foreign areas grossed $339,085,150 with a summative worldwide gross of $532,680,671.[8] As of July 2010, the film is the eighth highest-grossing DreamWorks animated feature behind Shrek 2Shrek the ThirdShrekSony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery

Shrek Forever AfterHow to Train Your DragonKung Fu Panda, and Monsters vs. Aliens.

Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa (or simply just Madagascar 2, known in early development trailer as Madagascar: The Crate Escape) is a 2008 American computer-animated comedy film written by Etan Cohen, Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery

and directed by Eric Darnell andTom McGrath. This sequel to the 2005 film Madagascar continues the adventures of Alex the Lion, Marty the Zebra, Melman the Giraffe, and Gloria the Hippo. It stars the voices of Ben Stiller, Chris Rock, David Schwimmer,Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

Jada Pinkett Smith,Sacha Baron Cohen, Cedric the Entertainer, and Andy Richter. Also providing voices are Bernie Mac, Alec Baldwin, Sherri Shepherd, Elisa Gabrielli, and will.i.am. It was produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by Paramount Pictures, and was released on November 7, 2008. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

The film starts as a prequel, showing a small part of Alex's early life, including his capture by hunters. It soon moves to shortly after the point where the original left off, with the animals deciding to return to New York. They board an airplane in Madagascar, but crash-land in Africa, Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery

where each of the central characters meets others of the same species; Alex is reunited with his parents. Problems arise, and their resolution occupies much of the remainder of the film.

The film won the 2009 Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Animated Movie.[2] The film was released posthumously after the death of Bernie Mac who voices "Zuba The Lion." Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery

The movie reads: For our friend Bernie Mac, thanks for all the laughterin the final credits.

As a cub, Alex the Lion was called Alakay and was the son of Zuba (voiced by Bernie Mac), the alpha lion. Though Zuba tries to teach Alakay to be a hunter, the cub is more interested in dancing, and is captured by poachers when Makunga (voiced by Alec Baldwin), Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery

Zuba's rival, challenges Zuba to a fight for the position of alpha lion. Alakay is forced into a crate, and taken away despite Zuba's attempts to rescue him. The crate falls into the ocean where it drifts to New York. There, Alakay is renamed Alex and sent to the Central Park Zoo where he grew up, Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery

meeting Marty the Zebra, Melman the Giraffe, and Gloria the Hippopotamus. The events of the first film are then described through a series of news flashes.

In the present time, Alex the Lion (voiced by Ben Stiller), Marty the Zebra (voiced by Chris Rock), Melman the Giraffe (voiced by David Schwimmer), Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

Gloria the Hippopotamus (voiced by Jada Pinkett Smith), the Penguins Skipper (voiced by Tom McGrath), Kowalski (voiced by Chris Miller), Private (voiced by Christopher Knights), and Rico (voiced by John DiMaggio), the Chimpanzees Mason (voiced by Conrad Vernon) and Phil, and even the Lemurs King Julien (voiced by Sacha Baron Cohen), Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

Maurice (voiced by Cedric the Entertainer), and Mort (voiced by Andy Richter) board a repaired airplane to fly back to New York. The plane takes off, but crash-lands in continental Africa. In Africa the animals are amazed to find more of their kind. Alex is reunited with Zuba and his mother. Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery

Marty fits in with a herd of zebra who all look and sound exactly like him. Hypochondriac Melman becomes a witch doctor. Gloria, attracts the attention of a smooth-talking hippo named Moto Moto (voiced by will.i.am).

Meanwhile, the penguins set about repairing the plane. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery

They carjack several jeeps under "Operation Tourist Trap", leaving the tourists stranded in the jungle. Nana (voiced by Elisa Gabrielli), a tough old woman known for beating up Alex in the first film, takes charge of the group ("We are Survivors!").

Unfortunately, life in Africa is not as wonderful as it first seemed. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery

Makunga, still determined to take the position of alpha lion, reminds Zuba that Alex must complete a traditional coming-of-age challenge that he did not complete. Alex, thinking that the challenge is a dance contest (it is actually a fight) competes against the strongest lion, Teetsi (voiced by Fred Tatasciore) who was recommended by Makunga and loses quickly.Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery

To avoid banishing his own son for failing, Zuba relinquishes his title as Alpha lion. Makunga immediately takes the position and ousts Alex and his family. Marty, meanwhile, begins to feel upset because there is nothing unique about him. Melman is happy until he learns that he has the same symptoms that apparently caused the previous witch doctor to die. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

Melman is also forlorn about Gloria dating Moto Moto, as Melman has secretly loved her for a long time. Gloria goes on a date with Moto Moto and quickly realizes that he only loves her for her large body.

The next day, the animals panic when the watering hole dries up. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

Determined to make up for his earlier failure, Alex and Marty leave the reserve to investigate. They discover that the stranded New Yorkers, under the instruction of Nana, have dammed up the river and built a primitive civilization. Alex is captured by a trap, forcing Marty to abandon him to seek help. Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery

Meanwhile, Zuba hears from Makunga what Alex did and goes to assist him.

Back on the reserve, King Julien suggests that the animals offer a sacrifice in the volcano, Mount Kilimanjaro, to appease the water gods. Believing that he will die soon, Melman volunteers to be sacrificed. Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery

Gloria stops him just in time and Marty arrives to tell them about Alex. The trio, the penguins, and several chimpanzees use the newly-fixed plane to execute a rescue.

However, Alex has already managed to rescue both himself and his father by dancing for the New Yorkers, who fondly remember him from the zoo. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery

The other animals arrive to pick them up with the plane (redesigned as a helicopter), and together they all destroy the dam, freeing the water.

Meanwhile, back at the volcano, Mort turns up after being chased through the jungle by a shark. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery

The shark falls into the volcano, completing the sacrifice (Maurice says "I hope the gods like seafood.") and causing King Julien to think that he brought back the water.

As the watering hole fills, Makunga angrily makes a stand for control. However, Alex manages to remove Makunga from power by tricking Nana into attacking him. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery

Zuba gives the alpha position to Alex, but Alex refuses, resulting in both father and son becoming co-leaders.

The movie ends as Skipper marries a bobble-head hula doll from the plane and leaves on a honeymoon in Monte Carlo with the chimpanzees, and a huge tub of diamonds and gold, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery

leaving Alex, Marty, Melman, Gloria and The Lemurs to happily remain in Africa with Alex's parents.

The film received generally mixed to positive reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes reported that 64% of critics gave the film a positive review, based on 146 reviews, Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery

with the consensus view that the film was "an improvement on the original, with more fleshed-out characters, crisper animation and more consistent humor," and with an average rating of 5.9/10.[3] Another review aggregator, Metacritic classified the film into the "generally favorable reviews" category with 61/100 approval rating based on 24 reviews, also a bit higher a score than the original.[4] Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery

Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune stated in his review that the film "goes easy on the pop culture jokes, I should clarify: one of the smarter things in the script is how Alex, who digs his Bob Fosse and Jerome Robbins dance moves, becomes the film's primary pop-cult gag."Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Timesgave the film 3 stars and wrote "This is a brighter, more engaging film than the original Madagascar.[6] Steven D. Greydanus complained the film's plot was similar to The Lion KingJoe Vs. The Volcano, and Happy FeetSony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Carrie Rickey of the Philadelphia Inquirer gave the film 2 stars and wrote "Take the flat tire that was Madagascar. Retread it with The Lion King storyline. Pump it up with air. Now you have Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa."[8] John Anderson gave the film 3½ approval rating and stated "Madagascar 2: Escape to AfricaSony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery

the sequel to the enormously successful DreamWorks adventure and a film that hews close to the wholeLion King/species-as-destiny/self-fulfillment paradigm."Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted (also known simply as Madagascar 3) is a 2012 American 3D computer-animatedcomedy film, produced by DreamWorks Animation, and distributed by Paramount Pictures.Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery

It is the third installment of theseries, following Madagascar and Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, and it is the first film in the series to be released in 3D. The film is directed by Eric Darnell, Tom McGrath and Conrad Vernon. The film's world premiere was at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival on May 18, 2012. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery

Released on June 8, 2012, it is the best-reviewed Madagascar film in the series, with a 75% "Certified Fresh" approval rating from the review aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes.[5] It also became a box office success with a worldwide gross of over $500 million.

The story continues from the events of the second film. Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery

Alex (Ben Stiller) has a nightmare about himself and his friends still stranded in Africa and finding they have all gotten old. Awaking from his dream, Alex suggests to Marty (Chris Rock), Melman (David Schwimmer), and Gloria (Jada Pinkett Smith) that they should go to Monte Carlo to get the penguins to fly them back to New York City, which they agree to. Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

In Monte Carlo, the penguins and the two chimpanzees, Mason and Phil, disguising as the King of Versailles, keep winning in gambling until Alex's gang's attempt to reach them blunders and sparks chaos in the Hotel De Paris. The hotel security calls Monaco Animal Control officer Captain Chantel DuBois (Frances McDormand) to deal with the animals. Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery

But rather than capture them alive, DuBois desires their heads, mainly Alex's, as trophies. During a high-speed chase between the relentless DuBois and the animals in a truck driven by the penguins to reach their aircraft that was from the second film, the animals barely manage to elude her. Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery

In the skies of France, the plane's engines fail and the plane crashes into a suburban rail yard as the authorities close in. Seeing their only chance of escape is on a circus train, the four larger animals desperately claim that they are circus animals themselves, which convinces circus mates Stefano the sea lion (Martin Short) Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery

and Gia the jaguar (Jessica Chastain) to let them in despite the protests of Vitaly the tiger (Bryan Cranston). The animals soon learn from Stefano that they are performing in Rome and London, where they plan to impress a promoter to get them on their first American tour. Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery

Before the zoo animals' claim is discredited, the penguins suddenly appear with a deal to purchase the circus themselves, resulting in the pleased departure of all the humans. Meanwhile, Julien (Sacha Baron Cohen) falls in love with Sonya the bear (Frank Welker) and goes on a city tour across Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery

Rome while the others prepare for the performance at the Colosseum. Unfortunately, to the zoo animals' horror, the circus proves to be so terrible, the angered audience demands refunds, right to going to the point of chasing the circus to the departing train to London.

En route to London, the zoo gang is in despair of having wasted their money on the failing circus and not any closer to getting home. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

Stefano soon reveals to Alex that Vitaly was once their inspiration. Once a professional ring jumper who used to leap through incrementally smaller flaming hoops to excite crowds and was always pushing himself to the limit, his attempt at an impossible jump through a flaming pinkie ring ended in disaster when he burned his fur, Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

which he had coated in extra virgin, and flammable, olive oil in order to slip through the narrow opening, destroying his confidence in his talent and the whole circus suffered by his example. An inspired Alex then has the train make a stop in the Alpsand convinces the performers to rework their act to Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery

become the opposite of the successful human-only Cirque du Soleil as an animal-only circus. Heartened by Alex's vision, the zoo animals and the circus animals develop sophisticated acts together and becoming closer friends in the process, especially Alex and Gia who find themselves falling in love. Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

Meanwhile, DuBois is arrested & detained in Rome after causing problems with the local police officers while chasing the animals out of her jurisdiction when attempting to get to the Coliseum the very night they'd been in Rome, but escapes and researches Alex on the Internet, learning he was the missing lion from the zoo in New York. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery

Once free, DuBois recruits her injured men and heads toward the Alps, forcing the animals to proceed to London despite incomplete rehearsals. In London, the troupe prepares for the promoter in the audience, but Vitaly is discovered packing to leave. Despite the tiger's hostility to him, Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery

Alex convinces Vitaly to stay by reminding him of how he enjoys performing the impossible and suggests that he uses hair conditioner as a safer lubricant to perform his flaming ring jump. As a result, Vitaly's stunt is performed perfectly, which proves to be the opening of a spectacularly successful show. Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery

After the impressed promoter arranges for an American tour, DuBois shows up with a paper showing that Alex was missing. Though the penguins are able to foil DuBois's plan to capture Alex, the lion is forced to confess that the four of them are just zoo animals trying to get home, Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

disappointing the others who feel used by these lying amateurs who could have gotten them killed developing and performing their new acts.

Finally, both the ashamed zoo animals and the circus arrive in New York City. However, Gia, Vitaly and Stephano find that even after learning the truth about Alex's gang, Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery

they are ready to forgive their new friends without whom their lives and performances feel woefully incomplete. Likewise, the zoo group and Julien finally arrive at the gates of the closed Central Park Zoo, only to realize that their time outside had changed them too much for them to return to captivity. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery

Unfortunately, they are then tranquilized and captured by DuBois. The zoo staff, delighted by Alex's reappearance, thank DuBois, incorrectly believing that she was trying to return the missing animals. Unnoticed, Julien manages to reach the circus (despite being darted by DuBois) and the penguins realize that the group had been ambushed. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery

Upon learning about the zoo animals' plight, Gia and Vitaly convince the circus animals to rescue their friends and they set out for the zoo, performing aboard a flying circus, with the rescue mission dubbed "Operation: Afro Circus Rescue."

Meanwhile at the zoo, Alex awakens to find that he along with Marty, Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery

Melman, and Gloria are in their enclosures, surrounded by tall chain-link fences to keep them from escaping again. DuBois steps on stage to receive a million-dollar check of appreciation from the zoo, but at the same time secretly loads a poison-filled dart into a gun which she hides inside a foam finger in preparation to kill Alex. Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

The circus animals arrive in time to stop her and a massive brawl occurs where the circus uses all of what they had developed as part of their revamped act. As the group tries to leave, DuBois attempts to kill Stefano, who is stranded at the zoo. However, Alex saves Stefano and all the animals then defeat DuBois and escape. Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery

Realizing that they truly belong with their new friends, Alex and his friends decide to join the circus permanently. With the circus reunited, the animals all happily proceed with their American tour. Meanwhile DuBois and her men find themselves, oddly enough just like Alex and his friends in the first film, Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

inside crates on a cargo ship bound for the island of Madagascar.

Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted has received positive reviews from critics. Based on 85 reviews, the film currently holds a "Certified Fresh" rating of 75% on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, with an average rating of 6.7/10. Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery

The site's critical consensus reads "Dazzlingly colorful and frenetic, Madagascar 3 is silly enough for young kids, but boasts enough surprising smarts to engage parents along the way."[5] This marks the best general review consensus of the film series that has showed improving critical favor with the original film having an score of 55%,Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

and the sequel scoring 64%.[14] On Metacritic, it currently holds a score of 59 out of 100, based on 24 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews."[15]

Lisa Kennedy of The Denver Post gave the film 3.5 out of 4 stars and said, "From time to time the improbable occurs: A sequel outdoes its original."[16] Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery

Colin Covert of Star Tribune said that Madagascar 3 set a high standard for cartoon comedy and was almost too good for kids. He gave it 3.5 out of 4 stars.[17]

Giving the film 3.5 out of 5 stars, Betsy Sharkey of Los Angeles Times said, "A neon-saturated, Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery

high-flying trapeze act with enough frenetic funny business that it's a wonder the folks behind this zillion-dollar franchise about zoo critters on the lam didn't send the animals to the circus sooner."[18]

Stephen Witty of the Newark Star-Ledger calls the movie "fun and fast family entertainment. [...] the animals' jazzy circus performance, Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery

done in black-lightcolors and set to a Katy Perry song — may be one of the trippiest scenes in a mainstream kiddie movie since Dumbo saw those pink elephants."[19]Michael Dequina of TheMovieReport.com said the franchise "finally—and, to be frank, very unexpectedly—breaks from pleasantly watchable kid-friendly mediocrity to visually imaginative, consistently witty all-ages entertainment."[20] Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery

During the week preceding Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted's release, there were many contradicting opinions on whether it would out-gross Prometheus during its simultaneous release. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery

As of June 6, 2012, Fandango reported that Prometheus was leading with 42% of daily sales, while Madagascar 3 was responsible for 35% of daily sales. Additionally, the online tracking for Prometheus surged with each new piece of promotional footage.[21] However, pre-release tracking is usually less reliable for animated films; Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery

since Madagascar 3 was the first truly family-oriented film of the summer, many speculated that there would be large demand for it.[22] The official DreamWorks Animation and Paramount prediction placed Madagascar 3 at about $45 million, while 20th Century Fox predicted around $30 million for Prometheus.[23] Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery

As the weekend came closer, pre-release audience surveys suggested a $55 million debut for Madagascar 3 and $50-$55 million forPrometheus.[24] Madagascar 3 also had the advantage of a wider release (4,258 theaters against 3,394 theaters for Prometheus). Furthermore, the R rating of the latter was also considered a limiting obstacle.[25] Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery

The film has grossed $209,709,815 in North America, and $291,500,000 in other countries, as of July 30, 2012, for a worldwide total of $501,209,815.[4]

In North America, the film made $20.7 million on its opening day, which was higher than the opening day grosses of the original film ($13.9 million) and itssequel ($17.6 million). Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery

For its opening weekend, the film ranked at the #1 spot, beating Prometheus, with $60.3 million, which was more than the original film's $47.2 million, but less than the sequel's $63.1 million.[27] It remained at the #1 spot for two consecutive weekends.[28]

Outside North America, on its opening weekend, Madagascar 3 topped the box office with $77.3 million from 28 countries. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery

It was in first place for three consecutive weekends.[30][31] Its three highest-grossing openings occurred in Russia and the CIS ($15.7 million), China ($10.4 million) and Brazil ($10.1 million in 5 days). It set an opening-day record for animated films in Russia, with $3.7 million, and became the highest-grossing animated film and the third highest-grossing film of all time,Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery

earning more than $48 million.[34] It also set an opening-weekend record for any film in Argentina with $3.80 million[35](surpassed by Ice Age: Continental Drift)[36] and it set opening-weekend records for animated films in Brazil, Venezuela, Trinidad,[37] and the United Arab Emirates. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Tom McGrath explained in an interview that the intention of Madagascar was not to take a political stance on whether "zoos are bad and the wild is better, or that the wild is bad", but to show "the most extreme 'fish out of water' story that [they] could do".McGrath stated "the basic irony to the story is that, Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery

you think animals do belong in the wild, but if they're so accustomed to civility, they wouldn't know where food even came from", and the animals were meant to "love the zoo and to love where they are because they've got" 5,000 square feet (460 m2) "right off Fifth Avenue".[1] Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

McGrath also described, during the research of Madagascar, they "found these crazy, weird animals that were already cartoons in their own right."

Alakay "Alex" is a lion and the main protagonist of the films. He is voiced by Ben Stiller in the film series and by Wally Wingert in the games. Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery

Alex is headstrong, the de facto leader of his friends and is best friends with Marty (Zebra). He is used to the life of comfort in the zoo, but learns to adapt to the wild. He's smart, quick thinking and fast on his feet. He is a dancer by nature, often impressing others with his aerobatic feats. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery

He does tend to be a little self-absorbed, often not seeing the problems of others above his own.

