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The Jordan River Parkway was originally proposed in 1971 as a flood control measure with two reservoirs, IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

restoration of wetlands, shoreline roads for cars, walking trails, and parks.[101][102] By 1986, $18 million had been used to purchase lands around the Jordan River and to construct the Murray Golf Course, several smaller parks and about 4 miles (6.4 km) of canoe runs and trails.[103] As of 2010, the majority of the 40-mile (64 km) continuous mixed-use trail has been finished from Utah Lake to the Davis County border.[104] HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A water trail for canoeing and kayaking is also being constructed, but dams, bridges,weirs and other obstacles hamper the use of the river.[105]

Riverside parks include the International Peace Gardens, 8.5 acres (3.4 ha) of gardens with each garden representing a different country;[106] HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Redwood Nature Area, about 50 acres (20 ha) of natural areas;[107] South Jordan's Riverfront Park, 59 acres (24 ha) of trails, fishing ponds and natural areas;[108] Thanksgiving Point, including 15 themed gardens spread over 59 acres (24 ha)[109] and a 200-acre (81 ha) 18-hole golf course;[110] and Utah County's Willow Park, 50 acres (20 ha) of camping and wildlife areas. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europeand Asia.[2][3] The wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction, but the species has also been domesticated and introduced into environments worldwide, and is often considered a very destructive invasive species,[2]Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

being included in theList of the world's 100 worst invasive species. It gives its name to the carp family: Cyprinidae.

The common carp is native to Asia, and has been introduced to every part of the world with the exception of the Middle East and the poles. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The original common carp was found in the inland delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago, and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Romans in south-central Europe HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(verified by the discovery of common carp remains in excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds.[9] The common carp's native range also extends to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Both European and Asian subspecies have been domesticated.[4] In Europe, domestication of carp as food fish was spread by monks between the 13th and 16th centuries. The wild forms of carp had reached the delta of the Rhine in the 12th century already, probably also with some human help.[10] HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Variants that have arisen with domestication include the mirror carp, with large, mirror-like scales (linear mirror – scaleless except for a row of large scales that run along the lateral line; originating in Germany), the leather carp (virtually unscaled except near dorsal fin), and the fully scaled carp. Koi carp (錦鯉 (nishikigoi) in Japanese, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

鯉魚 (pinyin: lĭ yú) in Chinese) is a domesticated ornamental variety that originated in the Niigata region of Japan in the 1820s.[11] They also invaded the Great Lakes in 1896 when the area near Newmarket, Ontario, flooded and allowed them to escape into the Holland River.

Wild common carp are typically slimmer than domesticated forms, with body length about four times body height, Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

red flesh, and a forward-protruding mouth. Their average growth rate by weight is about half the growth rate of domesticated carp[12][13] They do not reach the lengths and weights of domesticated carp, which (range, 3.2–4.8 times)[2] can grow to a maximum length of 120 centimetres (47 in), a maximum weight of over 40 kilograms (88 lb),[2] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and an oldest recorded age of 65 years, but reliable information seems to exist about nishikigoi of over 100 years.[13][14] The largest recorded carp, caught by an angler in January 2010 at Lac de curtons (Rainbow Lake) near Bordeaux, France, weighed 42.6 kilograms (94 lb).[15] The largest recorded carp, caught by British angler, Colin Smith, in 2013 at Etang La Saussaie Fishery,HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

France, weighed 45.59 kilograms (100.5 lb). The average size of the common carp is around 40–80 cm (15.75-31.5 inches) and 2–14 kg (4.5-31 lb).

Although tolerant of most conditions, common carp prefer large bodies of slow or standing water and soft, vegetative sediments. As schooling fish, they prefer to be in groups of five or more. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They naturally live intemperate climates in fresh or slightly brackish water with a pH of 6.5–9.0 and salinity up to about 0.5%,[16]and temperatures of 3 to 35°C.[2] The ideal temperature is 23 to 30°C, with spawning beginning at 17–18°C; they easily survive winter in a frozen-over pond, as long as some free water remains below the ice.[16HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Carp are able to tolerate water with very low oxygen levels, by gulping air at the surface.

Common carp are omnivorous. They can eat a herbivorous diet of water plants, but prefer to scavenge the bottom for insects, crustaceans (including zooplankton), crawfish, and benthic worms.

An egg-layer, a typical adult female can lay 300,000 eggs in a single spawn.[17] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although carp typically spawn in the spring, in response to rising water temperatures and rainfall, carp can spawn multiple times in a season. In commercial operations, spawning is often stimulated using a process called hypophysation, where lyophilized pituitary extract is injected into the fish. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The pituitary extract contains gonadotropic hormones which stimulate gonad maturation and sex steroid production, ultimately promoting reproduction.

A single carp can lay over a million eggs in a year,[3] yet their population remains the same, so the eggs and young perish in similarly vast numbers. Eggs and fry often fall victim to bacteria, fungi, and the vast array of tiny predators in the pond environment. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carp which survive to juvenile are preyed upon by other fish such as the northern pike and largemouth bass, and a number of birds (including cormorants, herons, goosanders, and ospreys)[18] and mammals (includingotter and mink).

Common carp have been introduced, sometimes illegally, to most continents and some 59 countries. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Due to their fecundity and their feeding habit of grubbing through bottom sediments for food, they are notorious for altering their environments. In feeding, they may destroy, uproot, disturb and eat submerged vegetation, causing serious damage to native duck, such ascanvasbacks, and fish populations.[19] DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Similar to the grass carp, the vegetation they consume is not completely digested, and rots after excretion, raising the nutritional level of the water and causing exsessive algae growth. They destroy nests of other fish and eat their eggs, reducing their numbers significantly. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Efforts to eradicate a small colony from Tasmania's Lake Crescent without using chemicals have been successful, but the long-term, expensive and intensive undertaking is an example of both the possibility and difficulty of safely removing the species once it is established. One proposal, regarded as environmentally questionable, HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

is to control common carp by deliberate exposing them to carp-specific Koi herpes virus with its high mortality rate. In Utah Lake, the common carp's population is expected to be reduced by 75% by using nets to catch millions of them and either give them to people who will eat them or processing them into fertilizer. HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This, in turn, will give the native June sucker a chance to recover its declining population. Another method is by trapping them in tributaries they use to spawn with seine nets and exposing them to rotenone. This method has shown to reduce their impact within 24 hours and greatly increase the native vegetation and desirable fish species. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This also leaves the baby carp easily preyed upon by native fish.

In Australia, enormous anecdotal and mounting scientific evidence indicates introduced carp are the cause of permanent turbidity and loss of submergent vegetation in the Murray-Darling river system, with severe consequences for river ecosystems, water quality and native fish species.[20 HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] In Victoria, Australia, common carp has been declared as noxious fish species, the quantity a fisher can take is unlimited.[21] In South Australia, it is an offence for this species to be released back to the wild.[22] An Australian company converts common carp into plant fertilizer.[23]

Common carp were brought to the United States in 1831.[24]  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the late 19th century, they were distributed widely throughout the country by the government as a food-fish, but they are no longer prized as a food-fish. As in Australia, their introduction has been shown to have negative environmental consequences,[25] and they are usually considered to be invasive species. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Millions of dollars are spent annually by natural resource agencies to control common carp populations in the United States.[20]

Common carp are believed to have been introduced into the Canadian province of British Columbia from Washington. They were first noted in the Okanagan Valley in 1912, as was their rapid growth in population. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carp are currently distributed in the lower Columbia (Arrow Lakes), lower Kootenay, Kettle (Christina Lake), and throughout the Okanagan system.

Cyprinus carpio is the number one fish of aquaculture. The annual tonnage of common carp, not to mention the other cyprinids, produced in China alone exceeds the weight of all other fish, such as trout and salmon, produced by aquaculture worldwide. Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Roughly three million tonnes are produced annually, accounting for 14% of all farmed freshwater fish in 2002. China is by far the largest commercial producer, accounting for about 70% of carp production.[16] Carp is eaten in many parts of the world both when caught from the wild and raised in aquaculture. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In Central Europe, it is a traditional part of a Christmas Evedinner. The carp as Christmas food was the first mentioned by William of Rubruck, who ate it on the Christmas dinner on the court of Mongol khan Möngke in year 1253. Many people in Poland, Germany, Czech Republic, ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Slovakia and Hungary buy a live carp and bring it home three or two days before Christmas Eve. It is kept one or two days in a bathtub, and then killed. Traditional Czech Christmas Eve dinner is thick soup of carp's head and offal, fried carp meat with potato salad or boiled carp in black sauce. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In some Czech families, the carp is not killed, but after Christmas returned to a river or pond. Slovak Christmas Eve dinner is quite similar with soup varying according to the region and fried carp as the main dish. In Western Europe, the carp is cultured more commonly as a sport fish, although there is a small market as food fish.[27][28] Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carp are mixed with other common fish to make gefilte fish, popular in Jewish cuisine.

Common carp are extremely popular with anglers in many parts of Europe, and their popularity as quarry is slowly increasing among anglers in the United States (though destroyed as pests in many areas), and southern Canada. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carp are also popular with spear, bow, and fly fishermen.

The Romans farmed carp and this pond culture continued through the monasteries of Europe and to this day. In China, Korea and Japan, carp farming took place as early as the Yayoi Period (c. 300 BC – 300 AD).[29] Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carp eggs used for caviar is an increasing popularity in the United States.

Taylorsville is a city in Salt Lake County, Utah, United States. It is part of the Salt Lake City, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 58,657 at the 2010 census. Taylorsville was incorporated from the Taylorsville-Bennion CDP and portions of the Kearns CDP on April 24, 1996. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The city is located adjacent to interstate 215 and Bangerter Highway. It is centrally located in the middle of the Salt Lake Valley.

The area called Taylorsville today is made up of three historic communities in the central part of Salt Lake County: Taylorsville, Bennion, and Kearns. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These communities incorporated through a vote of the people with over 70 percent approval in September 1995. The city officially became the City of Taylorsville during the centennial anniversary of Utah's statehood in 1996.

The land on which Taylorsville is located is part of an interconnected alluvial plain that was formed by the wearing down of the Wasatch and Oquirrh Mountains to the east and west. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Beneath the surface Taylorsville sits on more than a kilometer of unconsolidated rock, sand, and clay. The inactive Taylorsville Fault has been traced down the center of the Salt Lake Valley. Lake Bonneville shaped the topography of the area and deposited lake bottom clay and sand. As Lake Bonneville dried up over the past 14,000 years, the salt from the breakdown of rock remains, making the soil alkaline. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Like most desert soils, it has little organic material and is hard to work.

A broad, east-west running ridge called "Bennion Hill" rises perhaps a hundred and fifty feet above the surrounding area. Bennion Hill is the eastern end of a wide ridge which rises toward Farnsworth Peak in the Oquirrh Mountains to the west.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first (unnamed) people in the region appeared during or after the last ice age on the shores of what remained of Lake Bonneville. Less than five miles (8 km) from Taylorsville evidence of people killing and eating a mammoth have been found. Some of this region’s first named visitors were Fremont people who used the area to hunt and gather food along the Jordan River more than a thousand years ago. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A large Fremont settlement on City Creek used the land where Taylorsville is located as hunting and foraging especially along the river. In more recent times Ute bands passed through the valley between the marshes of the Great Salt Lake and Utah Valley. Most of the area was dry sagebrush-covered land without any natural water sources except the Jordan River. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

A well-used Ute trail wound along the west side of the river at approximately 1300 West which the Ute used in spring and fall. Early settlers observed small encampments of Ute in the cottonwoods along the Jordan River. At least one local settler called these people the "Yo-No'". Whether the name is his own creation or an approximation of something they said is unknown. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

There are poorly documented suggestions that Spanish missionaries, soldiers, and explorers came through the area beginning in the mid-1600s. The whole region was called "Teguayo" and "Lake Copalla" (Utah Lake) appear on maps of Spanish Nuevo Mexico.[3] Spanish and then Mexican land claims remained until the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Mexican War in 1853 and ceded the whole of northern Mexico to the United States including a few thousand Mormon settlers who had taken up residence in July 1847.

The first Mormon pioneer settlers, Joseph and Susanna Harker from England built a log cabin on the west side of the Jordan River in November 1848 on what was called then “the Church Farm” near 3300 South. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

In 1849 Samuel and John Bennion and several other families moved south crossing the river on the ice in January. There was little in the way of building materials, so the families dug into the bluffs of the Jordan River for shelter. The tiny settlement, the first "over Jordan," was called Harker’s Settlement, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

and they began the difficult work of digging ditches to move water out of the Jordan River and onto the land on the west side. The soil was hard to work and they kept looking for better land to farm. The infamous crickets destroyed much of that year’s crop and so the group moved farther south to where Big Cottonwood Creek flowed into the Jordan River about 4800 South known then as Field’s Bottom. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

By working together, eight families managed to bring in the first successful crop in 1851 using water brought down from Bingham Creek by what was later called Gardner’s Millrace. John and Esther Bennion’s daughter, Rachael, was the first pioneer child to be born in Field’s Bottom. Despite the struggle to get food and shelter in those early days, John Bennion described Field’s Bottom in these words: HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

By 1851 more families settled in or near Field’s Bottom where they dug the "lower ditch" and cleared land for small farms and pastures. In January 1852 Harker’s Settlement was organized as a part of the West Jordan LDS Ward that included the Salt Lake Valley west of the Jordan River. Some families returned to cabins they had built earlier and dismantled them and brought the logs across the river and reassembled the cabins. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

In the 1853 the continued threat of attack by angry Utes, locally called the "Walker War" or the "Utah Valley War", forced the settlers to build an 2-acre (8,100 m2) adobe fort called the English Fort just north of the North Jordan Burying Ground in 1854. Stories about "Indian depredations" in Utah and Sanpete Counties and the massacre of John W. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Gunnison and his surveying party caused such fear that Salt Lake City fortified itself. Two livestock herders were killed in Cedar Valley, just over "South Mountain" and the Ute attacked cattle herds in Tooele County just over the Oquirrh Mountains. Isolated settlements either built forts or were abandoned. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Locals nicknamed the fort in North Jordan, "Fort Hardscrabble," because it was built on what they considered a useless piece of ground. About 30 families moved into or near the fort for protection for the winter, but as the threat of attack faded, families spread out once again and part of the fort was converted into an LDS meeting house which also served as the school. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Hickman Fort, farther south in Bennion, was built by William Hickman. It was located about 5800 South on the bluff above the west side of river. Between 1853 and 1857 Gardner’s Millrace was extended north to the Bennion area and called the North Jordan Canal, the first important canal on the west side of the Jordan River.[4] ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Up until 1859 the West Jordan Ward was headquartered in what is today Taylorsville.[5]

By 1860 Harker’s Settlement, as the area was called, had 178 residents. The first post office was established with the name Taylorsville which was the name of the LDS branch in that part of the North Jordan, perhaps to distinguish it from Granger. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The post office was discontinued later. Elizabeth Harker’s home was used for the first school classes.

In 1858 the threat of Johnston’s Army marching down Emigration Canyon forced many settlers to pack up everything they could and move south until the situation could be resolved. Most residents ended up in Spanish Fork or camped out at Pondtown (Salem) near Utah Lake. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

The home guard who remained behind to watch over the settlement observed “Johnston’s Army” camp the first night after passing through Salt Lake on the "flats' above the North Jordan farms. Its large livestock herd ate everything to within an inch of the ground. The US Army continued on its way the next morning. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

In July 1858 Taylorsville residents returned and settled back into the interrupted routine of summertime chores. By 1859 the adobe fort was dissolving into the mud from which it was created. It was decided to build a log school on top of the “hill” on 4800 South which was closer to where most people in Taylorsville lived.[6] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

In 1859 the West Jordan Ward included all of Salt Lake County west of the Jordan River and even had a section east of the river. The North Jordan dependent branch of the West Jordan stake was organized in 1859. Its first president was John Bennion. He was succeeded in 1863 by Samuel Bennion. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

He was later succeeded by Heber Bennion so that until 1907 the presiding LDS authority in Taylorsville was a Bennion.[7]

The area west of Jordan was divided into the West Jordan, South Jordan, North Jordan and Herriman LDS Wards. North Jordan also known as Taylorsville had a dependent branch at Bennion. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

The first business in Taylorsville was a small store located near the school and a blacksmith‘s shop across the street. John Webster, the blacksmith, was appointed postmaster and once a week carried mail from Murray in a clothes basket. In 1867 the log school was replaced by a three room school made of rock and brick called "the Rock Schoolhouse" that was used until 1898.[8]TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

By 1876 the South Jordan Canal and the North Jordan Canal were joined to carry water from the Jordan River above the bluffs west of the Jordan and brought land from South Jordan to Granger under cultivation. This brought more families to the area, almost all of them farmers. Land west of the canals was cleared for dry farms which were planted in the fall and harvested in early summer. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

A few families moved just north of Taylorsville near 6200 South and Redwood Road. John Bennion, one of the early settlers, gave this area its name, Bennion. A tiny blue schoolhouse was built on the corner of Redwood Road and 6200 South for the children to attend.

In the 1880s LDS Church president, John Taylor, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

hid from US marshals at a home on the west side of the Jordan River near 4800 South. John Taylor's association with Taylorsville has often been used to explain its name. The name, Taylorsville, used before the 1880s seems to call the John Taylor explanation for the town's name into question. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

However since Taylor was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve before the Mormons even arrived in Utah, and was the wounded survivor of the mob attack that killed Joseph and Hyrum Smith, and served at various times as speaker of the Utah Territorial Legislature, naming the town after Taylor at any point from 1847 on is quite believable. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

In 1881 the Utah and Salt Lake Canal was built which allowed irrigation farming to expand even farther west above the river between Bluffdale and Granger. Un-irrigated land to the west was cleared and planted as dry farms. The 1880s saw a sawmill, gristmill, and woolen mill built in West Jordan. Rawlings shoe repair store was constructed. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

The Bennion brothers built a grist mill at 4800 South and the Jordan River.

In 1894 a three-room school house was built out of red brick, called the 64 District School. It sat on two acres on the corner of 6200 South and Redwood Road. The name of the school was later changed to the Madison School. Enough musicians lived in the area to establish a brass band. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

People in Taylorsville and Bennion depended on growing corn, wheat, oats, and alfalfa. In the 1890s sugar beets became big business and many farmers started to clear additional land to grow them. The beets were hauled to the West Jordan cutting station until 1916 when the West Jordan Sugar Factory was completed. Taylorsville and Bennion remained very small farming towns. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The 1890s saw increased growth and the establishment of a small business district at the intersection of Redwood Road and 4800 South. The largest store was Lindsay and Company which was later called the Taylorsville Mercantile Company. In 1894 the Taylorsville LDS Meetinghouse was built to house the Taylorsville Ward of the LDS church. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

In 1905 Bennion was made a separate ward from Taylorsville. Prior to this point is was often referred to as South Taylorsville.

The territorial legislature passed Utah’s first Compulsory Education Law in 1890 which gradually brought most children off the farms and into the classroom. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

It had little effect until the early 1900s when small local school districts, seen as a road block to raising the standard of Utah education, were consolidated. In December 1904 the Salt Lake County Commission voted to combine 22 of the 36 local school districts into the Granite School District with boundaries that matched the LDS Granite Stake boundaries. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

Schools which up to that time were often numbered were given names.

In 1905 600 people lived in Bennion, enough to split from the Taylorsville LDS Ward and create the Bennion Ward to the south. Meetings were held in the red brick schoolhouse for a time until the Bennion meetinghouse was built in 1907 at the corner of 6200 South and Redwood Road next to the school. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

The need for a ‘modern’ school and the establishment of compulsory tax-supported public schools throughout Utah gave rise to the old Plymouth Elementary School on Redwood Road and 4800 South. By 1907 there were so many children in the Bennion school that the upper grades were sent to the two-story red brick Plymouth School in Taylorsville. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

In 1909 an amusement hall and classrooms were added to the Taylorsville Chapel. Electricity came to the Taylorsville area during the early 1900s but had little effect on the life of most people who saw little use for it outside lighting their homes. It was considered a luxury and many families chose not to connect to the “new-fangled” wires until the 1920s or 1930s when rural electrification made power available to everyone. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Two railroads were important to Taylorsville, the Rio Grande and Western to Bingham Junction (Midvale) and the Bingham-Garfield Railroad was added through the area in 1910. A well was dug at 4700 South and 5400 West where a locomotive watering station was built. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

In 1913 the electric Salt Lake Inter-Urban, often call the “Orem Line,” was built to make it possible to ride into Salt Lake or as far as Payson on the “Red Arrow” in from the Francklyn Station in Murray or at the Bennion Station. The line ran parallel to Redwood Road about 1800 West. In 1915 the first water system was built by private subscription. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

People who wanted clean water piped to their homes paid to have it delivered to them. Later this system was bought and expanded by the Taylorsville-Bennion Improvement District. Electricity came to the area in 1916 along Redwood Road. During World War I four young men from Taylorsville lost their lives and sixteen served in the armed forces. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

By the 1920s two canals were built to carry water to farms farther and farther west. Redwood Road was finally rebuilt using concrete making it faster and easier to travel for the mixture of automobiles, wagons and horses that used it. How Redwood Road got its name has been the subject of much debate but, when there are no redwoods in the valley, the following explanation rings truest. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

A line parallel to the base meridian was surveyed on the west side of the Jordan River for use in measuring property lines. Redwood stakes which did not decay in the ground were used for the "Redwood Line". It remained the Redwood Line until 1895 when Redwood Road was built as a main thoroughfare for the west side of Salt Lake County. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

In 1927 the "Pole Line Road" 2700 West was constructed.

In World War II, 75 men from Taylorsville served and two lost their lives overseas. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the US Army Air Corps wanted an isolated place to build a training base safe from any attacks by the Japanese and on the main rail routes to the Pacific Coast. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The War Department bought 5,000 acres (20 km2) of dry farmland in the western part of Salt Lake Valley. The land originally was part of a federal land grant to the state of Utah to be used to benefit schools and universities in Utah. But it had long since passed into private hands and was used for dry farms. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Camp Kearns went through renamings as the focus and mission of the base changed; Camp Kearn was the name which stuck. It opened in 1942, but took about a year to gain its final size. The base was named for Senator Thomas Kearns of Utah who had made his fortune in the silver mines at Park City.

Just a year later, Camp Kearns had 40,000 residents and was Utah’s third largest city at the time. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

It had two main missions. It served as a basic training facility for replacement troops headed for the war against Japan. Camp Kearns included a 600-target practice range, the largest in the US, a difficult, mile-long obstacle course, a grenade practice ground, and barracks for thousands of men on their way to the Pacific coast. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The motor pool hired more than 80 local women just to drive trucks; in all about 1200 civilians worked at the base as any given time. Camp Kearns had the largest hospital in Utah at the time which spread into ten buildings. A camp newspaper called the Valley View News provided information and entertainment to the troops stationed there. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

The base had a water system and one of two water treatment plants in the state. The streets were laid out in a huge grid pattern lined with over 900 wooden buildings covered with tar paper. A railroad spur from the Denver and Rio Grande was built to transport equipment and personnel to the base. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

By August 21, 1942, the Kearns had 1,700,000 square feet (160,000 m2) of warehouse space, two all-purpose theaters, gyms, two fire houses, several dusty parade grounds, a post office, a lending library, and a bank. Thousands of trees and shrubs were planted to keep the dust down.

The second mission of Camp Kearns was a practice air force base for Army Air Corps ground crews. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

In time, technical training of air force ground crews became Camp Kearns's main objective. This included many kinds of schools: navigation, intelligence, radio, teleprinter, clerical and many others. It was not an air force base with airplanes landing and taking off, ground crews were trained on planes scattered around the base. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

The base had five chapels, three stores, and three theaters, one of them for African-American servicemen. It still exists as part of Kearns Junior High School. The USO brought many entertainers to the base to keep the troops from getting homesick. The Band Wagon Committee raised more than $15,000,000 in war bonds from the communities around Salt Lake and from the men and women in uniform. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

The base was dusty, hot in summer and cold in winter. Men who trained there thought it was an awful place to live. They stayed in the long tar-paper-covered wooden sheds heated with pot-bellied stoves and lighted with a few light bulbs. Each barrack was home to sixty men sleeping in squeaky metal beds with thin mattresses and not enough blankets in the winter and poor ventilation in the summer. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Most of the men who trained at Camp Kearns stayed only a few weeks and were glad to roll away from it on a train to California. Despite the boost to the local economy, Salt Lake and the surrounding communities did not appreciate the huge military presence and tried to limit soldiers to the area around the base. African-American soldiers were segregated both on and off base. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

As the war drew to a close, the base began a rapid decline. Vice-President Truman made an inspection visit in August 1944. The training functions were moved to California. Camp Kearns was closed as an active base in 1946, and the buildings and materials auctioned off in 1948. Some of the first homes in Kearns were built from materials left over from the buildings of the base. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

Oner of the chapels survived to be incorporated in Our Lady of Perpetual Sorrows Catholic Church.

Camp Kearns gave an indirect boost to Taylorsville in that a huge water pipe brought water from the east side of Salt Lake to the camp. Once Camp Kearns closed, the presence of clean drinking water and a sewer treatment plant made it possible for people to move to Kearns and live in some of the first large subdivisions built in western Salt Lake County in the 1950s. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Taylorsville and Bennion joined to form their own water and sewer district to provide clean water. The large water tank on the hill at 3200 west and 6200 South and the other ones buried inside the hill are a part of the work to provide the clean water. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Salt Lake County’s rapidly growing population began expanding west in the early 1970s and farmers found they could sell their land to developers for a lot more than they were making on the farms. Subdivisions began springing up.

In the 1980s the intersection at Redwood Road 5400 South began to be developed into a regional retail center with Harmons,ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Grand Central, Wal-mart and the Family Center. Taylorsville, Bennion, and Kearns continued rapid growth into the early 1990s. Some people felt that the Salt Lake County Commission, which governed the area, was allowing too much growth too fast, especially apartment complexes. The county seemed unwilling to listen to residents which resulted in the first drive to incorporate Taylorsville City. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

It failed by a narrow margin.

In 1995 voters approved the creation of a new city due to the rising costs of county services, a feeling that the county was not giving residents their money’s worth revolving around insufficient law enforcement, ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

a lack of input in how Taylorsville and Bennion were developing, and the seemingly unlimited apartment developments.

Many of Kearns residents were upset when Taylorsville’s proposed boundary extended its western border all the way to 4000 West which was considered by residents in that area to be part of Kearns. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

But residents there approved Taylorsville’s incorporation by a significant margin, (as they were given large tax breaks) and that is where the border remains. However Kearns may regain the area if the bid by the Kearns to incorporate is ratified. Since Utah's current township law currently expires in 2010. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

If the law is not extended, it would either have to become part of the county, incorporate as its own city, or incorporate into a nearby town. Most of Kearns residents, if only given the choice to incorporate into other cities, would choose to become a part of Taylorsville.

After incorporation there was lively discussion about what the new city should be called. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Midvalley City, Oquirrh City, Centennial, and Taylorsville-Bennion were all discussed. Eventually Taylorsville was chosen. Taylorsville’s nickname is “Utah’s Centennial City” because it officially came into existence one hundred years after Utah became a state.

Taylorsville is governed by a five member city council, mayor and presiding judge representing the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

City council members and the mayor are elected to staggered four-year terms of office. The election of city council members and the mayor are non-partisan, contested elections. The presiding judge and other judges serve six-year terms of office. Every six years, the judges must stand for retention in an unopposed, non-partisan election. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The retention election of the judges is county-wide and are the only municipal elected positions to permit voters from outside of the city boundaries to vote for or against a city official.

The city has been divided into five districts each with its own city council member. There are no "at-large" seats. The mayor is the only elected position that runs city wide. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The city council elects from its members a chairperson and vice-chairperson who are responsible for the organization and operation of the city council.

In addition to its mayor, the executive branch is managed by a full-time city administrator. The city administrator is appointed by the mayor and confirmed by the city council. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

While the city contracts for many of its services (public works, garbage collection, street and road maintenance, police and fire safety/suppression), it has its own code enforcement, economic development and community development departments.

The judicial branch is vested in a municipal justice court which is administered by a presiding judge. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

The presiding judge is appointed by the mayor from amongst the judges of the court and confirmed by the city council. The presiding judge, with the input of all of the judges of the court, oversees the hiring and training of all court personnel and manages the court budget.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The Taylorsville Court is notable by establishing the second DUI (drunk driving) court in the nation and the first misdemeanor Drug/DUI hybrid court in Utah. In addition, the Court has a dedicated Domestic Violence calendar and a Dual Focus program for Drug/Alcohol abusers with a history of violence. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

As of the census of 2010, there were 58,657 people, 19,121 households, and 13,477 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,415 people per square mile (2,076.5/km²). There were 20,049 housing units at an average density of 1,851.2 per square mile (692.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.2% White, 1.9% African American, 0.9% Native American, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

3.9% Asian, 2.2% Pacific Islander, 9.5% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.6% of the population.

There were 19,121 households out of which 39% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.7% were non-families. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

20.6% of all households were living alone and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.43.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, and 9% who were 65 years of age or older. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

The median age was 31 years. For every 100 males there were 100.1 females. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $54,881, and the median income for a family was $62,023. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

Males had a median income of $34,947 versus $24,801 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,210. About 9.7% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.1% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan,SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan,IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

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The Jordan River in state of Utah, United States is a river about 51 miles (82 km) long. Regulated by pumps at its headwaters at Utah Lake, it flows northward through the Salt Lake Valley and empties into the Great Salt Lake. Four of Utah's six largest cities—Salt Lake City, West Valley City, West Jordan and Sandy—border the river. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

More than a million people live in the Jordan Subbasin, which is the part of the Jordan River watershed that lies within Salt Lake and Davis counties. During the Pleistocene, the area was part of Lake Bonneville.