Alex enjoys his life at the zoo, and is surprised when hearing Marty's wish to leave and live in the wild. As a cub, Alex was born on an African wildlife reserve and named Alakay. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

He was the son of the alpha lion, Zuba, and was constantly given lessons on hunting, though he displayed no interest in the activity. During one of the sessions, Alex was captured by poachers, but the crate he was contained in fell into a river and eventually floated to New York. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

He is found by humans and taken to the Central Park Zoo. InMadagascar, after Marty (Alex's best friend) leaves in an effort to take a train to the wild, Alex, Gloria, and Melman pursue him and are shot with tranquilizer darts by humans. The animal-rights activists pressure the zoo into releasing them back into the wild, but on the ship to the preserve, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

Alex and his friends fall into the ocean. They wash ashore on Madagascar, and, while Marty is excited to be free, Alex wishes to go home. He grows very hungry after days of being unable to eat, not realizing that steak is animal flesh. Hunger drives Alex into a crazed state, and after almost killing Marty in hunger Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

(by biting him on the butt when he thought it was a piece of steak), in a moment of lucidity, he goes into self-imposed exile, barricading himself in the fossa territory of the island. Marty pursues him, unwilling to leave his friend, but is attacked by the fossa, the native predators of Madagascar. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

Alex works to defend Marty, and is later given sushi by the penguins to satiate his hunger.

In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa, Alex encounters his parents, Zuba and Florrie, who are overjoyed to see their son and in the end, he becomes co-alpha lion alongside his father. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

Zuba assumes Alex is strong after hearing he is the "king" of New York and arranges a rite of passage into the pride. Makunga, Zuba's rival, persuades Alex to challenge Teetsi during the Alex's rite of passage. Teetsi was revealed to be a bulky, strong lion and Alex is quickly defeated by him. Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

To keep from banishing Alex, Zuba transfers his control to Makunga, and in turn, he, Florrie, and Alex are banished. Zuba soon grows unaccepting of Alex after realizing he is not a fierce warrior. The next day, the watering hole is shown to be dried up and Alex leaves with Marty to find out the cause. Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

They leave the safety of the reserve, prompting Zuba to follow Alex and bring him back. Alex discovers that the stranded New Yorkers had created a dam, and through the use of dancing, he is recognized by the attacking New Yorkers. With the help of others, the dam is destroyed and they return to the preserve. Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

His father learns to respect his habits, and they remain in Africa instead of flying home with the penguins. In The Penguins of Madagascar in a Christmas Caper, a stuffed animal Alex is seen briefly and its head is quickly dismembered by Nana's toy poodle, Mr. Chew. Alex has small cameos with his friend celebrating Christmas and singing a version of "Jingle Bells".Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

The fact that Alex loses the challenge to Teetsi and is spanked by Nana in Madagascar gives him the impression he is a horrible fighter, but this is not true, because (in the Nana case), she only gets Alex by surprise, but was more visible when in Madagascar 2, he has a short, but equilibrated fight against Nana. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

Alex is shown to have a superhuman level of interior physical strength, seeing that he broke the zoo's public telephone, and lifts Melman, Marty and Gloria with relative ease.

Alex made another appearance in "The Return of the Revenge of Dr. Blowhole." Wally Wingert reprises his role from the video games. Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

In the show, he appeared as a hallucination "spirit guide" to help Skipper, whose memories had been stolen by the evil Dr. Blowhole. At first, Skipper thought he was very talkative and annoying, but soon he accepted his guidance, especially when he had to face Blowhole when he got back to New York City. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery


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The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers is a 2002 epic fantasy filmdirected by Peter Jackson based on thesecond volume of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. It is the second film in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, preceded by The Fellowship of the Ring (2001) and concluding with The Return of the King (2003). Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery

Continuing the plot of The Fellowship of the Ring, the film intercuts three storylines. Frodo and Sam continue their journey towards Mordor to destroy the One Ring, meeting and joined by Gollum, the ring's former owner. Aragorn,Legolas, and Gimli come to the war-torn nation of Rohan and are reunited with the resurrected Gandalf, before fighting at the Battle of Helm's Deep. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery

Merry and Pippin escape capture, meet Treebeard the Ent, and help to plan an attack onIsengard.

Meeting high critical acclaim, the film was an enormous box-office success, earning over $900 million worldwide and is currently the 19th highest-grossing film of all time (inflation-adjusted, it is the 60th most successful film in North America[4]). Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery

The film won two Academy Awards.

Gandalf the Grey gives his life in battle against the Balrog, giving the Fellowship of the Ring time to escape from theMines of Moria.

Weeks later, Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee continue their journey to Mordor to destroy the One Ring and, with it, the Dark Lord Sauron. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery

One night, they are attacked by Gollum, who possessed the Ring for centuries before losing it to Frodo's uncle Bilbo, and who now seeks to get it back. Frodo and Sam capture Gollum, but Frodo takes pity on him, understanding the burden of the Ring. Requiring a guide, Frodo persuades Gollum to lead them to Mordor. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

Sam, however, despises Gollum on sight and warns Frodo that the wily creature will betray them.

In Rohan, Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli pursue the Uruk-hai, who have taken Merry and Pippin prisoner. Meanwhile, KingThéoden of Rohan has been entranced by Gríma Wormtongue, who is secretly in the service of Saruman the White. Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery

Incited by Saruman, Orcs and Wild Men of Dunland lay siege to the lands. Théoden's nephew Éomer accuses Gríma of being a spy; Gríma has him banished for undermining him. Éomer sets forth to the countryside to gather the remaining loyal men of the Rohirrim. Éomer's army later ambush and kill the Uruk-hai holding Merry and Pippin. Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery

Merry and Pippin flee intoFangorn forest and meet Treebeard, the oldest of the Ents.

Frodo, Sam and Gollum traverse the Dead Marshes, evading a Nazgûl. Upon reaching the Black Gate, they find it closed and guarded by Orcs. Gollum convinces the pair that attempting to enter the gate will lead to their capture, offering instead to lead them to an unguarded entrance. Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery

After being informed by Éomer of his ambush against the Uruk-hai, Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli find Merry and Pippin's trail. The trio are confronted by Gandalf, reborn as Gandalf the White after dying in battle with the Balrog. Gandalf joins with the trio as they journey to Edoras. Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery

After arriving, they free Théoden from Gríma's spell, and tell the king about the death of his son Théodred. After mourning his son, Théoden decides to move his people to the stronghold Helm's Deep for safety. Fearing Helm's Deep will not survive, Gandalf leaves to find Éomer and his forces. Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery

Gríma flees to Orthanc and informs Saruman of a weakness in the outer wall of Helm's Deep. Saruman dispatches his vast army to the stronghold.

Meanwhile, Gollum struggles with his loyalty to Frodo and his consuming need for the Ring.Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery

When Sam and Frodo are captured by Rangers of Ithilien, Frodo reveals Gollum's presence to spare his life; Gollum nevertheless feels betrayed, and begins plotting against his new "master". As Théoden's forces travel to Helm's Deep, they are attacked by Saruman'sWarg riders and Aragorn is thrown from a cliff and believed to be dead. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery

In Rivendell, Elrond convinces his daughterArwen to abandon her love for Aragorn and leave Middle-earth with her fellow Elves. Aragorn, meanwhile, feels conflicted about his love for Arwen and his growing feelings for Théoden's niece, Éowyn.

Learning of Frodo's Ring, the Rangers' captain, Faramir, orders that it be sent to Gondor.Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery

In Rohan, Aragorn washes up on a river bank and makes his way to Helm's deep. Theoden gathers every man possible to fight against Saruman's army of Uruk-hai. When night falls a battalion of elves arrive to re-enforce the men of Rohan. In Fangorn Forest, Merry, Pippin, Treebeard and other Ents hold a council to decide on the role of the Ents in the war with Saruman. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery

The battle of Helm's Deep begins between the Uruk-Hai and Rohirrim with Aragorn and his companions. Explosives are used against the weakness in the wall, allowing the Orcs to breach the fortress. In Fangorn, Treebeard and the other Ents initially refuse to get involved in the war until Pippin shows them that Saruman has decimated the forest; Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery

enraged, Treebeard commands the Ents to seek vengeance. Aragorn leads Théoden, Legolas and the remaining Rohirrim to attack the Uruk-hai army, allowing the Rohirrim's women and children to escape into the mountains. Gandalf appears, accompanied by Éomer and his men. The combined forces cause the Uruk-hai to flee into Fangorn, where the Ents and their Huorn allies attack them. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery

At Isengard, the Ents defeat the Uruk-hai and release the river dam, drowning the surviving Orc defenders, flooding Isengard, and stranding Saruman in his tower.

In the East, Faramir has the Hobbits taken to Osgiliath. Faramir's forces are attacked by Orcs led by a Nazgûl. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery

Frodo momentarily succumbs to the Ring's influence and attacks Sam, but comes to his senses when Sam tearfully reminds him of their friendship. The Nazgûl is defeated and flees. Faramir frees the Hobbits and sends them on their journey, joined by Gollum. Gandalf remarks that Sauron will seek retribution for Saruman's defeat, stating that hope now rests with Frodo and Sam. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery

At that same moment, Gollum vows to reclaim the Ring, and plans to have "her" kill Frodo and Sam.

In the Battle of Helm's Deep, Peter Jackson has a cameo appearance as one of the men on top of the gate, throwing a spear at the attacking Uruk-hai. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery

His children and Elijah Wood's sister also cameo as young refugees in the caves behind the Hornburg, and Alan Lee and Dan Hennah also cameo as soldiers preparing for the battle. The son of a producer's friend, Hamish Duncan, appears as a reluctant young Rohirrim warrior. Daniel Falconer has a cameo as an Elvish archer at the battle. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery

The screenwriters did not originally script The Two Towers as its own film: instead parts of it were the conclusion to The Fellowship of the Ring, the first of two planned films under Miramax.However, as the two films became a trilogy under New Line, Jackson, Walsh and Boyens shuffled their scripts. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery

The Two Towersis known as the most difficult of the Rings films to make, having neither a clear beginning nor end to focus the script.[10] Nonetheless, they had a clear decision with making the Battle of Helm's Deep the climax, a decision affecting the whole story's moods and style. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery

The most notable difference between the book and the film is the structure. Tolkien's The Two Towers is split into two parts; one follows the war in Rohan, while the other focuses on the journey of Frodo and Sam. The film omits the opening of the book, the death of Boromir, which was used as a linear climax at the end of The Fellowship of the RingSony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery

Also, the film climaxes with the Battle of Helm's Deep, while the book ends with the Fellowship going to Isengard and Frodo's confrontation with Shelob, scenes which were left for the film adaptation of The Return of the King. This was done partly to fit more closely the timeline indicated by the book. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery

One notable change in plotting is that in the film Théoden is literally possessed by Saruman, whereas in the book he is simply depressed and deluded by Wormtongue. Afterwards, in the film, Théoden is still unsure of what to do, and flees to Helm's Deep. In the book he rides out to war, only ending up besieged when he considers helping Erkenbrand. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery

Erkenbrand does not exist in the films: his character is combined with Éomer as the Rohirrim general who arrives with Gandalf at the film's end. Éomer himself is present during the entire battle in the book.

On the way to Helm's Deep, the refugees from Edoras are attacked by Wargs. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

The scene is possibly inspired by one in the book cut from The Fellowship of the Ringwhere it is the Fellowship who battle them. Here, a new subplot is created where Aragorn falls over a cliff, and is assumed to be dead; Jackson added it to create tension.This scene also resonates with a new subplot regarding Arwen, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

where she decides to leave Middle-earth after losing hope in the long-term possibilities of her love. In the book, Arwen's role is primarily recorded in the Appendices, and she is never depicted as considering such an act.

A larger change was originally planned: Arwen and Elrond would visit Galadriel, Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

and Arwen would accompany an army of Elves to Helm's Deep to fight alongside Aragorn. During shooting, the script changed, both from writers coming up with better ideas to portray the romance between Aragorn and Arwen, as well as poor fan reaction.The new scene of Arwen leaving for the West was created, and the conversation scene remains, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

edited to be a flashback to a conversation between them in Rivendell, on the evening before the departure of the Fellowship.[10] A conversation between Elrond and Galadriel in Lothlórien was edited to be a telepathic one.[13] Nonetheless, one major change (already filmed) remained that could not be reverted: Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

the Elven warriors fighting at Helm's Deep, although Jackson and Boyens found this romantic and stirring and a reference to how, in the Appendices of The Return of the King, Galadriel and the Elves of Lothlórien, and Thranduil of Mirkwood were first attacked by an army out of Dol Guldur in Mirkwood, and then later counter-attacked and assaulted the fortress itself.Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

Another change is the fact Treebeard does not immediately decide to go to war. This adds to the tension, and Boyens describes it as making Merry and Pippin "more than luggage".[11] Here the Hobbits show Treebeard what Saruman has done to the forest, prompting his decision to act. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Another structural change is that the Hobbits meet Gandalf the White early on, explaining why the Hobbits do not react to his return when they meet him again following the destruction of Isengard. This was explained in the book by Gandalf arriving at Isengard in the middle of the night to talk to Treebeard. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

The filmmakers' decision to leave Shelob for the third film meant that Faramir had to become an obstacle for Frodo and Sam.[10] In the book, Faramir (like Aragorn) quickly recognizes the Ring as a danger and a temptation, and does not hesitate long before letting Frodo and Sam go. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

In the film, Faramir first decides that the Ring shall go to Gondor and his father, as a way to prove Faramir's worth compared to his elder brother Boromir. In the film, Faramir takes Frodo, Sam and the Ring to the Battle of Osgiliath — they do not go there in the book. Jackson winks to readers with Sam's line, "By all rights we shouldn't even be here, but we are. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery

" After seeing how strongly the Ring affects Frodo during the Nazgûl attack, Faramir changes his mind and lets them go. These changes reshape the book's contrast between Faramir and Boromir, who in The Fellowship of the Ring attempted to take the Ring for himself. On the other hand (which can be seen only in the extended version of the film), Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery

it is actually their father Denethor, who wants the ring and urges Boromir to get it, while Faramir only wants to prove that he also deserves his father's love. Boyens contends these plot changes were needed to keep the Ring menacing. Wenham commented on the DVD documentaries that he had not read the book prior to reading the script, Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery

so the movie Faramir was the Faramir he knew. When he later read the book and noticed the major difference, he approached the writers about it, and they explained to him that if he did say "I wouldn't pick that thing up even if it lay by the wayside", it would basically strip the One Ring of all corruptive power.[10] Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery

The meaning of the title itself, 'The Two Towers', was changed. While Tolkien considered several possible sets of towers[14] he eventually created a final cover illustration[15] and wrote[16] a note included at the end of The Fellowship of the Ring which identified them as Minas Morgul and Orthanc. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery

Jackson's movie names them as Orthanc and Barad-dûr, symbolic of an evil alliance out to destroy Men that forms the film's plot point. Jackson's film depicted Saruman openly presenting himself outright as a servant of Sauron, whereas this association was not explicitly stated in the novel Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery

(and indeed analysis by Gandalf and Aragorn in the "The White Rider" chapter stated that there was a rivalry instead as Saruman was afraid of the prospect being at war with Sauron, if Rohan and Gondor fall).

When Alan Lee joined the project in late 1997, Helm's Deep was the first structure he was tasked to design. Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery

At 1:35 scale, it was one of the first miniatures built, and part of the 45 minute video that sold the project to New Line. It was primarily drawn from an illustration Lee had once done for the book, though fellow illustrator and designer John Howe suggested a curved wall. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

Used in the film for longshots, Jackson also used this miniature to plan the battle with 40,000 toy soldiers.[17]

As a pivotal part of the story, Helm's Deep was built at Dry Creek Quarry with the Gate, a ramp, and a wall with a removable section and the tower on a second level. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery

Most importantly, there was the 1:4 scale miniature of Helm's Deep that ran 50 feet wide. It was used for forced perspective shots,[18] as well as the major explosion sequence.[17]

The film explores the armies of Middle-earth. John Howe was the basic designer of the forces of evil. Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery

The Uruk-hai were the first army approved by Jackson, and Howe also designed a special crossbow for the characters, one without the redundancy of opening to reload, the realization of a 15th century manuscript. Also created were 100 Elven suits of armour, with emphasis on Autumnal colours due to the theme of Elves leaving Middle-earth. Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery

250 suits were made for the Rohirrim. The Rohan designs were based on Germanic and Anglo-Saxon patterns. Most of the weapons were designed by John Howe, and forged by Peter Lyon. Each sword took 3–6 days to make.[19]

The Rohirrim's capital of Edoras took six months to build on Mount Sunday, Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery

with thatched roofs, but that was simply the exterior: the buildings doubled as offices and lunch halls. The army created a road to the location, whilst the interior was filmed at Stone Street Studios with tapestries designed by Lee, and Théoden's wooden throne partly created by his daughter. Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery

Hill endured heavy make-up for the possession scene where his skin was pulled back and released for increased wrinkles. Dourif shaved off his eyebrows and put potato flakes as dandruff in his hair for unnerving effect.

The film also provides a look at Mordor and Gondor, in terms of Frodo and Sam's story. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

Barad-dûr is seen fully in a tracking shot, a design which Howe called a mockery of Gothic Cathedrals. He and Lee fully created the Black Gate (though a typo in the script made the miniature into two) [17] and Osgiliath, the ruined city reflecting London during the Blitz or Berlin in 1945. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery

The set on a backlot was based around a bridge and reused some of Moria.