Members of the Desert Archaic Culture were the earliest known inhabitants of the region; an archaeological site found along the river dates back 3,000 years. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

Mormon pioneers led by Brigham Young were the first European American settlers, arriving in July 1847 and establishing farms and settlements along the river and its tributaries. The growing population, needing water for drinking, irrigation, and industrial use in an arid climate, dug ditches and canals, built dams, and installed pumps to create a highly regulated river. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

Although the Jordan was originally a cold-water fishery with 13 native species including Bonneville cutthroat trout, it has become a warm-water fishery where common carp is most abundant. Heavily polluted for many years by raw sewage, agricultural runoff, and mining wastes, the river became cleaner in the 1960s when modern sewage treatment removed many pollutants. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

In the 21st century, pollution is further limited by the Clean Water Act, and, in some cases, the Superfund program. Once the home of bighorn sheep and beaver, the contemporary river is frequented by raccoons, red foxes, and domestic pets. Along with the Great Salt Lake and Utah Lake, it is still an important avian resource visited by more than 200 bird species. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Big Cottonwood, Little Cottonwood, Red Butte, Mill, Parley's, and City creeks, as well as smaller streams flow through the subbasin. The Jordan River Parkway along the river includes natural areas, botanical gardens, golf courses and a proposed 40-mile (64 km) bicycle and pedestrian trail, much of which has been completed. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

The Jordan River is the Utah Lake's only outflow, and originates at the northern end of the lake between the cities of Lehi and Saratoga Springs. It then meanders north through the north end of Utah Valley for approximately 8 miles (13 km) until it passes through a gorge in the Traverse Mountains, known as the Jordan Narrows. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

The Utah National Guard base at Camp Williams lies on the western side of the river through much of the Jordan Narrows.[6][7] The Turner Dam, located 41.8 miles (67.3 km) from the river's mouth (or at river mile 41.8) and within the boundaries of the Jordan Narrows, is the first of two dams of the Jordan River. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The Turner dam diverts water to the right or easterly into theEast Jordan Canal and to the left or westerly toward the Utah and Salt Lake Canal. Two pumping stations, situated next to the Turner Dam, divert water to the west into the Provo Reservoir Canal, Utah Lake Distribution Canal and Jacob-Welby Canal. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The Provo Reservoir Canal runs north through Salt Lake County, Jacob-Welby runs south through Utah County and the Utah Lake Distribution Canal runs both north and south eventually leading back into Utah Lake.[8] Outside the narrows, the river reaches the second dam, known as the Joint Dam, which is 39.9 miles (64.2 km) from the river's mouth. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The Joint Dam diverts water to the east for the Jordan and Salt Lake City Canal and to the west for the South Jordan Canal.

The river then flows through the middle of the Salt Lake Valley, initially moving through the city of Bluffdale and then forming the border between the cities of Riverton and Draper.[6] The river then enters the city of South Jordan where it merges with Midas Creek from the west. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

Upon leaving South Jordan, the river forms the border between the cities of West Jordan on the west and Sandy and Midvale on the east. From the west, Bingham Creek enters in West Jordan. Dry Creek, an eastern tributary, combines with the main river in Sandy. The river then forms the border between the cities of Taylorsvilleand West Valley City on the west and Murray and South Salt Lake on the east. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

The river flows underneath Interstate 215 in Murray. Little and Big Cottonwood Creeks enter from the east in Murray, 21.7 miles (34.9 km) and 20.6 miles (33.2 km) from the mouth respectively. Mill Creek enters on the east in South Salt Lake, 17.3 miles (27.8 km) from the mouth. The river runs through the middle of Salt Lake City, ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

where the river travels underneath Interstate 80 a mile west of downtown of Salt Lake City and again underneath Interstate 215 in the northern portion of Salt Lake City. Interstate 15 parallels the river's eastern flank throughout Salt Lake County. At 16 miles (26 km) from the mouth, the river enters into the Surplus Canal channel. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The Jordan River physically diverts from the Surplus Canal through four gates and heads north with the Surplus Canal heading north-west. Parley's, Emigration, Red Butte Creeks converge from the east through an underground pipe, 14.2 miles (22.9 km) from the mouth.[6] City Creek also enters via an underground pipe, 11.5 miles (18.5 km) from the river's mouth. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The length of the river and the elevation of its mouth varies year to year depending on the fluctuations of the Great Salt Lake caused by weather conditions. The lake has an average elevation of 4,200 feet (1,300 m) which can deviate by 10 feet (3.0 m).[3] The Jordan River then continues for 9 to 12 miles (14 to 19 km) with Salt Lake County on the west and North Salt Lake and Davis County on the east until it empties into the Great Salt Lake. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The United States Geological Survey maintains a stream gauge in Salt Lake City that shows annual runoff from the period between 1980–2003 is just over 150,000acre feet (190,000,000 m3) per year or 19 percent of the total 800,000 acre feet (990,000,000 m3) of water entering the Jordan River from all sources. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The Surplus Canal carries almost 60 percent of the water into the Great Salt Lake with various irrigation canals responsible for the rest. The amount of water entering the Jordan River from Utah Lake is just over 400,000 acre feet (490,000,000 m3) per year. Inflow from the 11 largest streams feeding the Jordan River, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

sewage treatment plants and ground water each accounts for approximately 15 percent of water entering the river.

The Jordan Subbasin, as defined by the United States Geological Survey, is located entirely within Salt Lake and Davis counties in a roughly rectangular area of 791 square miles (2,050 km2). HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

The Subbasin is part of the larger 3,830-square-mile (9,900 km2) Jordan River Basin that includes the upper Jordan River, Utah Lake, Provo and Spanish Fork Subbasins.[5][13] Four of the six largest cities in Utah are in Salt Lake County. The Jordan River flows through Sandy, with a 2010 population of 87,461; West Jordan, population 103,712; Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

West Valley City, population 129,480; and Salt Lake City, population 186,440.[14]Flanked on either side by mountain ranges, the topography of the land varies greatly. The Wasatch Mountains rise on the east, with a high point of 11,100 feet (3,400 m) above sea level at Twin Peaks, near the town of Alta. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The Oquirrh Mountains rise on the west, with a high point of over 9,000 feet (2,700 m) above sea level at Farnsworth Peak. The low point of 4,200 feet (1,300 m) is at the river's mouth, where the river enters the Great Salt Lake. Both the Oquirrh and Wasatch Mountains arefault-block mountains created from normal-slip faults where the mountains rise at the fault and the valley floor drops. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

TheWasatch Fault runs along the western edge of the Wasatch Mountains and the Oquirrh Fault runs along the eastern edge of the Oquirrh Mountains.

From approximately 75,000 to 8,000 years ago, much of what is now northern Utah was covered by a Pleistocene lake called Lake Bonneville. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

At its greatest extent, Lake Bonneville reached an elevation of 5,200 feet (1,600 m) above sea level and had a surface area of 19,800 square miles (51,000 km2). The lake left behind lacustrine sediments, which resulted in a relatively flat lake bed, and the valley floors seen today. As the region experienced increasingly warmer and drier climate over time, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

Lake Bonneville's water levels receded, leaving the Great Salt Lake and Utah Lake as remnants.[17] The river's greatest slope, 27 feet per mile (5.1 m/km), is in the Jordan Narrows, while the rest of the river has a more gentle slope of 2 to 4 feet per mile (0.4 to 0.8 m/km).[18]

Approximately 237,000 acres (960 km2) (46 percent of land area) of the Jordan Subbasin is in the Wasatch, Oquirrh and Traverse mountains.[19]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The United States Forest Service manages 91,000 acres (370 km2) of land in the Wasatch Range. The vast majority of the Oquirrh Range is privately held,[20] with Kennecott Copper Mine owning most of the land. The State of Utah has scattered land holdings of 9,800 acres (40 km2) throughout the subbasin and owns the beds of all navigable streams and lakes.[19] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The Jordan Subbasin has two distinct climate zones. The lower elevations are characterized as a cold, semi-arid climate, with four distinct seasons. Both summer and winter are long with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters. Salt Lake City receives 61 inches (150 cm) of snow annually, part of a total of 16.5 inches (420 mm) of precipitation per year. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

The mean maximum temperature is 91 °F (33 °C) in July and 37 °F (3 °C) in January[21] Areas of higher elevation have two distinct seasons, summer and winter. One of the areas of highest elevation, Alta, Utah, receives 544 inches (1,380 cm) of snow annually, part of a total of 52 inches (1,300 mm) of precipitation per year. HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The mean maximum temperature is 71 °F (22 °C) in July and 29 °F (−2 °C) in January.

The first known inhabitants of the banks of the Jordan River were members of the Desert Archaic Culture, a group of nomadic hunter-gatherers. A 3,000-year-old archaeological site, called the Soo'nkahni Village, was uncovered next to the Jordan River and over 30,000 artifacts have been excavated.[23] HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The next recorded inhabitants, between 400 A.D. to around 1350 A.D., were the Fremont people, composed of several scattered bands of hunters and farmers living in what is now southern Idaho, western Nevada and most of Utah.[24] The disappearance of the Fremont people has been attributed to both changing climatic conditions, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which put an end to favorable weather for farming, and to the arrival of ancestors to the present-day Ute, Paiute, and Northwestern Shoshone.[25] Although there were no permanent Native American settlements when European settlers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, the area bordered land occupied by several tribes, such as the Timpanogot band of the Utes in Utah Valley,[26] HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the Goshutes on the western side of the Oquirrh Mountain Range[27] and the Northwestern Shoshone north of the Salt Lake Valley.[28]In 1776, Franciscan missionary Silvestre Vélez de Escalante was trying to find a land route from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Monterey, California. His party included twelve Spanish colonials and two Utes from the Utah Valley Timpanogots band who acted as guides. HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 23 September 1776, the party entered Utah Valley at the present-day city of Spanish Fork. The local Timanogots villagers hosted them and told them of the lake to the north.[29] In his journal, Escalante described Utah Lake as a "lake, which must be six leagues wide and fifteen leagues long, [and] extends as far as one of these valleys. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It runs northwest through a narrow passage, and according to what they told us, it communicates with others much larger." The Great Salt Lake was described as the "other lake with which this one communicates, according to what they told us, [and] covers many leagues, and its waters are noxious and extremely salty."[30] IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The next group of Europeans to see the Jordan River was the party of Étienne Provost, a French Canadian trapper. In October 1824, Provost's party was lured into a Shoshone camp somewhere along the Jordan River, where they were attacked in retaliation for the murder of a local chief. In truth, the murder was committed by a member of Peter Skene Ogden's party. HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The men were caught off guard, and fifteen perished, but Provost and two others escaped.[31] The river was historically named Proveau's Fork,[32] as the Quebec-born fur trapper was known as Proveau and Provot, in addition to Provost (and the pronunciation was "Provo").

On 22 July 1847, the first party of Mormon pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and five days later another party led byBrigham Young crossed the Jordan River and bathed in the Great Salt Lake.[37] The River Jordan (located in the Middle East) drains the Sea of Galilee into the Dead Sea in a way which the settlers found remarkably similar to the way the as-yet-unnamed local river drained Utah Lake into the saline Great Salt Lake. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This similarity influenced the eventual name of the river, and on 22 August 1847, a conference was held and the name Western Jordan River was decided upon,[38] although it was later shortened to the Jordan River. By 1850, settlements were established along the Jordan River, Big Cottonwood Creek, Little Cottonwood Creek, Mill Creek, Parley's Creek and Emigration Creek.[39] HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1850, Captain Howard Stansbury of the United States Army Corps of Topographical Engineerstraveled the entire length of the Jordan River,[40] surveying[41] and making observations of the wildlife.[42]

Around the year 1887 at Bingham Canyon in the Oquirrh Mountains, low-grade copper deposits were discovered and mining claims were filed. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Bingham Canyon is a porphyry copper deposit where magma containing copper, molybdenum, gold and other minerals slowly moved its way to the surface and cooled into rock.[43] By 1890, underground copper mining had started, and in 1907, Kennecott Copper Mine started open pit mining.[44] In the early 20th century, mills were established near the Jordan River in Midvale and West Jordan to process ore.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As of 2010, Kennecott Copper Mine's open pit is 2.8 miles (4.5 km) wide and 0.8 miles (1.3 km) deep.[45]

Throughout the 19th century and up to the 1940s, water from the Jordan River watershed sustained the agrarian society of the Salt Lake Valley. In 1950, Salt Lake County had 489,000 acres (198,000 ha) devoted to farming.[46] SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By 1992, however, the rapid urbanization of the Salt Lake Valley had reduced the amount of land devoted to farming to 108,000 acres (44,000 ha),[47] which was further reduced to 82,267 acres (33,292 ha) by 2002.

Alterations of the Jordan River watershed began two days after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley when water was diverted from City Creek for irrigation.[49][50] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The earliest dam and ditch along the Jordan River was constructed in 1849 to irrigate land on the west side of the river near present-day Taylorsville.[51] Other ditches include one built by Archibald Gardner, one of the founders of West Jordan in 1850, to provide water for his mill and one built by Alexander Beckstead, a founder of South Jordan, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

who built the Beckstead Ditch in 1859 to provide water for farmland. Many other small dams and ditches were also constructed in the first 25 years, several of which are still used as of 2010. All of these ditches irrigated only small amounts of land in the Jordan River floodplain; the largest, the Beckstead Ditch, irrigated 580 acres (230 ha). Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By the late 1860s, it became apparent that new, larger canals needed to be built if more acreage was to be farmed. The first dam in the Jordan Narrows was constructed in 1872 and raised in 1880, sparking an outcry from residents living near Utah Lake who thought the dam was responsible for raising the level of the lake. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After several years of dispute, a commission was established to determine an acceptable compromise for the elevation of Utah Lake.[54] The commission's 1885 decision stated that if the lake level were to rise above the established compromise level, the Jordan River could not be impeded by either dams or flood gates. SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Additionally, the commission stated that after water pumps were installed at the source of the river, the pumps should all be working if the lake were to rise above the compromise level. However, if the lake level fell below the compromise level, pumps could be turned off so that water could be held for storage in Utah Lake. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1875, the first large canal, the South Jordan Canal, was completed and it brought water to the area above the bluffs of the Jordan River for the first time.[56] All told, five large canals that originated from the dams in the Jordan Narrows were completed by 1883.[52] A second dam was built in 1890 a few miles downstream from the first dam and was constructed to better regulate the flow of two canals.[5APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

7] Both dams have been rebuilt in subsequent years and operate as diversion points for canals rather than impounding water by the use of sluice gates and head gates. The drought of 1901–1902 caused the Jordan River, on occasion, to stop flowing, and in response to the drought a pumping plant was installed at the outlet from Utah Lake. HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It was the largest pumping plant in the United States at the time, and contained seven pumps with a total capacity of 700 cubic feet (20 m3) per second.[58] Twice, during the droughts of 1934 and 1992, Utah Lake levels dropped so low that the pumps were rendered useless and the Jordan River actually ran dry.[59] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the 1950s, due to flood control measures to increase river velocity, large sections of the river were straightened in Salt Lake County. As part of the straightening process, meanders or curves in the river were cut off and the channel slope was increased. The river was also shifted to opposite sides of the flood plain in Midvale and Murray as part of local smelter operations.[60] HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Floods in 1983–1984 caused Utah Lake to overflow its banks, flooding homes and farmland in Provo, Lehi and present-day Saratoga Springs. Dikes had to be constructed around Interstate 15 in Provo to prevent Utah Lake flooding the freeway. Big Cottonwood, Parley's, Emigration and City creeks flowed down sand-bag lined streets in order to manage the overflowing streams.Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Additional dikes were built at the Great Salt Lake to protect railroad lines and Interstate 80.[61][62] As a result of the flooding, the Utah Lake compromise level was amended to 4,489 feet (1,368 m).

In the Jordan River, invertebrates not only play an important role as a source of food for fish and other aquatic life, they also function as a parameter by which to measure water quality and the health of the river.[63] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There are 34 different groups of invertebrates found in the Jordan River, most commonly of the class Oligochaeta (which includes earthworms), along withmosquito larvae and caddisfly larvae. The state of Utah maintains a Sensitive Species List that includes "those species for which there is credible scientific evidence to substantiate a threat to continued population viability."[64] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Lyrate mountainsnail[65] and the western pearlshell mussel,[66] both native to the Jordan River watershed, are found on this list.[67][68] A 2007 survey of invertebrates and their response to pollution stated that the Jordan River was substantially to severely impaired with organic pollution and that it contained reduced levels of dissolved oxygen.[69] HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Historically, the Jordan River was a cold-water fishery that contained 13 native species, including the Bonneville cutthroat trout, Utah Lake sculpin, June sucker, Mottled sculpin, Utah chub and the Utah Sucker. Today, the Jordan River is a warm-water fishery with the Utah Sucker and the endangered June Sucker present only in Utah Lake. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Utah chub, however, is still found in the Jordan River.[70] The most common species of fish encountered today is the common carp, which was introduced into the Jordan River and Utah Lake as a source of food after overfishing caused the depletion of native species stocks.[71][72] The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources regularly stocks the river withcatfish and rainbow trout.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Before the area was urbanized, mammals such as bighorn sheep, mule deer, coyote, wolves, beaver, muskrat and jack rabbits would have been seen along the river. A "varmint hunt" was organized by John D. Lee around 1848, after the arrival of Mormon settlers. The final count of the hunt included "two bears, two wolverines, HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

two wildcats, 783 wolves, 409 foxes, 31 minks, nine eagles, 530 magpies, hawks and owls, and 1,026 ravens."[74] None of the original large mammals is found along the Jordan River today; they have, for the most part, been replaced by raccoons, red foxes and domestic pets.[75] Animals from the Jordan River area found on the Utah Sensitive Species List include the smooth green snake,[76] the western toad,[77] kit fox,[78] spotted bat,[79] and Townsend's big-eared bat.[80][81] ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Combined with Utah Lake and the Great Salt Lake, the Jordan River offers one of the region's richest bird resources. Over 200 bird species use the river for breeding habitat or as a stop-over on their migratory route.[82] Once-common native species such as the willow flycatcher, gray catbird, warbling vireo, American redstart, black tern, and yellow-billed cuckoo are no longer found along the river.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The common yellowthroat and yellow-breasted chat are still found in small isolated populations. The most common species now found are the black-billed magpie, mourning dove, Western Meadowlark, barn swallow, and the non-native ring-necked pheasant and starlings.

Vegetation in the watershed is closely tied to elevation and precipitation levels.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

About 30 percent of the basin, mostly at higher elevation levels, is populated with oak, aspen and coniferous trees. At the lower levels, 27 percent of the basin is rich in mountain-brush, sagebrush, juniper and grasses. About 34 percent of the Jordan River basin is classified as urban.[84]  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Russian olive and tamarisk or salt cedar trees now dominate the Jordan River floodplain where willow trees and cottonwood trees would once have been found. Plant species such as foxtail barley, saltgrass, rabbitbrush, cattails and other reeds are still found in small pockets along the river.[85]  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Exotic pasture grasses such as orchard grass, bluegrass, redtop bentgrass,quackgrass, wheatgrass and fescue have become the common species of grass.[86] The vulnerable flower, Ute's Ladies'-tresses, can also be found along the river.

The Jordan River has been a repository for waste since the settling of the Salt Lake Valley. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

For 100 years, raw, untreated sewage was dumped into the river; farming and animal runoff occurred; and mining operations led to 40 smelters being built and contaminating the river with heavy metals, mostly arsenic and lead. In 1962, the river in Midvale recorded a total coliform level of about 3 million per 100 milliliters,[88] HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

even though the state of Utah criteria for the total number of coliform bacteria in water samples should not exceed 5,000 per 100 milliliters. In 1965, a new sewage treatment plant came on-line in Salt Lake City that prevented 32,000,000 US gallons per day (120,000 m3/d) of raw sewage from being dumped into a canal.[89]  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Utah Division of Water Quality and Utah Division of Drinking Water are responsible for the regulation and management of water quality in the State of Utah. Streams that exceed the standard contamination levels are placed on the 303d list in accordance with the Clean Water Act. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Act also requires states to identify impaired water bodies every two years and develop a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for pollutants that may cause impairments in the various water bodies.[90] The Jordan River and Little Cottonwood Creek were included on the 2006 303d list; HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

parameters that exceeded the standard level for at least part of the Jordan River include temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, E. Coli and salinity.

Superfund sites are designated as being among the nation's worst areas with respect to toxic and hazardous waste. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Environmental Protection Agency is the federal agency that determines if a particular site is hazardous, prepares a course of action to reduce the hazard, and finds the parties responsible for the pollution. If a site is listed with the Superfund program, federal dollars are available for cleanup.[92] HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Kennecott South Zone/Bingham site contains contamination from Kennecott Copper Mine's operation in Copperton, at the base of the Oquirrh Mountains to Bingham Creek and Butterfield Creek. A 72-square-mile (190 km2) plume of lead, arsenic and sulfates (covering 9 percent of the watershed) currently contaminates the ground water from the mine site all the way to the Jordan River.  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The largest inland reverse osmosis plant in the country was built in 2006 to clean up the ground water and a second plant has been scheduled for construction; completion of the ground water cleanup, however, is not projected until 2040. In 1998, the site was removed from the Superfund list due to Kennecott's progress in the cleanup and a consent decree legally obligating Kennecott to continue the rest of the cleanup. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Murray Smelter site was the location of a large lead smelter in operation from 1872 until 1949. The 142-acre (57 ha) site contained groundwater contamination from arsenic and lead, but the majority of the cleanup was completed in 2001.[95]

In Midvale, there are two Superfund sites that sit along 4 percent of the Jordan River. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Midvale Slag site is a 446-acre (180 ha) site adjacent to 6,800 feet (2,100 m) of the Jordan River. From 1871 to 1958, the site contained five separate smelters that processed ores from Kennecott and other mines. The site was contaminated with lead, arsenic, chromium, andcadmium. Cleanup of the property is complete, although the Jordan River Riparian Project still underway as of 2010.[96][97HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

]Sharon Steel was a 460-acre (190 ha) site adjacent to 4,500 feet (1,400 m) of the Jordan River which was used, from 1902 to 1971, for smelting copper from Kennecott Copper Mine. The site was contaminated with lead, arsenic, iron, manganese, andzinc. Cleanup has been completed, and the site taken off the Superfund list in 2004. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Vitro Uranium Mill was a 128-acre (52 ha) site located in South Salt Lake, surrounded by the Jordan River, Mill Creek, a small wetland and traversed by the South Vitro Ditch. The site, operational from 1953 to 1964, contained a uranium mill and storage for uranium. In 1989, surface contamination cleanup was completed with tailings, HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

radioactively contaminated soil material, and debris removed from the site.[99] However, 700,000,000 US gallons (2,600,000 m3) of contaminated shallow ground water still remain, and studies are underway to determine what action should be taken.

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Pakenham and his second-in-command, General Gibbs, were fatally wounded, while on horseback, by grapeshot fired from the earthworks. With most of their senior officers dead or wounded, the British soldiers, having no orders to advance further or retreat, stood out in the open and were shot apart with grapeshot from Line Jackson. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After about 20 more minutes of bloodletting, General Lambert assumed command and eventually ordered a withdrawal.

The only British success was on the west bank of the Mississippi River, where Thornton's brigade, comprising the 85th Regiment and detachments from the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, attacked and overwhelmed the American line. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Though both Jackson and Commodore Patterson reported that the retreating forces had spiked their cannon, leaving no guns to turn on the Americans' main defense line, this is contradicted by Major Mitchell's diary which makes it clear this was not so, as he states he had "Commenced cleaning enemy's guns to form a battery to enfilade their lines on the left bank".[42Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] General Lambert ordered his Chief of Artillery, Colonel Alexander Dickson, to assess the position. Dickson reported back that no fewer than 2,000 men would be needed to hold the position. General Lambert issued orders to withdraw after the defeat of their main army on the east bank and retreated, taking a few American prisoners and cannon with them. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the end of the day, the British had 2,042 casualties: 291 killed (including Generals Pakenham and Gibbs), 1,267 wounded (including General Keane) and 484 captured or missing.The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead; 39 wounded, and 19 missing.

On January 9, British naval forces attacked Fort St. Philip which protected New Orleans from an amphibious assault from the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

American forces within the fort withstood ten days of bombardment by cannon before the British ships withdrew on January 18, 1815.

Three days after the battle, General Lambert held a council of war where he concluded that despite his request for reinforcements as well as a siege train, ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

capturing New Orleans and continuing the Louisiana campaign would be too costly and thus agreed with his officers to withdraw. On February 4, 1815, the fleet, with all of the British troops aboard, set sail toward Mobile Bay, Alabama.

The British army then attacked and captured Fort Bowyer at the mouth of Mobile Bay on February 12. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The following day, the British army was making preparations to attack Mobile when news arrived of the peace treaty. The treaty had been ratified by the British Parliament but would not be ratified by Congress and the President until mid-February. It did, however, resolve that hostilities should cease, HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and the British abandoned Fort Bowyer and sailed home to their base in the West Indies.Although the Battle of New Orleans had no influence on the terms of the Treaty of Ghent, the defeat at New Orleans did compel Britain to abide by the treaty.However, it would have been problematic for the British to continue the war in North America,  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

due to Napoleon's escape from Elba on February 26, 1815, which ensured their forces were needed in Europe. Also, since the Treaty of Ghent did not specifically mention the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, it only required both sides to give back those lands that had been taken from the other during the war. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

From December 25, 1814, to January 26, 1815, British casualties during the Louisiana Campaign, apart from the assault on January 8, were 49 killed, 87 wounded and 4 missing.[52] These losses, together with those incurred on December 23 and January 8, added up to 386 killed, 1,521 wounded and 552 missing for the whole campaign. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

General Jackson reported a grand total of 55 killed, 185 wounded and 93 missing for the entire siege, including December 23 and January 8.[4]

Six currently active battalions of the Regular Army (2-7 Inf, 3-7 Inf, 1-5 FA, 1-6 FA, 1-1 Inf and 2-1 Inf) and one Mississippi Army National Guard regiment (155th Inf) are derived from American units that fought at the Battle of New Orleans. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Although the engagement was small compared to other contemporary battles such as the Battle of Waterloo, it was important for the meaning applied to it by Americans in general and Andrew Jackson in particular.[53]

Americans believed that a vastly powerful British fleet and army had sailed for New Orleans (Jackson himself thought 25,000 troops were coming), and most expected the worst. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The news of victory, one man recalled, "came upon the country like a clap of thunder in the clear azure vault of the firmament, and traveled with electromagnetic velocity, throughout the confines of the land."[54] The battle boosted the reputation of Andrew Jackson and helped to propel him to the White House. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The anniversary of the battle was celebrated as a national holiday for many years, and continues to be commemorated in south Louisiana.

In honor of Jackson, the newly organized Louisiana Historical Association dedicated its new Memorial Hall facility on January 8, 1891, the 76th anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans.[55] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

A federal park was established in 1907 to preserve the battlefield; today it features a monument and is part of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve.

"The 8th of January" became a traditional American fiddle tune, honoring the date of the battle. More than a century later, the melody was used by Jimmie Driftwood to write the song "The Battle of New Orleans", HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

which was a hit for Johnny Horton and Lonnie Donegan.

With the Americans outnumbered it seemed as though the city of New Orleans was in danger of being captured. Consequently, theUrsuline nuns along with many faithful people of New Orleans gathered in the Ursuline Convent's chapel before the statue ofOur Lady of Prompt Succor. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

They spent the night before the battle praying and crying before the holy statue, begging for the Virgin Mary's intercession.

On the morning of January 8, the Very Rev. William Dubourg, Vicar General, offered Mass at the altar on which the statue of Our Lady of Prompt Succor had been placed. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The Prioress of the Ursuline convent, Mother Ste. Marie Olivier de Vezin, made a vow to have a Mass of Thanksgiving sung annually should the American forces win. At the very moment of communion, a courier ran into the chapel to inform all those present that the British had been defeated. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

General Jackson went to the convent himself to thank the nuns for their prayers: "By the blessing of heaven, directing the valor of the troops under my command, one of the most brilliant victories in the annals of war was obtained." [56] The vow made by Mother Ste. Marie has been faithfully kept throughout the years. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

The Battle of Lake Borgne was a naval battle between the Royal Navy and the United States Navy in the American South theatre of the War of 1812. It occurred on December 14, 1814 on Lake Borgne and was part of the Britishadvance on New Orleans.

The defeat of the British attack in September on Fort Bowyer prevented the British from taking Mobile, Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Alabama, and moving to cut off U.S. trade via land towards the Mississippi River. Next, the British decided to attack New Orleans and the Americans began receiving warnings of a British fleet approaching Louisiana. The warnings reached Commodore Daniel Patterson of the New Orleans Squadron, ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

who immediately began to assemble any and all types of naval defenses to protect the state's waterways and naval ports.