The Two Towers shared principal photography with The Fellowship of the Ring and The Return of the King between 11 October 1999 to 22 December 2000. Scenes in Rohan were shot early on, and Viggo Mortensen, Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery

Orlando Bloom and John Rhys-Davies' scale double Brett Beattie sustained many injuries. Mortensen broke two toes when he kicked an Orc helmet upon finding the remains of the Uruk-hai and believing Merry and Pippin to be dead; this take is the one in the finished film. Bloom fell off his horse and cracked three ribs, whilst Beattie dislocated his knee. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery

The three spent two days of pain for the running sequence with these injuries, leading Jackson to jokingly refer to them as "The Walking Wounded."[20]

Afterwards, they went on for three months filming the Battle of Helm's Deep. John Mahaffie handled most of the night shoots. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery

Mortensen got his tooth chipped during the nightshoots, and Bernard Hill also got his ear slashed.[20] Nonetheless, the 700 extras had fun, insulting each other in Māori[21] and improvising scenes, such as the Uruk-hai stamping their spears before the battle begins. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery

They did get annoyed by the craftsmanship of the Art Department: the Gates were too reinforced for the Battering Ram scene.[18] Mortensen greatly respected the stunt team, and head butting them became a sign of respect.[21]

Wood and Astin were joined by Serkis on 13 April 2000. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

For The Two Towers, Weta Digital doubled their staffof 260.In total, they would produce 73 minutes of digital effects with 799 shots.The film would feature their first challenge in creating a battle scene, as well as creating two digital characters who needed to act rather than be a set piece, unlike the previous film's Cave Troll and Balrog. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

Weta began animating Gollum in late 1998 to convince New Line they could achieve the effect. Andy Serkis"played" Gollum by providing his voice and movements on set, as well as performing within the motion capture suit later on. His scenes were filmed twice, with and without him. Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery

Originally Gollum was set to solely be a CG character, but Jackson was so impressed by Andy Serkis' audition tape that they used him on set as well.Gollum's CG model was also redesigned during 2001 when Serkis was cast as Sméagol, Gollum's former self, so as to give the impression Andy Serkis as Sméagol transforms into the CG Gollum. Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery

The original model can still be glimpsed briefly in the first film. Over Christmas 2001, the crew proceeded to reanimate all the previous shots accordingly within two months. Another problem was that the crew realized that the cast performed better in the versions of the film with Serkis. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery

In the end, the CG Gollum was rotoscoped and animated on top of these scenes. They fully animated some shots such as him crawling upside down. Serkis' motion capture animated the body while animators did the head. Gino Acevedo supervised realistic skin tones, which took four hours per frame to render.[25] Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery

While the novel alludes to a division within his mind, the film depicts him as literally having a split personality. The two personas — the childlike Smeágol and the evil Gollum — are established during a scene in which they argue over remaining loyal to Frodo. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery

The two personalities talk to each other, as established by contrasting camera angles and by Serkis altering his voice and physicality for each persona.

Treebeard took between 28 and 48 hours per frame to render.[23] For scenes where he interacts with Merry and Pippin, a 14-foot-tall puppet was built on a wheel. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery

Weta took urethane moulds of tree bark and applied them to the sculpt of Treebeard to create his wooden skin. Dominic Monaghan and Billy Boyd sat on bicycle seats concealed into Treebeard's hands to avoid discomfort and were left alone on set sitting in the puppet's hands during breaks. The puppet was shot againstbluescreen. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery

The musical score for The Two Towers was composed, orchestrated, and conducted by Howard Shore, who also composed the music for the other two films in the trilogy. While the scores for its predecessor and sequel won the Oscar for Best Score, the soundtrack for The Two Towers was not nominated. Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery

(Initially there was confusion over the score's eligibility due to a new rule applying to sequels, but the Academy did declare it eligible.[26])The funeral song Éowyn sings during her cousin Théodred's entombment in the Extended Edition is styled to be a traditional song of the Rohirrim, and has lyrics in their language, Rohirric (represented by Old English). Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery

The song does not appear in the book, and the tune is a variation upon a theme of the rímur Icelandicfolk tradition; it can be heard as part of track 7 in the 1999 recording of a musical version of the Edda by Sequentia.[27]

The soundtrack was recorded at Abbey Road Studios. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

The soundtrack has a picture of Peter Jackson (barefoot), the composer, and two producers crossing Abbey Road, referencing the Beatles album of the same name.

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King is a 2003 epicfantasy-drama film directed by Peter Jacksonthat is based on the second and third volumes of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the RingsSony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery

It is the concluding film inThe Lord of the Rings film trilogy, following The Fellowship of the Ring (2001) and The Two Towers (2002).

As Sauron launches the final stages of his conquest of Middle-earth, Gandalf the Wizard, and Théoden King of Rohan rally their forces to help defend Gondor's capital Minas Tirith from the looming threat. Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery

Aragorn finally claims the throne of Gondor and summons an army of ghosts to help him defeat Sauron. Ultimately, even with full strength of arms, they realise they cannot win; so it comes down to the Hobbits, Frodo and Sam, to bear the burden of the Ring and deal with the treachery of Gollum. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

After a long journey they finally arrive in the dangerous lands of Mordor, seeking to destroy theOne Ring in the place it was created, the volcanic fires of Mount Doom.

Released on 17 December 2003, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King received rave reviewsand became one of the greatest critical and box-office successes of all time, Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

being only the second film to gross $1 billion worldwide, becoming the highest grossing film from New Line Cinema, as well as the biggest financial success for Time Warner in general, until Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 surpassed The Return of the King's final gross in 2011. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery

Notably, it won all eleven Academy Awards for which it was nominated, an Oscar record, and tied for largest number of awards won with Ben-Hur and Titanic. It also won the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first and only time a fantasy film has done so; it was also the second sequel to win a Best Picture Oscar (following The Godfather Part II) Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

and the only time a sequel has won without a predecessor winning the award. It was the highest-grossing film of 2003.

Gandalf, Aragorn, Legolas, Gimli, Théoden, Gamling and Éomer meet up with Merry, Pippin and Treebeard at Isengard. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery

The group returns to Edoras, where Pippin looks into Saruman's recovered palantír, in which Sauron appears and invades his mind; Pippin tells him nothing regarding Frodo and the Ring. From this event, Gandalf deduces that Sauron is planning to attack Minas Tirith. Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery

Gandalf rides with Pippin to find Denethor, the Steward of Gondor, to whom Pippin swears his service. Gandalf urges Denethor to call Rohan for aid, but Denethor declines, fearing Aragorn and Gandalf plan to depose him. The Morgul army, led by the Nazgûl, drives the Gondorians out of Osgiliath. Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery

Denethor sends his son Faramir on asuicide mission to reclaim the city. Pippin lights a beacon, signaling Théoden and Aragorn to assemble the Rohirrim for battle.

Elrond informs Aragorn that Arwen did not go to the Undying Lands, and is now dying. Believing their forces to be outnumbered by Sauron's, Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

Elrond gives Aragorn the sword Andúril to acquire the service of the Army of the Dead, who owe allegiance to the heir of Isildur. Éowyn confesses her love for Aragorn and asks him not to go, but Aragorn reaffirms his love for Arwen and heads into battle. Accompanied by Legolas and Gimli, Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery

Aragorn ventures into the Paths of the Dead and gains the loyalty of the King of the Dead and his men by brandishing Andúril, proving himself the Heir of Isildur. At Dunharrow, Théoden rides off to war, unaware that Éowyn and Merry have secretly joined his forces.

Sauron's armies lay siege to Minas Tirith, led by the Witch-king. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery

Believing a grievously wounded Faramir to be dead, Denethor tries to burn his son and himself alive, but Gandalf intervenes; he saves Faramir, but Denethor commits suicide. Just as the Gondorians are about to be overrun, the Rohirrim army arrives and counter-attacks in a massive cavalry charge led by Théoden. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery

This shifts the tide of the battle, and the Orcs begin to retreat. However, the Haradrim arrive and join the Orc army, turning the tide. The Witch-king kills Théoden, only to be killed himself by Éowyn with help from Merry. On the verge of defeat, the Rohirrim are saved when Aragorn, Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery

Legolas, and Gimli arrive with the Army of the Dead and decimate Sauron's forces, ending the battle. Aragorn frees the Army of the Dead and their souls go to the afterlife.

Meanwhile, Frodo, Sam and Gollum travel to Minas Morgul. Sam overhears Gollum's plans to murder them and take the Ring for himself. Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

Gollum persuades Frodo that Sam wants the Ring for himself, and Frodo angrily tells Sam to go home. A heartbroken Sam leaves, but discovers Gollum's treachery and follows after them. Gollum betrays Frodo, leaving him in the lair of the giant spider Shelob, who paralyzes Frodo before being wounded and driven away by Sam. Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery

An Orc patrol captures Frodo and takes him to Sauron's fortress. Sam rescues Frodo from the tower, and they continue the journey to Mount Doom.

Aragorn leads his remaining men to the Black Gate of Mordor, distracting Sauron and his forces and allowing Sam and Frodo to enter Mount Doom. Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

Sam carries the weakened Frodo up the volcano, but Gollum attacks them. At the Crack of Doom, Frodo succumbs to the Ring's power, refusing to destroy it. Gollum attacks Frodo and bites his finger off, seizing the Ring for himself. An enraged Frodo attacks Gollum, and they both fall over the edge. Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery

At the last second, Frodo grabs onto the ledge, leaving Gollum to fall into the lava, taking the Ring with him. As the Ring melts in the volcano, Sauron is destroyed and the land of Mordor collapses, consuming most of his forces.

Frodo and Sam are saved from the rising lava by Eagles, led by Gandalf. Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

In the aftermath, Aragorn is crowned King, heralding a new age of peace, and is reunited with Arwen and the four hobbits are bowed by all of Gondor for their courageous efforts. The four Hobbits return home to the Shire, where Sam marries his childhood sweetheart, Rosie Cotton. Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery

A few years later, Frodo leaves Middle-earth for the Undying Lands with Gandalf, Bilbo, Elrond, Celeborn and Galadriel, leaving his account of their quest to Sam.There are also cameos from Peter Jackson, Richard Taylor, Gino Acevedo, Rick Porras and Andrew Lesnie on the Corsair ship, although all of them but Jackson appear only in the Extended Edition. Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery

Jackson also has another unofficial cameo, as Sam's hand stepping into view when he confronts Shelob.[7] Sean Astin's daughter played Sam's daughter Elanor in the last scene of the film. Jackson's children also cameo as Gondorian extras, while Christian Rivers played a Gondorian soldier guarding the Beacon Pippin lights, and is later seen wounded. Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery

Royd Tolkien cameos as a Ranger in Osgiliath,[8] while in the Extended EditionHoward Shore appears as a celebrating soldier at Edoras. Additionally, four of the designers of The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game are featured as Rohirrim at the Pelennor.[9] At the end of the film, during the closing credits, Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery

each cast member gets a sketched portrait morphed with the real photograph beside their name, which were sketched by Alan Lee, an idea suggested by Ian McKellen.

The film contains major scenes that occurred in the middle portion of the novel, The Two Towers, but were not included in the film The Lord of the Rings: Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery

The Two Towers, such as Shelob and the palantír subplot, due to Jackson realigning the timeline as described in the book's Appendices, but not in the main prose.[11]Saruman's murder by Gríma (seen only in the Extended Edition) is moved into the Isengard visit due to the cutting of the Scouring of the Shire. Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery

In the film, Saruman drops the palantír, whereas in the book Gríma throws it at the Fellowship, unaware of its value. While the parting of Gandalf from Théoden's company in "The Two Towers" occurs hastily at Dol Baran with the appearance of a Nazgûl on a winged steed, Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery

here he leaves from Edoras after the entire company arrives there to recuperate after the Battle of Helm's Deep.

The muster of Gondor is absent from the film, and the major captains and generals, including Imrahil and the Knights of Dol Amroth, are not present. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery

Denethor, the Steward of Gondor, was a more tragic character in the book. The film only focuses on his overwhelming grief over the death of Boromir as to ignore Sauron's threat (in the book he already lights the beacons), and is driven over the edge by Faramir's injury. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery

The film only hints at his use of the palantírwhich drives him mad, information revealed in the Pyre scene, which is more violent than the book. Jackson also has Denethor jump off the Citadel in addition to burning himself on the Pyre, one of the earliest changes.[12]

The Battle of the Pelennor Fields is altered: Faramir never goes on a suicide mission, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery

and the conflict is a simplification of the siege of Osgiliath. With generals such as Forlong and Imrahil absent, Gandalf commands the defense of Minas Tirith due to Denethor's despair. While Denethor gives command to Gandalf in the book, in this film Gandalf forcibly takes control as Denethor tells the men to flee rather than fight. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery

The Orcs also never get into the city in the book. The Witch-king enters and stands off against Gandalf before the Rohirrim arrive, but in the film Orcs invade the city after Grond breaks the Gate. The confrontation takes place while Gandalf journeys to save Faramir in the Extended Edition, during which Gandalf has his staff broken in the film (but not in the book). Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

A subplot in which the Rohirrim are aided by the primitive Drúedain into entering the besieged Gondor is also excised. The Red Arrow brought by a messenger from Gondor to ask for aid is absent. Éowyn's presence on the battlefield is unknown to the reader until she takes off her helmet, Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery

but in the film the audience is aware, as it would have been difficult to have Miranda Otto playing a man.[13] When hope seems lost, Gandalf comforts Pippin with a description of the Undying Lands, which is a descriptive passage in the book's final chapter.The film depicts the Army of the Dead fighting in the Battle, Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

whereas in the book they are released from service prior to this, after helping Aragorn defeat the Corsairs of Umbar at the port city of Pelargir in Lebennin; Aragorn's reinforcements are merely more Gondorians, and the Dúnedain, Aragorn's people (the rangers of the North). An unstoppable and invulnerable force, the Dead wipe out Sauron's forces. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

The film also cuts out several supporting characters, such as: Halbarad, a friend of Aragorn's, who helps lead the Dúnedain, Beregond, a member of the Citadel Guard of Gondor, whom Pippin befriends, and Elladan and Elrohir, the twin sons of Elrond who deliver Aragorn's banner and accompany him to the Pelennor Fields. Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

Elladan and Elrohir are replaced by Elrond in the film, instead delivering Andúril, and then returning to Rivendell. The film also altered the circumstances of Théoden's death; his death speech, in which he names Éomer the new king in the book, is trimmed and delivered to Éowyn instead, Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

with an earlier scene in the Extended Edition even implying that she is next in line for the throne. Théoden's rallying cries before the initial charge are in fact spoken by Éomer in the book upon his realisation that Éowyn is also apparently dead. Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

In the film Aragorn leads the entire remaining force of Rohan and Gondor's men to the Black Gate without incident. In the book tactics are discussed, forces divide and fight smaller skirmishes in Anórien and Ithilien before the army (only a fraction of the full remaining strength of the nations of men) reach the Morannon. Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

The romance that develops between Éowyn and Faramir during their recoveries in the Houses of Healing is also largely cut, presumably to keep the focus onAragorn and Arwen; the subplot is only briefly referenced in the Extended Edition with a scene where the two hold hands.Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

Sam and Frodo's major rift in their friendship, due to Gollum's machinations, never takes place in the book, but was added by the writers in believing that it added drama and more complexity to the character of Frodo. Frodo enters Shelob's lair alone in the film, whereas in the book he and Sam entered together. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

This was done to make the scene more horrific with Frodo being alone, and Sam's rescue at the last minute more dramatic. Also, in the film we do not know that Sam has the Ring until he gives it back to Frodo, whereas in the book the reader knows that Sam has the Ring. Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

Gollum's fall into the lava of Mount Doom was also rewritten for the film, as the writers felt Tolkien's original idea (Gollum simply slips and falls off) was anti-climactic. Originally, an even greater deviation was planned: Frodo would heroically push Gollum over the ledge to destroy him and the Ring, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

but the production team eventually realised that it looked more like Frodo murdering Gollum. As a result, they had Frodo and Gollum struggle for possession of the Ring and both slip over the edge by accident.Also absent from the film are the other major attacks by Sauron on various regions of Middle-earth, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

referenced only briefly in the main text of The Return of the King, and expanded upon in the Appendices; the invasion of Rohan by the orcs of Moria, the attacks on Lothlórien and the Woodland Realm of Thranduil by the forces of Dol Guldur, and the attack on Dale and the Lonely Mountain by a force of Easterlings. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

There are several changes in the Battle of the Black Gate: Merry is not present there in the book, Pippin does not kill a troll as he does in the novel, the eagles fight and defeat some of the mounted Nazgûl (while Frodo putting on the One Ring distracted the Nazgûl, who raced away to Mount Doom in the book before a confrontation could occur), Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

and Aragorn kills the Mouth of Sauron in the extended edition of the film but not in the book. There was an even larger change planned: Sauron himself would come out in physical form to battle Aragorn, who would only be saved by the destruction of the Ring. Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

Jackson eventually realised it ignored the point of Aragorn's true bravery in distracting Sauron's army against overwhelming odds, and a computer generated Troll was placed over footage of Sauron in the finished film. The ending is streamlined so as not to include the Scouring of the Shire, which was always seen by the screenwriters as anti-climactic. Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

It is referenced, though, in Frodo's vision of the future in Galadriel's mirror in The Fellowship of the Ring.

The Lord of the Rings film trilogy is unusual in that it is, to date, the only one whose separate installments were written and shot simultaneously (excludingpick up shoots). Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

Jackson found The Return of the King the easiest of the films to make, because it contained the climax of the story, unlike the other two films. The Return of the King was originally the second of two planned films under Miramax from January 1997 to August 1998, and more or less in its finished structure as the first film was to end with The Two Towers' Battle of Helm's Deep.Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

Filming took place under multiple units across New Zealand, between 11 October 1999 and 22 December 2000, with pick up shoots for six weeks in 2003 before the film's release.

Middle-earth as envisioned by Jackson was primarily designed by Alan Lee and John Howe, former Tolkien illustrators, and created by Weta Workshop, Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

who handled all the trilogy's weapons, armour, miniatures, prosthetics and creatures, as well as the Art Department which built the sets. Richard Taylor headed Weta, while Grant Major and Dan Hennah organised the planning and building respectively. Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

The city of Minas Tirith, glimpsed briefly in both the previous two films is seen fully in this film, and with it the Gondorian civilization. The enormous soundstage was built at Dry Creek Quarry, outside Wellington, from the Helm's Deepset. That set's gate became Minas Tirith's second, Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

while the Hornburg exterior became that of the Extended Edition's scene where Gandalf confronts the Witch-king. New structures included the 8m tall Gate, with broken and unbroken versions, with a working opening and closing mechanism, with its engravings inspired by the Baptistry of San Giovanni. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

There were also four levels of streets with heraldic motifs for every house, as inspired by Siena.

There was also the Citadel, the exterior of which was in the Stone Street Studios backlot, using forced perspective. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery

It contains the withered White Tree, built from polystyrene by Brian Massey and the Greens Department with real branches, influenced by ancient and gnarled Lebanese olive trees. The interior was within a 3 story former factory in Wellington, and colour wise is influenced by Charlemagne's Chapel, Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery

with a throne for Denethor carved from stone and polystyrene statues of past Kings. The Gondorian armour is designed to represent an evolution from the Númenóreans of the first film's prologue, with a simplified sea bird motif. 16th century Italian and German armour served as inspiration, Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

while civilians wear silver and blacks as designed by Ngila Dickson, continuing an ancient/medieval Mediterranean Basin look.[19]

Minas Morgul, the Staircase and Tower of Cirith Ungol as well as Shelob's Lair were designed by Howe, with the Morgul road using forced perspective into a bluescreened miniature. Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery

Howe's design of Minas Morgul was inspired from the experience of having a wisdom tooth pulled out: in the same way, the Orcs have put their twisted designs on to a former Gondorian city.[20] Cirith Ungol was based on Tolkien's design, but when Richard Taylor felt it as "boring", it was redesigned with more tipping angles.[21] Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery

The interior set, like Minas Tirith, was built as a few multiple levels that numerous camera takes would suggest a larger structure.The third film introduces the enormous spider Shelob. Shelob was designed in 1999,with the body based on a tunnelweb spider and the head with numerous growths selected by Peter Jackson's children from one of many sculpts. Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery

Jackson himself took great joy in planning the sequence, being an arachnophobehimself.[18] Shelob's Lair was inspired by sandstone and sculpted from the existing Caverns of Isengard set.[17]

The Return of the King also brings into focus the Dead Men of Dunharrow and the evil Haradrim from the south of Middle-earth, men who ride the mûmakilSony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery

The Dead Men have a Celtic influence, as well as lines and symmetry to reflect their morbid state,[17] while their underground city is influenced by Petra.[20] The Haradrim were highly influenced by African culture, until Philippa Boyens expressed concern over the possibility of offensiveness, Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery

so the finished characters instead bear influence from Kiribati, in terms of weaving armour from bamboo, and the Aztecs, in use of jewellery. Also built was a single dead mûmak.Other minor cultures include the Corsairs, with an exotic, swarthy look, and the Grey Havens, Elven structures adapted to stone, with influence from J. M. W. Turnerpaintings.  VPCCW1S1E/L laptop battery" href="http://www.laptopbattery-pack.co.uk/original-sony-vaio-vpccw1s1e-l-battery-27444.htm">Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery

The Return of the King was shot during 2000, though Sean Astin's coverage from Gollum's attempt to separate Frodo and Sam was filmed on 24 November 1999, when floods in Queenstown interrupted the focus on The Fellowship of the Ring.[7] Some of the earliest scenes shot for the film were in fact the last. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery

Hobbiton, home of the Hobbits, was shot in January 2000 with early scenes from The Fellowship of the Ring, with the exterior shot at a Matamata farm, while interior scenes shot at Stone Street Studios in Wellington,shared with the Grey Havens sequence. Due to the high emotions of filming the scene, Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery

the cast were in despair when they were required to shoot it three times, due to a continuity flaw in Sean Astin's costume, and then negatives producing out-of-focus reels.[7] Also shared with the previous films was the Rivendell interior in May.

The Battle of the Black Gate was filmed in Aprilat the Rangipo Desert, a former minefield.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery

New Zealand soldiers were hired as extras while guides were on the look out for unexploded mines. Also a cause for concern were Monaghan and Boyd's scale doubles during a charge sequence. In the meantime, Wood, Astin and Serkis filmed at Mount Ruapehu for the Mount Doom exteriors. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery

In particular, they spent two hours shooting Sam lifting Frodo on to his back with cross-camera coverage.Scenes shot in June were the Paths of the Dead across various locations, including Pinnacles.[23] In July the crew shot some Shelob scenes, and in August and September time was spent on the scenes in Isengard. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery

Monaghan and Boyd tried numerous takes of their entrance, stressing the word "weed" as they smoked pipe-weed. Christopher Lee spent his part of his scene mostly alone, though McKellen and Hill arrived on the first day for a few lines to help.[7]

Edoras exteriors were shot in October. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery

The Ride of the Rohirrim, where Théoden leads the charge into the Orc army, was filmed in Twizel with 150 extras on horseback. The Battle of the Pelennor Fields has more extensive use of computer-generated imagery, in contrast to the more extensive use of live action in theBattle of Helm's Deep in the second film. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery

Also filmed were the attempts by Faramir to recapture Osgiliath,[24] as were scenes in the city itself.[25] At this point production was very hectic, with Jackson moving around ten units per day, and production finally wrapped on the Minas Tirith sets, as well as second units shooting parts of the siege. Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery

Just as the Hobbit actors' first scene was hiding under a Ringwraith, their last scene was the bluescreened reaction shot of the inhabitants of Minas Tirith bowing to them.

The 2003 pick ups were filmed in the Wellington studio car park, with many parts of sets and bluescreens used to finish off scenes,Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery

which the design team had to work 24/7 to get the right sets ready for a particular day.[17] The shoot continued for two months, and became an emotional time of farewells for the cast and crew. The film has the most extensive list of reshoots given for the trilogy. Jackson took his time to reshoot Aragorn's coronation, Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery

rushed into a single day under second unit director Geoff Murphy on 21 December 2000. Jackson also reshot scenes in and around Mount Doom,[7] and Théoden's death, right after Bernard Hill was meant to wrap.[13]

There was also the new character of Gothmog. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

This was a major new design addition for the film, as Jackson felt the Mordor Orcs were "pathetic" compared to theUruk-hai of the second film after watching assembly cuts, and thus Weta created grotesque new "über Orcs" as antagonists for the audience to focus on.Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

Christian Rivers also redesigned the Witch-king and all of his scenes were reshot, due to confusion from non-readers over whether or not Sauron was on the battlefield.With the positive response to Orlando Bloom, Legolas was given a fight with a mûmak, and Howard Shore also appeared in a cameo during Legolas and Gimli's drinking game at Edoras. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

The final scenes shot were Aragorn escaping the Skull avalanche, and Frodo finishing his book. The cast also received various props associated with their characters, although in the case of John Rhys-Davies, he burned his final Gimli prosthetic. Viggo Mortensen headbutted the stunt team goodbye.[7] Pick-ups ended on 27 June 2003. Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery

Scenes shot afterwards included various live-action shots of Riders for the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and a reaction shot of Andy Serkis as Gollum finally realises Frodo intends to destroy the Ring, shot in Jackson's house.[28] For the Extended DVD, Jackson shot in March 2004 a few shots of skulls rolling over for the avalanche scene; Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery

this was the final piece of footage ever shot for the trilogy, and Jackson noted that it must be the first time a director had shot scenes for a film after it had already won the Oscar.Post-production on The Return of the King began in November 2002, with the completion of the 4½ hour assembly cut of the film that Annie Collins had been completing over 2001 and 2002, Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery

from 4 hour dailies. For example, Théoden leading the charge went from 150 minutes of takes to a finished 90 seconds.[30] Jackson reunited with longtime collaborator Jamie Selkirk to edit the final film. Like The Two Towers, they would have to deal with multiple storylines, and Jackson paid attention to each storyline at a time before deciding where to intercut.Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery

Most importantly they spent three weeks working on the last 45 minutes of the film,[28] for appropriate intercutting and leaving out scenes such as the Mouth of Sauron, and the fates of characters like Legolas, Gimli, Éowyn and Faramir.[11] The film inherited scenes originally planned to go into the second film, including the reforging of Narsil, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery

Gollum's backstory, and Saruman's exit. But the Saruman scene posed a structural problem: killing off the second film's villain when the plot has Sauron as the main villain.[28] Despite pick-ups and dubs, the scene was cut, causing controversy with fans and Saruman actor Christopher Lee, as well as a petition to restore the scene. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery

Lee nonetheless contributed to the DVDs and was at the Copenhagen premiere, although on the other hand he says he will never understand the reason for the cut and his relationship with Jackson is chilly.They would, however, later reconcile upon Lee's casting in Jackson's Hobbit films. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery

Jackson only had a lock on 5 out of 10 reels, and had to churn out 3 reels in 3 weeks to help finish the film. It was finally done on 12 November 2003.[33] Jackson never had a chance to view the film in full due to the hectic schedule, and only saw the film from beginning to end on 1 December at the Wellington premiere; Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery

according to Elijah Wood, his response was "yup, it's good, pretty good".

The Return of the King contains 1,488 visual effect shots, nearly three times the number from the first film and almost twice that of the second. Visual effects work began with Alan Lee and Mark Lewis compositing various photographs of New Zealand landscape to create the digital arena of the Pelennor Fields in November 2002. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery

Gary Horsfield also created a digital version of the Barad-dûr during his Christmas break at home by himself, for the film's climax. In the meantime, Jackson and Christian Rivers used computers to plan the enormous battle up until February 2003, when the shots were shown to Weta Digital. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

To their astonishment, 60 planned shots had gone up to 250, and 50,000 characters were now 200,000.[34]Nevertheless they pressed on, soon delivering 100 shots a week, 20 a day, as the deadline neared within the last two months, often working until 2 a.m.[33]

For the battle, they recorded 450 motions for the MASSIVE digital horses Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery

(though deaths were animated), and also had to deal with late additions in the film, such as Trolls bursting through Minas Tirith's gates as well as the creatures that pull Grond to the gate,[18] and redoing a shot of two mûmakil Éomer takes down that had originally taken six months in two days. Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

On a similar note of digital creatures, Shelob's head sculpture was scanned by a Canadian company for 10 times more detail than Weta had previously been able to capture.[34]

Like the previous films, there are also extensive morphs between digital doubles for the actors. Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

This time, there was Sam falling off Shelob, where the morph takes place as Astin hits the ground. Legolas attacking a mûmak required numerous transitions to and fro, and Gollum's shots of him having recovered the One Ring and falling into the Crack of Doom were fully animated. Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

The King of the Dead is played by an actor in prosthetics, and his head occasionally morphs to a more skull-like digital version, depending on the character's mood. The Mouth of Sauron also had his mouth enlarged 200% for unsettling effect.The Return of the King also has practical effects. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

In the Pyre of Denethor sequence, as the Steward of Gondor throws Pippin out of the Tomb, John Noble threw asize double named Fon onto a prostrate Billy Boyd, who immediately pushed his head into camera to complete the illusion. Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

A few burning torches were also reflected off a plate of glass and into the camera for when Gandalf's horse Shadowfax kicks Denethor onto the pyre. Because of Jackson's requirement for complete representation of his fantasy world, numerous miniatures were built, such as 1:72 scale miniature of Minas Tirith, which rises 7m high and is 6.5m indiameter. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

1:14 scale sections of the city were also required, and the Extended Edition scene of the collapsing City of the Dead has 80,000 small skulls, amounting in total to a single cubic meter.[20] The miniatures team concluded in November with the Black Gate, after 1000 days of shooting, and the final digital effects shot done was the Ring's destruction, on 25 November. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

The Sound department spent the early part of the year searching for the right sounds. A tasmanian devil was Shelob's shriek, which in turn gave inspiration for Weta's animators, while the mûmakil is the beginning and end of a lion roar. Human screams and a donkey screech were mixed into Sauron's fall, Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

and to avoid comparison with 9/11, broken glass was used for the collapsing sounds. For missile trading during Minas Tirith's siege, construction workers dropped actual 2 ton stone blocks previously lifted by a construction crane. Mixing began at a new studio on 15 August, although unfinished building work caused some annoyances. Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

The mixers finished on 15 November, after three months of non-stop work.

The music was composed by Howard Shore, who previously composed the first two parts of the trilogy. Shore watched the assembly cut of the film,and had to write seven minutes of music per day to keep up with the schedule. Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery

The score sees the full introduction of the Gondor theme, originally heard during Boromir's speeches at the Council of Elrond in The Fellowship of the Ring and at Osgiliath in The Two Towers Extended Edition. Actors Billy Boyd, Viggo Mortensen and Liv Tyler also contributed to the film's music. Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

Boyd sings on screen as Faramir charges towards Osgiliath, Mortensen sings on screen as he is crowned King, and in the Extended Edition Tyler sings as Aragorn heals Éowyn.

Renée Fleming, Ben Del Maestro and James Galway also contribute to the soundtrack. Fleming sings as Arwen has a vision of her son and when Gollum recovers the One Ring. Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

Del Maestro sings when Gandalf lights his staff to save fleeing Gondorian soldiers from Osgiliath as the Nazgûl attack. Galway plays the flute as Frodo and Sam climb Mount Doom. The end title song, "Into the West", was composed by Shore with lyrics by Fran Walsh. Annie Lennox (formerly of Eurythmics) performed it and also received songwriting credit. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

The song was partially inspired by the premature death from cancer of a young New Zealand filmmaker named Cameron Duncan who had befriended Peter Jackson.

After two years of attention and acclaim since the release of The Lord of the Rings: Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

The Fellowship of the Ring, audience anticipation for the final installment of the trilogy had reached fever pitch when the film was complete. The world premiere was held in Wellington's Embassy Theatre, on 1 December 2003, and was attended by the director and many of the stars. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery

It was estimated that over 100,000 people lined the streets, more than a quarter of the city's population.The film received mostly positive reviews; it has a 94% rating of positive reviews on Rotten Tomatoes. Richard Corliss of Time named it the best film of the year.The main criticism of The Lord of the Rings: Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

The Return of the King, was its running time, particularly the epilogue; even rave reviews for the film commented on its length. Joel Siegel of Good Morning America said in his review for the film (which he gave an 'A'): "If it didn't take forty-five minutes to end, it'd be my best picture of the year. As it is, it's just one of the great achievements in film history." Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

There was also criticism regarding the Army of the Dead's appearance, rapidly ending the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.

In February 2004, a few months after release, the film was voted as #8 on Empire's 100 Greatest Movies of All Time, compiled from readers' top 10 lists. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

This forced the magazine to abandon its policy of only allowing films being older than 12 months to be eligible.[40] In 2007, Total Film named The Return of the Kingthe third best film of the past decade (Total Film's publication time), behind The Matrix and Fight ClubSony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

The film earned $377,845,905 in the USA and Canada and $742,083,616 in other countries for a worldwide total of $1,119,929,521. Worldwide, it is the sixth highest-grossing film,[42] the highest-grossing 2003 film[43] and the highest-grossing installment in The Lord of the Rings trilogy.It was the second film in history to earn over $1 billion. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

In the USA and Canada, it is the seventeenth highest-grossing film,[45] the highest-grossing 2003 film,[46] the highest-grossing installment in The Lord of the Rings trilogy.[44] The film set an opening-Wednesday record with $34.5 million.[47] This record was first surpassed by Spider-Man 2 and ranks as the seventh largest Wednesday opening. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

The film opened a day earlier for a midnight showing and it accounted for about $8 million. This was nearly twice the first-day total of The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (which earned $18.2 million on its opening day in 2001), and a significant increase over The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers as well (which earned $26.1 million on its debut in 2002). Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery

Part of the grosses came from the Trilogy Tuesday event, in which the Extended Editions of the first two films were played on 16 December before the first midnight screening. It went on to make an opening weekend of $72.6 million ($124.1 million with weekday previews). Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery

Its Friday-to-Sunday opening weekend was a record-high for December (first surpassed by I Am Legend).[50] The film also set single-day reocrds for Christmas Day and New Year's Day (both first surpassed by Meet the Fockers).

Outside the US and Canada, it is the seventh highest-grossing film, Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

the highest-grossing 2003 filmand the highest-grossing film of the trilogy.[44] On its first day (Wednesday, December 17, 2003), the film earned $23.5 million from 19 countries[47] and, during the 5-day weekend as a whole, it set an opening-weekend record outside the US and Canada with $125.9 million. Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery

It set opening-day records in 13 of them, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Greece, Switzerland, Scandinavia (as well as separately in Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark), Mexico, Chile and Puerto Rico.It set opening-weekend records in the United Kingdom ($26.5 million in five days), Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery

Germany, Spain, Sweden, Denmark and Switzerland. In New Zealand, where filming took place, the film set opening-day, opening-weekend, single-day, Friday-gross, Saturday-gross and Sunday-gross records with $1.7 million in four days.[55]

Compared to the first two films of the trilogy it performed better: Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery

each of the first two films grossed less than the third both in North America and overseas.The Lord of the Rings: Return of the King has helped The Lord of the Rings franchise to become the highest-grossing motion picture trilogy worldwide of all time with $2,911,746,256, beating other notable ones such as the Star Wars trilogies,Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery

and surviving from being out-grossed by subsequent trilogies like Pirates of the Caribbean and Harry Potter, despite ticket price inflation.These figures do not include income from DVD sales, TV rights, etc. It has been estimatedthat the gross income from non-box office sales and merchandise has been at least equal to the box office for all three films. Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery

If this is so, the total gross income for the trilogy would be in the region of $6 billion following an investment of $300 million ($426 million including marketing costs).

On 27 January 2004, the film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score, Best Original Song, Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery

Best Visual Effects, Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design, Best Make-up, Best Sound Mixing and Best Film Editing. On 29 February, the film won all the categories for which it was nominated,[58] making it the most successful film in Academy Award history.

The film also won four Golden Globes (including Best Picture for Drama and Best Director), Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery

five BAFTAs, two MTV Movie Awards, two Grammy Awards, nineSaturn Awards, the New York Film Critics Circle award for Best Picture, the Nebula Award for Best Script, and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form.The film was nominated for the 10th Anniversary Edition of AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies.Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery

The theatrical edition of the film was released on DVD on 23 August 2004. The DVD was a 2-disc set with extras on the second disc. The theatrical DVD sets for the two previous films were released eight months after the films were released, but Return of the King's set was completed in five because it did not have to market a sequel Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery

(the previous films had to wait for footage of their sequels to become available for a ten minute preview). However, it contained a 7 minute trailer of the entire trilogy.

The Return of the King followed the precedent set by its predecessors by releasing an Extended Edition (263 minutes) with new editing and added special effects and music, Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery

along with four commentaries and six hours of supplementary material, plus 10 minutes of fan-club credits. However, this set took longer to produce than the others because the cast and crew were spread all over the world working on other projects.[63] The set was finally released on 10 December 2004 in the UK and 14 December in the U.S. Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery

The final ten minutes comprises a listing of the charter members of the official fan club who had paid for three-year charter membership.

New scenes such as: Éowyn's Dream, The Voice of Saruman, The Decline of Gondor, The Wizard's Pupil, Crossroads of the Fallen King, Merry's Simple Courage, Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery

The Witch-king's Hour, The Houses of Healing, The Mouth of Sauron, The Corsairs of Umbar & Sam's Warning, are added to progress the story and give it, as well as the characters depicted, more depth. Along with the new scenes, additional footage as been added to the battles in Osgiliath, Minas Tirith & Pelennor Fields. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery

Likewise, more footage has been added to the Paths of the Dead, Edoras, as well as the time spent at Minas Tirith.A collectors' box set was also released, which included the Extended Set plus a sculpture of Minas Tirith and a bonus 50-minute music documentary DVD, Howard Shore: Creating The Lord of the Rings Symphony: A Composer's Journey Through Middle-earth.Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery

The DVD has a DTS-ES soundtrack. The DVD also features two humorousEaster Eggs, one where Dominic Monaghan plays a German interviewer with Elijah Wood over a phone, and another where Vince Vaughn and Ben Stiller attempt to convince Jackson to make a sequel, originally shown at the 2004 MTV Movie Awards. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery

Both can be accessed via a Ring icon on the last page of both Disc 1 and 2's scene indexes.

On 29 August 2006, a Limited Edition of The Return of the King was released. This Limited Edition contains two discs, the first is a two-sided DVD containing both the Theatrical and Extended editions of the film. Sony VAIO VGN-SR240N/B Battery

The second disc is a bonus disc that contains a new behind-the-scenes documentary.