When the British forces under Admiral Alexander Cochrane arrived off the Louisiana coast on December 9, Patterson dispatched Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones and a small flotilla to patrol Lake Borgne. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The American force consisted of five Jeffersonian gunboats - No. 156No. 163No. 5No. 23, and No. 162 - the schooner USS Sea Horse with Sailing-Master Johnson commanding, and two sloops-of-war, USS Alligator and USS Tickler, serving astenders. Gunboat No. 156, the flagship of the squadron, mounted one long 24-pounder, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

four 12-pounder carronades, and four swivel guns. She had a crew of forty-one men. In all, the squadron comprised 245 men, sixteen long guns, fourteen carronades, two howitzers and twelve swivel guns.

Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, British Commander-in-Chief of the North American Station, HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

ordered HMSSeahorseArmide and Sophie from Pensacola to Lake Borgne. They were to proceed to the Bayou Catalan, or De Pecheurs, at the head of the lake and 60 miles (97 km) from the troopship anchorage. This was to be the disembarkation point for the attack on New Orleans. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

The three British vessels reported that as they passed Cat Island, Mississippi, two American gun boats had fired at them. Furthermore, lookouts on the masts had seen three more. When the fleet arrived on December 11, Cochrane decided to hunt out the Americans.

Cochrane put all the boats of the British fleet under the command of Commander Nicholas Lockyer of SophieHP 606609-001 CPU Fan

with orders to find and defeat the American flotilla. The boats came from TonnantNorgeBedfordRoyal Oak,RamilliesArmideCydnusSeahorseTraveSophieBelle PouleGorgonManly and MeteorCompaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

The British deployed forty-two longboats, launches and barges with one 12, 18 or 24 pounder carronade each, as well as three gigs, each mounting a long brass 12 pounder cannon.

The force consisted of some 1200 sailors and Royal Marines At night on December 12, the British boats, under Lockyer, set off to enter Lake Borgne. Before reaching Lake Borgne, they encountered the one gun schooner Sea HorseTOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

She was on a mission to destroy a powder magazine at Bay St. Louis in order to prevent its capture by the Royal Navy. The schooner, with the protection of a shore battery, fought off two of Lockyer's longboat attacks but then was burnt later that night to prevent the main British fleet from capturing her. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

After rowing for about thirty-six hours, the British located the five American vessels drawn up in line abreast to block the channel between Malheureux Islandand Point Claire on the mainland. As the British advanced, they spotted Alligator and immediately sent a few longboats under Roberts to cut her off and the British quickly captured her. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

At 10 o'clock on the morning of December 14, the boats had closed to within long gunshot by St. Joseph’s Island. At this point Lockyer ordered the boats' crews to breakfast.

Lockyer formed the boats into three divisions. He took command of the first and gave Montresor of Manley command of the second and Roberts of Meteor command of the third. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

When the British had finished their breakfast they returned to their oars and pulled up to the enemy. The main battle came at 10:30 am. The Americans in the gunboats saw the British rowing towards them and opened fire while the boats were still out of reach. The British were rowing against a strong current and under a heavy fire of round and grapeshot. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The Americans fired as many times as possible before the range closed. They were able to sink two of the attacking longboats and damaged many others. They killed or wounded a number of Britons in the process, including most of the men in Lockyer's boat. Eventually the range closed and the British sailors and marines began to board the American vessels. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Lockyer personally boarded Gunboat No. 156, Jones's ship. In the close quarters combat the two sides usedcutlasses, pikes, bayonets and muskets. Both Lockyer and Jones sustained severe wounds.

The British captured Gunboat No. 156 and turned her guns against her sister ships. The gunboat fired her broadsides and assisted the capture of the remaining American watercraft. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

One by one the British took the other four American gunboats; boarding and capturing the entire American flotilla took five minutes.

Tickler, the small fifty ton sloop, anchored a short distance behind the five gunboats, watched the battle but stayed out of the fight as Jones ordered beforehand. When her captain saw that the British had captured all five American gunboats, he scuttled and burnt his vessel. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

It is not known if the crew was captured or escaped to New Orleans on their life boats.

In all, the engagement lasted around two hours, though the actual hand-to-hand fighting had only lasted five minutes. The British forced the greatly outnumbered American seamen to surrender but the Americans had inflicted considerable damage. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

The British won control of the lakes but the delay gave General Andrew Jacksonmore time to prepare his defenses. The Americans lost their gunboats, a sloop, six men killed, thirty-five wounded and eighty-six captured. The American casualties numbered 10 killed, 35 wounded and 86 captured according to the British, and 60 killed, wounded, HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

or captured according to the Americans. Jones was aprisoner of war for three months and would later be decorated for his bravery and delaying the British advance.

The British reported that in the fighting they had lost 17 dead and 77 wounded, some of whom died later. Captain Lockyer was among the wounded. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

The British also lost two longboats sunk and had several others damaged. Originally the Americans claimed that the British had suffered some 300 killed or wounded, as well as losing four boats sunk. Cochrane rated the captured flotilla as the equivalent of a 36-gun frigate and appointed Lockyer to its command as soon as his wounds permitted. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Montresor took command pro tem; in March 1815, Lockyer received promotion to post captain.

The British took the five gunboats into service under the names Ambush (or Ambush No. 5), FirebrandDestruction,Harlequin, and Eagle. Several of these vessels remained in Royal Navy service into June 1815, and at least one perhaps beyond. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Lake Borgne would become the landing zone for British forces preparing to attack New Orleans. After the population of the city learned of the engagement on Lake Borgne, panic overtook some of New Orlean's population so Andrew Jackson declared martial law.

The Battle of North Point was fought on September 12, 1814, between General John Stricker's Maryland Militiaand a British force led by Major General Robert Ross. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Although tactically a British victory, the battle delayed the British advance against Baltimore, buying valuable time for the defense of the city. The engagement was a part of the larger Battle of Baltimore, a strategic American victory in the War of 1812.

Major General Robert Ross had been dispatched to Chesapeake Bay with a brigade of veterans from the Duke of Wellington's army early in 1814, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

reinforced with a battalion of Royal Marines. He had defeated a hastily assembled force of Maryland and District of Columbia militia at the Battle of Bladensburg on August 24, 1814, andburned Washington. Having disrupted the American government, he withdrew to the waiting ships of the Royal Navyat the mouth of the Patuxent River before heading further up the Chesapeake Bay to the strategically more important port city of Baltimore. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Ross's army of 3,700 troops and 1,000 marines[6] landed at North Point at the end of the peninsula between thePatapsco River and the Back River on the morning of September 12, 1814, and began moving toward the city of Baltimore.

Major General Samuel Smith of the Maryland militia anticipated the British move, and dispatched Brigadier GeneralJohn Stricker's column to meet them. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Stricker's force consisted of five regiments of Maryland militia, a small militia cavalry regiment also from Maryland, a battalion of three volunteer rifle companies and a battery of six 4-pounder field guns.[8] Stricker deployed his brigade half way between Hampstead Hill, just outside Baltimore where there were earthworks and artillery emplacements, and North Point. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

At that point, several tidal creeks narrowed the peninsula to only a mile wide, and it was considered an ideal spot for opposing the British before they reached the main American defensive positions.[7]

Stricker received intelligence that the British were camped at a farm just 3 miles (4.8 km) from his headquarters.[7] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

He deployed his men between Bear Creek and Bread and Cheese Creek, which offered cover from nearby woods, and had a long wooden fence near the main road. Stricker placed the 5th Maryland Regiment and the 27th Maryland Regiment and his six guns in the front defensive line, with two regiments (the 51st and 39th) in support, and one more (the 6th) in reserve. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

He placed his men in mutually supporting positions, relying on numerous swamps and the two streams to stop a British flank attack, all of which he hoped would help avoid another disaster such as Bladensburg.[9]

The riflemen initially occupied a position some miles ahead of Stricker's main position, to delay the British advance. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

However, their commander, Captain William Dyer, hastily withdrew on hearing a rumour that British troops were landing from the Back River behind him, threatening to cut off his retreat. Stricker posted them instead on his right flank.

At about midday on the 12th, Stricker heard that the British had halted while the soldiers had a meal, while some sailors attached to Ross's force plundered some nearby farms. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

He decided it would be better to provoke a fight rather than wait for a possible British night attack. At 1:00 pm, he sent Major Richard Heath with 250 men and one cannon to draw the British to Stricker's main force.[9]

Heath advanced down the road and soon began to engage the British pickets. When Ross heard the fighting, he quickly left his meal and ran to the scene.[9] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The British attempted to drive out the concealed American riflemen. Rear Admiral George Cockburn (the second in command of the Royal Navy' American Station, who usually accompanied Ross) was cautious about advancing without more support and Ross agreed that he would leave and get the main army.[9ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

] However, Ross never got his chance, as an American sniper, or snipers shot him in the chest.[9] Ross turned his command over to Colonel Arthur Brooke and died soon after.

Brooke reorganized the British troops and prepared to assault the American positions at 3:00 pm.[9] HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

He decided to use his three cannon to cover an attempt by the4th Regiment to get around the American flank, while two more regiments and the naval brigade would assault the American center.[9] The British frontal assault took heavy casualties as the American riflemen fired right into the British assault, and the Americans loaded their cannon with pieces of broken locks, Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

nails and horseshoes, spraying scrap metal on the advancing British.[9] However, the British 4th Regiment managed to outflank the American positions and send many of the American regiments fleeing. Stricker was able to turn the flight into an organized retreat, with his men firing volleys as they continued to fall back.[9] Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Not all the militia regiments performed with equal distinction. The 51st Regiment and some of the 39th broke and ran under fire. However, the 5th and 27th held their ground and were able to retreat in good order having inflicted significant casualties on the advancing enemy.[11] Only one American gun was lost. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

Our Regiment, the 5th, carried off the praise from the other regiments engaged, so did the company to which I have the honor to belong cover itself with glory. When compared to the [other] Regiments we were the last that left the ground...had our Regiment not retreated at the time it did we should have been cut off in two minutes. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

With some of his units lost among woods and swampy creeks, and others in confusion, Brooke did not follow up the retreating Americans. He had advanced to within a mile of the main American position but he had suffered heavier casualties than the Americans, and it was getting dark, so he chose to wait until Fort McHenry was expected to be neutralized,[12Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

] while Stricker withdrew to Baltimore's main defences.

The official British Army casualty report, signed by Major Henry Debbeig, gives 39 killed and 251 wounded. Of these, 28 killed and 217 wounded belonged to the British Army; 6 killed and 20 wounded belonged to the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the Royal Marines; DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

4 killed and 11 wounded belonged to the contingents of Royal Marines detached from Cockburn's fleet; and 1 killed (Elias Taylor) and 3 wounded belonged to the Royal Marine Artillery.[4] As was normal, the Royal Navy submitted a separate casualty return for the engagement, signed by Rear-Admiral Cockburn, HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

which gives 4 sailors killed and 28 wounded but contradicts the British Army casualty report by giving 3 killed (1 and 2 from HMS Madagascar and HMS Ramillies respectively) and 15 wounded for the Royal Marines detached from the ships of the Naval fleet.[13] A subsequent casualty return from Cochrane to the Admiralty, HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

dated 22 September 1814, gives 6 sailors killed, 1 missing and 32 wounded, with Royal Marines casualties of 1 killed and 16 wounded.[14] The total British losses, as officially reported, were either 43 killed and 279 wounded or 42 killed and 283 wounded, depending on which of the two casualty returns was accurate. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Historian Franklin R. Mullaly gives still another version of the British casualties, 46 killed and 295 wounded, despite using these same sources.[15][16][17] The American loss was 24 killed, 139 wounded and 50 taken prisoner.

The battle had been costly for the British. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Apart from the other casualties, losing General Ross was a critical blow to the British. He was a respected leader of British forces in the Peninsular War and the War of 1812. Ross's death proved a blow to British morale as well. The combined effect of the blow suffered at North Point and the failure of the Royal Navy to capture or get past Fort McHenry at the entrance to Baltimore harbor,ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

despite a 25-hour bombardment, proved to be the turning point of the Battle of Baltimore. During the bombardment on Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key was detained on a British ship at the entrance to Baltimore and penned the words to "The Star-Spangled Banner". The day after the battle, Brooke advanced cautiously towards Baltimore. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

There was no more opposition from Stricker, but when the British came into view of the main defenses of Baltimore, Brooke estimated them to be manned by up to 22,000 militia, with 100 cannon. He prepared to make a night assault against the defenses at Loudenslager Hill, but asked Vice AdmiralAlexander Cochrane to send boats and bomb ketches to silence an American battery,Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

"Roger's Bastion", on the flank of his proposed attack. Despite a stiff fight between the boats, commanded by Captain Charles John Napier and the American batteries, the Bastion was unharmed and Brooke called off the attack and withdrew before dawn.[18] The British re-embarked at North Point. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Defenders Day is a legal holiday in the U.S. state of Maryland[1] It commemorates the successful defense of the city ofBaltimore on September 12, 1814 from an invading British force during the War of 1812, an event which would lead to the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the national anthem of the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

In 1814, following the burning of Washington, a British force commanded by Major General Robert Ross landed near present day Fort Howard, Maryland and began an advance on the city. He was met almost immediately by a detachment from the Baltimore garrison led by American General John Stricker, commencing the Battle of North Point. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The resulting halt of the larger British force allowed Baltimore to organize its defenses against a later attempted naval invasion. It was during this conflict, the Battle of Baltimore, that Fort McHenry was shelled by the British but refused to surrender, and an inspired Maryland lawyer named Francis Scott Key composed the words to what would later become "The Star-Spangled Banner", eventually proclaimed the national anthem of the United States. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Commemorations of the day of the victory, centering on Stricker's stand east of the city, began in the years shortly after the War. During the mid-19th century, Marylanders would informally picnic on the battlefield grounds, but later celebrations involved the entire city of Baltimore, with parades and speeches. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Initially, the commemoration of Defenders Day was divided between the two sites; one focusing on the Battle of North Point and the other on The "Star Spangled Banner" and the bombardment of Fort McHenry. The development of the holiday followed the evolution of the militia. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

The first phase was the transition from the involuntary militia system that existed prior to the War of 1812 to the Voluntary militia system that emerged during the war. The second phase was the development of the Voluntary Militia into the local parochial political-militia-business alliance that peaked with dominance of the Know Nothing (American Party) politics prior to the Civil War.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The third was the transition from parochial patriotism to national patriotism during the Civil War. Finally in the fourth phase the local militia disappeared and the local parochial patriotic traditions were largely forgotten or replaced with new national patriotic ideas and traditions.

In the first phase the local militia viewed the national government as allies. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

During the second the parochial political-militia-business alliance viewed the national government with increasing hostility, as expressed by the Maryland State Anthem "Maryland, My Maryland". During the second phase, the myth and lore of Defender's Day were used to support parochial Nativism (politics). HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

In the third phase the parochial nationalism and nativism of the pre-Civil War militia disappeared since those groups had moved to Virginia to join the Confederate Army. In the fourth phase, nativism returned with the Confederate veterans and after a struggle between the militias, formed from the Union veterans and their rival militias formed from Confederate veterans, HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

the post Civil War militias were replaced by the creation of the National Guard. The replacement of the state militias by the National Guard also produced a replacement of the politics and cultural traditions that supported the militias. Hence, the commemoration of the Battle of North Point declined in favor of the celebration of the Star Spangled Banner. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

The North Point celebrations focused on local parochial politics. These celebrations centered on the "Old Defenders" (the veterans of the Battle of North Point). The celebrations emphasized how the "Defenders" had stood against the British invader after the federal government had failed and Washington was burned. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

The Fort McHenry celebrations focused on the image of the federal fortifications providing the bastion that saved the nation.

While the "Old Defenders" survived, the commemorations of Defenders Day revolved around them. Following the War of 1812, many of the "Old Defenders" had become civic leaders in Baltimore. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

The traditional program while the "Old Defenders" survived was for a "Defenders' Day" programs that started with a rally and speeches at Baltimore’s Battle Monument. Following the speeches, the militia units would march from the "Battle Monument" to the battlefield at North Point. At North Point the militia units would have a sham battle. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

Following the sham battle the militia units would march to the former Loudenschlager's Hill (now Hampstead Hill, in what is now Patterson Park in the Highlandtown-Canton communities of East Baltimore). Hampstead Hill was the location of the final redoubts that stopped the British advance on the city. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

The march and the sham battle were intended to replicate the events of the Battle of North Point and the troop movements to and from there. One of the unfortunate results of this schedule for the commemoration of "Defenders' Day" was that more militia died from heat stroke, from the march to and from the battlefield, Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

and the occasional musket ball fired during the sham battle at the battlefield, than died during the actual battle. the commemoration in 1822 proved to be exceptionally lethal. An unusually hot September and dress parade uniforms produced a significant loss due to heat stroke, resulting in a one year break in the program.[2] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The occasional musket ball fired during the sham battle produced additional fatalities. In the years following one notable fatality a new tradition appeared in Baltimore's newspapers that lasted until the Civil War; just prior to "Defenders' Day" perennial advertisements would appear in the Baltimore newspapers stating: “now available - blank ammunition.”.[3] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

Prior to the Civil War, the "Defenders' Day" speeches held that the Battle of Baltimore to be the most noble battle in U.S. military history. The Battle of Baltimore was entirely defensive and was fought by the citizens themselves. Notable examples are the speeches given by One of the "Old Defender's" Nathaniel Williams on September 12, 1857.[4HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

]A monument, a play, and ballads to the two soldiers credited with killing Major General Robert Ross, Pvts. Daniel Wells and Henry Gough McComas of Captain Edward Asquith's Sharpshooters, were typical of this period. Today, numerous monuments to the War of 1812 remain throughout "The Monumental City" (the designation of Baltimore as the "Monument City" was made by President John Quincy Adams in 1827). Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

In 1854, a committee gathered with the notion of erecting a monument to Wells and McComas. On September 10, 1858, after securing and investing the funds for the project, the bodies of the teen militiamen were exhumed and placed in the old Maryland Institute (then located above Centre Market - or "Marsh Market" on East Baltimore Street at the Jones Falls). ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Thousands of people visited the coffins during the three days leading up to September 12, the anniversary of the Battle of North Point, when the official cornerstone for the memorial was laid. On that day, the bodies of Wells and McComas were paraded to Ashland Square, (near the intersection of North Gay, Monument, and Aisquith Streets in East Baltimore), IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

the site of interment, and placed below the obelisk’s foundation in ceremonial fashion.

As documented in the Baltimore Sun, in articles written in September 1860, the Secession Crisis prior to the 1860 election caused a change in the Defenders Day program. The federal troops that were stationed at Fort McHenry were deployed to the Mexican border leaving Fort McHenry empty, except for an old sergeant serving as a custodian. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Seeing the opportunity one of the Baltimore city secessionist militia units, the 5th Maryland, planned to seize the fort on Defenders Day 1860. The plot was discovered, an anti-secessionist militia unit (elements of the 53rd Maryland) rowed in the darkness from Fells Point to the fort the night before Defenders Day. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The 5th Maryland departed from the grounds of the Excelsior baseball club near Bolton Hill, but instead of turning to march to theBattle Monument, turned to march on the fort. When the 5th reached the fort they found it already occupied by the 53rd. Thereby the secessionist militia from one part of the city lost the race to the fort to a pro-Union militia unit from another part of the city.[5] IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

The result was a non-violent standoff that was resolved when the secessionist militia marched back to its neighborhood and the conflict was over, to be repeated in the later Secession Crisis that followed the presidential election of 1860, the crisis reached its highest point after the 6th Massachusetts was attacked by a mob in 1861. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

The same units that attempted to prevent the movement of Federal troops through Baltimore were involved in the earlier demonstration at Ft. McHenry. The secessionist unit that featured most prominently on both occasions were the Baltimore Law Greys of the 5th Maryland.[5][6] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The Law Greys as part of Baltimore's First Light Division, Maryland Volunteers were disbanded in Baltimore and reformed in Virginia as the 1st Maryland Infantry, CSA.

The move away from the Battle of North Point to Fort McHenry was suggested by the "Old Defenders" themselves when they met at Govanstown, Maryland for their annual dinner to celebrate the Defenders Day during the Civil War. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The choice of the "Old Defenders" to do this was made as an open appeal to heal the wounds of the Civil War. The "Old Defenders" noted that troops from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia had rallied to Baltimore and Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore.[7]

Nativism returned with the Confederate veterans after the Civil War. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

After the Civil War the militia in Baltimore was divided between Union veterans and initially illegal militias of Confederate veterans. Prior to the 1877 riots the Confederate militia was legalized as the 5th Maryland. Baltimore's militia on the eve of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was composed of the 4th, 5th and 6th Maryland militia regiments. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The former Confederate 5th Maryland being drawn from veterans of the 1st Maryland CSA, the 6th Maryland being composed of Union veterans and the 4th Maryland of indeterminate origins. Each militia unit had its armory close to one of the large railroad stations. The 5th at Mount Royal Station, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

the 6th across the street from Phoenix Shot Tower, near the President Street Station and the 4th at Camden Station. During the riot the 6th was attacked by a mob, the 6th broke and was chased by the mob through the streets of Baltimore, and the 6th's armory was attacked and the militia driven from their armory. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

The 6th Maryland was then disbanded and the unit blamed for all police and militia violence against the rioters. Governor Carroll then declared that the designation of "6th Maryland" would be forever stricken from the Maryland militia rolls. This left the formerly Confederate 5th Maryland as the dominant militia in Baltimore, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

thereby shaping how Defender's Day would be commemorated until the outbreak of World War I.

The post-Civil War nativism peaked just after the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and then slowly faded with the growing popularity of the National Anthem. The demise of the 6th Maryland and the ascendency of the 5th Maryland can be viewed as part of the national political changes ending the Reconstruction Era of the United States and the Compromise of 1877. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Nativism was dealt a decisive blow with the establishment of the National Guard of the United States since the creation of the National Guard effectively removed the militia as an active muscular component of local politics.

A famous photograph from the early 1880s, shows the last of "The Old Defenders" as a group of a half-dozen old be-whiskered gentlemen, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

garbed in black cut-away coats, cravat ties and top hats with gold-knobbed canes sitting on chairs in front of the steps of old "Druid Mansion", the headquarters of Druid Hill Park.

After the Spanish American War, the expansion of Baltimore's harbor defenses included building Fort Howard on North Point and moving the garrison from Fort McHenry to Fort Howard. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

The City of Baltimore began a campaign that would lead to Ft. Mc Henry being acquired by the city as a park. Before the transition of Fort McHenry to the City of Baltimore, the last of the "Old Defenders" died and the task of maintaining the traditions of Defender's Day passed to the Society of the Sons of the War of 1812. ASUS A8H CPU Fan

This also coincided with the creation of the National Guard and the dissolution of the old militia units.The largest celebration was held on the hundred year anniversary in 1914, which included fireworks reenacting of the shelling of Fort McHenry.[8] The National Star-Spangled Banner Centennial was however overshadowed by the outbreak of World War I in Europe. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

The dedication of the statue at Fort McHenry of "Orpheus with the Awkward Foot" [9] sealed the prominence of Fort McHenry in Defenders Day observances. The completion of the Orpheus statue at Fort McHenry further emphasized the story of the writing of the "Star Spangled Banner" following the bombardment of the fort by British naval forces, HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

instead of the commemoration of Battle of North Point and Baltimore’s Battle Monument.

The Great Depression of the 1930s curtailed the celebrations somewhat, and they continued to wane in popularity through World War II and the 1960s, when dissatisfaction with martial matters caused by the unpopular Vietnam War were noted. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

It was not until the 1980s and 1990s that Defenders Day began to be widely celebrated in Maryland once again, mostly through the increasing popularity of the Fort McHenry Guard, volunteers for the National Park Service, who brought new life to celebrations at Fort McHenry. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

Even Baltimore's mayor (now Maryland governor), Martin O'Malley, has donned a War of 1812 uniform as a colonel of the Fort McHenry Guard to participate in Defenders Day reenactments. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan,Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

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The Battle of Bladensburg took place during the War of 1812. The defeat of the American forces there allowed the British to capture and burn the public buildings of Washington, D.C. It has been called "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to American arms".Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

For the first two years of the War of 1812, the British had been preoccupied with the war against Napoleon Bonaparte on the continent of Europe. Although the Royal Navy controlled Chesapeake Bay from early 1813 onwards, lack of troops restricted them to mounting comparatively small-scale raids, the largest of which was the Battle of Craney Island, which involved 2,000 troops from the British Army and the Royal Marines. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E420S Keyboard

By April 1814, Napoleon had been defeated and was exiled to the island of Elba. Large numbers of British troops were free to be sent to North America. Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost, the Governor General of Canada and commander in chief in North America, planned for a dual invasion of the United States. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E425 Keyboard

He personally led one invasion into the state of New York from Canada, headed for Lake Champlain. Meanwhile, a brigade under Major General Robert Ross, consisting entirely of veterans from the army of the Duke of Wellington, was transported to Chesapeake Bay to "effect a diversion on the coasts of the United States of America in favor [sic] of the army employed in the defence of Upper and Lower Canada".[4] Lenovo ThinkPad Edge S420 Keyboard

Although Ross commanded the troops, the point of attack was to be decided by Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, the commander in chief of the Royal Navy's North American Station. Cochrane concentrated four ships of the line, twenty frigates and sloops of war and twenty transports carrying Ross's troops at Tangier Island.[5] HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

Cochrane's energetic second in command, Rear Admiral George Cockburn, was in favour of a quick attack on Washington, although Ross was not so eager. His troops had been confined aboard their transports for nearly three months, he lacked cavalry, artillery and transport, and he was wary of the American Chesapeake Bay Flotilla lurking in thePatuxent River.[6] HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The first objective was to capture or destroy the American flotilla, and Ross's orders were to stay near the shipping and not to risk an attack on the American capital.[citation needed]

In Washington, the U.S. Secretary of War, John Armstrong, did not believe the British would attack the strategically unimportant city of Washington. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

He believed that the likely target would be the militarily more important city of Baltimore. Armstrong was only half right; the British would eventually launch attacks against both Baltimore and Washington.

Cochrane dispatched two forces to make diversions. The frigate HMS Menelaus and some small craft threatened a raid on Baltimore, while two frigates and some bomb ketches and a rocket vessel ascended the Potomac River, an expedition that resulted in the successful Raid on Alexandria. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

His main body proceeded into the Patuxent. Ross's troops landed at Benedict on 19 August, and began marching upstream the following day, while Cockburn proceeded up the river with ships' boats and small craft. By 21 August, Ross had reached Nottingham, and Commodore Joshua Barney was forced to destroy the gunboats and other sailing craft of the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla the next day, and retreat overland towards Washington. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

From Nottingham, Ross continued up the Patuxent to Upper Marlboro, from where he could threaten to advance on either Washington or Baltimore, confusing the Americans. He might have taken the capital almost unopposed had he advanced on 23 August, but instead he rested his men and organised his force. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

On the night of 23–24 August, at the urging of Rear Admiral Cockburn and British Army officers under his own command, Ross decided to risk an attack on Washington. He had four infantry battalions, a battalion of Royal Marines, a force of about 200 Corps of Colonial Marines comprising locally recruited black refugees from slavery, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

arocket detachment from the Royal Marines battalion, 50 Royal Sappers and Miners, 100 gunners from the Navy and 275 sailors to carry supplies. His force totaled 4,370 men, with one 6-pounder gun, two 3-pounder guns and sixty frames for launching Congreve rockets.[7] Rear Admiral Cockburn accompanied his force. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Ross had a choice of two routes by which he could advance: from the south via Woodyard or from the east via Bladensburg. The former route would involve finding a way across an unfordable part of the Eastern Branch of the Potomac (now called the Anacostia River) if the Americans destroyed the bridge on the route. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

In the morning of 24 August, Ross made a feint on the southern route, before suddenly swerving northwards towards Bladensburg.

On 2 July 1814, the United States Army had designated the area around Washington and Baltimore as the Tenth Military District.SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

Its commander was Brigadier General William H. Winder, who had practiced law in Baltimore before being commissioned as a Colonel in 1812 and who had been recently exchanged after being captured at the Battle of Stoney Creek in July 1813.

Winder could theoretically call upon 15,000 militia in total, but he actually had only 120 Dragoons and 300 other Regulars, and 1,500 poorly trained and equipped militia at his immediate disposal.[8] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

On 20 August, Winder ordered his force to advance south to the vicinity of Long Old Fields and Woodyard, off modern Route 5, to confront the British at Upper Marlboro. There was a brief clash with Ross's leading troops on 22 August, and Winder ordered a hasty retreat to the Long Old Fields.[7] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Though Winder rode with the force directly challenging the British, he realized that Bladensburg was the key to the defense of Washington. Bladensburg commanded the roads to Baltimore and Annapolis, along which reinforcements were already moving towards the capital. It also lay on one of the only two routes available to the British for an advance on Washington— the preferable route, as it happened, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

because the Eastern Branch was easily forded there. On 20 August, Winder had ordered Brigadier General Tobias Stansbury to move from Baltimore to Bladensburg[9] and "take the best position in advance of Bladensburg ... and should he be attacked, to resist as long as possible".[10]

On 22 August, Stansbury deployed his force on top of Lowndes Hill, just to the east of Bladensburg. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The road from Annapolis ran across the hill, and the road from Upper Marlboro ran to its right and rear. The roads to Washington, Georgetown, and Baltimore intersected behind it. From this position, Stansbury dominated the approaches available to the British while controlling all lines of communication. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

At 2:30 a.m. on 23 August, Stansbury received a message from Winder, announcing that he had withdrawn across the Eastern Branch and that he intended to fire the lower bridge. Surprised, Stansbury was seized by an irrational fear that his right flank would be turned. Rather than further strengthen an already commanding position, DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

he immediately decamped and marched his exhausted troops back across Bladensburg bridge, which he did not burn, to a brickyard 1.5 miles (2.4 km) miles further on. In doing so, he had thrown away almost every tactical advantage available to him.