The theatrical Blu-ray version of The Lord of the Rings was released in the United States on 6 April 2010.The individual Blu-ray disc of The Return of the King was released on 14 September 2010 with the same special features as the complete trilogy release,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTH Battery

except there was no digital copy.The Extended Edition was released in the United States on 28 June 2011. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTJ Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTQ Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVB/C Battery

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Jane Austen Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among thelanded gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature. Her realism and biting social commentary has gained her historical importance among scholars and critics.[1]SONY NSK-S8101 Laptop Keyboard Austen lived her entire life as part of a close-knit family located on the lower fringes of the English landed gentry.[2]She was educated primarily by her father and older brothers as well as through her own reading. The steadfast support of her family was critical to her development as a professional writer.[3] Her artistic apprenticeship lasted from her teenage years into her thirties. Compaq Presario CQ57-314 Laptop Keyboard During this period, she experimented with various literary forms, including the epistolary novelwhich she tried then abandoned, and wrote and extensively revised three major novels and began a fourth.[B] From 1811 until 1816, with the release of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816), Compaq Presario CQ71-420SO Laptop Keyboard she achieved success as a published writer. She wrote two additional novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, both published posthumously in 1818, and began a third, which was eventually titled Sanditon, but died before completing it. HP Pavilion G7-1085NR Laptop Keyboard Austen's works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century realism.[4][C] Her plots, though fundamentally comic,[5] highlight the dependence of women on marriage to secure social standing and economic security.[6] Her work brought her little personal fame and only a few positive reviews during her lifetime,  HP Pavilion dv6000 Laptop Keyboard but the publication in 1869 of her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced her to a wider public, and by the 1940s she had become widely accepted in academia as a great English writer. The second half of the 20th century saw a proliferation of Austen scholarship and the emergence of a Janeite fan culture. APPLE Macbook 13 Inch Laptop Keyboard Biographical information concerning Jane Austen is "famously scarce", according to one biographer.[7] Only some personal and family letters remain (by one estimate only 160 out of Austen's 3,000 letters are extant),[8] and her sister Cassandra (to whom most of the letters were originally addressed) burned "the greater part" of the ones she kept and censored those she did not destroy.[9]  HP 441426-001 Laptop Keyboard Other letters were destroyed by the heirs of Admiral Francis Austen, Jane's brother.[10] Most of the biographical material produced for fifty years after Austen's death was written by her relatives and reflects the family's biases in favour of "good quiet Aunt Jane". Scholars have unearthed little information since. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa Laptop Keyboard Austen's parents, George Austen (1731–1805), and his wife Cassandra (1739–1827), were members of substantial gentry families.[11]George was descended from a family of woollen manufacturers, which had risen through the professions to the lower ranks of the landed gentry.[12] Cassandra was a member of the prominent Leigh family; they married on 26 April 1764 at Walcot Church in Bath.[13]HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard From 1765 until 1801, that is, for much of Jane's life, George Austen served as the rector of the Anglican parishes at Steventon, Hampshire,[14] and a nearby village. From 1773 until 1796, he supplemented this income by farming and by teaching three or four boys at a time who boarded at his home.[15]HP Mini 311-1035TU Laptop Keyboard Austen's immediate family was large: six brothers—James (1765–1819), George (1766–1838), Edward (1767–1852), Henry Thomas (1771–1850), Francis William (Frank) (1774–1865), Charles John (1779–1852)—and one sister, Cassandra Elizabeth (Steventon, Hampshire, 9 January 1773–1845), who, like Jane, died unmarried. Cassandra was Austen's closest friend and confidante throughout her life.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3218tx Laptop Keyboard Of her brothers, Austen felt closest to Henry, who became a banker and, after his bank failed, an Anglican clergyman. Henry was also his sister's literary agent. His large circle of friends and acquaintances in London included bankers, merchants, publishers, painters, and actors: he provided Austen with a view of social worlds not normally visible from a small parish in rural Hampshire.[17] Compaq Presario CQ71-420ER Laptop Keyboard George was sent to live with a local family at a young age because, as Austen biographer Le Faye describes it, he was "mentally abnormal and subject to fits".[18] He may also have been deaf and mute.[18] Charles and Frank served in the navy, both rising to the rank of admiral. Edward was adopted by his fourth cousin, Thomas Knight, inheriting Knight's estate and taking his name in 1812.[19]HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Early life and education Austen was born on 16 December 1775 at Steventon rectory and publicly christened on 5 April 1776.[21] After a few months at home, her mother placed Austen with Elizabeth Littlewood, a woman living nearby, who nursed and raised Austen for a year or eighteen months.[22] In 1783, according to family tradition, Jane and Cassandra were sent to Oxford to be educated by Mrs. HP Pavilion DV6-1014el Laptop Keyboard                           Ann Cawley and they moved with her to Southampton later in the year. Both girls caught typhus and Jane nearly died.[23] Austen was subsequently educated at home, until leaving for boarding school with her sister Cassandra early in 1785. The school curriculum probably included some French, spelling, needlework, dancing and music and, perhaps, drama. By December 1786, Jane and Cassandra had returned home because the Austens could not afford to send both of their daughters to school.[24]TOSHIBA NB200-10J Laptop Keyboard Austen acquired the remainder of her education by reading books, guided by her father and her brothers James and Henry.[25]George Austen apparently gave his daughters unfettered access to his large and varied library, was tolerant of Austen's sometimes risqué experiments in writing, and provided both sisters with expensive paper and other materials for their writing and drawing.[26] SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard According to Park Honan, a biographer of Austen, life in the Austen home was lived in "an open, amused, easy intellectual atmosphere" where the ideas of those with whom the Austens might disagree politically or socially were considered and discussed.[27] After returning from school in 1786, Austen "never again lived anywhere beyond the bounds of her immediate family environment".[28]DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Private theatricals were also a part of Austen's education. From when she was seven until she was thirteen, the family and close friends staged a series of plays, including Richard Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) and David Garrick's Bon Ton. While the details are unknown, Austen would certainly have joined in these activities, as a spectator at first and as a participant when she was older.[29] Most of the plays were comedies, which suggests one way in which Austen's comedic and satirical gifts were cultivated.[30]SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard In 1788, her portrait may have been commissioned by her great uncle, Francis Austen.


Perhaps as early as 1787, Austen began to write poems, stories, and plays for her own and her family's amusement.[31] Austen later compiled "fair copies" of 29 of these early works into three bound notebooks, now referred to as the Juvenilia, containing pieces originally written between 1787 and 1793.[32] There is manuscript evidence that Austen continued to work on these pieces as late as the period 1809–11, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X201 Laptop Keyboard and that her niece and nephew, Anna and James Edward Austen, made further additions as late as 1814.[33] Among these works are a satirical novel in letters titled Love and Freindship [sic], in which she mocked popular novels of sensibility,[34] and The History of England, a manuscript of 34 pages accompanied by 13 watercolour miniatures by her sister Cassandra. FUJITSU CP275815-01 Laptop Keyboard Austen's History parodied popular historical writing, particularly Oliver Goldsmith's History of England (1764).[35] Austen wrote, for example: "Henry the 4th ascended the throne of England much to his own satisfaction in the year 1399, after having prevailed on his cousin & predecessor Richard the 2nd, to resign it to him, & to retire for the rest of his Life to Pomfret Castle, where he happened to be murdered."[36] DELL Latitude D620 Laptop Keyboard Austen's Juvenilia are often, according to scholar Richard Jenkyns, "boisterous" and "anarchic"; he compares them to the work of 18th-century novelist Laurence Sterne and the 20th century comedy group Monty Python.[37]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard


As Austen grew into adulthood, she continued to live at her parents' home, carrying out those activities normal for women of her age and social standing: she practised the fortepiano, assisted her sister and mother with supervising servants, and attended female relatives during childbirth and older relatives on their deathbeds.[38] HP 367778-001 Laptop Keyboard She sent short pieces of writing to her newborn nieces Fanny Catherine and Jane Anna Elizabeth.[39] Austen was particularly proud of her accomplishments as a seamstress.[40] She also attended church regularly, socialized frequently with friends and neighbours,[41] and read novels—often of her own composition—aloud with her family in the evenings. ACER Aspire 1640 Laptop Keyboard Socializing with the neighbours often meant dancing, either impromptu in someone's home after supper or at the balls held regularly at the assembly rooms in the town hall.[42] Her brother Henry later said that "Jane was fond of dancing, and excelled in it".[43] DELL Latitude E5500 Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard In 1793, Austen began and then abandoned a short play, later entitled Sir Charles Grandison or the happy Man, a comedy in 6 acts, which she returned to and completed around 1800. This was a short parody of various school textbook abridgments of Austen's favourite contemporary novel, The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753),  TOSHIBA 6037b0026805 Laptop Keyboard by Samuel Richardson.[44] Honan speculates that at some point not long after writing Love and Freindship [sic] in 1789, Austen decided to "write for profit, to make stories her central effort", that is, to become a professional writer.[45] Beginning in about 1793, she began to write longer, more sophisticated works.[45]SONY VAIO VGN-CR160F Laptop Keyboard   Between 1793 and 1795, Austen wrote Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel, usually described as her most ambitious and sophisticated early work.[46] It is unlike any of Austen's other works. Austen biographer Claire Tomalin describes the heroine of the novella as a sexual predator who uses her intelligence and charm to manipulate, betray, and abuse her victims, TOSHIBA Satellite L40-139 Laptop Keyboard whether lovers, friends or family. Tomalin writes: "Told in letters, it is as neatly plotted as a play, and as cynical in tone as any of the most outrageous of the Restoration dramatists who may have provided some of her inspiration....It stands alone in Austen's work as a study of an adult woman whose intelligence and force of character are greater than those of anyone she encounters."[47]TOSHIBA Satellite A300-1MC Laptop Keyboard

Early novels

After finishing Lady Susan, Austen attempted her first full-length novel—Elinor and Marianne. Her sister Cassandra later remembered that it was read to the family "before 1796" and was told through a series of letters. Without surviving original manuscripts, there is no way to know how much of the original draft survived in the novel published in 1811 as Sense and Sensibility.[48]SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard When Austen was twenty, Tom Lefroy, a nephew of neighbours, visited Steventon from December 1795 to January 1796. He had just finished a university degree and was moving to London to train as a barrister. Lefroy and Austen would have been introduced at a ball or other neighbourhood social gathering, and it is clear from Austen's letters to Cassandra that they spent considerable time together: "LENOVO Ideapad U550 Laptop Keyboard I am almost afraid to tell you how my Irish friend and I behaved. Imagine to yourself everything most profligate and shocking in the way of dancing and sitting down together."[50] The Lefroy family intervened and sent him away at the end of January. Marriage was impractical, as both Lefroy and Austen must have known. Neither had any money, TOSHIBA Satellite L300-1AS Laptop Keyboard and he was dependent on a great-uncle in Ireland to finance his education and establish his legal career. If Tom Lefroy later visited Hampshire, he was carefully kept away from the Austens, and Jane Austen never saw him again.[51]HP Pavilion dv6-3125sa Laptop Keyboard Austen began work on a second novel, First Impressions, in 1796. She completed the initial draft in August 1797 when she was only 21 (it later became Pride and Prejudice); as with all of her novels, Austen read the work aloud to her family as she was working on it and it became an "established favourite".[52] At this time, her father made the first attempt to publish one of her novels. HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard In November 1797, George Austen wrote to Thomas Cadell, an established publisher in London, to ask if he would consider publishing "a Manuscript Novel, comprised in three Vols. about the length of Miss Burney's Evelina" (First Impressions) at the author's financial risk. Cadell quickly returned Mr. Austen's letter, marked "Declined by Return of Post". SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Austen may not have known of her father's efforts.[53] Following the completion of First Impressions, Austen returned to Elinor and Marianne and from November 1797 until mid-1798, revised it heavily; she eliminated the epistolary format in favour of third-person narration and produced something close to Sense and Sensibility.[54] HP G42-381TX Laptop Keyboard During the middle of 1798, after finishing revisions of Elinor and Marianne, Austen began writing a third novel with the working title Susan—later Northanger Abbey—a satire on the popular Gothic novel.[55] Austen completed her work about a year later. In early 1803, Henry Austen offered Susan to Benjamin Crosby, a London publisher, SAMSUNG NP-N145-JP04 Laptop Keyboard who paid £10 for the copyright. Crosby promised early publication and went so far as to advertise the book publicly as being "in the press", but did nothing more. The manuscript remained in Crosby's hands, unpublished, until Austen repurchased the copyright from him in 1816.[56]FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Bath and Southampton

In December 1800, Mr Austen unexpectedly announced his decision to retire from the ministry, leave Steventon, and move the family to Bath. While retirement and travel were good for the elder Austens, Jane Austen was shocked to be told she was moving from the only home she had ever known.[57] An indication of Austen's state of mind is her lack of productivity as a writer during the time she lived at Bath. Lenovo 45N2141 Laptop Keyboard She was able to make some revisions to Susan, and she began and then abandoned a new novel, The Watsons, but there was nothing like the productivity of the years 1795–99.[58] Tomalin suggests this reflects a deep depression disabling her as a writer, but Honan disagrees, arguing Austen wrote or revised her manuscripts throughout her creative life, except for a few months after her father died.[59] ASUS NSK-U1001 Laptop Keyboard In December 1802, Austen received her only proposal of marriage. She and her sister visited Alethea and Catherine Bigg, old friends who lived near Basingstoke. Their younger brother, Harris Bigg-Wither, had recently finished his education at Oxford and was also at home. Bigg-Wither proposed and Austen accepted. As described by Caroline Austen, FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Jane's niece, and Reginald Bigg-Wither, a descendant, Harris was not attractive—he was a large, plain-looking man who spoke little, stuttered when he did speak, was aggressive in conversation, and almost completely tactless. However, Austen had known him since both were young and the marriage offered many practical advantages to Austen and her family. Compaq Presario CQ62-229SA Laptop Keyboard He was the heir to extensive family estates located in the area where the sisters had grown up. With these resources, Austen could provide her parents a comfortable old age, give Cassandra a permanent home and, perhaps, assist her brothers in their careers. By the next morning, Austen realised she had made a mistake and withdrew her acceptance.[60] TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard No contemporary letters or diaries describe how Austen felt about this proposal.[61] In 1814, Austen wrote a letter to her niece, Fanny Knight, who had asked for advice about a serious relationship, telling her that "having written so much on one side of the question, I shall now turn around & entreat you not to commit yourself farther, & not to think of accepting him unless you really do like him. Anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without Affection".[62]  HP Pavilion DV6-6B00 Laptop Keyboard In 1804, while living in Bath, Austen started but did not complete a new novel, The Watsons. The story centres on an invalid clergyman with little money and his four unmarried daughters. Sutherland describes the novel as "a study in the harsh economic realities of dependent women's lives".[63] Honan suggests, and Tomalin agrees, that Austen chose to stop work on the novel after her father died on 21 January 1805 and her personal circumstances resembled those of her characters too closely for her comfort.[64]HP CT1A Laptop Keyboard Mr Austen's final illness had struck suddenly, leaving him, as Austen reported to her brother Francis, "quite insensible of his own state", and he died quickly.[65] Jane, Cassandra, and their mother were left in a precarious financial situation. Edward, James, Henry, and Francis Austen pledged to make annual contributions to support their mother and sisters.[66]COMPAQ Presario CQ60-300EE Laptop Keyboard For the next four years, the family's living arrangements reflected their financial insecurity. They lived part of the time in rented quarters in Bath and then, beginning in 1806, in Southampton, where they shared a house with Frank Austen and his new wife. A large part of this time they spent visiting various branches of the family.[67]HP G72-b01SA Laptop Keyboard On 5 April 1809, about three months before the family's move to Chawton, Austen wrote an angry letter to Richard Crosby, offering him a new manuscript of Susanif that was needed to secure immediate publication of the novel, and otherwise requesting the return of the original so she could find another publisher. Crosby replied he had not agreed to publish the book by any particular time,  DELL Vostro 3500 Laptop Keyboard or at all, and that Austen could repurchase the manuscript for the £10 he had paid her and find another publisher. However, Austen did not have the resources to repurchase the book.[68] HP Pavilion dv6-2115sa Laptop Keyboard


Around early 1809, Austen's brother Edward offered his mother and sisters a more settled life—the use of a large cottage inChawton village[69] that was part of Edward's nearby estate, Chawton House. Jane, Cassandra, and their mother moved into Chawton cottage on 7 July 1809.[70] In Chawton, life was quieter than it had been since the family's move to Bath in 1800. SONY VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Laptop Keyboard The Austens did not socialise with the neighbouring gentry and entertained only when family visited. Austen's niece Anna described the Austen family's life in Chawton: "It was a very quiet life, according to our ideas, but they were great readers, and besides the housekeeping our aunts occupied themselves in working with the poor and in teaching some girl or boy to read or write."[71] HP G61-450EE Laptop Keyboard Austen wrote almost daily, but privately, and seems to have been relieved of some household responsibilities to give her more opportunity to write.[72] In this setting, she was able to be productive as a writer once more.[73]ASUS Z9100L Laptop Keyboard Published author During her time at Chawton, Jane Austen successfully published four novels, which were generally well-received. Through her brother Henry, the publisher Thomas Egerton agreed to publish Sense and Sensibility,[D] which appeared in October 1811. Reviews were favourable and the novel became fashionable among opinion-makers;[74] HP G42-359TU Laptop Keyboard the edition sold out by mid-1813.[E] Austen's earnings from Sense and Sensibility provided her with some financial and psychological independence.[75] Egerton then published Pride and Prejudice, a revision of First Impressions, in January 1813. He advertised the book widely and it was an immediate success, garnering three favourable reviews and selling well. ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard By October 1813, Egerton was able to begin selling a second edition.[76] Mansfield Park was published by Egerton in May 1814. While Mansfield Park was ignored by reviewers, it was a great success with the public. All copies were sold within six months, and Austen's earnings on this novel were larger than for any of her other novels.[77]HP 550 Laptop Keyboard Austen learned that the Prince Regent admired her novels and kept a set at each of his residences.[F] In November 1815, the Prince Regent's librarian invited Austen to visit the Prince's London residence and hinted Austen should dedicate the forthcoming Emma to the Prince. Though Austen disliked the Prince, she could scarcely refuse the request.[78]HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard She later wrote Plan of a Novel, according to hints from various quarters (fr), a satiric outline of the "perfect novel" based on the librarian's many suggestions for a future Austen novel.[79]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard In mid-1815, Austen moved her work from Egerton to John Murray, a better known London publisher,[G] who published Emma in December 1815 and a second edition of Mansfield Park in February 1816. Emma sold well but the new edition of Mansfield Park did not, and this failure offset most of the profits Austen earned on Emma. These were the last of Austen's novels to be published during her lifetime.[80]DELL TR334 Laptop Keyboard While Murray prepared Emma for publication, Austen began to write a new novel she titled The Elliots, later published as Persuasion. She completed her first draft in July 1816. In addition, shortly after the publication of Emma, Henry Austen repurchased the copyright for Susan from Crosby. Austen was forced to postpone publishing either of these completed novels by family financial troubles. SONY 148084122 Laptop Keyboard Henry Austen's bank failed in March 1816, depriving him of all of his assets, leaving him deeply in debt and losing Edward, James, and Frank Austen large sums. Henry and Frank could no longer afford the contributions they had made to support their mother and sisters.[81]TOSHIBA Satellite L655D-SP5012M Laptop Keyboard

Illness and death

Early in 1816, Jane Austen began to feel unwell. She ignored her illness at first and continued to work and to participate in the usual round of family activities. By the middle of that year, her decline was unmistakable to Austen and to her family, and Austen's physical condition began a long, slow, and irregular deterioration culminating in her death the following year.[82] SONY VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Laptop Keyboard The majority of Austen biographers rely on Dr. Vincent Cope's tentative 1964 retrospective diagnosis and list her cause of death as Addison's disease. However, her final illness has also been described as Hodgkin's lymphoma.[H] Recent work by Katherine White of Britain's Addison’s Disease Self Help Group suggests that Austen probably died of bovine tuberculosis,[83] SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard a disease (now) commonly associated with drinking unpasteurized milk. One contributing factor or cause of her death, discovered by Linda Robinson Walker and described in the Winter 2010 issue of Persuasions on-line, might be Brill–Zinsser disease, a recurrent form of typhus, which she had as a child. Brill–Zinsser disease is to typhus as shingles is to chicken pox; when a victim of typhus endures stress, HP 535689-001 Laptop Keyboard DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard malnutrition or another infection, typhus can recur as Brill–Zinsser disease.[84] Austen continued to work in spite of her illness. She became dissatisfied with the ending of The Elliotsand rewrote the final two chapters, finishing them on 6 August 1816.[I] In January 1817, Austen began work on a new novel she called The Brothers, later titled Sanditon upon its first publication in 1925, and completed twelve chapters before stopping work in mid-March 1817, TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard probably because her illness prevented her from continuing.[85] Austen made light of her condition to others, describing it as "Bile" andrheumatism, but as her disease progressed she experienced increasing difficulty walking or finding the energy for other activities. By mid-April, Austen was confined to her bed. In May, Jane and Cassandra's brother Henry escorted the two of them to Winchester for medical treatment. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard austen died in Winchester on 18 July 1817, at the age of 41. Henry, through his clerical connections, arranged for his sister to be buried in the north aisle of the nave of Winchester Cathedral. The epitaph composed by her brother James praises Austen's personal qualities, expresses hope for her salvation, mentions the "extraordinary endowments of her mind", but does not explicitly mention her achievements as a writer.[86]TOSHIBA KFRSBA064A Laptop Keyboard

Posthumous publication

After Austen's death, Cassandra and Henry Austen arranged with Murray for the publication of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey as a set in December 1817.[J] Henry Austen contributed a Biographical Note which for the first time identified his sister as the author of the novels. Tomalin describes it as "a loving and polished eulogy".[87] HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard Sales were good for a year—only 321 copies remained unsold at the end of 1818—and then declined. Murray disposed of the remaining copies in 1820, and Austen's novels remained out of print for twelve years.[88] In 1832, publisher Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of Austen's novels and, beginning in either December 1832 or January 1833, HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard published them in five illustrated volumes as part of his Standard Novels series. In October 1833, Bentley published the first collected edition of Austen's works. Since then, Austen's novels have been continuously in print.[89]DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard


Austen's works brought her little personal renown because they were published anonymously. Although her novels quickly became fashionable among opinion-makers, such as Princess Charlotte Augusta, daughter of the Prince Regent, they received only a few published reviews.[90] Most of the reviews were short and on balance favourable, although superficial and cautious.[91HP Pavilion dv6-2138ca Laptop Keyboard ] They most often focused on the moral lessons of the novels.[92] Sir Walter Scott, a leading novelist of the day, contributed one of them, anonymously. Using the review as a platform from which to defend the then disreputable genre of the novel, he praised Austen's realism.[93] The other important early review of Austen's works was published by Richard Whately in 1821. TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard He drew favourable comparisons between Austen and such acknowledged greats as Homer and Shakespeare, praising the dramatic qualities of her narrative. Whately and Scott set the tone for almost all subsequent 19th-century Austen criticism.[94] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

19th century

Because Austen's novels failed to conform to Romantic and Victorian expectations that "powerful emotion [be] authenticated by an egregious display of sound and colour in the writing",[95] 19th-century critics and audiences generally preferred the works of Charles Dickens and George Eliot.[96] Though Austen's novels were republished in Britain beginning in the 1830s and remained steady sellers, they were not bestsellers.[97]TOSHIBA PK130CL1A00 Laptop Keyboard Austen had many admiring readers in the 19th century who considered themselves part of a literary elite: they viewed their appreciation of Austen's works as a mark of their cultural taste. Philosopher and literary critic George Henry Lewesexpressed this viewpoint in a series of enthusiastic articles published in the 1840s and 1850s.[99] ACER Aspire 5810T Laptop Keyboard This theme continued later in the century with novelist Henry James, who referred to Austen several times with approval and on one occasion ranked her with Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Henry Fielding as among "the fine painters of life".[100]TOSHIBA Satellite pro 4600 Laptop Keyboard The publication of James Edward Austen-Leigh's A Memoir of Jane Austen in 1869 introduced Austen to a wider public as "dear aunt Jane", the respectable maiden aunt. Publication of the Memoir spurred the reissue of Austen's novels—the first popular editions were released in 1883 and fancy illustrated editions and collectors' sets quickly followed.[101]SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard Author and criticLeslie Stephen described the popular mania that started to develop for Austen in the 1880s as "Austenolatry".[102] Around the turn of the century, members of the literary elite reacted against the popularization of Austen. They referred to themselves as Janeites in order to distinguish themselves from the masses who did not properly understand her works.[103] HP Mini 210-2006sa Laptop Keyboard For example, James responded negatively to what he described as "a beguiled infatuation" with Austen, a rising tide of public interest that exceeded Austen's "intrinsic merit and interest".[104]TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S7432 Laptop Keyboard During the last quarter of the 19th century, the first books of criticism on Austen were published. In fact, after the publication of the Memoir, more criticism was published on Austen in two years than had appeared in the previous fifty.[105]HP Pavilion dv6-2110sf Laptop Keyboard

20th century and beyond

Several important works paved the way for Austen's novels to become a focus of academic study. The first important milestone was a 1911 essay by Oxford Shakespearean scholar A. C. Bradley, which is "generally regarded as the starting-point for the serious academic approach to Jane Austen".[106] In it, he established the groupings of Austen's "early" and "late" novels, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard which are still used by scholars today.[107] The second was R. W. Chapman's 1923 edition of Austen's collected works. Not only was it the first scholarly edition of Austen's works, it was also the first scholarly edition of any English novelist. The Chapman text has remained the basis for all subsequent published editions of Austen's works.[108] HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard With the publication in 1939 of Mary Lascelles's Jane Austen and Her Art, the academic study of Austen took hold.[109] Lascelles's innovative work included an analysis of the books Jane Austen read and the effect of her reading on her work, an extended analysis of Austen's style, and her "narrative art". At the time, concern arose over the fact that academics were taking over Austen criticism and it was becoming increasingly esoteric—a debate that has continued to the beginning of the 21st century.[110]SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard In a spurt of revisionist views in the 1940s, scholars approached Austen more sceptically and argued that she was a subversive writer. These revisionist views, together with F. R. Leavis's and Ian Watt's pronouncement that Austen was one of the great writers of English fiction, did much to cement Austen's reputation amongst academics.[111HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard ] They agreed that she "combined [Henry Fielding's and Samuel Richardson's] qualities of interiority and irony, realism and satire to form an author superior to both".[112] The period since World War II has seen more scholarship on Austen using a diversity of critical approaches, including feminist theory, and perhaps most controversially, postcolonial theory. DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard However, the continuing disconnection between the popular appreciation of Austen, particularly by modern Janeites, and the academic appreciation of Austen has widened considerably. Jane Austen was the favourite novelist of political philosopher Leo Strauss.[113]ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard Sequels, prequels, and adaptations of almost every sort have been based on the novels of Jane Austen, from soft-core pornography to fantasy.[114] Beginning in the middle of the 19th century, Austen family members published conclusions to her incomplete novels, and by 2000 there were over 100 printed adaptations.[115] Dell Inspiron 2500 Laptop Keyboard The first film adaptation was the 1940 MGM production of Pride and Prejudice starring Laurence Olivier and Greer Garson.[116] BBC television dramatisations, which were first produced in the 1970s, attempted to adhere meticulously to Austen's plots, characterisations, and settings.[117] HP G61-445SI Laptop Keyboard In 1995 a great wave of Austen adaptations began to appear, with Ang Lee's film of Sense and Sensibility, for which screenwriter and star Emma Thompson won an Academy Award, and the BBC's immensely popular TV mini-series Pride and Prejudice, starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth.[118]DELL 3C048 Laptop Keyboard Books and scripts that use the general storyline of Austen's novels but change or otherwise modernise the story also became popular at the end of the 20th century. For example, Clueless (1995), Amy Heckerling's updated version of Emma, which takes place in Beverly Hills, became a cultural phenomenon and spawned its own television series.[119]SONY VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T Laptop Keyboard In a 2002 vote to determine whom the UK public considers the greatest British people in history, Austen was ranked number 70 in the list of the "100 Greatest Britons".[120] In 2003, Austen's Pride and Prejudice came second in the BBC's The Big Read, a national poll to find the "Nation's best-loved book."[121]HP Pavilion dv6-2125el Laptop Keyboard In 2007, the article Rejecting Jane by British author David Lassman, which examined how Austen would fare in the modern day publishing industry,[122][123][124][125][126] achieved worldwide attention when Austen's work—submitted under a pseudonym == was rejected by numerous publishers.[127]HP Pavilion G60-118EM Laptop Keyboard Thomas Lefroy had an outstanding academic record at Trinity College, Dublin, from 1790 to 1793. In 1793, his great-uncle Benjamin Langlois sponsored Tom's legal studies at Lincoln's Inn, London. One year later, Lefroy served as Auditor of Trinity's College Historical Society, the still-active debating society of the college. Later still, he became a prominent member of the Irish bar (having been called to it in 1797) and published a series of Law Reports on the cases of the Irish Court of Chancery. ACER Aspire 5741Z Laptop Keyboard In 1796, Lefroy began a flirtation with English novelist Jane Austen, who was a friend of an older female relative. Jane Austen wrote two letters to her sister Cassandra mentioning "Tom Lefroy" but it does not seem to have been a serious relationship. While some have suggested that it may have been he whom Austen had in mind when she invented the character of Mr. Darcy in Pride and Prejudice, DELL 454RX Laptop Keyboard this seems rather unlikely. While the courtship between Tom Lefroy and Jane Austen took place over the year or so that Pride and Prejudice was written, the comparisons between the then student Tom Lefroy and the accomplished Mr. Darcy are premature at best, especially in terms of success and connections. In his 2003 biography, Becoming Jane Austen, TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7243 Laptop Keyboard Jon Spence suggests that Jane Austen actually used personalities as the models for Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth Bennett, but not in an expected way. Mr. Spence suggests that Jane Austen used herself as a model for Mr.  HP Pavilion tx2532la Laptop Keyboard Darcy and his measured demeanor while Tom Lefroy acted as the model for the more gregarious Elizabeth Bennett. So while the exact influence of Tom Lefroy on Pride and Prejudice continues to be debated, it does seem certain that his presence in Austen's life is in some way reflected in the novel. ACER AEZR1R00110 Laptop Keyboard In a letter dated Saturday (9 January 1796), Austen mentioned: You scold me so much in the nice long letter which I have this moment received from you, that I am almost afraid to tell you how my Irish friend and I behaved. Imagine to yourself everything most profligate and shocking in the way of dancing and sitting down together. I can expose myself however, only once more, because he leaves the country soon after next Friday, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5364 Laptop Keyboard on which day we are to have a dance at Ashe after all. He is a very gentlemanlike, good-looking, pleasant young man, I assure you. But as to our having ever met, except at the three last balls, I cannot say much; for he is so excessively laughed at about me at Ashe, that he is ashamed of coming to Steventon, and ran away when we called on Mrs. Lefroy a few days ago. SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard . .After I had written the above, we received a visit from Mr. Tom Lefroy and his cousin George. The latter is really very well-behaved now; and as for the other, he has but one fault, which time will, I trust, entirely remove — it is that his morning coat is a great deal too light. He is a very great admirer of Tom Jones, and therefore wears the same coloured clothes, I imagine, which he did when he was wounded.[1]TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5256 Laptop Keyboard   In a letter started on Thursday (14 January 1796), and finished the following morning, there was another mention of him. Friday. — At length the day is come on which I am to flirt my last with Tom Lefroy, and when you receive this it will be over. My tears flow as I write at the melancholy idea.[2]HP Pavilion dv6-2020sa Laptop Keyboard   Austen's surviving correspondence contains only one other mention of Tom Lefroy, in a November 1798 letter that Austen biographer Claire Tomalin believes demonstrates the author's "bleak remembrance, and persistent interest"[3] in Lefroy. In the letter to her sister, Austen writes that Tom's aunt Mrs. Lefroy had been to visit, but had not said anything about her nephew... TOSHIBA Satellite C655D-SP5003M Laptop Keyboard "...to me, and I was too proud to make any enquiries; but on my father's afterwards asking where he was, I learnt that he was gone back to London in his way to Ireland, where he is called to the Bar and means to practise."[4]HP Pavilion dv6-3052nr Laptop Keyboard   Upon learning of Jane Austen’s death (18 July 1817), Thomas Langlois Lefroy traveled from Ireland to England to pay his respects to the British author.[5] In addition, at an auction of Cadell's papers (possibly in London), one Tom Lefroy bought a Cadell publisher's rejection letter—for Austen’s early version ofPride and Prejudice, titled First Impressions. Caroline Austen said in her letter to James Edward Austen-Leigh on 1 April 1869: ACER Aspire 5538 Laptop Keyboard   I enclose a copy of Mr. Austen’s letter to Cadell—I do not know which novel he would have sent—The letter does not do much credit to the tact or courtesy of our good Grandfather for Cadell was a great man in his day, and it is not surprising that he should have refused the favour so offered from an unknown—but the circumstance may be worth noting, especially as we have so few incidents to produce. At a sale of Cadell’s papers &c Tom Lefroy picked up the original letter—and Jemima copied it for me –DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard   It was rather unlikely that Caroline Austen would address the Chief Justice Lefroy as only ‘Tom Lefroy’ (she indeed addressed him as the still living ‘Chief Justice’ in the later part of the letter). However, if it is true that the original Tom Lefroy purchased the Cadell letter after Jane’s death, it is possible that he later handed it over to Thomas Edward Preston Lefroy (T.E.P. Lefroy; DELL Studio 1749 Laptop Keyboard husband of Jemima Lefroy who was the daughter of Anna Austen Lefroy and Benjamin Lefroy). T.E.P. Lefroy later would give Cadell’s letter to Caroline for reference. Cadell & Davies firm was closed down in 1836 after the death of Thomas Cadell Jr.. The sale of Cadell's papers took place in 1840, possibly in November.[6]HP Pavilion dv6-2010ep Laptop Keyboard In the latter years of Tom Lefroy's life, he was questioned about his relationship with Jane Austen by his nephew, and admitted to having loved Jane Austen, but stated that it was a "boyish love".[7] As is written in a letter sent from T.E.P. Lefroy to James Edward Austen Leigh in 1870, HP Pavilion dv6-2111sa Laptop Keyboard   My late venerable uncle ... said in so many words that he was in love with her, although he qualified his confession by saying it was a boyish love. As this occurred in a friendly & private conversation, I feel some doubt whether I ought to make it public.[8]HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop Keyboard A fictitious account of their relationship is at the center of the 2007 historical romance film Becoming Jane. In this film, Lefroy is played by James McAvoy. Lefroy contested Dublin University in an 1827 by-election, as a Tory, but finished third. DELL Vostro 3700 Laptop Keyboard An idea of Lefroy's politics is given by the opening of an editorial in The Times (of London) on Friday 27 February 1829 when he was opposing the Bill to admit Irish Catholics to parliament (if they met a high property qualification).  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard   Serjeant Lefroy and Mr Saurin have been… re-edifying their Orange disciples in Dublin with much curious but rather apocryphal twaddle, touching thecoronation oath, the Act of Settlement and so on. The learned Serjeant expresses his hostility to the proposed law by declaring that he is averse to the removal of ancient landmarks. Now, if the saintly Serjeant means that the letter of a law can constitute a political landmark, we can assure him he is in pitiable error.  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Laptop Keyboard   Lefroy may have been influenced by Huguenot family memories of persecution by French Catholics; this was the case with other opponents of Catholic emancipation such as William Saurin mentioned above. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard   Richard Lalor Sheil published a profile of Lefroy stating (amongst many hostile remarks on his combination of piety and moneymaking) that Lefroy was well known for his interest in the conversion of Jews to Protestantism, leading Daniel O'Connell to joke during a lawsuit over a collection of antique coins that Lefroy should be given the Hebrew coins as his fee while O'Connell received those with a Roman inscription. SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard Patrick Geoghegan's life of O'Connell, King Dan, states that O'Connell held Lefroy's legal abilities in contempt and regarded him as a prime example of a lawyer promoted above more meritorious Catholics (notably O'Connell himself) because of his Protestant religion and Tory politics. TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard   He was elected to the House of Commons for the Dublin University seat in 1830, as a Tory (the party later becoming known as Conservative). He became a member of the Privy Council of Ireland on 29 January 1835. In 1838, Thomas Langlois Lefroy received American politician Charles Sumner during Sumner's visit to Ireland.[9]Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard Tom Lefroy continued to represent the University until he was appointed an Irish judge (with the title of a Baron of the Exchequer) in 1841. In 1848 he presided over the sedition trial of the Young Irelander John Mitchel. HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard   He was promoted to Chief Justice of the Court of Queen's Bench in Ireland in 1852. Despite some allegations in Parliament, that he was too old to do the job, Lefroy did not resign as Chief Justice until he was aged 90 and a Conservative government was in office to fill the vacancy. This was in July 1866. One apocryphal story (in the memoirs of the Home Rule MP JG Swift MacNeill) describes Lefroy's son as denying in Parliament that his father was too old to perform his duties, TOSHIBA Satellite A200-1Ai Laptop Keyboard but being himself so visibly old and feeble as to produce the opposite effect on parliamentary opinion. Another version of this story has the son defending his father's capacity although he himself had applied to be excused certain official duties on account of advanced age. The Hansard report of the debate can be found here. SONY V-0709BIAS1-US Laptop Keyboard   In a satirical pamphlet on the Trinity College Dublin election of 1865 Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu suggests that Lefroy was so old that he had "ridden on the mastodon to hunt the megatherium" and mocks the manner in which the Conservative lawyer-politicians Joseph Napier and James Whiteside allegedly insisted whenever the Conservatives were in power (and might appoint them to replace him) that Lefroy is too old to perform his duties, only to insist whenever a Whig government is in power that he is in perfect health. ASUS X82 Laptop Keyboard