Winder had at least 1,000 regulars from the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

and some 7,000 militia and volunteers from the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia at his disposal. Official reports of American strength range from 5,000 to 9.000 men. Winder's official report to the Secretary of Warstated that he was able "By the most active and harassing movement of the troops to interpose before the enemy at Bladensburg about 5,000."[11] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Ross, the British commander, estimated the American force in front of him at between 8,000 and 9,000 men with 300-400 cavalry. From the various contemporary sources, the forces gathered for the defense of Washington most likely numbered about 7,170, of which some 6,370 were at Bladensburg.

Stansbury's force consisted of the 1st (Ragan's), 2nd (Schutz's), and 5th (Sterrett's) regiments of Maryland Militia, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

three companies of volunteer riflemen commanded by Major Thomas Pinckney and two companies of Baltimore artillery, with six guns. Ragan's and Schutz's regiments were hastily-drafted amalgamations of companies, without uniforms. Sterrett's 5th Maryland Regiment was a "Dandy" regiment of uniformed volunteers.[9] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Stansbury had chosen a defensible position, but not the best position, on the western side of the Eastern Branch of the Potomac, opposite the town of Bladensburg. The Baltimore artillery were posted in an earthwork which had been hastily constructed by Colonel Decius Wadsworth (the United States Army's Commissary General of Ordnance) to the north of the bridge.[12] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The earthwork was intended for larger weapons, and the field guns had a restricted field of fire through its embrasures. They could not prevent the bridge from being seized with oblique fire. The three Maryland Militia infantry regiments were posted in line to the south of the earthwork, too far away to protect the guns and exposed to British fire. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Both Winder and Secretary of State James Monroe later tinkered with Stansbury's dispositions. Monroe moved companies and detachments about without correcting the major faults of his position, while Winder moved the three militia regiments into even more exposed positions further behind the Baltimore artillery's redoubt, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

although Monroe reinforced them with a militia artillery company under Captain Benjamin Burch.[13]

Behind Stansbury's troops and to his right were a brigade of militia under Brigadier General Walter Smith of the District of Columbia militia, which had marched up from Long Old Fields to the south.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Although Smith's brigade was strongly posted behind a creek, Smith had not conferred with Stansbury before deploying his brigade, so there was a gap of a mile between them, and Smith's men could not support Stansbury. Also, if Stansbury was overcome, Smith's left flank would be open to attack. A battalion under Lieutenant Colonel Kramer lined the creek. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Joshua Barney's men, with two 18-pounder guns and three 12-pounder guns drawn from the Washington Navy Yard, were posted astride the Washington turnpike. To Barney's left was the 1st Regiment of "District" Militia, a militia artillery company under Major George Peter with six 6-pounder guns and a provisional battalion of regulars under Lieutenant Colonel William Scott. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

The 2nd District Militia and some companies of Maryland militia were posted behind Peter and Scott.[14]

To Smith's right rear in turn was a column under Colonel William Beall, which had just arrived from Annapolis. A regiment of Virginia Militia under Colonel George Minor was delayed by administrative confusion and arrived on the field only as the battle ended.[15] HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stansbury's troops were tired from two days' constant alarms and redeployments, and Smith's and Beall's men were equally exhausted from having force-marched to the battlefield through a hot and humid summer day, with many diversions and unnecessary panics.

Around noon on 24 August, Ross's army reached Bladensburg. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stansbury's tactical errors quickly became apparent. Had he held Lowndes Hill, Stansbury could have made the British approach a costly one (although this would involve fighting with the East Branch at his back, which would not improve his men's morale and might be disastrous in the case of a hasty retreat).[12] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Had he held the brick structures of Bladensburg, which were ready-made mini-fortresses, he might have embroiled Ross's troops in bloody street fighting. Because the bridge had not been burned, it had to be defended. Stansbury's infantry and artillery were posted too far from the river's edge to contest a crossing effectively. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British advance was led by Colonel William Thornton's 85th Light Infantry and the three light companies of the other line battalions. Although the Baltimore artillery stopped Thornton's first rush across the bridge, they had solid shot only, which was of little use against scattered skirmishers.[16] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Pinckney's riflemen, posted to protect the American guns, were driven back and as Thornton's men closed in, the Baltimore artillerymen retreated with five of their cannon, being forced to spike and abandon another.

The British 1/44th Regiment had meanwhile forded the East Branch above the bridge. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As they prepared to envelop the American left, Winder led a counter-attack against Thornton by Sterrett's 5th Maryland militia, joined by other detachments.[17] As the 5th Maryland exchanged fire with British infantry in cover on three sides, Schutz's and Ragan's drafted militia regiments broke and fled under a barrage of Congreve rockets. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Winder issued confused orders for three of Captain Burch's guns to fall back rather than cover Sterrett's retreat, and the 5th Maryland and the rest of Stansbury's brigade fled the field.

The British pressed on and were engaged by Smith's brigade and Barney's and Peters's guns. Thornton's light brigade made several frontal attacks over the creek, but were repulsed three times by artillery fire, and were counter-attacked by Barney's detachment.[18] HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Thornton was badly wounded and his light infantry were driven back with heavy casualties. However, as the 1/44th threatened Smith's open left flank, Winder ordered Smith to retreat also.[19]

Smith's brigade fell back in good order, but Winder's orders to retreat apparently did not reach Barney, SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and his situation worsened when the civilian drivers of the carts carrying his reserve ammunition joined the general rout,[20] leaving the Marine gun crews with less than three rounds of canister, round shot and charges in their caissons. Barney's 300 Flotilla men and 103 Marines nevertheless held off the British frontal attacks. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Eventually, as the British 1/4th and 1/44th Regiments enveloped their left flank, Barney ordered his men to retreat to avoid capture.[21] Barney himself was badly wounded with a musket ball in the thigh. Beall's troops were also driven from the hill they held, after an ineffectual resistance.HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Winder had not given any instructions before the battle in the case of a retreat and as the American militia left the battlefield, he issued contradictory orders to halt and reform, or fall back on the Capitol where Secretary of War John Armstrong, Jr. hoped vainly to make a stand, using the federal buildings as strongpoints, or retreat through Georgetown to Tenleytown. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Most of the militia simply fled the field with no destination in mind, or deserted the ranks to see to the safety of their families.

Although the British had suffered heavier casualties than the Americans (many inflicted by Barney's guns), they had completely routed the defenders. The British casualties were 64 dead and 185 wounded.[1]  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some of the British dead "died without sustaining a scratch. They collapsed from heat exhaustion and the strain of punishing forced marches over the five days since landing at Benedict".[23] Heidler's Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 gives the American loss as "10 or 12 killed, 40 wounded" and "about 100" captured.[1] SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Henry Adams and John S. Williams both give the American casualties as 26 killed and 51 wounded.[24] Joseph A. Whitehorne says that the Americans lost "120 taken prisoner, many of these wounded".[25] Ten cannon and a color[26] were captured by the British.

The hasty and disorganized American retreat led to the battle becoming known as the Bladensburg Races from an 1816 poem.Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The battle was termed "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to American arms" and "the most humiliating episode in American history".[19]The American militia actually fled through the streets of Washington. President James Madison and most of the rest of the federal government had been present at the battle, and had nearly been captured. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They too fled the capital, and scattered through Maryland and Virginia. That same night the British entered Washington unopposed and set fire to many of the government buildings in what became known as the Burning of Washington.

Lieutenant General Prevost had urged Vice Admiral Cochrane to avenge the Raid on Port Dover on the north shore of Lake Erie earlier in the year, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

in which the undefended settlement had been set ablaze by American troops. Cochrane had issued a proclamation that American property was forfeit; only the lives of the civilian inhabitants were to be spared. He had issued a private memorandum to his captains however, which allowed them to levy what was effectively protection money in return for sparing buildings. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In practice, there was little or no looting or wanton destruction of private property by Ross's troops or Cochrane's sailors during the advance and the occupation of Washington. However, when the British later withdrew to their ships in the Patuxent, discipline was less effective (partly because of fatigue) and there was considerable looting by foraging parties and stragglers and deserters.[27] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After Major General Ross was killed at the Battle of North Point on 12 September 1814, his descendants were, by royal warrant dated 25 August 1815, given an augmentation of honour to their armorial bearings and their family name was changed to the victory title Ross-of-Bladensburg in memory of Ross's most famous battle.[28] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lineages of the 5th Maryland Regiment and the Columbian Division are perpetuated by the present-day 175th Infantry (ARNG MD) and the HHD/372nd Military Police Battalion (ARNG DC), respectively, two of only nineteen Army National Guard units with campaign credit for the War of 1812. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lineages of the old 36th and 38th Infantry Regiments are perpetuated by three currently active battalions of the 4th Infantry (1-4 Inf, 2-4 Inf and 3-4 Inf).

The Battle of Baltimore was a combined sea/land battle fought between British and American forces in the War of 1812HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan. American forces repulsed sea and land invasions off the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland, and killed the commander of the invading British forces. The British defeated an American force at North Point,[8] however they made no further progress and later withdrew. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The resistance of Baltimore’s Fort McHenry during bombardment by the Royal Navy inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "Defence of Fort McHenry" which later became the lyrics for "The Star-Spangled Banner," the national anthem of the United States of America. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Tied down in Europe until 1814, the British at first used defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. However, the Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the Southwest, General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. The British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed them to capture and burn Washington, D.C. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

American victories in September 1814 and January 1815 repulsed all three British invasions in New York, Baltimore and New Orleans. With the recent defeat of Napoleon the previous year, thousands of British troops along with many seasoned officers, including Major General Robert Ross, were deployed to America to undertake a major campaign on America's East Coast. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In August, 1814, British forces sailed from the Royal Naval Dockyard in Bermuda to attack the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C.[9] On August 24, the British Army had overrun confused American defenders at the Battle of Bladensburg and marched into Washington, which had been abandoned by the military[10] . HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Afterburning and looting the White House, Capitol, Treasury, War Department and other public buildings and forcing the destruction of the Washington Navy Yard, the British carted public and private possessions back to their ships. President James Madison and the entire government fled the city, and went North, to the town of Brookeville, Maryland. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British also sent a fleet up the Potomac to cut off Washington's water access and threaten the prosperous ports of Alexandria, just downstream of Washington, and Georgetown, just upstream. The mere appearance of the fleet cowed American defenders into fleeing from Fort Warburton without firing a shot, and undefended Alexandria surrendered.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British spent several days looting hundreds of tons of merchandise from city merchants, then turned their attention north to Baltimore, where they hoped to strike a knockout blow against the demoralized Americans. Baltimore was a busy port and was thought by the British to harbor many of the privateerswho were raiding British shipping. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British planned a combined operation, with Ross launching a land attack at North Point, and Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane laying siege to Fort McHenry, which was the point defensive installation in Baltimore Harbor.The British landed a force of 5,000 troops who marched toward Baltimore and first met heavy resistance at the Battle of North Point which was fought about 5 miles (8 km) from the city. ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The city’s defense was under the overall command of Major General Samuel Smith, an officer of the Maryland Militia. He dispatched roughly 3,000 men under the command of General John Stricker to meet the British in a forward engagement. General Stricker was to stall the British invasion force in order to delay the British advance long enough for Major General Smith to complete the defenses in Baltimore.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The land invasion force for the British was led by Ross, and would be killed in the second shift of the American defense by an American sharpshooter whose name has been lost to history. However, Daniel Wells, age 19, and Henry McComas, age 18, of Captain Aisquith's rifle company of the 5th Maryland Militia regiment have been attributed by Baltimore legend to have been responsible for his death,  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which was immediately followed by their own. With Ross's death the British army came under the command of the less competent Colonel Arthur Brooke. However, the British succeeded in driving the American militia back.

Rodgers Bastion, also known as Sheppard's Bastion, located on Hampstead Hill (now part of Patterson Park),  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

was the centerpiece of a 3-mile-wide earthworks from the outer harbor in Canton, north to Belair Road, dug to defend the eastern approach to Baltimore against the British. The redoubt was assembled and commanded by U.S. Navy Commodore John Rodgers, with General Smith in command of the overall line.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At dawn on September 13, 1814, the day after the Battle of North Point, some 4,300 British troops advanced north on North Point Road, then west along the Philadelphia Road (now Maryland Route 7) toward Baltimore, forcing the U.S. troops to retreat to the main defensive line around the city. British commander Col. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Arthur Brooke established his new headquarters at the Sterret House on Surrey Farm (today called Armistead Gardens), about two miles east-northeast of Hampstead Hill.

When the British began probing actions on Baltimore's inner defenses, the American line was defended by 100 cannon and more than 10,000 regular troops, HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

including two shadowing infantry regiments commanded by general officers Stricker and Winder as well as a few thousand local militia and irregulars. The defenses were far stronger than the British anticipated. The U.S. defenders at Fort McHenry successfully stopped British naval forces but a few ships were still able to provide artillery support.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Once the British had taken the outer defences, the inner defences became the priority. The British infantry had not anticipated how well defended they would be so the first attack was a failure; however, Brooke's forces did manage to outflank and overrun American positions to the right. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After a discussion with lower ranking officers, Brooke decided that the British should bombard the fort instead of risk a frontal assault and, at 3 AM on September 14, 1814, ordered the British troops to return to the ships.

At Fort McHenry, some 1,000 soldiers under the command of Major George Armistead awaited the British naval bombardment.HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Their defense was augmented by the sinking of a line of American merchant ships at the adjacent entrance to Baltimore Harbor in order to further thwart the passage of British ships.

The attack began on September 13, as the British fleet of some nineteen ships began pounding the fort with Congreve rockets (from rocket vessel HMS ErebusCompaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

andmortar shells (from bomb vessels TerrorVolcanoMeteorDevastation, and Aetna). After an initial exchange of fire, the British fleet withdrew to just beyond the range of Fort McHenry’s cannons and continued to bombard the American redoubts for the next 27 hours. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Although 1,500 to 1,800 cannonballs were launched at the fort, damage was light due to recent fortification that had been completed prior to the battle.

After nightfall, Cochrane ordered a landing to be made by small boats to the shore just west of the fort, away from the harbor opening on which the fort’s defense was concentrated.  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He hoped that the landing party might slip past Fort McHenry and draw Smith’s army away from the main British land assault on the city’s eastern border. This gave the British a good diversion for half an hour, allowing them to fire again and again. On the morning of September 14, the 30 ft × 42 ft (9.1 m × 12.8 m) oversized American flag, Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which had been made a few months before by local flagmaker Mary Pickersgill and her 13-year-old daughter, was raised over Fort McHenry (replacing the tattered storm flag which had flown during battle). It was responded to by a small encampment of British rifleman on the right flank, who fired a round each at the sky and taunted the Americans just before they too returned to the shore line. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Originally, historians said the oversized Star Spangled Banner Flag was raised to taunt the British. However, that is not the case. The oversized flag was used every morning for reveille, as was the case on the morning of September 14.

Brooke had been instructed not to attack the American positions around Baltimore unless he was certain that there were less than 2000 men in the fort. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Because of his orders, Brooke had to withdraw from his positions and returned to the fleet which would set sail for New Orleans.

An American lawyer and poet, Francis Scott Key, was on a mercy mission for the release of Dr. William Beanes, a prisoner of the British. Key showed the British letters from wounded British officers praising the care they received from Dr. Beanes. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The British agreed to release Beanes, but Key and Beanes were forced to stay with the British until the attack on Baltimore was over. Key watched the proceedings from a truce ship in the Patapsco River. On the morning of the 14th, Key saw the American flag waving above Fort McHenry. Inspired, he began jotting down verses on the back of a letter he was carrying. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

He composed the words to the tune of an old British drinking song, "To Anacreon in Heaven". When Key reached Baltimore, his poem was printed on pamphlets by the Baltimore American. His poem was originally called "Defence of Fort M'Henry". The song eventually became known as "The Star-Spangled Banner". Congress made it the national anthem in 1931. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Colonel Brooke’s troops withdrew, and Admiral Cochrane’s fleet sailed off to regroup before his next assault on the United States, the Battle of New Orleans. Armistead was soon promoted to lieutenant colonel. Much weakened by the arduous preparations for the battle, he died at age 38, only three years after the battle. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Three active battalions of the Regular Army (1-4 Inf, 2-4 Inf and 3-4 Inf) perpetuate the lineages of the old 36th and 38th Infantry Regiments, both of which were at Fort McHenry during the bombardment. The lineage of the 5th Maryland Infantry Regiment, which played a major role in the Battle of North Point, is perpetuated by the Maryland National Guard's 175th Infantry Regiment.HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.[5][6] American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army, under General Edward Pakenham, intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.[ HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Treaty of Ghent, having been signed on December 24, 1814, was ratified by thePrince Regent on December 30, 1814, and the United States Senate on February 16, 1815. Hostilities continued until late February when official dispatches announcing the peace reached the combatants in Louisiana, finally putting an end to the war.[10][11] Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Battle of New Orleans is widely regarded as the greatest American land victory of the war.

By December 12, 1814, a large British fleet under the command of Sir Alexander Cochrane with more than 8,000 soldiers and sailors aboard, had anchored in theGulf of Mexico to the east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne.[13] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer[14] set out to attack Catesby's force. Lockyer's men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a smallcarronade. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Lockyer captured Catesby's vessels in a brief engagement known as theBattle of Lake Borgne. Seventeen British sailors were killed and 77 wounded,[15]while 6 Americans were killed, 35 wounded, and 86 captured.[15] The wounded included both Catesby and Lockyer. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands ofBritish soldiers, under the command of General John Keane,  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

were rowed to Pea Island, about 30 miles (48 km) east of New Orleans, where they established a garrison.

On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of theMississippi River, 9 miles (14 km) south of New Orleans.[16] HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, which was undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to encamp at Lacoste's Plantation[17] and wait for the arrival of reinforcements.[18] During the afternoon of December 23, after he had learned of the position of the British encampment, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Andrew Jackson reportedly said, "By the Eternal they shall not sleep on our soil."[19] This intelligence had been provided by Colonel Thomas Hinds' Squadron of Light Dragoons, a militia unit from the Mississippi Territory.[20][21] That evening, attacking from the north, Jackson led 2,131[22] men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

who were resting in their camp. Then Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the city. The Americans suffered 24 killed, 115 wounded, and 74 missing,[23] while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, and 64 missing.[24] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Historian Robert Quimby says, "the British certainly did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position".[25] However, Quimby goes on to say, "It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans. The British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The unexpected and severe attack made Keane even more cautious...he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth".[26] As a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a heavily fortified earthwork.[27] On Christmas Day, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force on December 28 against the American earthworks protecting the advance to New Orleans. That evening, General Pakenham met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation, angry with the position that the army had been placed in. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route but was overruled by Admiral Cochrane who insisted that his boats were providing everything that could be needed.[28] Admiral Cochrane believed that the British Army would destroy a ramshackle American army and allegedly said that if the Army would not do so his sailors would. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Whatever Pakenham's thoughts on the matter, the meeting settled the method and place of the attack.[29] On December 28, groups of British troops made probing attacks against the American earthworks.

When the British troops withdrew, the Americans began construction of artillery batteries to protect the earthworks, which were then christened Line Jackson. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Americans installed eight batteries, which included one 32-pound gun, three 24-pounders, one 18-pounder, three 12-pounders, three 6-pounders, and a 6-inch (150 mm) howitzer. Jackson also sent a detachment of men to the west bank of the Mississippi to man two 24-pounders and two 12-pounders from the grounded warship USS LouisianaHP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Jackson's force was outnumbered by the attacking British forces. Jackson's army of 4,732 men comprised 968 US Army regulars,[30] 58 US Marines, 106 seamen of the US Naval battalion, 1,060 Louisiana Militia and volunteers (including 462 free people of color), 1,352 Tennessee Militia, 986 Kentucky Militia, 150 Mississippi Militia and 52 Choctaw warriors. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Additionally, Jackson had the support of warships in the Mississippi River, including the USSLouisiana, the USS Carolina and the Enterprise, along with the pirate Jean Lafitte and his Baratarians.

The main British army arrived on New Year's Day, and attacked the earthworks using their artillery. An exchange of artillery fire began that lasted for three hours. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Several of the American guns were destroyed or knocked out, including the 32-pounder, a 24-pounder, and a 12-pounder, and some damage was done to the earthworks. The British guns ran out of ammunition, which led Pakenham to cancel the attack. Unknown at the moment to Pakenham, HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the Americans on the left of Line Jackson near the swamp had broken and run from the position. Pakenham decided to wait for his entire force of over 8,000 men to assemble before launching his attack.

In the early morning of January 8, Pakenham ordered a two-pronged assault against Jackson's position. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Colonel William Thornton (of the 85th Regiment) was to cross the Mississippi during the night with his 780-strong brigade, move rapidly upriver and storm the batteries commanded by Commodore Daniel Patterson on the flank of the main American entrenchments and then open an enfilading fire on Jackson's line with howitzers and rockets.[32] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Then, the main attack, directly against the earthworks manned by the vast majority of American troops,[33] would be launched in two columns (along the river led by Keane and along the swamp line led by Major General Samuel Gibbs). The brigade commanded by Major General John Lambert was held in reserve. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Preparations for the attack had floundered early, as a canal being dug by Cochrane's sailors collapsed and the dam made to divert the flow of the river into the canal failed, leaving the sailors to drag the boats of Col. Thornton's west bank assault force through deep mud and left the force starting off just before daybreak 12 hours late.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The attack began under darkness and a heavy fog, but as the British neared the main enemy line the fog lifted, exposing them to withering artillery fire. Lt-Col. Thomas Mullins, the British commander of the 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot, had forgotten the laddersand fascines needed to cross a canal and scale the earthworks, and confusion evolved in the dark and fog as the British tried to close the gap.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Most of the senior officers were killed or wounded, including General Gibbs, killed leading the main attack column on the right comprising the 4th, 21st, 44th and 5th West India Regiments, and Colonel Rennie leading a detachment of light companies of the 7th, 43rd, and 93rd on the left by the river. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Possibly because of Thornton's delay in crossing the river and the withering artillery fire that might hit them from across the river, the 93rd Highlanders were ordered to leave Keane's assault column advancing along the river and move across the open field to join the main force on the right of the field. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Keane fell wounded as he crossed the field with the 93rd. Rennie's men managed to attack and overrun an American advance redoubt next to the river, but without reinforcements they could neither hold the position nor successfully storm the main American line behind. Within minutes, the American 7th Infantry arrived,  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

moved forward, and fired upon the British in the captured redoubt: within half an hour, Rennie and most of his men were dead. In the main attack on the right, the British infantrymen either flung themselves to the ground, huddled in the canal, or were mowed down by a combination of musket fire and grapeshot from the Americans. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A handful made it to the top of the parapet on the right but were either killed or captured. The 95th Rifles had advanced in open skirmish order ahead of the main assault force and were concealed in the ditch below the parapet, unable to advance further without support.

The two large main assaults on the American position were repulsed. ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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Dedicated sections in the Anglican cemetery were also reserved for burials from those parishes which had made burial arrangements with the LNC.[54]

Immediately after its foundation the LNC used existing firms of London undertakers to arrange funerals, but over time took over all aspects of the arrangements from coffin-making to masonry.[77] DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

LNC funerals were intentionally kept as similar as possible to those of traditional undertakers, with the exception that a railway carriage was used in place of a hearse.[48] On being commissioned to provide a funeral, invitations would be sent out either by the deceased's family or from the LNC offices. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These letters specified the waiting room to be used, the time of the train to Brookwood, and the expected return time to London.[48] If the funeral was to be held in London, a traditional hearse and carriage would take the deceased to their parish church for the service, and then on to the London railway terminus; HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

if the funeral was to take place in the terminus or in Brookwood, the procession would come directly to the terminus.

On arrival at the terminus the mourners would be led either to one of the dedicated first class waiting rooms (for first and second class funerals) or to the communal third class waiting room.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The coffin would be discreetly unloaded from the hearse and sent to the platform level by lift.[89] Those attending first and second class funerals would be permitted to watch the coffins being loaded onto the train if they so wished.[76] (After the relocation to the new London terminus in 1902, some funeral services would be held in a Chapelle Ardente on platform level,Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

for those cases where mourners were unable to make the journey to Brookwood.[76]) Each door of the waiting train would be labelled with the name of the deceased, to ensure all passengers travelled with the correct funeral party;[76] the names of the deceased being carried on the train would be called in turn, and that person's mourners would board the train.[89]  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the time the service was inaugurated, the LNC's trains were divided both by class and by religion, with separate Anglican and Nonconformist sections of the train.[37] This distinction applied to both living and dead passengers. Intended to prevent persons from different social background from mixing and potentially distressing mourners and to prevent bodies of  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

persons from different social classes being carried in the same compartment rather than to provide different facilities, the carriages intended for all classes and religions were very similar in design, and the primary difference was different ornamentation on the compartment doors.[31] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At 11.35 am (11.20 am on Sundays) the train would leave London for Brookwood, arriving at Necropolis Junction at 12.25 pm (12.20 pm on Sundays).

On arrival at North or South station coffins would usually be unloaded onto a hand-drawn bier and pulled by LNC staff to the appropriate chapel.[91] While this was taking place the mourners were escorted to the waiting rooms at the station.[92SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] On arrival at the chapels first and second class funerals would generally have a brief service (third class funerals had a single service in the appropriate chapel for all those being buried).[91] For those burials where the funeral service had already been held at either a parish church or the LNC's London terminus the coffins would be taken directly from the train to the grave.[78] Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The return trains to London generally left South station at 2.15 pm and Necropolis Junction at 2.30 pm; the return journey initially took around an hour owing to the need to stop to refill the engine with water, but following the construction of the water tower in the cemetery this fell to around 40 minutes.[92] HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

An 1854 agreement between the LNC and LSWR gave consent for the LNC to operate two or three funeral trains each day if demand warranted it, but traffic levels never rose to a sufficient level to activate this clause.[79]

The train only ran if there was a coffin or passengers at the London terminus waiting to use it, ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and both the journey from London to Brookwood and the later return would be cancelled if nobody was due to leave London that morning.[37] It would not run if there was only a single third or second class coffin to be carried, and in these cases the coffin and funeral party would be held until the next service.[93] SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Generally the trains ran direct from London to the cemetery, other than occasional stops to take on water. Between 1890 and 1910 the trains also sometimes stopped at Vauxhall and Clapham Junction for the benefit of mourners from south west London who did not want to travel via Waterloo, but these intermediate stops were discontinued and never reinstated.[79] Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After 1 October 1900 the Sunday trains were discontinued, and from 1902 the daily train service was ended and trains ran only as required.[80] On some occasions where there were very large numbers of mourners the LSWR would provide special passenger trains from Waterloo to their own station at Brookwood to carry additional mourners to the vicinity of the cemetery.[88] Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As well as intending to conduct those burials which would previously have taken place in London's now-closed graveyards, the LNC also envisaged the physical relocation of the closed burial grounds to their Necropolis, to provide a final solution to the problems caused by burials in built-up areas.[62] Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The massive London civil engineering projects of the mid-19th century—the railways, the sewer system and from the 1860s the precursors to the London Underground—often necessitated the demolition of existing churchyards.[94] The first major relocation took place in 1862, DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

when the construction of Charing Cross railway stationand the routes into it necessitated the demolition of the burial ground of Cure's College in Southwark.[94] Around 5,000 cubic yards (3,800 m3) of earth was displaced, uncovering at least 7,950 bodies.[94] These were packed into 220 large containers, each containing 26 adults plus children, ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and shipped on the London Necropolis Railway to Brookwood for reburial, along with at least some of the existing headstones from the cemetery, at a cost of around 3 shillings per body.[62] At least 21 London burial grounds were relocated to Brookwood via the railway, along with numerous others relocated by road following the railway's closure.[ HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The LNC's exhumation and relocation business, split from the LNC in 1973 and renamed "Necropolis", continued to operate until 2002.