Interest in astronomy

Tom Lefroy was also interested in astronomy. On 30 March 1846, he visited William Parsons, the 3rd Earl of Rosse in Parsonstown to try Parsons’ new telescope called Leviathan of Parsonstown. Tom later said to his wife (Letter 31 March 1846)[10]: TOSHIBA Satellite A505 Laptop Keyboard   Yesterday was indeed a most interesting day. Lord Rosse and his wife were as kind to me as possible. The wonders of his telescope are not to be told. He says—with as much ease as another man would say, “Come and I’ll show you a beautiful prospect”—“Come and I’ll show you a universe, one of a countless multitude of univ

erses, each larger than the whole universe hitherto known to astronomers.” HP Pavilion dv4-1104tu Laptop Keyboard The planet Jupiter, which through an ordinary glass is no larger than a good star, is seen twice as large as the moon appears to the naked eye. It was all true what Doherty [a Chief Justice, more than six feet high] said, HP Pavilion dv6-3002xx Laptop Keyboard that he walked upright in the tube with an umbrella over his head before it was set. But the genius displayed in all the contrivances for wielding this mighty monster even surpasses the design and execution of it. The telescope weighs sixteen tons, and yet Lord Rosse raised it single-handed off its resting place, and two men with ease raised it to any height. ASUS A6M Laptop Keyboard   Tom Lefroy was born of the Irish Lefroys, descendants of a Huguenot Lefroy who migrated to England in the 16th century,[11] hence the French sounding name (the family head being a Lord L'Offroy). In 1765, Tom’s father (Anthony Peter Lefroy) was secretly married to Ann Gardner in Limerick (Ireland). Five girls were born without Benjamin Langlois (Tom’s great uncle and his family's benefactor) knowing it (Radovici mentioned five, SONY Vaio PCG-K215M Laptop Keyboard but Cranfield mentioned four; it is possible that one of Tom's elder sisters died in infancy). Thomas Langlois Lefroy was the sixth child, also the first son. The list of Tom’s siblings (including him) is as follows[12]: HP Pavilion dv4-1050ee Laptop Keyboard

Carrigglas Manor

Carrigglas Manor was a Gothic-style great house built for Lefroy and his family circa 1830 (Memoir of Chief Justice Lefroy). The family had lived in Carrigglas before 1837 (one of Tom's letter for Mary was dated 5 October 1834). James Gandon the famous architect of Dublin's Custom House designed and built a stable block and farmyard and walled garden for Lefroy. ACER TravelMate 6290 Laptop Keyboard In 1837, Lefroy renovated the Manor with the help of Daniel Robertson, Esq., a famous English architect. A hurricane on 6 January 1839 destroyed some parts of the house, and Lefroy had to rebuild it.[10] As of 2010, the plan to adapt the manor house to be part of a newly built hotel, and to turn the 660-acre (2.7 km2) park into a golf course and housing estate collapsed and work at Carrigglas was terminated before the hotel or any of the new houses were occupied.[15] SONY VAIO VGN-AW170YIQ Laptop Keyboard   The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by British Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling. The stories were first published in magazines in 1893–94. The original publications contain illustrations, some by Rudyard's father, John Lockwood Kipling. Kipling was born in India and spent the first six years of his childhood there. After about ten years in England, he went back to India and worked there for about six-and-half years. These stories were written when Kipling lived in Vermont.[1]ASUS F6 Laptop Keyboard   The tales in the book (and also those in The Second Jungle Book which followed in 1895, and which includes five further stories about Mowgli) are fables, using animals in an anthropomorphic manner to give moral lessons. The verses of The Law of the Jungle, for example, lay down rules for the safety of individuals, families and communities. HP Pavilion tx2500z Laptop Keyboard Kipling put in them nearly everything he knew or "heard or dreamed about the Indian jungle."[2] Other readers have interpreted the work as allegories of the politics and society of the time.[3] The best-known of them are the three stories revolving around the adventures of an abandoned "man cub" Mowgli who is raised by wolves in the Indian jungle. TOSHIBA Satellite L775-S7245 Laptop Keyboard The most famous of the other stories are probably "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi", the story of a heroic mongoose, and "Toomai of the Elephants", the tale of a young elephant-handler. As with much of Kipling's work, each of the stories is preceded by a piece of verse, and succeeded by another. HP pavilion DV7-1005eo Laptop Keyboard The Jungle Book, because of its moral tone, came to be used as a motivational book by the Cub Scouts, a junior element of theScouting movement. This use of the book's universe was approved by Kipling after a direct petition of Robert Baden-Powell, DELL V100830AS1 Laptop Keyboard HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard founder of the Scouting movement, who had originally asked for the author's permission for the use of the Memory Game from Kimin his scheme to develop the morale and fitness of working-class youths in cities. Akela, the head wolf in The Jungle Book, has become a senior figure in the movement, the name being traditionally adopted by the leader of each Cub Scout pack. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S9722 Laptop Keyboard   As the head of state, the Sovereign remains the "fount of honour",[1] but the system for identifying and recognising candidates to honour has changed considerably over time. Various orders of knighthood have been created (see below) as well as awards for military service, bravery, merit, and achievement which take the form of decorations or medals. SONY VAIO VGN-AR570 Laptop Keyboard Most medals are not graded. Each one recognises specific service and as such there are normally set criteria which must be met. These criteria may include a period of time and will often delimit a particular geographic HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard


New Year and Birthday Honours

A complete list of approximately 1350 names is published twice a year, at New Year and on the date of the Sovereign's (official) birthday. Since their decisions are inevitably subjective, the twice-yearly honours lists often provoke criticism from those who feel strongly about particular cases.[3][4] Candidates are identified by public or private bodies, COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard by government departments or are nominated by members of the public. Depending on their roles, those people selected by committee are submitted either to the Prime Minister, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, or Secretary of State for Defence for their approval before being sent to the Sovereign for final approval. Certain honours are awarded solely at the Sovereign's discretion, such as the Order of the Garter,[5] TOSHIBA P205-S6337 Laptop Keyboard the Order of the Thistle, the Royal Victorian Order,[6] the Order of Merit[7] and the Royal Family Order. The awards are then presented by the Sovereign or her designated representative. The Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal have deputised for the Queen at investiture ceremonies at Buckingham Palace. SONY VAIO VGN-CR210EL Laptop KeyboardThese orders, relating to the British Raj or the British Indian Empire, are also dormant. The senior order, the Order of the Star of India, was divided into three grades, Knight Grand Commander, Knight Commander and Companion, of which the first and highest was conferred upon the Princes and Chiefs of Indian states and upon important British civil servants working in India. SONY VAIO VGN-CR31S Laptop Keyboard Women were not eligible to receive the award. The junior order, the Order of the Indian Empire, was divided into the same ranks and also excluded women. The third order, the Order of the Crown of India, was used exclusively to honour women. Its members, all sharing a single grade, consisted of the wives and close female relatives of Indian Princes or Chiefs; lENOVO IdeaPad G555 Laptop Keyboard the Viceroy or Governor-General; the Governors of Bombay, Madras and Bengal; the Principal Secretary of State for India; and the Commander-in-Chief in India. Upon Indian independence in 1947, appointments to all these orders ceased. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5127 Laptop Keyboard H.H. Maharaja Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur of Alwar, who was a KCSI and the last surviving member of the Order of the Star of India, died in February 2009, aged 97. The sole surviving member of the Order of the Indian Empire, H.H. Maharaja Meghrajji III of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, a KCIE died in August 2010, aged 87. GATEWAY M250 Laptop Keyboard Queen Elizabeth II was appointed to the Order of the Crown of India (then as Princess Elizabeth) and is the last surviving former member of that order. The Queen remains also the Sovereign of the Indian orders as they have never been abolished. HP Mini 110-3100sg Laptop Keyboard   The Order of Burma was created in May 1940 by King George VI of the United Kingdom to recognise subjects of the British colony of Burma (now Myanmar). This order had one class which entitled the member to the postnominal letters OB but no title. It was originally intended to reward long and faithful service by military and police. DELL Inspiron 1564 Laptop Keyboard In 1945 the Royal Warrant was altered to allow for membership for acts of gallantry as well as meritorious service. The Order was one of the rarest awarded with only 33 appointments by the time appointments were discontinued in 1948 when Burma declared independence. HP Pavilion dv6-2113sa Laptop Keyboard   The Royal Guelphic Order, also known as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, was an honour founded by George IV in 1815. It contains three classes and the awards are made in two divisions (civil and military). In the United Kingdom it was used only briefly, until the death of William IV in 1837 that resulted in the ending of the personal union with the Kingdom of Hanover due to succession to the throne of Hanover following the Salic Law, unlike in the United Kingdom where women could inheirit the throne. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-1CN Laptop Keyboard The order continued for some time as a national order of Hanover until the defeat and forced dissolution of the kingdom by Prussia in 1866. Since then the order is a house order to be awarded by the House of Hanover. The order's current head is Ernst August Prinz von Hanover, head of the house of Hanover. HP Pavilion DV7-2110tx Laptop Keyboard

Hereditary peerage

There are five ranks of hereditary peerage: Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. Until the mid 20th century, peerages were usually hereditary (bar legal peerages - see below) and, until the end of the 20th century, English, British and UK peerages (except, until very recent times, those for the time being held by women) carried the right to a seat in the House of Lords. FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard Hereditary peerages are now normally only given to members of the Royal Family. The most recent were the grants to the Queen's youngest son, the Earl of Wessex, on his marriage in 1999, and to the Queen's grandson Prince William who was made the Duke of Cambridge on the morning before his marriage to Catherine Middletonon April 29, 2011. No hereditary peerages were granted to commoners after the Labour Party came to power in 1964,  HP G62-100SL Laptop Keyboard until Margaret Thatcher tentatively reintroduced them by two grants to men with no sons in 1983, respectively the Speaker of the House of Commons George Thomas and the former Deputy Prime MinisterWilliam Whitelaw. Both these titles died with their holders. She followed this with an Earldom in 1984 for the former Prime Minister Harold Macmillan not long before his death, reviving a traditional honour for former Prime Ministers.  COMPAQ Presario CQ60-114EM Laptop Keyboard Macmillan's grandson succeeded him on his death in 1986. No hereditary peerages have been created since, and Thatcher's own title is a life peerage (see further explanation below). The concession of a baronetcy (i.e. hereditary knighthood), was granted to Margaret Thatcher's husband Denis following her resignation (explained below, see Baronetcy). HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard SONY VAIO VGN-CR14GN Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA NSK-T4N01 Laptop Keyboard Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard HP Mini 110-1115SA Laptop Keyboard

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Impact on popular culture

The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the 1950s, but especially throughout the 1960s and 1970s, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga. Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery

"Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular among American Tolkien fans during this time.[88]

In one scene of the 1993 film, Six Degrees of Separation, Paul (Will Smith) mocks The Lord of the Rings books in front of Ian McKellen's character. Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery

Less than a decade after this film was made, Ian McKellen would play the role of Gandalf in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.

Parodies like the Harvard Lampoon's Bored of the Rings, the VeggieTales episode "Lord of the Beans", Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery

the South Park episode "The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers", the Futurama film "Bender's Game", The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius episode "Lights! Camera! Danger!", The Big Bang Theoryepisode "The Precious Fragmentation", and the American Dad! episode "The Return of the Bling" are testimony to the work's continual presence in popular culture. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery

In 1969 Tolkien sold the merchandising rights to The Lord of The Rings (and The Hobbit) to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10,000[89] plus a 7.5% royalty after costs,[90] payable to Allen & Unwin and the author.[91] In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company, Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery

who trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorized" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors.[92] Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery

Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late 1960s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the Brothers Hildebrandt, to figurines and miniatures to computer, video, tabletop and role-playing games. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery

Recent examples include the Spiel des Jahres award winning (for best use of literature in a game) board game The Lord of the Rings by Reiner Knizia and the Golden Joystick award-winning massively multiplayer online role-playing game, The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmarby Turbine, Inc.. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring is a 2001 epic[2][3] fantasy film[4] directed by Peter Jacksonbased on the first volume of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1954–1955). It was followed by The Two Towers(2002) and The Return of the King (2003), based on the second and third volumes of The Lord of the RingsSony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery

Set in Middle-earth, the story tells of the Dark Lord Sauron, who is seeking the One Ring. The Ring has found its way to the young hobbit Frodo Baggins (Elijah Wood). The fate of Middle-earth hangs in the balance as Frodo and eight companions who form the Fellowship of the Ring begin their journey to Mount Doom in the land of Mordor, Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery

the only place where the Ring can be destroyed.

Released on 10 December 2001, the film was highly acclaimed by critics and fans alike, especially as many of the latter judged it to be the most sufficiently faithful adaptation of the original story out of Jackson's film trilogy. Sony VAIO VPCF11AHJ Battery

It was a major box office success, earning over $870 million worldwide, and the second highest-grossing film of 2001 in the U.S. and worldwide (behind Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone) which made it the 5th highest-grossing film ever at the time.

Today it is the 26th highest-grossing worldwide film of all time. Sony VAIO VPCF11JFX/B Battery

It won four Academy Awards and five BAFTAs, including Best Film and Best Director BAFTA awards. The Special Extended Edition was released to DVD on November 12, 2002 and toBlu-ray on June 28, 2011. In 2007, The Fellowship of the Ring was voted number 50 on the American Film Institute's list of 100 greatest American films. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E Battery

The AFI also voted it the second greatest fantasy film of all time during their AFI's 10 Top 10 special.In the Second Age, the Dark Lord Sauron attempts to conquer Middle-Earth using his One Ring. In battle against theElves and Men, Prince Isildur cuts the Ring from Sauron's hand, destroying his physical form and vanquishing his army. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H Battery

However, Sauron's "life force" is bound to the Ring, allowing him to survive while the Ring remains. Isildur, corrupted by the Ring's power, refuses to destroy it. When Isildur is killed by Orcs, the Ring is lost in a river for 2,500 years. The Ring is found by Gollum, who possesses it for centuries until it is found by the Hobbit Bilbo Baggins. Sony VAIO VPCF11MFX/B Battery

Sixty years later, Bilbo leaves the Ring to his nephew, Frodo Baggins. Upon learning that the Ring belonged to Sauron, the Wizard Gandalf the Grey warns Frodo that Sauron's forces will come for him. Gandalf catches Frodo's gardenerSamwise Gamgee eavesdropping underneath a window and sends him with Frodo to leave the Shire. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery

Gandalf rides to Isengardto meet with the head of his order, Saruman the White, who reveals that Sauron's servants, the Nazgûl, have been sent to capture the Ring. Saruman reveals himself to be in service to Sauron, and imprisons Gandalf atop his tower. Saruman commands Sauron's Orcs to construct weapons of war and produce a new breed of Orc fighters: the Uruk-hai. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery

While traveling to Bree, Frodo and Sam are joined by Merry and Pippin, and are nearly captured by the Nazgûl. At theInn of the Prancing Pony, Frodo meets the mysterious ranger Aragorn, who hides them from their pursuers and agrees to lead them to Rivendell. During the journey they are attacked by the Nazgûl. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery

Aragorn fights off the creatures, but Frodo is wounded by their morgul blade, which will turn him into a wraith. While chased by the Nazgûl, Frodo is saved by theElf Arwen who uses her magic to summon a surge of water that sweeps away the pursuing Nazgûl. Arwen takes Frodo to Rivendell where he is healed by her father, Elrond. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

Gandalf escapes Saruman's tower with the aid of Gwaihir the eagleand travels to Rivendell. Elrond calls a council of the races still loyal to Middle-earth to decide what should be done with the Ring. It is revealed that the Ring can only be destroyed by throwing it into the fires of Mount Doom, where it was forged. Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery

Frodo volunteers to take the Ring, accompanied by Sam, Merry, Pippin, Gandalf, and Aragorn. They are joined by the Elf Legolas, the Dwarf Gimli, and Boromir, man of Gondor, to form the Fellowship of the Ring.The Fellowship set out but are hindered by Saruman's magic. Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery

They travel through the dwarf Mines of Moria. Inside, they find that Orcs have overrun the mines and slain the Dwarves; they also realize that Gollum is following them, determined to reclaim the Ring. The Fellowship is attacked by Orcs and a Balrog, an ancient demon of fire and shadow. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery

Gandalf confronts the Balrog, allowing the others to escape, but both Gandalf and the Balrog fall into an abyss. Mourning Gandalf's death, the group flees to Lothlórien, where they are sheltered by its rulers, the Elves Galadrieland Celeborn. That night, Galadriel informs Frodo that it is his destiny to destroy the Ring. Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery

The Fellowship continue their journey. Meanwhile, Saruman assembles a force of Uruk-hai to hunt the Fellowship.

After arriving at Parth Galen, Boromir gives in to the Ring's corruption and tries to take it from Frodo, believing that it is the only way to save his realm. Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery

Frodo manages to escape by wearing the Ring and becoming invisible. Boromir realizes what he has done, and attempts to find Frodo, who decides to continue his journey alone, heeding Galadriel's warning that the Ring will eventually corrupt the other members of the Fellowship.Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery

The Uruk-hai arrive and Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli attempt to hold them off while Frodo escapes. Merry and Pippin lead the Orcs away from Frodo and are nearly killed. Boromir tries to save them, but in the process is shot fatally by the Uruk-Hai leader, Lurtz. The Uruk-Hai capture Merry and Pippin. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery

Aragorn slays Lurtz and tends to a dying Boromir, and promises him that the world of men will not fall. Boromir dies with Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas by his side.

Sam finds Frodo, who reluctantly lets Sam join him. Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli set out to rescue Merry and Pippin. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery

As Frodo and Sam gaze out at the land before them, they grieve over the others. Frodo says that he is glad that Sam is with him and the two Hobbits set off towards Mordor.