The success of the LNC relied on taking over all, or at least a significant portion, of the burials of London's dead. However, while the Metropolitan Interment Amendment Act 1852 had repealed Chadwick's scheme for two very large cemeteries near London,HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

it had also permitted London's parishes to make their own arrangements for the burial of their dead.[96] Each parish could make arrangements with the cemetery of its choosing, or use money from the rates to create their own cemeteries.[61] The financial mismanagement and internal disputes within the LNC had delayed the opening of   HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Brookwood Cemetery by 18 months,[42] and during this period new cemeteries nearer London had opened or were nearing completion.[61]While some parishes did choose Brookwood as their burial site, many preferred either to make arrangements with less distant cemeteries, or to buy land on the outskirts of London and open their own suburban cemeteries.[61] HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Concerns over the financial irregularities and the viability of the scheme had led to only 15,000 of the 25,000 LNC shares being sold, severely limiting the company's working capital and forcing it to take out large loans.[97] Buying the land from Lord Onslow, compensating local residents for the loss of rights over Woking Common, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

draining and landscaping the portion to be used for the initial cemetery, and building the railway lines and stations were all expensive undertakings. With far fewer burial contracts with London parishes than had been anticipated, by the time Brookwood Cemetery opened in November 1854 the LNC was on the verge of bankruptcy.[61] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Recognising their financial predicament, the LNC lobbied Parliament for a new Act of Parliament to allow the venture to survive. On 23 July 1855 the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Amendment Act 1855 received Royal Assent.[98] This Act released the LNC from those compulsory purchases of land which had been mandated by the 1852 HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Act but had not yet been completed, easing the immediate financial burden.[84] It also allowed a ten-year window for the LNC to sell certain parts of the land bought from Lord Onslow which were not required for the cemetery, to provide a source of income.[84]

Although the 1855 Act permitted the LNC to sell land, this proved difficult. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Of the 2,200-acre (3.4 sq mi; 8.9 km2) site, around 700 acres (1.1 sq mi; 2.8 km2) were occupied by the initial Necropolis site and the adjacent reserve site, and a further 200 acres (0.31 sq mi; 0.81 km2) retained their common land rights and could not be developed in any way, rendering them worthless to prospective buyers. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

While this left 1,300 acres (2.0 sq mi; 5.3 km2) theoretically able to be sold, the Brookwood site had been chosen for its remoteness and there were few prospective buyers.[84] While 214 acres (0.33 sq mi; 0.87 km2) were bought by the government as sites for prisons and a lunatic asylum, the LNC struggled to sell the remainder. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

By the time the ten-year window for land sales expired in 1865, only 346 acres (0.54 sq mi; 1.4 km2) had been sold.[84]

With the majority of the surplus lands still unsold, as the ten-year window expired the LNC successfully petitioned for a further five-year extension. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

The LNC was by this time in serious financial difficulties, and dependent on loans from its own directors to settle outstanding debts.[99] The business had been established on the basis that the cemetery would handle between 10,000 and 50,000 burials per year, but the number never exceeded 4,100 and over its first 20 years of operations averaged just 3,200. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

As the five-year extension expired the financial difficulties remained, and under pressure from shareholders theLondon Necropolis & National Mausoleum Amendment Act 1869 was passed. This removed all restrictions on land sales, other than within the existing cemetery and the adjacent reserve site.[ ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Despite the releasing of restrictions in the 1869 Act, land sales remained disappointing. By 1887 less than half the surplus land had been sold, much of it at very low prices.

In December 1887 the LNC appointed Cyril Tubbs to supervise the LNC estate.[83] Tubbs was given a broad remit to "advance the company's interests",HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

including buying and selling land, supervising the railway stations, advertising the cemetery and liaising with the LSWR.[83] Tubbs set about restructuring the design of Brookwood Cemetery to make it more appealing to mourners and visitors. The cemetery was divided into numbered sections, separated by an expanded network of avenues. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

These avenues were all named, and signposts were erected along them, to allow visitors easily to find their way around the sprawling Brookwood site, and to locate particular graves; the naming and numbering system devised by Tubbs has remained in use ever since.[83]

Tubbs established a masonry works and showroom near the centre of the cemetery, ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

allowing the LNC to provide grave markers without the difficulty of shipping them from London,[100] and opened a LNC-owned nursery in the grounds for the sale of plants and wreaths.[83] This increased the practice of mourners planting flowers and shrubs around graves, ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

which was in turn used by the LNC in their promotional material to promote Brookwood as a "Garden of Sleep".[101] In around 1904 the masonry works was expanded and equipped with a siding from the railway branch line,[102] allowing the LNC to sell its gravestones andfunerary art to cemeteries nationwide.[103] HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Tubbs also oversaw a restructuring of the ailing programme to sell the LNC's surplus lands. The estate was partitioned into three sections, and separate estate agents appointed to oversee the disposal of each.[104] Many of the lands near Woking railway station and around Brookwood were sold, at much higher prices than the LNC disposals had previously fetched. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

No suitable agent could be found to oversee the sale of the third portion of LNC land, Hook Heath, and as a consequence Tubbs kept it under LNC control and oversaw its development himself. Over the 1890s the site was subdivided into plots for large detached houses, and a golf course was built to attract residents and visitors. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

In August 1914, on the outbreak of the First World War, the LNC offered to donate to the War Office 1 acre (4,000 m2) of land "for the free interment of soldiers and sailors who have returned from the front wounded and may subsequently die". The offer was not taken up until 1917, when a section of the cemetery was set aside as Brookwood Military Cemetery, HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

used for the burials of service personnel who died in the London District.[103] In 1921 this area was sold to the Imperial War Graves Commission (later the Commonwealth War Graves Commission), and since then the military cemeteries have been administered and maintained by the IWGC/CWGC and its equivalents for other nations whose military are buried there.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

In September 1922 the LNC sold an area adjacent to the Military Cemetery to the US government. The LNC was hired by the US government to landscape this area and build a chapel, creating the American Military Cemetery (later the Brookwood American Cemetery and Memorial), TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

the only burial ground in Britain for US casualties of the First World War.[109][110] Although built by the LNC, since 1923 the American Military Cemetery has been administered by the American Battle Monuments Commission. After the Second World War the military cemeteries were extended to include dedicated sections for many of the Allied nations, ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

and in 1958 theBrookwood Memorial, commemorating 3,500 Commonwealth casualties of the Second World War with no known grave, was dedicated at the site.[111] Between them, the military cemeteries occupy around 37 acres (150,000 m2) of the site.

In 1878 the Cremation Society of Great Britain bought an isolated piece of the LNC's Brookwood land and built Woking Crematorium on the site. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The crematorium was completed in 1879 but Richard Cross, the Home Secretary, bowed to strong protests from local residents and threatened to prosecute if any cremations were conducted.[113] As a consequence the crematorium was not used other than for the experimental incineration of livestock.[113] HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

The 1884 trial ofWilliam Price established that human cremation was not unlawful in England,[92][114] and on 26 March 1885 the first human cremation took place at Woking.[115][note 16] Although the LNC was hostile to the idea of cremation,[112] Woking Crematorium was the only operational crematorium in the country.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Since the Necropolis Railway provided the easiest way to transport bodies and mourners from London to the Woking area, transport to and from Woking Crematorium soon began to provide a significant source of revenue for the LNC.

Cremation remained unusual and very expensive; the cost of a cremation at Woking was £6, not including transport and funeral costs, HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

more than twice the £2 10s cost of a first class burial at Brookwood.[120][121] By 1891 only 177 people had been cremated at Woking.[122] Cyril Tubbs recognised that a potential increase in cremations once the practice became accepted represented an opportunity for the LNC.[83] In July 1891 he proposed that the LNC build its own crematorium and columbarium Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

(building for the storage of cremated remains) within the cemetery, with the ultimate goal of taking over all funeral arrangements for the Cremation Society.[83] The Cremation Society were keen to prevent a competitor to Woking Crematorium, and sought to cooperate with the LNC.[83] HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The fares for the transport of mourners and coffins on the London Necropolis Railway had been fixed by Parliament in 1852 at 6s for a living first class passenger and £1 for a first class coffin (in 1891 worth about £28 and £92 respectively in 2014 consumer terms).[ SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

Rival firms of undertakers were not permitted to use the LNC's trains to Brookwood Cemetery and had to pay the much more expensive LSWR fares to transport coffins and mourners from Waterloo to Woking, giving the LNC a significant advantage in carriage to the crematorium.[123] HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

While the LNC never built its own crematorium, in 1910 Lord Cadogan decided he no longer wanted to be interred in the mausoleum he had commissioned at Brookwood. This building, the largest mausoleum in the cemetery, was bought by the LNC, fitted with shelves and niches to hold urns, and used as a dedicated columbarium from then on. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

On 13 April 1927 Cyril Tubbs died, after almost 40 years as surveyor, general manager and later a director of the LNC.[2] Shortly afterwards, during meetings of the LNC's shareholders on 16 June and 14 July 1927, the words "National Mausoleum" were formally dropped from the LNC's name, the company being officially renamed the London Necropolis Company.[2] Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

On 28 December 1927 George Barratt, who had worked for the LNC for 63 years and been Superintendent of Brookwood Cemetery for 41 years, also died.[2] Although the number of burials was gradually declining, it remained relatively steady. However, by this time mechanical hearses had begun to affect the numbers of people using the London Necropolis Railway. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Trains still ran to the cemetery when there was demand, but the service which had previously operated almost every day was now generally only running around twice a week.[2] By now the trees planted by the LNC in its early years of operations were mature, and Brookwood Cemetery was becoming a tourist attraction in its own right, often featuring in excursion guides of the 1920s and 1930s. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

During the Second World War Waterloo station and the nearby Thames bridges were a significant target for bombing, and there were several near-misses on the station during the London Blitz of 1940–41.[125] Although there were several interruptions to the Necropolis train service owing to enemy action elsewhere on the line, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

the Necropolis station was undamaged during the early stages of the bombing campaign.[125] During the night of 16–17 April 1941, in one of the last major air raids on London, this good fortune came to an end. As bombs repeatedly fell on the Waterloo area, the rolling stock parked in the Necropolis siding was burned, SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

and the railway arch connecting the main line to the Necropolis terminus was badly damaged.[126] Multiple incendiary devices and high explosive bombs struck the central section of the terminus building. While the LNC's office building and the station platforms survived, the central section of the station was reduced to rubble. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

On 11 May 1941 the station was officially declared closed.[126][note 20]

The Southern Railway (SR), which had absorbed the LSWR in 1923, offered the LNC the temporary use of Waterloo station to allow the Necropolis Railway service to be continued,[ HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

but refused to allow the LNC to continue to sell cheap tickets to visitors travelling to and from the cemetery stations other than those involved in a funeral that day, meaning those visiting the cemetery had little reason to choose the LNC's irregular and infrequent trains to the cemetery stations over the SR's fast and frequent services to Brookwood.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The LNC attempted to negotiate a deal by which genuine mourners could still travel cheaply to the cemetery on the 11.57 am service to Brookwood (the SR service closest to the LNC's traditional departure time), but the SR management (themselves under severe financial pressure owing to wartime constraints and damage) refused to entertain any compromise.[ HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

In September 1945, following the end of hostilities, the directors of the LNC met to consider whether to rebuild the terminus and reopen the London Necropolis Railway. Although the main line from Waterloo to Brookwood had remained in use throughout the war and was in good condition, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

the branch line from Brookwood into the cemetery had been almost unused since the destruction of the London terminus.[126] With the soil of the cemetery causing the branch to deteriorate even when it had been in use and regularly maintained, the branch line was in extremely poor condition.[63][126] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Although Richard Broun had calculated that over its first century of operations the cemetery would have seen around five million burials at a rate of 50,000 per year, at the time the last train ran on 11 April 1941 only 203,041 people had been buried at Brookwood in almost 87 years of operations.[93] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Increased use of motorised road transport had damaged the profitability of the railway for the LNC,[69] and faced with the costs of rebuilding the cemetery branch line, building a new London terminus and replacing the rolling stock damaged or destroyed in the air raid, ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

the directors concluded that "past experience and present changed conditions made the running of the Necropolis private train obsolete".[126] In mid-1946 the LNC formally informed the SR that the Westminster Bridge Road terminus would not be reopened.[128]

The decision prompted complicated negotiations with the SR over the future of the LNC facilities in London.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

In December 1946 the directors of the two companies finally reached agreement.[131] The railway-related portions of the LNC site (the waiting rooms, the caretaker's flat and the platforms themselves) would pass into the direct ownership of the SR, while the remaining surviving portions of the site (the office block on Westminster Bridge Road, Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

the driveway and the ruined central portion of the site) would pass to the LNC to use or dispose of as they saw fit.[126] The LNC sold the site to the British Humane Association in May 1947 for £21,000 (about £696,000 in terms of 2014 consumer spending power),[45] and the offices of the LNC were transferred to the Superintendent's Office at BrookwoodCompaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

21] The SR continued to use the surviving sections of the track as occasional sidings into the 1950s, before clearing what remained of their section of the site.[127]

While most of the LNC's business was now operated by road, an agreement on 13 May 1946 allowed the LNC to make use of SR services from Waterloo to Brookwood station for funerals, HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

subject to the condition that should the service be heavily used the SR (British Railways after 1948) reserved the right to restrict the number of funeral parties on any given train.[132] Although one of the LNC's hearse carriages had survived the bombing it is unlikely that this was ever used, and coffins were carried in the luggage space of the SR's coaches.[132Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

] Coffins would either be shipped to Brookwood ahead of the funeral party and transported by road to one of the mortuaries at the disused cemetery stations, or travel on the same SR train as the funeral party to Brookwood and be transported from Brookwood station to the burial site or chapel by road. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Although the LNC proposed to convert the cemetery branch line into a grand avenue running from Brookwood station through the cemetery, this never took place.[63] The rails and sleepers of the branch were removed in around 1947,[63] and the trackbed became a dirt road and footpath.[ DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

The run-around loop and stub of the branch line west of Brookwood station remained operational as sidings, before being dismantled on 30 November 1964.[63] After the closure of the branch line the buildings of the two cemetery stations remained open as refreshment kiosks, and were renamed North Bar and South Bar.[58] HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

On the retirement in 1956 of a Mr and Mrs Dendy, who operated North Bar from 1948 to 1956 and lived in the station apartment, North station was abandoned, and demolished in the 1960s owing to dry rot.[135] South Bar continued to operate as a refreshment kiosk.

After 1945 cremation, up to that time an uncommon practice, became increasingly popular in Britain.[122] HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

In 1946 the LNC obtained consent to build their own crematorium on a section of the Nonconformist cemetery which had been set aside for pauper burials, but chose not to proceed.[107] Instead, in 1945 the LNC began the construction of the Glades of Remembrance, a wooded area dedicated to the burial of cremated remains.[107] ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

These were dedicated by Henry Campbell, Bishop of Guildford in 1950.[107][note 23] Intentionally designed for informality, traditional gravestones and memorials were prohibited, and burials were marked only by small 2-to-3-inch (5.1 to 7.6 cm) stones.[137]

Although at its founding the LNC had hoped to handle 50,000 burials per year and even Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

without being granted a monopoly on London burials had planned for 10,000 per year,[42] Brookwood Cemetery was never as popular as hoped. At the time of the railway's closure only 203,041 burials had been conducted,[93] and the rate was steadily falling; on the LNC's 150th anniversary in November 1994, ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

a total of 231,730 burials had been conducted.[99] Even with the unusually large individual 9-by-4-foot (2.7 m × 1.2 m) grave sites offered by the LNC for even the cheapest burials, the site had been planned to accommodate 5,000,000 burials, and much of the land was empty.[23][99] Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Despite the decline in burials from an already low level, rising land values in the post war years meant that the LNC was a valuable and successful company. In the 1940s it bought out a number of other firms of funeral directors, particularly those catering for the expanding and prosperous suburbs of south west London within easy reach of Brookwood by road.[41] Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

The LNC continued to lobby the SR and its 1948 successor British Railways until the 1950s on the matter of cheap fares for visitors to the cemetery, but were unable to come to any agreement.[138] In 1957 the Southern Region of British Railways considered allowing the LNC to sell discounted fares of 7s 6d COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

(compared to the standard rate of 9s 4d) for return tickets for same-day travel from London to Brookwood and back. By this time most visitors to the cemetery were travelling by road. The LNC felt that the relatively minor difference between the fares would not be sufficient to attract visitors back to the railway, and the proposal was abandoned. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Owing to Henry Drummond's concerns in 1852 that the LNC was a front for land speculation, the sale of LNC-owned land for building had been expressly forbidden by the Act of Parliament establishing the LNC, and consequently much of the land not in use for burials remained undeveloped,[139] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

aside from the land sold in the 1850s and 1860s, and the areas sold by Cyril Tubbs.[84][99]

By the 1950s, with the area around Woking by this time heavily populated, rental income from the LNC's land holdings was an extremely valuable asset,[56] and in May 1955 the Alliance Property Company launched a hostile takeover bid with the aim of using the cemetery's land for property development.[41] HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The bid failed, but prompted the LNC to secure the passing of theLondon Necropolis Act 1956, allowing the sale of all remaining surplus land.[41] A new company, the Brookwood Estates Realisation Company, was founded to oversee the disposal of the remaining unsold lands as well as the cemetery reserve, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

finally formally recognising that Brookwood Cemetery would never expand beyond its original boundaries.[140]

The former South station was near the A322 road making it one of the most easily accessed parts of the cemetery once the railway had closed, and the land surrounding it was now redundant. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

As part of the London Necropolis Act 1956 the LNC obtained Parliamentary consent to convert the disused Anglican chapel of 1854 into a crematorium, using a newer chapel built by Cyril Tubbs in 1908–09 for funeral services and the station building for coffin storage and as a refreshment room for those attending cremations.[41]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Suffering cash flow problems and distracted by the hostile takeover bid, the LNC management never proceeded with the scheme.[41]

Repeated takeover bids from various companies were unsuccessfully attempted in 1956 and 1957, until in December 1957 Alliance Property announced that it controlled a majority of the shares of the Brookwood Estates Realisation Company.[56] HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

In January 1959 Alliance Property announced the successful takeover of the London Necropolis Company itself, bringing over a century of independence to an end.

Historically the LNC had invested much of its income from burials and fares, and used the dividends from these investments to pay for cemetery upkeep.[56] HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

Although Alliance Property kept the name "London Necropolis Company" for its funeral business, it was a property developer with no interest in the funeral industry, and saw little reason to spend large amounts maintaining the cemetery, proceeding with the proposed crematorium, or promoting new burials of bodies or cremated remains.[56] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The rising popularity of cremation meant the rate of burials was at a historic low, while the Victorian character of the cemetery had fallen out of fashion.[56] The income from burials was insufficient to maintain the cemetery grounds, and the cemetery began to revert to wilderness.[56] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Over the course of the 1960s most undertaking work at Brookwood came to an end.[141]

After Alliance Property's land sales, the London Necropolis Company had been reduced to Brookwood Cemetery itself and Frederick W. Paine, a Kingston-upon-Thames firm of funeral directors which had been bought by the LNC in 1947.[41][141] HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

In 1970 Alliance Property sold the LNC to Cornwall Property (Holdings) Ltd.[56] The following year Cornwall Property sold it on to the Great Southern Group, the owners of Streatham Park Cemetery, South London Crematorium and a chain of funeral directors in central London.[141] HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

The Great Southern Group dismantled much of what remained of the company. Frederick W. Paine was detached from the LNC, along with the specialist division overseeing the exhumation and relocation of existing burial grounds to allow property development on formerly consecrated sites.[141] SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

All that remained of the LNC was Brookwood Cemetery itself, by this time moribund and becoming heavily overgrown.[56][141] Considered virtually worthless, Great Southern sold the LNC to property speculators Maximilian Investments in July 1973 for £400,000 . IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

As Alliance Property and the Great Southern Group had between them stripped all assets other than the cemetery itself and development within the cemetery was prohibited, the LNC had little apparent value. However, Maximilian Investments secured passage of the Brookwood Cemetery Act 1975, Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

authorising them to sell land within the operational area of the cemetery.[141]The former Superintendent's office housing the LNC's offices, near the level crossing where the Necropolis Railway had passed between the northern and southern cemeteries,[142] was sold for office development.[143] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

Following the sale the offices of the LNC, renamed Brookwood Cemetery Ltd at this time, were moved into a small former caretaker's lodge.[144] With little storage space in the new makeshift offices, the majority of the LNC's records were destroyed during the move.[144] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

Tracts of land within the cemetery were sold to various religious groups and to wealthy families for use as private burial grounds, and a tract of unused land south of the Glades of Remembrance was sold to Woking Clay Pigeon Club.[143] The masonry works remained operational until the early 1980s, although not under LNC management after the early 1960s, HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

and were then converted into office buildings and named Stonemason's Court.[145]

Although the Act of 1975 had specified that a portion of the profits from land sales be used to maintain the remaining cemetery, little restoration work was done and the cemetery continued to revert to wilderness. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

With the new owners of the land interested only in redeveloping those parts of the cemetery not currently in use, the cemetery itself sank further into neglect.

The last operators of the refreshment kiosk in the former South station retired in the late 1960s and from then on the station building was used as a cemetery storeroom.[136] ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Around half the building was destroyed by fire in September 1972.[136]The building was popular with railway and architectural enthusiasts as a distinctive piece of Victorian railway architecture, but despite a lobbying campaign to preserve the surviving sections of the station the remaining buildings (other than the platform itself) IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

were demolished shortly afterwards.[70][146] By the time of its demolition the "temporary" structure was 118 years old.[70] In 1982 as part of the programme of land sales the station site, the two derelict Anglican chapels and 5 acres (20,000 m2) of land around it were sold to the St. Edward Brotherhood, an order of Russian Orthodox monks.[143] IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

The Brotherhood set about restoring the chapels for religious use. The original 1854 chapel is used as a visitor's centre and living quarters for the monastery,[147] while the larger Anglican chapel built by Cyril Tubbs in 1908–09 immediately north of the station is now the Russian Orthodox Church of St. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

Edward the Martyr, and houses the relics and shrine of Edward the Martyr, king of England from 975–978 AD.[148][note 24] The main monastery has been built on the site of the former station building, while the platform itself remains intact and now marks the boundary of the monastic enclosure.[148] IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

In March 1985 the company was bought by Ramadan Güney, whose family still owns the cemetery as of 2011. The Guney family embarked on a programme of building links with London's mosques to encourage new burials in the cemetery.[150][note 25] Guney began a slow programme of clearing the overgrown sections of the cemetery and restoring significant ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

memorials.[150] The Guney family's efforts to attract new custom have been successful, to the extent that some of the lands sold off in the 1970s have now been repurchased by the cemetery.[150] In June 1989 the cemetery was designated a Conservation Area, and was subsequently declared a Site of Special Scientific Interest.[155] DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

In 1992 the Brookwood Cemetery Society was formed to improve awareness of the cemetery; the Society holds open days, guided walks and other events, restores damaged memorials, and maintains and improves the signage within the cemetery.[150]

While it was never as successful as planned, the London Necropolis Company had a significant impact on the funeral industry,ASUS F80S CPU Fan

and the principles established by the LNC influenced the design of many other cemeteries worldwide.[156] The village of Brookwood has grown on the northern (non-cemetery) side of the LSWR railway line, focused on the 1864 railway station which remains heavily used both by commuters and by visitors to the cemetery.[133] HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

Brookwood Cemetery remains the largest cemetery in the United Kingdom and one of the largest in the world.[157] Although not the world's only dedicated funeral railway line, the London Necropolis Railway was the first, the longest lasting and by far the best known.[59] IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

While the growth of the part of Surrey around the cemetery was heavily influenced by the LNC, some iron columns in Newnham Terrace SW1 which once supported the Necropolis Railway viaduct and the LNC's surviving office building at 121 Westminster Bridge Road are the only surviving London Necropolis Company structures in London itself. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan,SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan,SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

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The London Necropolis Company (LNC), formally the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company until 1927,[note 1] was a cemetery operator established by Act of Parliament in 1852 in reaction to the crisis caused by the closure of London's graveyards in 1851. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The LNC intended to establish a single cemetery large enough to accommodate all of London's future burials in perpetuity. The company's founders recognised that the recently invented technology of the railway provided the ability to conduct burials a long distance from populated areas, mitigating concerns over public health risks from living near burial sites. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

Accordingly, the company bought a very large tract of land in Brookwood, Surrey, around 25 miles (40 km) from London, and converted a portion of it into Brookwood Cemetery. A dedicated railway line, the London Necropolis Railway, linked the new cemetery to the city.

Financial mismanagement and internal disputes led to delays in the project. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

By the time Brookwood Cemetery opened in late 1854, a number of other cemeteries had opened nearer to London or were in the process of opening. While some parishes in London did arrange for the LNC to handle the burials of their dead, many preferred to use nearer cemeteries. HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The LNC had anticipated handling between 10,000 and 50,000 burials per year, but the number never rose above 4,100 per year, and in its first 150 years of operations only 231,730 burials had been conducted. Buying the land for Brookwood Cemetery and building the cemetery and railway had been very expensive, and by the time the cemetery opened the LNC was already on the verge of bankruptcy. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

The LNC remained solvent by selling surplus parts of its land, but as the land had been chosen in the first place for its remoteness, sales were low.

From the 1880s the LNC began a more aggressive programme to maximise its income. The process for the sale of surplus land was improved, resulting in increased income. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

The LNC redeveloped its lands at Hook Heath, Wokinginto housing and a golf course, creating a new suburb of Woking and providing a steady income from rentals. After an 1884 ruling that cremation was lawful in England the LNC also took advantage of its proximity to Woking Crematorium by providing transport for bodies and mourners on its railway line and after 1910 by interring ashes in a dedicated columbarium. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The LNC also provided the land for a number of significant military cemeteries and memorials at Brookwood after both of the World Wars. In 1941 London Necropolis railway station, the LNC's London railway terminus, was badly damaged by bombing, and the London Necropolis Railway was abandoned. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Rising property prices in Surrey in the 1940s and 1950s made the LNC increasingly valuable, but also made it a target for property speculators. In 1959 a hostile takeover succeeded, and LNC's independence came to an end. From 1959 to 1985 a succession of owners stripped the profitable parts of the business from the company, FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

leaving a rump residual company operating the increasingly derelict cemetery. In 1985 what remained of the company came into the ownership ofRamadan Güney, who set about reviving what remained. Links were formed with London's Muslim communities in an effort to encourage new burials, SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

and a slow programme of clearing and restoring the derelict sections of the cemetery commenced. Although it was never as successful as planned, the LNC was very influential on both the funeral industry and the development of the area around Woking, and Brookwood Cemetery remains the largest cemetery in the United Kingdom. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

Since the conversion of London to Christianity in the early 7th century, the city's dead had been buried in and around the local churches.[4] With a limited amount of space for burials, the oldest graves were regularly exhumed to free space for new burials, and the remains of the previous occupants transferred to charnel houses for storage.[5] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

From the 14th century onwards the charnel houses themselves were overwhelmed, and exhumed bones were scattered where they had been dug up or reburied in pits.[5] Despite this practice, by the mid 17th century the city was running seriously short of burial space.[6] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

A proposal by Christopher Wren to use the reconstruction following the 1666 Great Fire of London as an opportunity to cease burials in the churchyards and establish newcemeteries outside the city was approved by the King and Parliament but vetoed by the Corporation of London, and burials continued at the newly rebuilt churches.[7] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

In the first half of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled, from a little under a million people in 1801 to almost two and a half million in 1851.[8] Despite this rapid growth in population, the amount of land set aside for use as graveyards remained unchanged at approximately 300 acres (0.47 sq mi; 1.2 km2),[8]spread across around 200 small sites.FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The difficulty of digging without disturbing existing graves led to bodies often simply being stacked on top of each other to fit the available space and covered with a layer of earth.[9] In more crowded areas even relatively fresh graves had to be exhumed to free up space for new burials, their contents being unearthed and scattered to free up space. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

In some cases large pits were dug on existing burial grounds, unearthing the previous burials, and fresh corpses crammed into the available space.[10] Intact material from burials was sold on a thriving market in second hand coffin furniture, coffin wood was burned as household fuel, and exhumed bones were shipped in bulk to the north of England to be sold as fertiliser.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Decaying corpses contaminated the water supply and the city suffered regular epidemics of cholera,smallpox, measles and typhoid;[11] in 1842 the mean working life of a London professional man was 30 years and of a London labourer just 17 years.[12]

Public health policy at this time was shaped by the miasma theory HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

(the belief that airborne particles released by decaying flesh were the primary factor in the spread of contagious illness), and the bad smells and risks of disease caused by piled bodies and exhumed rotting corpses caused great public concern.[13] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

ARoyal Commission established in 1842 to investigate the problem concluded that London's burial grounds had become so overcrowded that it was impossible to dig a new grave without cutting through an existing one.[9] Commissioner and sanitation campaigner Edwin Chadwick testified that each year, DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

20,000 adults and 30,000 children were being buried in less than 218 acres (0.34 sq mi; 0.88 km2) of already full burial grounds;[14] the Commission heard that one cemetery, Spa Fields in Clerkenwell, designed to hold 1,000 bodies, contained 80,000 graves, and that gravediggers throughout London were obliged to shred bodies in order to cram the remains into available grave space.[9HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

] In 1848–49 a cholera epidemic killed 14,601 people in London and overwhelmed the burial system completely.[15] Bodies were left stacked in heaps awaiting burial, and even relatively recent graves were exhumed to make way for new burials.

In the wake of public concerns following the cholera epidemic and the findings of the Royal Commission, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

the Act to Amend the Laws Concerning the Burial of the Dead in the Metropolis (Burials Act) was passed in 1851. Under the Burials Act, new burials were prohibited in what were then the built-up areas of London.[18] Seven large cemeteries had recently opened a short distance from London or were in the process of opening, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

and temporarily became London's main burial grounds.[19] A proposal by Francis Seymour Haden to ship the bodies of London's dead to the Thames Estuary for use in land reclamation met with little approval, and the government sought alternative means to prevent the constantly increasing number of deaths in London from overwhelming the new cemeteries in the same manner in which it had overwhelmed the traditional burial grounds.[20]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The new suburban cemeteries had a combined size of just 282 acres (0.44 sq mi; 1.1 km2), and theBoard of Health did not consider any of them suitable for long-term use.[21] As a long term solution to the crisis, Edwin Chadwick proposed the closure of all existing burial grounds in the vicinity of London other than the privately owned Kensal Green Cemetery in west London.Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Kensal Green Cemetery was to be nationalised and greatly enlarged to provide a single burial ground for west London. A large tract of land on the Thames around 9 miles (14 km) southeast of London in Abbey Wood (on the site of present-day Thamesmead[22]) was to become a single burial ground for east London.[8] SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

All bodies would be shipped by river and canal to the new cemeteries, bringing an end to burials in London itself.[20]

The Treasury was sceptical that Chadwick's scheme would ever be financially viable. It also met with widespread public concerns about the impact of monopoly control of the burial industry, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and about the government taking control of an industry previously controlled by religious bodies and private entrepreneurs.[23] The process of decomposition was still poorly understood and it was generally believed that 1213 (92%) of a decaying corpse was dispersed as gas; HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

local authorities in the vicinity of the proposed new cemeteries were horrified at the prospect of an estimated 3,000,000 cubic feet (85,000 m3) per year of miasma (disease-carrying vapour) spreading from the cemeteries across surrounding areas.[20] Although the Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 authorised Chadwick's scheme to proceed,[23Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] the Metropolitan Interment Amendment Act 1852 repealed the authorisation.