Before filming began on 11 October 1999, the principal actors trained for six weeks in sword fighting (with Bob Anderson), riding and boating. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery

Jackson hoped such activities would allow the cast to bond so chemistry would be evident on screen as well as getting them used to life in Wellington.[5] They were also trained to pronounce Tolkien's verses properly.[6] After the shoot, the nine cast members playing the Fellowship got a tattoo, Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery

the Elvish symbol for the number nine, with the exception of John Rhys-Davies, whose stunt double got the tattoo instead.[7] The film is noted for having an ensemble cast,[8] and some of the cast and their respective characters include: Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery

Elijah Wood as Frodo Baggins: A hobbit who inherits the One Ring from his uncle, Bilbo Baggins. He is accompanied on his quest by his best friend and fellow hobbit, Samwise Gamgee. Elijah Wood was the first actor to be cast on 7 July 1999.[9] Wood was a fan of the book, and he sent in an audition dressed as Frodo, reading lines from the novel.[10] Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery

Wood was selected from 150 actors who auditioned.[11]

Ian McKellen as Gandalf the Grey: An Istari wizard and mentor to Frodo, who helps him decide what to do with the Ring. He becomes the leader of the Fellowship after it is decided to take the Ring to Mount Doom and destroy it. Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery

Sean Connery was approached for the role, but did not understand the plot,while Patrick Stewart turned it down, as he disliked the script.[12] Before being cast, McKellen had to sort his schedule with 20th Century Fox as there was a two-month overlap with X-Men. He enjoyed playing Gandalf the Grey more than his transformed state in the next two films, Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery

 and based his accent on Tolkien. Unlike his on-screen character, McKellen did not spend much time with the actors playing the Hobbits, instead working with their scale doubles.[5]

Sean Astin as Samwise "Sam" Gamgee: A Hobbit gardener and Frodo's best friend. Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery

When caught eavesdropping, Sam is made to become Frodo's companion and from then on becomes very loyal. Astin, who had recently become a father, bonded with the 18-year-old Wood in a protective manner, which mirrored Sam's relationship with Frodo.Viggo Mortensen as Aragorn: Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery

Dubbed Strider, he is a Dúnedain ranger and the heir to the throne of Gondor. He travels with the Fellowship on their journey toMordor. He is unsure of whether to become King following the failure of his ancestor, Isildur, to destroy the Ring. Nicolas Cage turned down the role because of "family obligations",Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery

while Vin Diesel, a fan of the book, auditioned for Aragorn. Stuart Townsend was cast in the role, before being replaced during filming when Jackson realised he was too young.[10] Russell Crowe was considered as a replacement, but he turned it down after taking what he thought to be a similar role in GladiatorSony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery

Producer Mark Ordesky saw Mortensen in a play. Mortensen's son, a fan of the book, convinced him to take the role. Mortensen read the book on the plane, received a crash course lesson in fencing from Bob Anderson and began filming the scenes on Weathertop.[ Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery

Mortensen became a hit with the crew by patching up his costume[15] and carrying his "hero" sword around with him offscreen.Sean Bean as Boromir: A prince of the Stewards of Gondor, he journeys with the Fellowship towards Mordor, although he is tempted by the power of the Ring. Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery

Bruce Willis, a fan of the book, expressed interest in the role, while Liam Neeson was sent the script, but passed.[10]

Orlando Bloom as Legolas: Prince of the Elves' Woodland Realm and a skilled archer who accompanies the Fellowship on their journey to Mordor. Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery

Bloom initially auditioned for Faramir, who appears in the second film, a role which went to David Wenham.Billy Boyd as Peregrin "Pippin" Took: A Hobbit who travels with the Fellowship on their journey to Mordor, along with his best friend Merry. He is a prankster, often being a nuisance for Gandalf. Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery

Together with Meriadoc Brandybuck (see below), he serves as a comic relief.

Dominic Monaghan as Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck: A Hobbit and a friend (and distant cousin) of Frodo. He helps him find a raft-ferry to escape the Nazgûl, and later travels with the Fellowship on their journey to Mordor, along with his best friend Pippin.Sony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery

Monaghan was cast as Merry after auditioning for Frodo. Together with Pippin (see above), he serves as a comic relief.John Rhys-Davies as Gimli: A Dwarf who accompanies the Fellowship to Mordor after they set out from Rivendell. He initially hates Elves, but changes his attitude in the course of the story, particularly after meeting Lady Galadriel. Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery

Billy Connolly was considered for the part of Gimli.[10] Rhys-Davies wore heavy prosthetics to play Gimli, which limited his vision, and eventually he developed eczema around his eyes.[5]

Christopher Lee as Saruman the White: The fallen head of the Istari Order, who succumbed to Sauron's will via his use of the palantírSony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery

After capturing Gandalf, he creates an army of Uruk-hai to find and capture the Ring from the Fellowship. Lee is a major fan of the book, and reads it once a year. He has also met J. R. R. Tolkien.[14] He originally auditioned for Gandalf, but was judged too old.[10]

Sala Baker as Sauron: The titular character of the story, who created the One Ring to conquer Middle-earth. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery

He lost the Ring to Isildur, and now seeks it in order to initiate his reign over Middle-earth. He cannot yet take physical form, and is spiritually incarnate as an Eye.

Hugo Weaving as Elrond: The Elven master and Lord of Rivendell, who leads the Council of Elrond which ultimately decides to destroy the One Ring. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery

He lost faith in the strength of Men after witnessing Isildur's failure 3,000 years before. David Bowie expressed interest in the role, but Jackson stated, "To have a famous, beloved character and a famous star colliding is slightly uncomfortable."Marton Csokas as Celeborn: An Elf and the co-ruler of Lothlórien along with his wife Galadriel. Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery

Cate Blanchett as Galadriel: An Elf and the co-ruler of Lothlórien along with her husband Celeborn. She shows Frodo a possible outcome of events in hermirror and gives him the Light of Eärendil. Tilda Swinton was also a possibility to the role, but she turned it down, since she was going to play a similar role as Jadis, Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery

the White Witch in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

Liv Tyler as Arwen: An elf, Arwen escorts Frodo to Rivendell after he is stabbed by the Witch-king. She is the daughter of Elrond, and Aragorn's lover to whom she gives the Evenstar necklace. Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery

The filmmakers approached Tyler after seeing her performance in Plunkett & Macleane, and New Line Cinema leaped at the opportunity of having one Hollywood star in the film. Actress Helena Bonham Carter had expressed interest in the role.Tyler came to shoot on short occasions, and bonded most with Bloom. Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery

She was one of the last actors to be cast, on 25 August 1999.[16]

Ian Holm as Bilbo Baggins: Frodo's uncle who gives him the Ring after he decides to retire to Rivendell. At Rivendell, he gives Frodo a mithril mail-shirt and his own sword, Sting, which can detect the presence of nearby orcs by emitting a bluish glow. Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery

Holm previously played Frodo in a 1981 radio adaption ofThe Lord of the Rings, and was cast as Bilbo after Jackson remembered his performance.[10] Sylvester McCoy was contacted about playing the role, and was kept in place as a potential Bilbo for six months before Jackson went with Holm.[17] Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery

Lawrence Makoare as Lurtz: The commander of Saruman's orc forces who leads the hunt for the Fellowship as they head to Mordor.Craig Parker as Haldir: Leader of The Galadhrim warriors guarding the border of Lothlórien.Mark Ferguson as Gil-galad: An Elven-King and last ruler of Noldor who fought in the War of the Last Alliance. Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery

Peter McKenzie as Elendil: High King of Arnor and Gondor who fought in The War Of The Last Alliance and father of Isildur. Killed by Sauron.

Harry Sinclair as Isildur: Son of Elendil and ancestor of Aragorn who fought in The War Of The Last Alliance. Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery

He got ambushed by Mordor Orcs when The One Ring is passed onto him after he cut off Sauron's hand with his father's sword, Narsil during the war.

Comparison with the source material

Jackson, Walsh and Boyens made numerous changes to the story, for purposes of pacing and character development. Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery

Jackson said his main desire was to make a film focused primarily on Frodo and the Ring, the "backbone" of the story.[18] The prologue condenses Tolkien's backstory, in which The Last Alliance's seven year siege of the Barad-dûr is a single battle, where Sauron is shown to explode, though Tolkien only said his spirit flees.[19] Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery

Events at the beginning of the film are condensed or omitted altogether. In the book the time between Gandalf leaving the Ring to Frodo and returning to reveal its inscription, which is 17 years, is compressed for timing reasons.[20] Frodo also spends a few months preparing to move to Buckland, on the eastern border of the shire. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery

This move is omitted and combined with him setting out for Rivendell. Also compressed is the time between Frodo and Sam leaving Bag End and their meeting Merry and Pippin. Characters such asTom Bombadil are left out to simplify the plot and increase the threat of the Ringwraiths. Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery

Such sequences are left out to make time to introduce Saruman, who in the book doesn't appear until a flashback told at the Council of Elrond. Saruman's role is enhanced: he is to blame for the blizzard on Caradhras, a role taken from Sauron and/or Caradhras itself in the book. Gandalf's capture by Saruman is also expanded with a fight sequence. Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery

The role of Barliman Butterbur at the Prancing Pony is largely removed for time and dramatic flow.The events at Weathertop were also altered. The location of the fight against the Ringwraiths was changed to the ruins on top of the hill rather than a campsite at its base. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery

When Frodo was stabbed in the book, the party spent two weeks travelling to Rivendell, but in the film this is shortened to less than a week, with Frodo's condition worsening at a commensurately greater rate. Arwen was given a greater role in the film, accompanying Frodo all the way to Rivendell, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery

while in the book Frodo faced the Ringwraiths alone at the Ford of Bruinen. The character of Glorfindel was omitted entirely and his scenes were also given to Arwen. She was tacitly credited with the river rising against the Ringwraiths, which was the work of her father Elrond with aid from Gandalf in the book. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery

A significant new addition is Aragorn's self-doubt, which causes him to hesitate to claim the kingship of Gondor. This element is not present in the book, where Aragorn intends to claim the throne at an appropriate time. In the book Narsil is reforged immediately when he joins the Fellowship, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery

but this event is held over until Return of the King in film to symbolically coincide with his acceptance of his title. These elements were added because Peter Jackson believed that each character should be forced to grow or change over the course of the story.

Elrond's character gained an adversarial edge; Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery

he expresses doubts in the strength of Men to resist Sauron's evil after Isildur's failure to destroy the ring as depicted in the prologue. Jackson also shortens the Council of Elrond by spreading its exposition into earlier parts of the film. Elrond's counsellor, Erestor—who suggested the Ring be given to Tom Bombadil—was completely absent from this scene. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery

Gimli's father, Glóin, was also deemed unnecessary.

The tone of the Moria sequence was altered. Although in the book the Fellowship only realises the Dwarves are all dead once they reach Balin's tomb, the filmmakers chose to use foreshadowing devices instead. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery

Gandalf says to Gimli he would prefer not to enter Moria, and Saruman is shown to be aware of Gandalf's reticence, and also reveals an illustration of the Balrog in one of his books. The corpses of the dwarves are instantly shown as the Fellowship enter Moria.In terms of dramatic structure, the book simply ends; Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAH Battery

there is no climax, because Tolkien wrote the "trilogy" as a single story published in three volumes. Jackson's version incorporates the first chapter of '"The Two Towers" and makes its events, told in real time instead of flashback, simultaneous with the Breaking of the Fellowship. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

This finale is played as a climactic battle, into which he introduces the Uruk-hai referred to as Lurtz in the script. In the book, Boromir is unable to tell Aragorn which hobbits were kidnapped by the orcs before he dies. From there, Aragorn deduces Frodo's intentions when he notices that a boat is missing and Sam's pack is gone. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

In the film, Aragorn and Frodo have a scene together in which Frodo's intentions are explicitly stated.Jackson began working with Christian Rivers to storyboard the trilogy in August 1997, as well as getting Richard Taylor and Weta Workshop to begin creating his interpretation of Middle-earth. Sony VAIO VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Jackson told them to make Middle-earth as plausible and believable as possible, to think of Middle-earth in a historical manner.In November, Alan Lee and John Howe became the primary conceptual designers for the film trilogy, having had previous experience as illustrators for the book and various other tie-ins. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery

Lee worked for the Art Department creating places such as Rivendell, Isengard, Moria and Lothlórien, giving art nouveau and geometryinfluences to the Elves and Dwarves respectively. Though Howe contributed with Bag End and the Argonath, he focused working on armour having studied it all his life. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery

 Weta and the Art Department continued to design, with Grant Major turning the Art Department's designs into architecture, and Dan Hennah scouting locations.[23] On 1 April 1999, Ngila Dickson joined the crew as costume designer. She and 40 seamstresses would create 19,000 costumes, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery

40 per version for the actor and their doubles, ageing and wearing them out for impression of age.The Fellowship of the Ring makes extensive use of digital, practical and make-up special effects throughout. One noticeable illusion that appears in almost every scene involves setting a proper scale so that the characters are all the correct height. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery

Elijah Wood, who plays Frodo, is 5 ft 6in (1.68 m) tall in real life, but the character of Frodo Baggins is barely four feet in height. Many different tricks were used to depict the hobbits (and Gimli the Dwarf) as being of diminutive stature. (In a happy coincidence, John-Rhys Davies — who played Gimli —Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery

is as tall compared to the Hobbit actors as his character needed to be compared to theirs, so he did not need to be filmed separately as a third variation of height, and is quite taller than Orlando Bloom, who played Legolas.) Large and small scale doubles were used in certain scenes, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

while entire duplicates of certain sets (including Bag End in Hobbiton) were built at two different scales, so that the characters would appear to be the appropriate size. At one point in the film, Frodo runs along a corridor in Bag End, followed by Gandalf. Elijah Wood and Ian McKellen were filmed in separate versions of the same corridor, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

built at two different scales, and a fast camera pan conceals the edit between the two. Forced perspective was also employed, so that it would look as though the short Hobbits were interacting with taller Men and Elves. Even the simple use of kneeling down, to the filmmakers' surprise, turned out to be an effective method in creating the illusion. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery

For the battle between the Last Alliance and the forces of Sauron that begins the film, an elaborate CGI animation system, called MASSIVE, was developed byStephen Regelous; it allowed thousands of individual animated "characters" in the program to act independently. This helped give the illusion of realism to the battle sequences. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

The "Making of" Lord of the Rings DVD reports some interesting initial problems: in the first execution of a battle between groups of characters, the wrong groups attacked each other. In another early demo, some of the warriors at the edge of the field could be seen running away.Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery

They were initially moving in the wrong direction, and had been programmed to keep running until they encountered an enemy.

The digital creatures were important due to Jackson's requirement of biological plausibility. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery

Their surface was scanned from large maquettes before numerous digital details of their skeletons and muscles were added. In the case of the Balrog, Gary Horsfield created a system that copied recorded imagery of fire.

The musical score for the Lord of the Rings films was composed by Howard Shore. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery

It was performed by the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, The London Philharmonic Orchestra, The London Voices, and featured several vocal soloists. Two original songs, "Aníron", and the end title theme "May It Be", were composed and sung byEnya, who allowed her label, Reprise Records, to release the soundtrack to this and its two sequels. Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

In addition to this, Shore composed "In Dreams", which was sung by Edward Ross of the London Oratory School Schola.

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released on 19 December 2001 in 3,359 cinemas where it grossed $47.2 million on its opening weekend. Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

It went on to make $314.7 million in North America and $555.9 million in the rest of the world for a worldwide total of $870.7 million.[26]The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring received mostly positive reviews from major film critics and was one of the best reviewed films of 2001, receiving 92% positive reviews on Rotten Tomatoes. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery

Roger Ebert gave the film three out of four stars and wrote, "Peter Jackson ... has made a work for, and of, our times. It will be embraced, I suspect, by many Tolkien fans and take on aspects of a cult. It is a candidate for many Oscars. It is an awesome production in its daring and breadth, and there are small touches that are just right".Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery

USA Today also gave the film three out of four stars and wrote, "this movie version of a beloved book should please devotees as well as the uninitiated".[29] In his review for The New York Times, Elvis Mitchell wrote, "The playful spookiness of Mr. Jackson's direction provides a lively, light touch, Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery

a gesture that doesn't normally come to mind when Tolkien's name is mentioned".[30]Entertainment Weekly magazine gave the film an "A" rating and Lisa Schwarzbaum wrote, "The cast take to their roles with becoming modesty, certainly, but Jackson also makes it easy for them: Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

His Fellowship flows, never lingering for the sake of admiring its own beauty ... Every detail of which engrossed me. I may have never turned a page of Tolkien, but I know enchantment when I see it".[31]

In her review for The Washington Post, Rita Kempley praised the cast, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

in particular, "Mortensen, as Strider, is a revelation, not to mention downright gorgeous. And McKellen, carrying the burden of thousands of years' worth of the fight against evil, is positively Merlinesque".[32] Time magazine's Richard Corliss praised Jackson's work: "His movie achieves what the best fairy tales do: Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery

the creation of an alternate world, plausible and persuasive, where the young — and not only the young — can lose themselves. And perhaps, in identifying with the little Hobbit that could, find their better selves".[33] In his review for The Village Voice, J. Hoberman wrote, "Peter Jackson's adaptation is certainly successful on its own terms".Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

Rolling Stone magazine's Peter Travers wrote, "It's emotion that makes Fellowship stick hard in the memory ... Jackson deserves to revel in his success. He's made a three-hour film that leaves you wanting more".[35]However, in his review for The Guardian, Peter Bradshaw wrote, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

"there is a strange paucity of plot complication, an absence of anything unfolding, all the more disconcerting because of the clotted and indigestible mythic back story that we have to wade through before anything happens at all.

In 2002, the film won four Academy Awards out of thirteen nominations. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

The winning categories were for Best Cinematography, Best Visual Effects, Best Makeup, and Best Original Score. Despite its praise by fans, the other nominated categories of Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Ian McKellen), Best Art Direction, Best Director, Best Film Editing, Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

 Best Original Song (Enya, Nicky Ryan and Roma Ryan for "May It Be"), Best Picture, Best Sound (Christopher Boyes, Michael Semanick,Gethin Creagh and Hammond Peek), Costume Design and Best Adapted Screenplay were not won.As of June 2010, it is the 19th highest-grossing film worldwide, with takings of US$870,761,744 from worldwide theatrical box office receipts.[1] Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery

The film won the 2002 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. It also won Empire readers' Best Film award, as well as five BAFTAs, including Best Film, theDavid Lean Award for Direction, the Audience Award (voted for by the public), Best Special Effects, and Best Make-up. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

The film was nominated for an MTV Movie Award for Best Fight between Gandalf and Saruman.

In June 2008, AFI revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was acknowledged as the second best film in the fantasy genre.

Theatrical and Extended release

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was released on VHS and DVD on 6 August 2002. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

A few months later, on 12 November 2002, an Extended Edition was released on VHS and DVD, with 30 minutes of new material, added special effects and music, plus 20 minutes of fan-club credits. The DVD set included four commentaries and over three hours of supplementary material. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

On 29 August 2006, a Limited Edition of The Fellowship of the Ring was released on DVD. The set included both the Theatrical and Extended editions of the film on a double-sided disc along with all-new bonus material. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

The theatrical Blu-ray version of The Lord of the Rings was released in the United States on April 6, 2010. There were two separate sets: one with digital copies and one without.[40] The individual Blu-ray disc of The Fellowship of the Ring was released on September 14, 2010 with the same special features as the complete trilogy release, Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

except there was no digital copy.The Extended Editions for Blu-ray were released in the U.S. on June 28, 2011. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

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