An area of ground so distant as to be beyond any possible future extension of the Capital, sufficiently large to allow of its sub-division, not only into spacious distinct portions for the burial of each sect of the Christian Public, HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but also, if desired and deemed expedient, into as many separate compartments as there are parishes within London and its suburbs … [and] a Mausoleum Church, with funeral chapels, private mausolea, vaults, and catacombs, large enough to contain, not only the thousands of coffins now lying within our numerous Metropolitan Churches, HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but also the coffins of all such dying in London, in this and future generations ... [A] grand and befitting gathering place for the metropolitan mortality of a mighty nation; a last home and bed of rest where the ashes of the high and low, the mighty and the weak, the learned and the ignorant, the wicked and the good, the idle and the industrious, in one vast co-mingled heap may repose together. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

While the negotiations over the state taking control of burials were ongoing, an alternative proposal was being drawn up by Richard Broun and Richard Sprye.[note 3] Broun and Sprye intended to use the emerging technology of mechanised land transport to provide a final solution to the problem of London's dead.[23] IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They envisaged buying a single very large tract of land around 23 miles (37 km) from London in Brookwood near Woking, Surrey, to be called Brookwood Cemetery or the London Necropolis.[1] At this distance, the land would be far beyond the maximum projected size of the city's growth, greatly reducing any potential hazards from miasma.[28HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the 18th century this land had been nicknamed "the Waste of Woking",[29] and with poor quality gravel soil it was of little use in farming and thus available very cheaply.[30] The London and South Western Railway (LSWR)—which had connected London to Woking in 1838—would enable bodies and mourners to be shipped from London to the site easily and cheaply.[23] SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Broun envisaged dedicated coffin trains, each carrying 50–60 bodies, travelling from London to the new Necropolis in the early morning or late at night, and the coffins being stored on the cemetery site until the time of the funeral.[31] Mourners would then be carried to the appropriate part of the cemetery by a dedicated passenger train during the day. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Broun calculated that a 1,500-acre (2.3 sq mi; 6.1 km2) site would accommodate a total of 5,830,500 individual graves in a single layer.[23] The legislation authorising Brookwood Cemetery did not permit mass graves at the site, and burials were restricted to one family per grave.[ HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

If the practice of only burying a single family in each grave were abandoned and the traditional practice for pauper burials of ten burials per grave were adopted, the site was capable of accommodating 28,500,000 bodies.[23] Assuming 50,000 deaths per year and presuming that families would often choose to share a grave, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Broun calculated that even with the prohibition of mass graves it would take over 350 years to fill a single layer of the cemetery.[35] Although the Brookwood site was a long distance from London, Broun and Sprye argued that the railway made it both quicker and cheaper to reach than the seven existing cemeteries,  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

all of which required a slow and expensive horse-drawn hearse to carry the body and mourners from London to the burial site.

Shareholders in the LSWR were concerned at the impact the cemetery scheme would have on the normal operations of the railway. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At a shareholders' meeting in August 1852 concerns were raised about the impact of funeral trains on normal traffic and of the secrecy in which negotiations between the LSWR and the promoters of the cemetery were conducted.[3] The LSWR management pledged that no concessions would be made to the cemetery operators, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

other than promising them the use of one train each day.[3] Charles Blomfield, Bishop of London was hostile in general to railway funeral schemes, arguing that the noise and speed of the railways was incompatible with the solemnity of the Christian burial service. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Blomfield also considered it inappropriate that the families of people from very different backgrounds would potentially have to share a train, and felt that it demeaned the dignity of the deceased for the bodies of respectable members of the community to be carried on a train also carrying the bodies and relatives of those who had led immoral livesToshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

4]Meanwhile Henry Drummond, Member of Parliament for the West Surrey constituency which covered the Brookwood site, James Mangles, MP for the nearby constituency of Guildford, and labour reform campaigner Lord Ashley (later Lord Shaftesbury) lobbied against the proposal. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Drummond considered the scheme a front for land speculation, believing that the promoters only intended to use 400 acres (0.63 sq mi; 1.6 km2) for the cemetery and to develop the remaining 80% for building;[40][note 5] Mangles felt that the people of Woking were not being fairly compensated for the loss of their historic rights to use the common lands;[40] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ashley felt that the Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 had been a victory for the campaign to end private profiteering from death and that the new scheme would reverse these gains, and was also concerned about the health implications of diseased bodies being transported to and stored at the London terminus in large numbers while awaiting trains to Brookwood. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Despite the opposition, on 30 June 1852 the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Act 1852 was passed, giving the Brookwood scheme Parliamentary consent to proceed.[42] The former Woking Common at Brookwood, owned by the Earl of Onslow, was chosen as the site for the new cemetery.[43] APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

To prevent the LSWR from exploiting its monopoly on access to the cemetery, the private Act of Parliament authorising the scheme bound the LSWR to carry corpses and mourners to the cemetery in perpetuity and set a maximum tariff which could be levied on funeral traffic, but did not specify details of how the funeral trains were to operate.[44] HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By this time, Broun and Sprye had lost control of the scheme. On 1 April 1851 a group of trustees led by Poor Law Commissioner William Voules purchased the rights to the scheme from Broun and Sprye for £20,000 (about £1.59 million in terms of 2014 consumer spending power) and, once the Act of Parliament had been passed, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

founded the London Necropolis & National Mausoleum Company on their own without regard to their agreement with the original promoters.[44][45] These trustees proved inept, wasting large sums of money;[42] meanwhile Richard Broun lobbied vigorously against the "misrepresentations and ambiguous assertions" of the new trustees.[40] HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With financiers sceptical of the scheme's viability Voules and his trustees were unable to raise the funds to buy the proposed site from Lord Onslow.[43] In early 1853, amid widespread allegations of voting irregularities and with the company unable to pay promised dividends, a number of the directors resigned, including Voules, and the remaining public confidence in the scheme collapsed.[ Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Broun's scheme had envisaged the cemetery running along both sides of the LSWR main line and divided by religion, with separate private railway halts on the main line, each incorporating a chapel, to serve each religion's section.[46] The new consulting engineer to the company, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

William Cubitt, rejected this idea and recommended a single site to the south of the railway line, served by a private branch line through the cemetery.[47] The company also considered Broun's plan for dedicated coffin trains unrealistic, arguing that relatives would not want the coffins to be shipped separately from the deceased's family. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In September 1853 a Committee of Enquiry into the mismanagement of the company recommended the expulsion of the four remaining trustees and the reform of the company under a new board of directors.[49] This was unanimously approved by the shareholders, and work finally began on the scheme.[43] HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A 2,200-acre (3.4 sq mi; 8.9 km2) tract of land stretching from Woking to Brookwood was purchased from Lord Onslow.[29][46] The westernmost 400 acres (0.62 sq mi; 1.6 km2), at the Brookwood end, were designated the initial cemetery site,[46] and a branch railway line was built from the LSWR main line into this section.[ Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A plot of land between Westminster Bridge Road and York Street (now Leake Street) was chosen as the site for the London railway terminus.[50] ArchitectWilliam Tite and engineer William Cubitt drew up a design for a station, which was approved in June 1854,[51] and completed in October 1854.[29 ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] In July 1854 work began on the drainage of the marshlands designated as the initial cemetery site, and on the construction of the embankment carrying the railway branch into the cemetery.[52][note 7]

With the ambition to become London's sole burial site in perpetuity, HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the LNC were aware that if their plans were successful, their Necropolis would become a site of major national importance.[53] As a consequence, the cemetery was designed with attractiveness in mind, in contrast to the squalid and congested London burial grounds and the newer suburban cemeteries which were already becoming crowded.[ ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The LNC aimed to create an atmosphere of perpetual spring in the cemetery, and chose the plants for the cemetery accordingly. It had already been noted that evergreen plants from North America thrived in the local soil.[54] Robert Donald, the owner of an arboretumnear Woking, was contracted to supply the trees and shrubs for the cemetery.[55]  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The railway line through the cemetery and the major roads and paths within the cemetery were lined with giant sequoia trees, the first significant planting of these trees (only introduced to Europe in 1853) in Britain.[54] As well as the giant sequoias, the grounds were heavily planted with magnolia, rhododendron, coastal redwood, azalea,andromeda and monkeypuzzle,  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

with the intention of creating perpetual greenery with large numbers of flowers and a strong floral scent throughout the cemetery.[54][note 8]

On 7 November 1854 the new cemetery opened and the southern Anglican section was consecrated by Charles Sumner, Bishop of Winchester. At the time it was the largest cemetery in the world.[59]  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


On 13 November the first scheduled train left the new London Necropolis railway station for the cemetery, and the first burial (that of the stillborn twins of a Mr and Mrs Hore of Ewer Street, Borough) took place.

A very few years ago, the idea of founding a cemetery for the metropolis which should be more than 20 miles distant from it would have been looked upon as an absurdity. YHP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

esterday, however, saw the practical embodiment of this idea … A short distance beyond the Woking station, the country, without varying from its general character of sterility and hardness of outline, becomes gently undulating and offers features which, with some assistance from art, might be made more than pleasing. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Here is the London Necropolis, which certainly throws into the shade any previous attempts at extramural interments.It was fitting enough that the largest city in the world should have, as it will now have, the largest cemetery in the world.As the Brookwood site had been intentionally chosen for its distance from London, at the time of its opening the only practical way to reach the cemetery was by railway.[23] HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

William Cubitt decided that the terrain of the initial cemetery site was best suited to a railway branch from the LSWR at the west of the cemetery, and work began on the earthworks and rails for the new branch in early September 1854.[47] The single-track branch was completed in time for the opening two months later.[47]  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The junction with the LSWR, known as Necropolis Junction, was west-facing, meaning that trains to and from London were obliged to reverse in and out of the branch to the two stations in the cemetery.[47] The poor quality gravel soil, which had been the initial reason for the site's cheapness and its selection as the site for the cemetery, was poorly suited as a railway trackbed.DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The rails, and in particular the sleepers, deteriorated rapidly and needed constantly to be replaced.A site for the London terminus near Waterloo had been suggested by Richard Broun. Its proximity to the Thames meant that bodies could be cheaply transported to the terminus by water from much of London, HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

while being situated near three major Thames bridges the area was easily accessed from both north and south of the river. The arches of the huge brick viaduct carrying the LSWR intoWaterloo Bridge station (now London Waterloo station) were easily converted into mortuaries. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Broun also felt that the journey out of London from Waterloo Bridge would be less distressing for mourners; while most of the rail routes out of London ran through tunnels and deep cuttings or through densely populated areas, at this time the urban development of what is now south London had not taken place and the LSWR route ran almost entirely through parkland and countryside.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In March 1854 the LNC purchased a plot of land between Westminster Bridge Road and York Street (now Leake Street).[50] Architect William Tite and engineer William Cubitt drew up a design for a station, which was approved in June 1854 and completed in October of that year. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As the station abutted the arches of the LSWR's viaduct, it acted as an obstacle to any increase in the number of lines serving Waterloo station (renamed from Waterloo Bridge station in 1886). Urban growth in the area of what is now south west London, through which trains from Waterloo ran, Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

led to congestion at the station and in 1896 the LSWR formally presented the LNC with a proposal to provide the LNC with a new station in return for the existing station. The LNC agreed to the proposals, in return for the LSWR granting the LNC control of the design of the new station and leasing the new station to the LNC for a token rent in perpetuity, HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

providing new rolling stock, removing any limit on the number of passengers using the Necropolis service, and providing the free carriage of machinery and equipment to be used in the cemetery.[64] Although the LSWR was extremely unhappy at what they considered excessive demands,[65] in May 1899 the companies signed an agreement, HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

in which the LSWR gave in to every LNC demand. In addition the LSWR paid £12,000 compensation (about £1.14 million in terms of 2014 consumer spending power) for the inconvenience of relocating the LNC station and offices,[45][66] and agreed that mourners returning from the cemetery could travel on any LSWR train to Waterloo, HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Vauxhall or Clapham Junction.[67] A site for the replacement terminus was bought by the LSWR in 1899, south of the existing site and on the opposite side of Westminster Bridge Road.[68] The new station was completed on 8 February 1902,[68] and the LSWR viaduct was widened to serve a greatly enlarged Waterloo station, destroying all traces of the original LNC terminus. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The two stations in the cemetery were very similar in design. North station served the Nonconformist section of the cemetery, and South station served the Anglican section. On William Cubitt's advice the two stations in the cemetery were built as temporary structures, in the expectation that they would need to be rebuilt once the railway was operational and the issues with operating a railway of this unique nature became clearer. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Other than brick platform faces, chimneys and foundations, the stations were built entirely of wood.[58] Each station held first class and ordinary reception rooms for mourners, a first class and an ordinary refreshment room, and a set of apartments for LNC staff.[58] To provide an attractive first view of the cemetery for visitors arriving at the stations, HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the areas around the stations and their associated chapels were planted with groves of bay, Cedar of Lebanon, rhododendron and Portuguese laurel.[54]

At the time the cemetery opened, the nearest railway station other than those on the cemetery branch was Woking railway station, 4 miles (6.4 km) away. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As only one train per day ran from London to the cemetery stations and back, and even that ran only when funerals were due to take place, access to the cemetery was difficult for mourners and LNC staff.[70] Although in the negotiations leading to the creation of the cemetery the LSWR had told the LNC that they planned to build a main line station near the cemetery, they had not done so.[71] HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On 1 June 1864 the LSWR finally opened Brookwood railway station on their main line, immediately adjacent to the cemetery.[71][72] A substantial commuter village grew around the northern (i.e. non-cemetery) side of the new station.

As the corpses brought to either of the reception-houses by the funeral tender are now taken each one its separate way, Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

followed by its mourning-group, and by paths where privacy is unbroken, and none but soothing and religious influences around,—when amidst this scene, the clergyman or minister, unharassed by other duties, reads reverently the prayers for the dead,—when all which is this taking place tends to raise the dignity and self-respect of human nature, HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and create a sublime ideal of the great mystery of the grave, we perceive by contrast, more and more, what the evils of city and suburban burials have been, and what an educative process lies within even this portional one of their reformation …

Hither the wealthy and respectable are removing the remains of relatives from the graves and vaults of the metropolis, HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and hither the Nonconformists are bringing the long-interred dead from even the once-sacred place of Bunhill Fields … but it is a law that moral and social advantages permeate as surely down through the strata of society as water finds its level. In spite of little knowledge, in spite of ignorant opposition from those interested in a different state of things,  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the middle and working classes of the metropolis will not be slow in perceiving the advantages of extramural burial, conjointly with a management that frees them from extortion …

To merely provide decency of sepulchre was not, and is not, all. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

[The LNC] perceived that if it was to work out with any efficiency the problem of extramural burial, it must be its own undertaker, and provide a reception-house, as well as railway transit. This it has done accordingly.

The London Necropolis Company offered three classes of funerals. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A first class funeral allowed its buyer to select the grave site of their choice anywhere in the cemetery;[note 11] at the time of opening prices began at £2 10s (about £199 in 2014 terms) for a basic 9-by-4-foot (2.7 m × 1.2 m) with no special coffin specifications. It was expected by the LNC that those using first class graves would erect a permanent memorial of some kind in due course following the funeral. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Second class funerals cost £1 (about £79 in 2014 terms) and allowed some control over the burial location.[48] The right to erect a permanent memorial cost an additional 10 shillings (about £40 in 2014 terms); if a permanent memorial was not erected the LNC reserved the right to re-use the grave in future.[ HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Third class funerals were reserved for pauper funerals; those buried at parish expense in the section of the cemetery designated for that parish. Although the LNC was forbidden from using mass graves (other than the burial of next of kin in the same grave) and thus even the lowest class of funeral provided a separate grave for the deceased, HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

third class funerals were not granted the right to erect a permanent memorial on the site.[48] (The families of those buried could pay afterwards to upgrade a third class grave to a higher class if they later wanted to erect a memorial, but this practice was rare.)[ HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Despite this, Brookwood's pauper graves granted more dignity to the deceased than did other graveyards and cemeteries of the period, all of which other than Brookwood continued the practice of mass graves for the poor.[78] Brookwood was one of the few cemeteries to permit burials on Sundays, HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which made it a popular choice with the poor as it allowed people to attend funerals without the need to take a day off work.[79] As theatrical performances were banned on Sundays at this time, it also made Brookwood a popular choice for the burial of actors for the same reason, to the extent that actors were provided with a dedicated section of the cemetery near the station entrance. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

While the majority of burials conducted by the LNC (around 80%) were pauper funerals on behalf of London parishes,[77] the LNC also reached agreement with a number of societies, guilds, religious bodies and similar organisations. The LNC provided dedicated sections of the cemetery for these groups, on the basis that those who had lived or worked together in life could remain together after death.[8HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] Although the LNC was never able to gain the domination of London's funeral industry for which its founders had hoped, it was very successful at targeting specialist groups of artisans and trades, to the extent that it became nicknamed "the Westminster Abbey of the middle classes".[83] HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A large number of these dedicated plots were established, ranging from Chelsea Pensioners and the Ancient Order of Foresters to the Corps of Commissionaires and the LSWR.[84] The Nonconformist cemetery also includes a Parsee burial ground established in 1862, which as of 2011 remains the only Zoroastrianburial ground in Europe.[85] DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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In 1277, the Bishop of Paris, Étienne Tempier, did overturn Aristotle on one point: Godcould have created more than one world (given His omnipotence). Taking a further step, and arguing that aliens actually existed, remained rare. Notably, Cardinal Nicholas of Kues speculated about aliens on the Moon and Sun.[133] William Vorilong also speculated about the existence of humans on alien worlds, DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but he came to the conclusion that God, although empowered to create them, would choose to not do so.

There was a dramatic shift in thinking initiated by the invention of the telescope and the Copernican assault on geocentric cosmology. Once it became clear that the Earth was merely one planet amongst countless bodies in the universe, the theory of extraterrestrial life started to become a topic in the scientific community. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The best known early-modern proponent of such ideas was the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, who argued in the 16th century for an infinite Universe in which every star is surrounded by its own planetary system. Bruno wrote that other worlds "have no less virtue nor a nature different to that of our earth" and, like Earth, "contain animals and inhabitants".[134] HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the early 17th century, the Czech astronomer Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita mused that "if Jupiter has (...) inhabitants (...) they must be larger and more beautiful than the inhabitants of the Earth, in proportion to the [characteristics] of the two spheres".[135]

In Baroque literature such as The Other World: The Societies and Governments of the Moon by Cyrano de Bergerac, HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

extraterrestrial societies are presented as humoristic or ironic parodies of earthly society. The didactic poet Henry Moretook up the classical theme of the Greek Democritus in "Democritus Platonissans, or an Essay Upon the Infinity of Worlds" (1647). In "The Creation: a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books" (1712), Sir Richard Blackmore observed: "We may pronounce each orb sustains a race / Of living things adapted to the place". Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With the new relative viewpoint that the Copernican revolution had wrought, he suggested "our world's sunne / Becomes a starre elsewhere". Fontanelle's "Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds" (translated into English in 1686) offered similar excursions on the possibility of extraterrestrial life, expanding, rather than denying, the creative sphere of a Maker.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The possibility of extraterrestrials remained a widespread speculation as scientific discovery accelerated. William Herschel, the discoverer of Uranus, was one of many 18th–19th-century astronomers convinced that the Solar System, and perhaps others, would be well populated by alien life. Other luminaries of the period who championed "cosmic pluralism" included Immanuel Kant and Benjamin Franklin.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the height of the Enlightenment, even the Sun and Moon were considered candidates for extraterrestrial inhabitants.

Since the 1830s, Mormons have believed that God has created and will create many Earth-like planets on which humans live.[136] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They believe that all of these people are children of God. Joseph Smith, the founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, taught that God revealed this information to Moses and that the Creation account written by Moses corresponded only to "our" earth.[137] There is no official doctrine relating to the location or commonality of these inhabited planets.[138] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling FanSpeculation about life on Mars increased in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals — which were however soon found to be optical illusions. Despite this, in 1895, American astronomer Percival Lowell published his book Mars, followed by Mars and its Canalsin 1906, proposing that the canals were the work of a long-gone civilization.[139]  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This idea led British writer H. G. Wells to write The War of the Worlds in 1897, telling of an invasion by aliens from Mars who were fleeing the planet's desiccation.

Spectroscopic analysis of Mars' atmosphere began in earnest in 1894, when U.S. astronomer William Wallace Campbell showed that neither water nor oxygen was present in the Martian atmosphere.[140] HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

By 1909 better telescopes and the best perihelic opposition of Mars since 1877 conclusively put an end to the canal hypothesis.

The science fiction genre, although not so named during the time, develops during the late 19th century. Jules Verne's Around the Moon (1870) features a discussion of the possibility of life on the Moon, but with the conclusion that it is barren. ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Stories involving extraterrestrials are found in e.g. Garrett P. Serviss's Edison's Conquest of Mars (1897). The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells was published in 1898 and stands at the beginning of the popular idea of the "Martian invasion" of Earth prominent in 20th-century pop culture.

A radio drama version of Wells' novel broadcast in 1938 over the CBS Radio Network led to outrage because it supposedly suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was in progress. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the wake of the Roswell UFO incident in 1947, conspiracy theories on the presence of extraterrestrials became a widespread phenomenon in the United States during the 1940s and the beginning Space Age during the 1950s, accompanied by a surge of UFO reports. The term UFO itself was coined in 1952 in the context of the enormous popularity of the concept of "flying saucers" in the wake of the Kenneth Arnold UFO sightingin 1947. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Majestic 12 documents published in 1982 suggest that there was genuine interest in UFO conspiracy theories in the US government during the 1940s.

The trend to assume that celestial bodies were populated almost by default was tempered as actual probes visited potential alien abodes in the Solar System beginning in the second half of the 20th century, Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and by the 1970s belief in UFOs had become part of the fringe beliefs associated with the paranormal, New Age, Earth mysteries, Forteana etc. A number of UFO religions developed during the surge in UFO belief during the 1950s to 1970s period, and some, such as Scientology (founded 1953) and Raëlism (founded 1974) remain active into the present. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The idea of "paleocontact", supposing that extraterrestrials ("ancient astronauts") have visited the Earth in the remote past and left traces in ancient cultures, appears in early-20th-century fiction such as The Call of Cthulhu (1926) and the idea came to be established as a notable aspect of the Ufology subculture in the wake of Erich von Däniken's Chariots of the Gods? (1968). DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Alien abduction claims were widespread during the 1960s and 1970s in the United States.

On the scientific side, the possibility of extraterrestrial life on the Moon was decisively ruled out by the 1960s, and during the 1970s it became clear that most of the other bodies of the Solar System do not harbour highly developed life, although the question of primitive life on bodies in the Solar System remains an open question. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, and Louis Friedman founded the U.S. Planetary Society, partly as a vehicle for SETI studies in 1980, and since the 1990s, systematic search for radio signals attributable to intelligent extraterrestrial life has been ongoing.

In the early 1990s, NASA was set to join in on SETI research with a planned targeted search and all-sky survey. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However, Senator Richard Bryan of Nevada cut funding for the project, and no comparable search has taken place since.

The failure so far of the SETI program to detect an intelligent radio signal after decades of effort, has at least partially dimmed the prevailing optimism of the beginning of the space ageHP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

. Notwithstanding, the belief in extraterrestrial beings continues to be voiced inpseudoscience, conspiracy theories, and in popular folklore, notably "Area 51" and legends. It has become a pop culture trope given less-than-serious treatment in popular entertainment with e.g. the ALF TV series (1986–1990), The X-Files (1993–2002), etc.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The SETI program is not the result of a continuous, dedicated search, but instead utilizes what resources and manpower it can, when it can. Furthermore, the SETI program only searches a limited range of frequencies at any one time.[142]

In the words of SETI's Frank Drake, "All we know for sure is that the sky is not littered with powerful microwave transmitters".[143] HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Drake noted that it is entirely possible that advanced technology results in communication being carried out in some way other than conventional radio transmission. At the same time, the data returned by space probes, and giant strides in detection methods, have allowed science to begin delineating habitability criteria on other worlds, and to confirm that at least other planets are plentiful, though aliens remain a question mark. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

The Wow! signal, detected in 1977 by a SETI project, remains a subject of speculative debate.

In 2000, geologist and paleontologist Peter Ward and astrobiologist Donald Brownlee published a book entitled Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe.[144] In it, they discussed the Rare Earth hypothesis, in which they claim that Earth-like life is rare in the Universe, while microbial life is common. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Ward and Brownlee are open to the idea of evolution on other planets which is not based on essential Earth-like characteristics (such as DNA and carbon).The possible existence of primitive (microbial) life outside of Earth is much less controversial to mainstream scientists, although, at present, no direct evidence of such life has been found. Indirect evidence has been offered for the current existence of primitive life on Mars. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

However, the conclusions that should be drawn from such evidence remain in debate.

The Catholic Church has not made a formal ruling on the existence of extraterrestrials. However, writing in the Vatican newspaper, the astronomer, Father José Gabriel Funes, director of the Vatican Observatory near Rome, said in 2008 that intelligent beings created by God could exist in outer space.[ HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

In September 2010, it was reported that the U.N. General Assembly had appointed Mazlan Othman as their official extraterrestrial liaison by the UK paper The Sunday Times.[147] This claim was later refuted.[148]

Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking in 2010 warned that humans should not try to contact alien life forms. He warned that aliens might pillage Earth for resources. "HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans", he said.[149]Jared Diamond has expressed similar concerns.[150] Scientists at NASA and Penn State University published a paper in April 2011 addressing the question "Would contact with extraterrestrials benefit or harm humanity?" The paper describes positive, negative and neutral scenarios.[151] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

In 2011, Richard Hoover, an astrobiologist at the U.S. Space Flight Center in Alabama, claimed that filaments and other structures in rare meteorites appear to be microscopic fossils of extraterrestrial beings that resemble cyanobacteria—a phylum of photosynthetic bacteria.[152]

On May 9, 2013, a congressional hearing by two U. S. House of Representatives subcommittees discussed "Exoplanet Discoveries:HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Have We Found Other Earths?", prompted by the discovery of exoplanet Kepler-62f, along with Kepler-62e and Kepler-62c. A related special issue of the journal Science, published earlier, described the discovery of the exoplanets.

For centuries people have speculated about the possibility of life on Mars due to the planet's proximity and similarity toEarth.HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Serious searches for evidence of life began in the 19th century, and continue via telescopic investigations and landed missions. While early work focused on phenomenology and bordered on fantasy, modern scientific inquiry has emphasized the search for water, chemical biosignatures in the soil and rocks at the planet's surface, and the search for biomarker gases in the atmosphere.[1] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Mars is of particular interest for the study of the origins of life, because of its similarity to the early Earth. This is especially so as Mars has a cold climate and lacks plate tectonics or continental drift, and has remained almost unchanged since the end of the Hesperian period. At least two thirds of Mars' surface is more than 3.5 billion years old, and Mars may thus hold the best record of the prebiotic conditions leading to abiogenesis, even if life does not or has never existed there.[2][3] It remains an open question whether life currently exists on Mars, or has existed there in the past, and fictional Martians have been a recurring feature of popular entertainment of the 20th and 21st centuries. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

On January 24, 2014, NASA reported that current studies on the planet Mars by the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers will now be searching for evidence of ancient life, including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic and/orchemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water, including fluvio-lacustrine environments (plains related to ancient rivers or lakes) that may have been habitable.[ Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

The search for evidence of habitability, taphonomy (related to fossils), and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective.

Mars' polar ice caps were observed as early as the mid-17th century, and they were first proven to grow and shrink alternately, in the summer and winter of each hemisphere, byWilliam Herschel in the latter part of the 18th century. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

By the mid-19th century, astronomers knew that Mars had certain other similarities to Earth, for example that thelength of a day on Mars was almost the same as a day on Earth. They also knew that its axial tilt was similar to Earth's, which meant it experienced seasons just as Earth does — but of nearly double the length owing to its much longer year. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

These observations led to the increase in speculation that the darker albedo features were water, and brighter ones were land. It was therefore natural to suppose that Mars may be inhabited by some form of life.

In 1854, William Whewell, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who popularized the wordscientist, theorized that Mars had seas, land and possibly life forms. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent Martian canals — which were later found to be optical illusions. Despite this, in 1895, American astronomer Percival Lowell published his book Mars, followed by Mars and its Canals in 1906, proposing that the canals were the work of a long-gone civilization.[8] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

This idea led British writer H. G. Wells to write The War of the Worlds in 1897, telling of an invasion by aliens from Mars who were fleeing the planet’s desiccation.

Spectroscopic analysis of Mars' atmosphere began in earnest in 1894, when U.S. astronomer William Wallace Campbell showed that neither water nor oxygen were present in the Martian atmosphere.[9] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

By 1909 better telescopes and the best perihelic opposition of Mars since 1877 conclusively put an end to the canal hypothesis.

Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape the environments on Mars. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential.[10] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

The two current ecological approaches for predicting the potential habitability of the Martian surface use 19 or 20 environmental factors, with emphasis on water availability, temperature, presence of nutrients, an energy source, and protection from Solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic radiation.[11][12]

Scientists do not know the minimum number of parameters for determination of habitability potential, but they are certain it is greater than one or two of the factors in the table below.[10] Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Similarly, for each group of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.[10] Laboratory simulations show that whenever multiple lethal factors are combined, the survival rates plummet quickly.[13] There are no full-Mars simulations published yet that include all of the biocidal factors combined. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The loss of the Martian magnetic field strongly affected surface environments through atmospheric loss and increased radiation; this change significantly degraded surface habitability.[14] When there was a magnetic field, the atmosphere would have been protected from erosion by solar wind, which would ensure the maintenance of a dense atmosphere, necessary for liquid water to exist on the surface of Mars.[15] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Soil and rock samples studied in 2013 by NASA's Curiosity rover's onboard instruments brought about additional information on several habitability factors.[16]The rover team identified some of the key chemical ingredients for life in this soil, including sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and possibly carbon, as well as clay minerals, suggesting a long-ago aqueous environment — perhaps a lake or an ancient streambed — that was neutral and not too salty.[16] Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

On December 9, 2013, NASA reported that, based on evidence from Curiosity studying Aeolis Palus, Gale Crater contained an ancient freshwater lake which could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life.[17][18] The confirmation that liquid water once flowed on Mars, the existence of nutrients, and the previous discovery of a past magnetic field that protected the planet from cosmic and Solar radiation,[1HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

9][20] together strongly suggest that Mars could have had the environmental factors to support life.[21] However, the assessment of past habitability is not in itself evidence that Martian life has ever actually existed. If it did, it was probably microbial, existing communally in fluids or on sediments, either free-living or as biofilms, respectively. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

No definitive evidence for biosignatures or organics of Martian origin has been identified, and assessment will continue not only through the Martian seasons, but also back in time as the Curiosity rover studies what is recorded in the depositional history of the rocks in Gale Crater.[10] While scientists have not identified the minimum number of parameters for determination of habitability potential, some teams have proposed hypotheses based on simulations. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Although Mars soils are likely not to be overtly toxic to terrestrial microorganisms,[10] life on the surface of Mars is extremely unlikely because it is bathed in radiation and it is completely frozen. Therefore, the best potential locations for discovering life on Mars may be at subsurface environments that have not been studied yet. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

The extensive volcanism in the past possibly created subsurface cracks and caves within different strata where liquid water could have been stored, forming large aquifers with deposits of saline liquid water, minerals, organic molecules, andgeothermal heat – potentially providing a habitable environment away from the harsh surface conditions.

Although liquid water does not appear at the surface of Mars, HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

several modeling studies suggest that potential locations on Mars could include regions where thin films of salty liquid brine or perchlorate may form near the surface[36][36][37] that may provide a potential location for terrestrial salt and cold-loving microorganisms (halophile psychrophilic).[38] Various salts present in the Martian soil may act as an antifreeze and could keep water liquid well below its normal freezing point, if water was present at certain favorable locations.[36SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

] Astrobiologists are keen to find out more, as not much is known about these brines at the moment. The briny water may or may not be habitable to microbes from Earth or Mars.[41] Another researcher argues that although chemically important, thin films of transient liquid water are not likely to provide suitable sites for life.[39] In addition, an astrobiology team asserted that theactivity of water on salty films, HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

the temperature, or both are less than the biological thresholds across the entire Martian surface and shallow subsurface.[12]

The damaging effect of ionizing radiation on cellular structure is one of the prime limiting factors on the survival of life in potential astrobiological habitats.[25 ] Even at a depth of 2 meters beneath the surface, any microbes would probably be dormant, Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

cryopreserved by the current freezing conditions, and so metabolically inactive and unable to repair cellular degradation as it occurs.[26] Also, solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation proved particularly devastating for the survival of cold-resistant microbes under simulated surface conditions on Mars, as UV radiation was readily and easily able to penetrate the salt-organic matrix that the bacterial cells were embedded in.[43] Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

In addition, NASA's Mars Exploration Program states that life on the surface of Mars is unlikely, given the presence of superoxides that break down organic (carbon-based) molecules on which life is based

In 1965, the Mariner 4 probe discovered that Mars had no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic radiationand solar radiation; HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

observations made in the late 1990s by the Mars Global Surveyor confirmed this discovery.[45] Scientists speculate that the lack of magnetic shielding helped the solar wind blow away much of Mars's atmosphere over the course of several billion years.[46] As a result, the planet has been vulnerable to radiation from space for about 4 billion years.[47] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Currently, ionizing radiation on Mars is typically two orders of magnitude (or 100 times) higher than on Earth.[48] Even the hardiest cells known could not possibly survive the cosmic radiation near the surface of Mars for that long.[22][49] After mapping cosmic radiation levels at various depths on Mars, researchers have concluded that any life within the first several meters of the planet's surface would be killed by lethal doses of cosmic radiation.[22][23][24HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

] The team calculated that the cumulative damage to DNA and RNA by cosmic radiation would limit retrieving viable dormant cells on Mars to depths greater than 7.5 metres below the planet's surface.Even the most radiation-tolerant Earthly bacteria would survive in dormant spore state only 18,000 years at the surface; at 2 meters —the greatest depth at which the ExoMars rover will be capable of reaching— survival time would be 90,000 to half million years, depending on the type of rock.[24] SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The Radiation assessment detector (RAD) on board the Curiosity rover is currently quantifying the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and will help determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux,Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms.[50]

Research published in January 2014 of data collected by the RAD instrument, revealed that the actual absorbed dose measured is 76 mGy/year at the surface,[51]and that "ionizing radiation strongly influences chemical compositions and structures, especially for water, salts, and redox-sensitive components such as organic matter."[51] HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

Regardless of the source of Martian organic matter (meteoritic, geological, or biological), its carbon bonds are susceptible to breaking and reconfigurating with surrounding elements by ionizing charged particle radiation.[51] These improved subsurface radiation estimates give insight into the potential for the preservation of possible organic biosignatures as a function of depth as well as survival times of possible microbial or bacterial life forms left dormant beneath the surface.[51] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The report concludes that the in situ "surface measurements —and subsurface estimates— constrain the preservation window for Martian organic matter following exhumation and exposure to ionizing radiation in the top few meters of the Martian surface."

After carbon, nitrogen is arguably the most important element needed for life. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Thus, measurements of nitrate over the range of 0.1% to 5% are required to address the question of its occurrence and distribution. There is nitrogen (as N2) in the atmosphere at low levels, but this is not adequate to support nitrogen fixation for biological incorporation.[52] Nitrogen in the form of nitrate, if present, could be a resource for human exploration both as a nutrient for plant growth and for use in chemical processes. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

On Earth, nitrates correlate with perchlorates in desert environments, and this may also be true on Mars. Nitrate is expected to be stable on Mars and to have formed in shock and electrical processes. Currently there is no data on its availability.Further complicating estimates of the habitability of the Martian surface is the fact that very little is known on the growth of microorganisms at pressures close to the conditions found on the surface of Mars. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Some teams determined that some bacteria may be capable of cellular replication down to 25 mbar, but that is still above the atmospheric pressures found on Mars (range 1–14 mbar).[53] In another study, twenty-six strains of bacteria were chosen based on their recovery from spacecraft assembly facilities, and only Serratia liquefaciens strain ATCC 27592 exhibited growth at 7 mbar, 0°C, and CO2-enriched anoxic atmospheres. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Liquid water, necessary for life as we know it, cannot exist on the surface of Mars except at the lowest elevations for minutes or hours.[54][55] Liquid water does not appear at the surface itself,[56] but it could form in minuscule amounts around dust particles in snow heated by the Sun.[57][57][58][58] Also, the ancient equatorial ice sheets beneath the ground may slowly sublimate or melt, accessible from the surface via caves.[ ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

Water on Mars exists almost exclusively as water ice, located in the Martian polar ice caps and under the shallow Martian surface even at more temperate latitudes.A small amount of water vapor is present in the atmosphere. There are no bodies of liquid water on the Martian surface because its atmospheric pressure at the surface averages 600 pascals (0.087 psi)—about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level pressure—and because the temperature is far too low, HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

(210 K (−63 °C)) leading to immediate freezing. Despite this, about 3.8 billion years ago, there was a denser atmosphere, higher temperature, and vast amounts of liquid water flowed on the surface, including large oceans.It has been estimated that the primordial oceans on Mars would have covered between 36% and 75% of the planet. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Analysis of Martian sandstones, using data obtained from orbital spectrometry, suggests that the waters that previously existed on the surface of Mars would have had too high a salinity to support most Earth-like life. Tosca et al. found that the Martian water in the locations they studied all had water activity, aw ≤ 0.78 to 0.86—a level fatal to most Terrestrial life.[78] Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Haloarchaea, however, are able to live in hypersaline solutions, up to the saturation point.[79]

In June 2000, possible evidence for current liquid water flowing at the surface of Mars was discovered in the form of flood-like gullies.[80][81] Additional similar images were published in 2006, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor, that suggested that water occasionally flows on the surface of Mars. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

The images did not actually show flowing water. Rather, they showed changes in steep crater walls and sediment deposits, providing the strongest evidence yet that water coursed through them as recently as several years ago.

There is disagreement in the scientific community as to whether or not the recent gully streaks were formed by liquid water. Some suggest the flows were merely dry sand flows.[ Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Others suggest it may be liquid brine near the surface, but the exact source of the water and the mechanism behind its motion are not understood.

In May 2007, the Spirit rover disturbed a patch of ground with its inoperative wheel, uncovering an area extremely rich insilica (90%).[90] The feature is reminiscent of the effect of hot spring water or steam coming into contact with volcanic rocks.Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Scientists consider this as evidence of a past environment that may have been favorable for microbial life, and theorize that one possible origin for the silica may have been produced by the interaction of soil with acid vapors produced by volcanic activity in the presence of water.[91]

Based on Earth analogs, hydrothermal systems on Mars would be highly attractive for their potential for preserving organicand inorganic biosignatures.[ DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

For this reason, hydrothermal deposits are regarded as important targets in the exploration for fossil evidence of ancient Martian life.

Trace amounts of methane in the atmosphere of Mars were discovered in 2003 and verified in 2004.As methane is an unstable gas, its presence indicates that there must be an active source on the planet in order to keep such levels in the atmosphere. It is estimated that Mars must produce 270 ton/year of methane,[104][105] HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

but asteroid impacts account for only 0.8% of the total methane production. Although geologic sources of methane such as serpentinization are possible, the lack of current volcanism, hydrothermal activity or hotspots[106] are not favorable for geologic methane. It has been suggested that the methane was produced by chemical reactions in meteorites, driven by the intense heat during entry through the atmosphere. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Although research published in December 2009 ruled out this possibility,[107] research published in 2012 suggest that a source may be organic compounds on meteorites that are converted to methane by ultraviolet radiation.

The existence of life in the form of microorganisms such as methanogens is among possible, but as yet unproven sources. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

If microscopic Martian life is producing the methane, it probably resides far below the surface, where it is still warm enough for liquid water to exist.[28]

Since the 2003 discovery of methane in the atmosphere, some scientists have been designing models and in vitroexperiments testing growth of methanogenic bacteria on simulated Martian soil, where all four methanogen strains tested produced substantial levels of methane, even in the presence of 1.0wt% perchlorate salt.[109] Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

The results reported indicate that the perchlorates discovered by the Phoenix Lander would not rule out the possible presence of methanogens on Mars.[109][110]

A team led by Levin suggested that both phenomena—methane production and degradation—could be accounted for by an ecology of methane-producing and methane-consuming microorganisms.[110][111] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

In June 2012, scientists reported that measuring the ratio of hydrogen and methane levels on Mars may help determine the likelihood of life on Mars.[112][113] According to the scientists, "...low H2/CH4 ratios (less than approximately 40) indicate that life is likely present and active."[112] Other scientists have recently reported methods of detecting hydrogen and methane inextraterrestrial atmospheres.[114][115] Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

In contrast to the findings described above, studies by Kevin Zahnle, a planetary scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center, and two colleagues, conclude that "there is as yet no compelling evidence for methane on Mars". They argue that the strongest reported observations of the gas to date have been taken at frequencies where interference from methane in Earth's atmosphere is particularly difficult to remove, and are thus unreliable. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Additionally, they claim that the published observations most favorable to interpretation as indicative of Martian methane are also consistent with no methane being present on Mars.[116][117][118]

The Curiosity rover, which landed on Mars in August 2012, is able to make measurements that distinguish between different isotopologues of methane;[119] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

but even if the mission is to determine that microscopic Martian life is the seasonal source of the methane, the life forms probably reside far below the surface, outside of the rover's reach.[120] The first measurements with the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) in the Curiosity rover indicated that there is less than 5 ppb of methane at the landing site at the point of the measurement.On July 19, 2013, HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

NASA scientists published the results of a new analysis of the atmosphere of Mars, reporting a lack of methane around the landing site of the Curiosity rover. On September 19, 2013, NASA again reported no detection of atmospheric methane with a measured value of 0.18±0.67 ppbv corresponding to an upper limit of only 1.3 ppbv (95% confidence limit) and, as a result, conclude that the probability of current methanogenic microbial activity on Mars is reduced. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

India's Mars Orbiter Mission, launched on November 5, 2013, will search for methane in the atmosphere of Mars using its Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM). The orbiter is scheduled to arrive at Mars on September 24, 2014. The Mars Trace Gas Mission orbiter planned to launch in 2016 would further study the methane, if present,[131][132] as well as its decomposition products such as formaldehyde and methanol. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

In February 2005, it was announced that the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter had detected traces offormaldehyde in the atmosphere of Mars. Vittorio Formisano, the director of the PFS, has speculated that the formaldehyde could be the byproduct of the oxidation of methane and, according to him, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

would provide evidence that Mars is either extremely geologically active or harbouring colonies of microbial life.[133][134] NASA scientists consider the preliminary findings well worth a follow-up, but have also rejected the claims of life.

NASA maintains a catalog of 34 Mars meteorites.[137] These assets are highly valuable since they are the only physical samples available of Mars. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Studies conducted by NASA's Johnson Space Center show that at least three of the meteorites contain potential evidence of past life on Mars, in the form of microscopic structures resembling fossilized bacteria (so-called biomorphs). Although the scientific evidence collected is reliable, its interpretation varies. To date, none of the original lines of scientific evidence for the hypothesis that the biomorphs are of exobiological origin  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

(the so-called biogenic hypothesis) have been either discredited or positively ascribed to non-biological explanations.

The ALH84001 meteorite was found in December 1984 in Antarctica, by members of the ANSMET project; the meteorite weighs 1.93 kilograms (4.3 lb).[139] The sample was ejected from Mars about 17 million years ago and spent 11,000 years in or on the Antarctic ice sheets. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

Composition analysis by NASA revealed a kind of magnetite that on Earth, is only found in association with certain microorganisms.[138] Then, in August 2002, another NASA team led by Thomas-Keptra published a study indicating that 25% of the magnetite in ALH 84001 occurs as small, uniform-sized crystals that, on Earth, is associated only with biologic activity, and that the remainder of the material appears to be normal inorganic magnetite. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

The extraction technique did not permit determination as to whether the possibly biological magnetite was organized into chains as would be expected. The meteorite displays indication of relatively low temperature secondary mineralization by water and shows evidence of preterrestrial aqueous alteration. Evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified with the levels increasing away from the surface. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

Some structures resembling the mineralized casts of terrestrial bacteria and their appendages (fibrils) or by-products (extracellular polymeric substances) occur in the rims of carbonate globules and preterrestrial aqueous alteration regions.[140][141] The size and shape of the objects is consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria, but the existence of nanobacteria itself is controversial. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

In November 2009, NASA scientists reported after more detailed analyses, that a biogenic explanation is a more viable hypothesis for the origin of themagnetites in the meteorite.

The Nakhla meteorite fell on Earth on June 28, 1911 on the locality of Nakhla, Alexandria, Egypt.[144][145]

In 1998, a team from NASA's Johnson Space Center obtained a small sample for analysis. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

Researchers found preterrestrial aqueous alteration phases and objects[146] of the size and shape consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteria, but the existence of nanobacteria itself is controversial. Analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studied its high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2000,HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

and NASA scientists concluded that as much as 75% of the organic matter in Nakhla "may not be recent terrestrial contamination".[138][147]

This caused additional interest in this meteorite, so in 2006, NASA managed to obtain an additional and larger sample from the London Natural History Museum. On this second sample, a large dendritic carbon content was observed. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

When the results and evidence were published on 2006, some independent researchers claimed that the carbon deposits are of biologic origin. However, it was remarked that since carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe, finding it in curious patterns is not indicative or suggestive of biologica origin.

he Shergotty meteorite, a 4 kg Martian meteorite, fell on Earth on Shergotty, India on August 25, 1865 and was retrieved by witnesses almost immediately.[150IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

]This meteorite is relatively young, calculated to have been formed on Mars only 165 million years ago from volcanic origin. It is composed mostly of pyroxeneand thought to have undergone preterrestrial aqueous alteration for several centuries. Certain features in its interior suggest remnants of a biofilm and its associated microbial communities.[138] Work is in progress on searching for magnetites within alteration phases. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan,SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan,HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

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Extraterrestrial life (from the Latin words: extra ["beyond", or "not of"] and terrestris ["of or belonging to Earth"]) is defined as life that does not originate from Earth. It is often also referred to as alien life, or simply aliens (or space aliens, to differentiate from other definitions of alien or aliens). These hypothetical forms of life range from simplebacteria-like organisms to beings far more complex than humans. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The possibility that viruses might also exist extraterrestrially has been proposed.[1]

The development and testing of hypotheses on extraterrestrial life is known as exobiology or astrobiology; the term astrobiology, however, includes the study of life on Earth viewed in its astronomical context. Scientists at the National Institutes of Health reported studies that life in the universe may have begun "9.7±2.5 billion years ago", HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

billions of years before the Earth was formed, based on extrapolating the "genetic complexity of organisms" [from "major phylogenetic lineages"] to earlier times.[2][3] Many scientists consider extraterrestrial life to be plausible, but there is no direct evidence of its existence.[4] Since the mid-20th century, there has been an ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life, from radios used to detect possible extraterrestrial signals, to telescopes used to search for potentially habitable extrasolar planets.HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

It has also played a major role in works of science fiction.

Alien life, such as bacteria, has been hypothesized to exist in the Solar System and throughout the universe. This hypothesis relies on the vast size and consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth.[5][6HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

] This argument is embodied in the Copernican principle, which states that the Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, and the mediocrity principle, which holds that there is nothing special about life on Earth.[7] Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the Universe. Alternatively life may form less frequently, then spread between habitable planets through panspermia or exogenesis.[8IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

] In any case, complex organic molecules necessary for life may have formed in the protoplanetary disk of dust grains surrounding the Sun before the formation of the Earth based on computer model studies.[9] According to these studies, this same process may also occur around other stars that acquireplanets.[9] (Also see Extraterrestrial organic molecules.) SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

Suggested locations at which life might have developed include the planets Venus[10] and Mars,Jupiter's moon Europa,[11] and Saturn's moons Titan and Enceladus.[12] In May 2011, NASA scientists reported that Enceladus "is emerging as the most habitable spot beyond Earth in the Solar System for life as we know it".[13]

Since the 1950s, scientists have promoted the idea that "habitable zones" are the most likely places for life to be found. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Numerous discoveries in this zone since 2007 have stimulated estimations of frequencies of Earth-like habitats numbering in the many billions[14][15] though as of 2013, only a small number of planets have been discovered in these zones.[16] Nonetheless, on November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way,[17][18] 11 billion of which may be orbiting Sun-like stars.[19] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists.[17][18] Astrobiologists have also considered a "follow the energy" view of potential habitats.[20][21]

No widely accepted evidence of extraterrestrial life has been found; however, various controversial claims have been made.[22] Beliefs that some unidentified flying objects are of extraterrestrial origin,[23] along with claims of alien abduction,[24] are dismissed by most scientists. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Most UFO sightings are explained either as sightings of Earth-based aircraft or known astronomical objects, or as hoaxes.[25]

In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited Earth and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[26][27] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[26][27] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

The response further noted that efforts, like SETI, the Kepler space telescope and the NASA Mars rover, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved." ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

All life on Earth is based upon 26 chemical elements. However, about 95% of this life is built upon only six of these elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, abbreviated CHNOPS. These six elements form the basic building blocks of virtually all life on Earth, while most of the remaining elements are found in only trace amounts.[28] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Life on Earth requires water as the solvent in which biochemical reactions take place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and the other elements along with water, may enable the formation of living organisms on other planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth.[29] Terrestrial planetssuch as Earth are formed in a process that allows for the possibility of having compositions similar to Earth's.[30] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

The combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the chemical form of carbohydrates (e.g. sugar) can be a source of chemical energy on which life depends, and can provide structural elements for life (such as ribose, in the molecules DNA and RNA, and cellulose in plants). Plants derive energy through the conversion of light energy into chemical energy viaphotosynthesis. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

Life, as currently recognized, requires carbon in both reduced (methane derivatives) and partially oxidized (carbon oxides) states. Nitrogen is needed as a reduced ammonia derivative in all proteins, sulfur as a derivative of hydrogen sulfide in some necessary proteins, and phosphorus oxidized tophosphates in genetic material and in energy transfer. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Pure water is useful because it has a neutral pH due to its continued dissociation between hydroxide and hydronium ions. As a result, it can dissolve both positive metallic ions and negative non-metallic ions with equal ability. Furthermore, the fact that organic molecules can be either hydrophobic (repelled by water) or hydrophilic (soluble in water) creates the ability of organic compounds to orient themselves to form water-enclosing membranes. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Additionally, thehydrogen bonds between water molecules give it an ability to store energy with evaporation, which upon condensation is released. This helps to moderate the climate, cooling the tropics and warming the poles, helping to maintain the thermodynamic stability needed for life. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Carbon is fundamental to terrestrial life for its immense flexibility in creating covalent chemical bonds with a variety of non-metallic elements, principally nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. Carbon dioxide and water together enable the storage of solar energy in sugars and starches, such as glucose. The oxidation of glucose releases biochemical energy needed to fuel all other biochemical reactions. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The ability to form organic acids (–COOH) and amine bases (–NH2) gives rise to the possibility of neutralization dehydrating reactions to build long polymerpeptides and catalytic proteins from monomer amino acids. When combined with phosphates, these acids can build the information-storing molecule of inheritance, DNA, and the principal energy transfer molecule of cellular life, ATP. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Due to their relative abundance and usefulness in sustaining life, many have hypothesized that life forms elsewhere in the universe would utilize these basic materials. However, other elements and solvents could provide a basis for life. Life forms based in ammonia (rather than water) have been suggested, though this solution appears less optimal than water.[31] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

From a chemical perspective, life is fundamentally a self-replicating reaction, but one which could arise under a great many conditions and with various possible ingredients, though carbon-oxygen within the liquid temperature range of water seems most conducive. Suggestions have even been made that self-replicating reactions of some sort could occur within the plasma of a star, though it would be highly unconventional.[32] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Life on the surface of a neutron star, based on nuclear reactions, has also been suggested. However, communicating with such creatures would be difficult because the time scales involved are much faster.[33]Several pre-conceived ideas about the characteristics of life outside of Earth have been questioned. For example, a NASA scientist suggested that the color ofphotosynthesizing pigments of hypothetical life on extrasolar planets might not be green. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

In addition to the biochemical basis of extraterrestrial life, many have considered evolution and morphology. Science fiction has often depicted extraterrestrial life with humanoid and/or reptilian forms. Aliens have often been depicted as having light green or grey skin, with a large head, as well as four limbs—i.e. fundamentally humanoid. Other subjects, such as felines, insects, blobs, etc., have occurred in fictional representations of aliens.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

A division has been suggested between universal and parochial (narrowly restricted) characteristics. Universals are features which are thought to have evolved independently more than once on Earth (and thus, presumably, are not too difficult to develop) and are so intrinsically useful that species will inevitably tend towards them. The most fundamental of these is probably bilateral symmetry, but more complex (though still basic) characteristics include flight, sight,photosynthesis and limbs, Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

all of which are thought to have evolved several times here on Earth. There is a huge variety of eyes, for example, and many of these have radically different working schematics and different visual foci: the visual spectrum, infrared, polarity and echolocation. Parochials, however, are essentially arbitrary evolutionary forms. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

These often have little inherent utility (or at least have a function which can be equally served by dissimilar morphology) and probably will not be replicated. Intelligent aliens could communicate through gestures, as deaf humans do, by sounds created from structures unrelated to breathing, which happens on Earth when, for instance, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

cicadas vibrate their wings or crickets stridulate their wings, or visually throughbioluminescence or chromatophore-like structures.

Attempting to define parochial features challenges many taken-for-granted notions about morphological necessity. Skeletons, which are essential to large terrestrial organisms according to the experts of the field of gravitational biology, are almost assured to be replicated elsewhere in one form or another. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The assumption of radical diversity amongst putative extraterrestrials is by no means settled. While many exobiologists do stress that the enormously heterogeneous nature of life on Earth foreshadows an even greater variety in outer space, others point out that convergent evolution may dictate substantial similarities between Earth and extraterrestrial life. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These two schools of thought are called "divergionism" and "convergionism" respectively.

Some bodies in the Solar System have been suggested as having the potential for an environment that could host extraterrestrial life, particularly those with possible subsurface oceans. Though due to the lack of habitable environments beyond Earth, HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

should life be discovered elsewhere in the Solar System, astrobiologists suggest that it will more likely be in the form of extremophile microorganisms.

The planets Venus and Mars, along with several natural satellites orbiting Jupiter and Saturn, and even comets, are suspected to possess niche environments in which life might exist. HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A subsurface marine environment on Jupiter's moon Europa might be the most suitable habitat in the Solar System, outside of Earth, formulticellular organisms.

Panspermia suggests that life elsewhere in the Solar System may have a common origin. If extraterrestrial life was found on another body in the Solar System, it could have originated from Earth just as life on Earth may have been seeded from elsewhere (exogenesis). Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment, developed by the Planetary Society launched in 2011 was designed to test some aspect of these hypotheses, but it was destroyed along with the carrier Fobos-Gruntmission.[35] The first known mention of the term Panspermia was in the writings of the 5th century BC Greek philosopher Anaxagoras.[36IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] In the nineteenth century it was again revived in modern form by several scientists, including Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1834),[37] Kelvin (1871),[38] Hermann von Helmholtz(1879)[citation needed] and, somewhat later, by Svante Arrhenius (1903).[39] Sir Fred Hoyle (1915–2001) and Chandra Wickramasinghe (born 1939) were important proponents of the hypothesis who further contended that lifeforms continue to enter the Earth's atmosphere, HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

and may be responsible for epidemic outbreaks, new diseases, and the genetic novelty necessary for macroevolution.[40]

Directed panspermia concerns the deliberate transport of microorganisms in space, sent to Earth to start life here, or sent from Earth to seed new stellar systems with life. The Nobel prize winner Francis Crick, along with Leslie Orgel proposed that seeds of life may have been purposely spread by an advanced extraterrestrial civilization,[41] SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but considering an early "RNA world". Crick noted later that life may have originated on Earth.[42]

In a virtual presentation on Tuesday, April 7, 2009, Stephen Hawking discussed the possibility of building a human base on another planet and gave reasons why alien life might not be contacting the human race, during his conclusion of the Origins Symposium at Arizona State University. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Hawking also talked about what humans may find when venturing into space, such as the possibility of alien life through the theory of panspermia.

Carl Sagan, David Grinspoon, Geoffrey A. Landis and Dirk Schulze-Makuch have put forward a hypothesis that microbes could exist in the stable cloud layers 50 km (31 mi) above the surface of Venus; the hypothesis is based on the premises of hospitable climates and chemical disequilibrium. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Life on Mars has been long speculated. Liquid water is widely thought to have existed on Mars in the past, and there may still be liquid water beneath the surface. It may also be present as thin films of salty brine in the first centimeter or so of the soil for part of the year in some locations.[47][48] The origin of the potential biosignature of methane in Mars atmosphere is unexplained, although abiotic hypotheses have also been proposed.[49HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

] By July 2008, laboratory tests aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander had identified water in a soil sample. The lander's robotic arm delivered the sample to an instrument which identifies vapours produced by the heating of samples. Photographs from the Mars Global Surveyor from 2006 showed evidence of recent (i.e. within 10 years) flows of a liquid on Mars's frigid surface.[50] Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There is evidence that Mars had a warmer and wetter past: dried-up river beds, polar ice caps, volcanoes and minerals that form in the presence of water have all been found. Nonetheless, present conditions on Mars may support life since lichens were found to successfully surviveMartian conditions in the Mars Simulation Laboratory (MSL) maintained by the German Aerospace Center (DLR).[51][52] SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In June 2012, scientists reported that measuring the ratio of hydrogen and methane levels on Mars may help determine the likelihood of life on Mars.[53][54] According to the scientists, "...low H2/CH4ratios (less than approximately 40) indicate that life is likely present and active."[53] Other scientists have recently reported methods of detecting hydrogen and methane in extraterrestrial atmospheres.[55][56] Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 9, 2013, NASA reported that, based on evidence from Curiosity studying Aeolis Palus, Gale Cratercontained an ancient freshwater lake that could have been a hospitable environment for microbial life.[57][58]

On January 24, 2014, NASA reported that current studies on the planet Mars by the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers will now be searching for evidence of ancient life, including a biosphere based on autotrophic, HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

chemotrophic and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water, including fluvio-lacustrine environments (plains related to ancient rivers or lakes) that may have been habitable. The search for evidence of habitability,taphonomy (related to fossils), and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Ceres, a dwarf planet, has recently been confirmed by the Herschel Space Observatory to have water vapor in its atmosphere.[63][64] Frost on the surface may also have been detected.[65] The presence of water, and the temperatures on Ceres has led to speculation that life may be possible there.[66][67][68] The Dawn space probe is scheduled to enter orbit around Ceres in spring 2015. HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Carl Sagan and others[70] in the 1960s and 1970s computed conditions for hypothetical amino acid-based macroscopic life in the atmosphere of Jupiter, based on observed conditions of this atmosphere. However, the conditions do not appear to permit the type of encapsulation thought necessary for molecular biochemistry, so life is thought to be unlikely.[71] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However, some of Jupiter's moons may have habitats capable of sustaining life. Scientists have suggested that heated subsurface oceans of water may exist deep under the crusts of the three outer Galilean moons—Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The EJSM/Laplace mission is planned to determine the habitability of these environments. However, Europa is seen as the main target for the discovery of life. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Jupiter's moon Europa has been subject to speculation about the existence of life due to the strong possibility of liquid water beneath an ice layer. Hydrothermal vents on the bottom of the ocean, if they exist, may warm the ice and could be capable of supporting multicellular microorganisms.[11] It is also possible that Europa could support aerobic macrofauna using oxygen created by cosmic rays impacting its surface ice.[73] APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The case for life on Europa was greatly enhanced in 2011 when it was discovered that vast lakes exist within Europa's thick, icy shell. Scientists found that ice shelves surrounding the lakes appear to be collapsing into them, thereby providing a mechanism through which life-forming chemicals created in sunlit areas on Europa's surface could be transferred to its interior.[74][75] HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 11, 2013, NASA reported the detection of "clay-like minerals" (specifically, phyllosilicates), often associated with organic materials, on the icy crust of Europa, a moon of Jupiter.[76] The presence of the minerals may have been the result of a collision with an asteroid or comet according to the scientists.

Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is the only known moon with a significant atmosphere. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Data from the Cassini–Huygens mission refuted the hypothesis of a global hydrocarbon ocean, but later demonstrated the existence of liquid hydrocarbon lakes in the polar regions—the first stable bodies of surface liquid discovered outside of Earth.[77][78][79] Analysis of data from the mission has uncovered aspects of atmospheric chemistry near the surface which are consistent with—HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but do not prove—the hypothesis that organisms there are consuming hydrogen, acetylene and ethane, and producing methane.[80][81][82]

An alternate explanation for the hypothetical existence of microbial life on Titan has already been formally proposed[83][84]—hypothesizing that microorganisms could have left Earth when it suffered a massive asteroid or comet impact Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(such as the impact that created Chicxulub crater only 66 mya), and survived a journey through space to land on Titan.

Enceladus, a moon of Saturn, has some of the conditions for life including geothermal activity and water vapor as well as possible under-ice oceans heated by tidal effects. The Cassini probe detected carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen—HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

all key elements for supporting living organisms—during a fly-by through one of Enceladus's geysers spewing ice and gas in 2005. The temperature and density of the plumes indicate a warmer, watery source beneath the surface. However, no life has been confirmed.

Small Solar System bodies have also been suggested as habitats for extremophiles. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Fred Hoyle has proposed that microbial life might exist on comets.[85] Live bacteria were found on the camera of the Surveyor 3 probe that had stayed on the surface of the Moon for two and a half years.[citation needed] This finding was later considered doubtful as sterile procedures may not have been fully followed.

Scientists are directly searching for biosignatures within the Solar System, carrying out studies on the surface of Mars and examining meteors which have fallen to Earth. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At the moment, no concrete plan exists for exploration of Europa for life. In 2008, a joint mission by NASA and the European Space Agency was announced that would have included studies of Europa.[86] However, in 2011 NASA was forced to deprioritize the mission due to a lack of funding, and it is possible that the ESA will take on the mission by itself.[87] Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

There is some limited evidence that microbial life might possibly exist (or have existed) on Mars.[88] An experiment on theViking Mars lander reported gas emissions from heated Martian soil that some argue are consistent with the presence of microbes. However, the lack of corroborating evidence from other experiments on the Viking lander indicates that a non-biological reaction is a more likely hypothesis.  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Independently, in 1996, structures resembling nanobacteria were reportedly discovered in a meteorite, ALH84001, thought to be formed of rock ejected from Mars. This report is controversial.

In February 2005, NASA scientists reported that they may have found some evidence of present life on Mars.[89] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The two scientists, Carol Stoker and Larry Lemke of NASA's Ames Research Center, based their claim on methane signatures found in Mars' atmosphere resembling the methane production of some forms of primitive life on Earth, as well as on their own study of primitive life near the Rio Tinto river in Spain. NASA officials soon distanced NASA from the scientists' claims, and Stoker herself backed off from her initial assertions.[90] ACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Though such methane findings are still very much in debate, support among some scientists for the existence of life on Mars seems to be growing: an informal survey conducted at the conference at which the European Space Agency presented its findings on methane in Mars' atmosphere, indicated that 75% of the people present agreed that bacteria once lived on Mars. Roughly 25% agreed that bacteria inhabit the planet today.[91]  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In November 2011, NASA launched the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover which is designed to search for past or present habitability on Mars using a variety of scientific instruments. The MSL landed on Mars at Gale Crater in August 2012.[92][93][94]

The Gaia hypothesis stipulates that any planet with a robust population of life will have an atmosphere in chemical disequilibrium,  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

which is relatively easy to determine from a distance by spectroscopy. However, significant advances in the ability to find and resolve light from smaller rocky worlds near their star are necessary before such spectroscopic methods can be used to analyze extrasolar planets.

In March 2011, Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist with the Marshall Space Flight Center, speculated on the finding of alleged microfossils similar tocyanobacteria in CI1 carbonaceous meteorites.[95][96 Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] However, NASA formally distanced itself from Hoover's claim.[97][98][99] See Hoover paper controversy for more details.

In August 2011, findings by NASA, based on studies of meteorites found on Earth, suggests DNA and RNA components (adenine, guanine and related organic molecules), building blocks for life as we know it, may be formed extraterrestrially in outer space.[100][101][10 HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

2] In October 2011, scientists reported thatcosmic dust contains complex organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure") that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars.[103][104][105] One of the scientists suggested that these compounds may have been related to the development of life on Earth and said that, HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

"If this is the case, life on Earth may have had an easier time getting started as these organics can serve as basic ingredients for life."[103]

In August 2012, and in a world first, astronomers at Copenhagen University reported the detection of a specific sugar molecule, glycolaldehyde, in a distant star system. The molecule was found around the protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, which is located 400 light years from Earth.[106][ HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

107] Glycolaldehyde is needed to form ribonucleic acid, or RNA, which is similar in function to DNA. This finding suggests that complex organic molecules may form in stellar systems prior to the formation of planets, eventually arriving on young planets early in their formation.[108]

In September 2012, NASA scientists reported that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

subjected to interstellar medium (ISM) conditions, are transformed, through hydrogenation, oxygenation and hydroxylation, to more complex organics - "a step along the path toward amino acids and nucleotides, the raw materials ofproteins and DNA, respectively".[109][110] Further, as a result of these transformations, DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the PAHs lose their spectroscopic signature which could be one of the reasons "for the lack of PAH detection in interstellar ice grains, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers ofprotoplanetary disks."[109][110]

In January 2013, Chandra Wickramasinghe reported in the fringe science Journal of Cosmology, HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

of shapes resembling fossil diatom frustules in a new carbonaceous meteorite that landed in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka on 29 December 2012.

If there is an advanced extraterrestrial society, there is no guarantee that they are transmitting information in the direction of Earth or that this information could be interpreted as such by humans.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The length of time required for a signal to travel across the vastness of space means that any signal detected, or not detected, would come from the distant past.[citation needed]

Projects such as SETI are conducting an astronomical search for radio activity which would confirm the presence of intelligent life. HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A related suggestion is that aliens might broadcast pulsed and continuous laser signals in the optical, as well as infrared, spectrum;[112] laser signals have the advantage of not "smearing" in the interstellar medium, and may prove more conducive to communication between the stars. While other communication techniques, including laser transmission and interstellar spaceflight,  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

have been discussed seriously and may well be feasible, the measure of effectiveness is the amount of information communicated per unit cost. This results in radio transmission as the method of choice.

Some have hypothesized that very advanced civilizations may create artificial black holes as an energy source or method of waste disposal. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Thus, they suggest that the observation of a black hole with a mass of less than 3.5 solar masses, the theoretical lower mass limit for a naturally occurring black hole, would be evidence of an alien civilization.

Astronomers search for extrasolar planets that may be conducive to life, narrowing the search to terrestrial planets within the habitable zone.[114][115] HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Current radiodetection methods have been inadequate for such a search, since the resolution afforded by recent technology is inadequate for a detailed study of extrasolar planetary objects. Future telescopes should be able to image planets around nearby stars, which may reveal the presence of life – either directly or through spectrography – and would reveal key information. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It has been argued that Alpha Centauri, the closest star system to Earth, may contain planets which could be capable of sustaining life.[116]

On April 24, 2007, scientists at the European Southern Observatory in La Silla, Chile said they had found the first Earth-like planet. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The planet, known as Gliese 581 c, orbits within the habitable zone of its star Gliese 581, a red dwarf star which is 20.5 light years (194 trillion km) from the Earth. It was initially thought that this planet could contain liquid water, but recent computer simulations of the climate on Gliese 581 c by Werner von Bloh and his team at Germany's Institute for HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Climate Impact Research suggest that carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere would create a runaway greenhouse effect. This would warm the planet well above the boiling point of water (100 degrees Celsius/212 degreesFahrenheit), thus dimming the hopes of finding life. As a result of greenhouse models, scientists are now turning their attention to Gliese 581 d, which lies just outside of the star's traditional habitable zone.[117] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On May 29, 2007, the Associated Press released a report stating that scientists identified twenty-eight new extra-solar planetary bodies. One of these newly discovered planets is said to have many similarities to Neptune.[118]

In May 2011, researchers predicted that Gliese 581 d, not only exists in the "Goldilocks zone" where water can be present in liquid form, HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

but is big enough to have a stable carbon dioxide atmosphere and "warm enough to have oceans, clouds, and rainfall," according to France's National Centre for Scientific Research.[119]

In December 2011, NASA confirmed that 600-light-year distant Kepler-22b, at 2.4 times the radius of Earth, is potentially the closest match to Earth in terms of both size and temperature.[120][121] HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Since 1992, hundreds of planets around other stars ("extrasolar planets" or "exoplanets") in the Milky Way Galaxy have been discovered. As of February 18, 2014, the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia identified 1077 extrasolar planets (in 814 planetary systems and 179 multiple planetary systems); the extrasolar planets range in size from that of terrestrial planets similar to Earth to that of gas giants larger than Jupiter.[122HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

] The number of observed exoplanets is expected to increase greatly in the coming years. Because the Kepler spacecraft must view three stellar transits by exoplanets before it identifies them as candidate planets, it has so far only been able to identify planets that orbit their star at a relatively quick rate. The mission is expected to continue until at least 2016, in which time many more exoplanet candidates are expected to be found.[123] Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Despite these successes, the transit method employed by the Kepler spacecraft requires that planetary orbits be at a small inclination to the line of sight of the observer. Due to this constraint, the probability of detecting a planet of Earth's size and orbital radius around a distant star is just 0.47%. Thus, the number of planets we are currently able to detect is only a small fraction of the total number of planets present within the galaxy. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Criticism of the Drake equation follows mostly from the observation that the terms in the equation are entirely based on conjecture. Thus the equation cannot be used to draw firm conclusions of any kind.[125] Although the Drake equation currently involves speculation about unmeasured parameters, it was not meant to be science, but intended as a way to stimulate dialogue on these topics. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Then the focus becomes how to proceed experimentally. Indeed, Drake originally formulated the equation merely as an agenda for discussion at the Green Bank conference.[126]

Drake used the equation to estimate that there are approximately 10,000 planets in the Milky Way galaxy containing intelligent life with the possible capability of communicating with Earth.[127]  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Based on observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, there are at least 125 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. It is estimated that at least ten percent of all sun-like stars have a system of planets,[128] i.e. there are 6.25×1018 stars with planets orbiting them in the observable Universe. Even if we assume that only one out of a billion of these stars have planets supporting life, HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

there would be some 6.25×109 (billion) life-supporting planetary systems in the observable Universe.

The apparent contradiction between high estimates of the probability of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and the lack of evidence for, or contact with, such civilizations is known as the Fermi paradox.

In antiquity, it was common to assume a cosmos consisting of "many worlds" inhabited by intelligent, Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

non-human life-forms, but these "worlds" were mythological and not informed by the heliocentric understanding of the solar system, or the understanding of the Sun as one among countless stars.[129] An example would be the fourteen Loka of Hindu cosmology, or theNine Worlds of Old Norse mythology, etc. The Sun and the Moon often appear as inhabited worlds in such contexts, or as vehicles (chariots or boats, etc.) driven by gods. HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Japanese folk tale of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (10th century) is an example of a princess of the Moon people visiting Earth.

Buddhist and Hindu beliefs of endlessly repeated cycles of life called Samsara have led to descriptions of multiple worlds in existence and their mutual contacts (Sanskrit word sampark (सम्पर्क) means "contact" as in Mahasamparka (महासम्पर्क) = "the great contact"). HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to Buddhist and Hindu scriptures, there are numerous universes to facilitate the fulfillment of the separated desires of the numerous living entities. However, the purpose of such creations is to bring back the deluded souls to correct understanding about the purpose of life and achieve Nirvana. Aside from the numerous universes which are material, there is an unlimited number spirit worlds, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

where the purified living entities live with perfect conception about life and ultimate reality. The spiritually aspiring saints and devotees, as well as thoughtful men of the material world, have been getting guidance and help from these purified living entities of the spiritual world from time immemorial.[citation needed]

The Jewish Talmud states that there are at least 18,000 other worlds, but provides little elaboration on the nature of those worlds, HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

or on whether they are physical or spiritual. Based on this, however, the 18th-century exposition "Sefer HaB'rit" posits that extraterrestrial creatures exist, and that some may well possess intelligence. It adds that humans should not expect creatures from another world to resemble earthly life any more than sea creatures resemble land animals.[130][131] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to Ahmadiyya a more direct reference from the Quran is presented by Mirza Tahir Ahmad as a proof that life on other planets may exist according to the Quran. In his book, Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth, he quotes verse 42:29 "And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and of whatever living creatures (da'bbah) He has spread forth in both..."; HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

according to this verse there is life in heavens. According to the same verse "And He has the power to gather them together (jam-'i-him) when He will so please"; indicates the bringing together the life on Earth and the life elsewhere in the Universe. The verse does not specify the time or the place of this meeting but rather states that this event will most certainly come to pass whenever God so desires. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It should be pointed out that the Arabic term Jam-i-him used to express the gathering event can imply either a physical encounter or a contact through communication.[132]

When Christianity spread throughout the West, the Ptolemaic system became very widely accepted, and although the Church never issued any formal pronouncement on the question of alien life at least tacitly, the idea was aberrant. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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By January 2014 the construction costs have been reported to exceed the $50 billion mark, making it the most expensive Olympic Games in history.[52]According to a report by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, this cost will not boost Russia's national economy, but may attract business to Sochi and the southern Krasnodar region of Russia in the future as a result of improved services. [53] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi have been surrounded by concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans "homosexual propaganda to minors".[54] Many voices have since then claimed to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics, including British actor Stephen Fry who published an open letter[55] to David Cameron and to the International Olympic Committee asking for a boycott and relocation of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL CPU Fan

There has also been concern regarding possible terrorist attacks primarily by Islamist militants.

The state-controlled RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014.[57] The power generating companies Inter RAO UES and RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. HP G71-340US CPU Fan

The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities “The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion rubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion rubles (about US$2 billion dollars) will go to investments in the electricity grid,” power company announced. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion rubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that.

The Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, borders Lazarevsky City District in the west and Khostinsky City District in the north and in the east. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the southwest, it is bounded by the Black Sea. Population: 137,677 (2010 Census);[2] 133,935 (2002 Census);[5] 137,968 (1989 Census).[6]

The district covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.

Adlersky City District (Russian: А́длерский райо́н) is the southernmost of four city districts of the city of Sochi inKrasnodar Krai, Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Russia, lying along the Black Sea coast near the southern Russian border with Abkhazia. The city district borders Maykopsky District of Adygea in the north, Mostovsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the east, Abkhazia in the south, and Khostinsky City District in the northwest. In the southwest, it is bordered by the Black Sea. Population: 76,534 (2010 Census);[2] 69,120 (2002 Census);[4] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

68,827 (1989 Census).[5] Adlersky District was chosen to host the 2014 Winter Olympics.

The historical center of the district is Adler Microdistrict (А́длер) — formerly classified as a town, but today amicrodistrict of Adlersky City District—located at the mouth of the Mzymta River.

The settlement was founded by Russians on 18 June 1837 as the fort of Svyatoy Dukh (Holy Spirit). HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

However, this area had been inhabited long before the Russian arrival. During the Middle Ages, it was the site of Liesh, a Sadz Abkhazianvillage. In the 13th century, the Genoese merchants arrived to establish a factory which became known as Layso. At that time the upland area was controlled by the Sadz princes of Aredba, one of whose principal estates was located within the modern district boundaries. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO CPU Fan

The current name was given to the area by the Ottoman Turks, who called it eitherArtlar or Artı.

Adler is home to the Sochi International Airport, which serves the whole Greater Sochi area.

Adler railway station is also the effective southern terminus of the Russian section of the North Caucasus Railway, which has ceased to carry international traffic to Georgia since hostilities between Russia and Georgia closed the cross-border line in 1992.Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA CPU Fan

The summer months see direct train services bringing visitors to Adler from as far away asBerlin in the west (a journey of 3,714 km), Vorkuta in the north (4,286 km away, beyond the Arctic Circle), andKhabarovsk in the Russian Far East, with the 9,816 km of the latter journey taking eight days to complete. Passenger service to Sukhumi starts and stops from time to time.  ASUS M51SE CPU Fan

For the 2014 Winter Olympics, new suburban network was put in operation. There is currently frequent suburban service to Sochi, with most of the trains stopping also in Khosta and Matsesta, both in Khostinsky City District. The service continues in the direction of Abkhazian border, where trains stop at Olympiyskaya Derevnya railway platform. HP G42-415DX CPU Fan

The service terminates at Olympiysky Park train station. Both the station and the platform were constructed for the Olympics. Furthermore, a connection to the airport is open, with regular service to Sochi through Adler railway station. Finally, a new line was constructed between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana, where some of the Olympic competitions will be held, with two railway stations, Esto-Sadok and Krasnaya Polyana. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

Kudepsta railway platform has been disused.Vesyoloye railway station is only in operation when there is passenger traffic to Abkhazia; at this station, customs and border controls take place.

Buses connect Adler with other localities of the city of Sochi.

The district covers an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and has under its jurisdiction a network of mountain auls HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan

the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the snow events (alpine and Nordic) of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The Fisht Olympic Stadium and associated facilities will be located closer to the shore.

The landmarks of the former town of Adler include two Russian Orthodox churches, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and the Holy Ghost, as well as the Armenian Saint Sarkis Cathedral.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee CPU Fan

Apart from a pebbly and narrow beach backed by the railway line, the district also has a municipal historical museum and a dolphinarium, which makes it popular among tourists. It is also possible to visit the largest trout farm in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes.

Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave which contains traces of human habitation about 30,000 years ago.  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG CPU Fan

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia in the tradition of the Winter Olympic Games.

Scheduled for 7–23 February 2014, opening rounds in certain events were held on the eve of the Opening Ceremony, 6 February 2014.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. It is the first Olympics in Russia since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er CPU Fan

A total of 98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines are being held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of 12 accounting for gender—are being held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. HP 606575-001 CPU Fan

The events are being held around two clusters of new venues; an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium and the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana.

In preparation, organizers focused on modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportationinfrastructures of the region.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us CPU Fan

While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, various factors caused the budget to expand to over US$51 billion, surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing as the most expensive Olympics in history.

The lead-up to the 2014 Games was marked by major controversies, including allegations of corruption leading to the aforementioned cost overruns, DELL DFS491105MH0T CPU Fan

concerns for the safety and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) athletes and supporters during the Games due to the country's recent anti-LGBT policies. This led to ongoing Olympic protests of Russian anti-gay laws, protests by ethnic Circassian activists over the site of Sochi (the site of what they consider to be a genocide) and various security concerns over threats by jihadist groups tied to the insurgency in the North Caucasus. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City,Guatemala, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea.[3] This is the first time that the Russian Federation has hosted the Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and aroundMoscow. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan

As of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion.[5] This amount includes the 214 billion rubles (US$ 6.5 billion) cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects (roads, railroads, power plants). This total, if borne out, would be over four times the initial budget of $12 billion (compared to the $8 billion spent for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver), HP Pavilion dv7-3060us CPU Fan

and would make the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing,[6] which hosted 3 times as many events.[7]

According to Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee President and CEO Dmitry Chernyshenko, partnership and commercial programs allowed the use of funds generated by Sochi 2014 for the 2009–10 development period,  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

postponing the need for the state funds guaranteed by the Russian Government. He confirmed that the Organizing Committee had raised more than $500 million through marketing in the first five months of 2009.[8] The Russian Government provided nearly 327 billion rubles (about US$10 billion) for the total development, expansion and hosting of the Games.[9] Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

192 billion rubles (US$6 billion) coming from the federal budget and 7 billion rubles (US$218 million) from the Krasnodar Krai budget and from the Sochi budget. The organizers expect to have a surplus of US$300 million when the Games conclude.

With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games.[12] HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking; all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas are smoke-free during the Games.[13] It is also the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting a winter games.

The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretin Valley, about 4 km (2.5 miles) from Russia'sborder with Georgia.[14][15] HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The venues are clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance.

After the Olympics, a Formula One street circuit is planned for the site. The deal to hold the Russian Grand Prix was signed on 14 October 2010, and runs from 2014 to 2020.[17] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first race will take place after the Closing Ceremony of the Games, and the IOC has announced that the race will be delayed until 2015 if construction of the circuit interferes with preparations for the 2014 Olympics.

The emblem of the 2014 Winter Olympics, unveiled in December 2009, carries a minimalistic style, and unlike previous Olympic emblems, consists of typefaces with no drawn elements at all. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

While more elaborate designs with influence from Khokhloma were considered, organizers eventually decided to use a simpler and more "futuristic" design instead. The "Sochi" and "2014" lettering is designed to mirror each other vertically (particularly on the "hi" and "14" characters), "reflecting" the contrasts of Russia's landscape (such as Sochi itself, a meeting point between the Black Sea and the Western Caucasus).[19] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Critics, including Russianbloggers, panned the logo for being too simplistic and lacking any real symbolism; Guo Chunning, designer of the 2008 Summer Olympics emblem Dancing Beijing, criticized the logo for its lack of detail, and believed it should have contained more elements that represented winter and Russia's national identity, aside from its blue color scheme and its use of .ru, the top-level domain of Russia.[19] HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Games' official slogan, "Hot.Cool.Yours." ("Жаркие.Зимние.Твои." in Russian) was unveiled on September 25, 2012 to mark the 500-day milestone before the Opening Ceremony. Presenting the slogan, SOC president Dmitry Chernyshenko explained that it represented the "passion" of the Games' athletes, the climate of Sochi itself, and a sense of inclusion and belonging. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Russian-language version of the slogan uses words that can be translated as "heated" and "wintry", a more accurate reflection of Chernyshenko's explanation than the simpler terms used by the English slogan, which is intended to emphasize the "hot" coastal climate and "cool" mountain climate of the Games.

For the first time in Olympic history, a public vote was held to decide the mascots for the 2014 Winter Olympics; HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the 10 finalists, along with the results, were unveiled during live specials on Channel One. On 26 February 2011, the official mascots were unveiled, consisting of a polar bear, a snow hare, and an snow leopard. The initial rounds consisted of online voting among submissions, while the final round involved text messaging.[22][23][24] Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG CPU Fan

A satirical mascot known as Zoich (its name being an interpretation of the stylized "2014" lettering from the Games' emblem as a cyrillic word), a fuzzy blue frog with hypnotic multi-coloured rings (sharing the colors of the Olympic rings) on his eyeballs and the Imperial Crown ("to remind about statehood and spirituality"), proved popular in initial rounds of online voting, and became a local internet meme among Russians HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

(with some comparing it to Futurama's "Hypnotoad"). Despite its popularity, Zoich did not qualify for the final round of voting, with its creator, political cartoonist Egor Zhgun, claiming that organizers were refusing to respect public opinion. However, it was later revealed that Zoich was deliberately plantedby organizers to help virally promote the online mascot vote. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The official Olympic video game is the fourth game in the Mario & Sonic series, Mario & Sonic at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. It was released byNintendo for the Wii U on 8 November 2013 in Europe, and 15 November 2013 in North America.[26] Others are Sochi 2014: Ski Slopestyle Challenge for Androidoperating system and Sochi 2014: Olympic Games Resort for online social network Facebook.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Olympic infrastructure is being constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009 the Games' organizers reported they are one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games.[29]In November 2011 IOC President Jacques Rogge was in Sochi and concluded that the city has made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

According to the FTP, US$580 million would be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region.Avaya was named by the Sochi Organizing Committee as the official supplier of telecommunications equipment. Avaya provides the data network equipment, including switches, routers, security, telephones and contact-center systems. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It provides engineers and technicians to design and test the systems, and works with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans information about the Games.[31][32]

The 2014 Olympics is the first "fabric-enabled" Games using Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) technology.[33] The network is capable of handling up to 54,000 Gbit/s (54 Tbit/s) of traffic. Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

During the Games, the core networks of Rostelecom and Transtelekom are used.[35]

In January 2012, the newest equipment for the television coverage of the Games arrived in the port of Adler. Prepared specifically for the Games, a team of regional specialists and the latest technology provide a qualitatively new level of television production in the region.[36] HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The fiber-optic channel links Sochi between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana. The 46-kilometre-long (29 mi) channel enables videoconferencing and news reporting from the Olympics.[37]

In November 2013, it was reported that the fiber-optic cable that was built by the Federal Communications Agency, Rossvyaz, had no operator. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

With Rostelecom and Megafon both refusing to operate it, the line was transferred to the ownership of the state enterprise Center of the IT world (Russian: Центр МИР ИТ).[38]

Russian mobile phone operator Megafon expanded and improved Sochi's telecom infrastructure with over 700 new 2G/3G/4G cell towers. Sochi is the first Games to offer 4G connectivity at a speed of 10 MB/sec. HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It has started to provide content delivery services to Russian state television and radio. The content delivery network of Megafon unites servers located in the major cities of Russia, into a single infrastructure that can speed up information from the Internet for users. CDN service allows major media companies to provide users quick access to content without interruption and delays when transferring large amounts of data. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Russian segment of the bandwidth of the CDN- network of MegaFon is about 250 Gbit/s.[39]

MTS provide full coverage of the Sochi and the Krasnodar Territory, with network capacity doubled. In preparation for the Olympics, Tele2 Russia increased the number of base stations in Sochi and Krasnaya Polyana by 15% and the network capacity up to 70%, and provides 100% coverage of the Olympic facilities in the mountain cluster.[40] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Rostelecom also built LTE 4th generation network. It covers an area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi) in the mountains and 50 km2 in the coastal clusters. The 4th generation is available in all major Olympic venues in the Imereti lowland and mountain cluster, as well as Sochi airport and in the Olympic Park.[41] The Russian Ministry of Communications, together with mobile operators organized internetwork roaming at Olympic venues. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This measure allows subscribers access to the largest Russian operators at their standard fare to use the network of MegaFon, which has the exclusive right to work at Olympic venues.

Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network (RTRS), the state operator of Russia's extensive broadcasting infrastructure, commissioned three mobile digital television broadcasting complexes. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Mobile systems can broadcast a signal to a radius of about 30 km (19 miles), depending on terrain. They are used as a backup transmitter, two multiplexes and two FM-radio stations in the event of a fault or power failure in fixed installations, as well as for the organization of video play-out.[42]

On 11 December 2013 Rostelecom said it had completed its infrastructure for the games. DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The transport component of the infrastructure includes about 500 kilometres (310 miles) of fiber-optic communication lines linking 35 facilities. The main network's capacity has been increased to 140 Gbit/sec. The Olympic Information Technology Center was the core of the project, the largest IT facility for Sochi with an area of more than 2,000 square metres (0.5 acre). HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Center is aimed to process information flows, manage the Games' united network and integrate special solutions for each sport.[43]

In January 2014, Rostelecom reported that it had connected the Olympic media center in Sochi to the Internet and organized channels of communication with the main media center of the Olympic Games in the coastal cluster and press center in Moscow.HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The media center was built at total cost of 17 million rubles.

A five-year strategy for increasing the power supply of the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar Krai administration.[46]

According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing stable power supply during and after the Games.

Power demand of Sochi in the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. Power demand of the Olympic infrastructure is expected to be about 340 MW. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse and Novorossiysk and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.[48]

President Putin had instructed Alexander Novak, the country's Energy Minister to exert strict control over the energy system of Sochi to prevent possible power failures during the games.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi's electricity distribution network included 900 kilometres (560 mi) of cables and overhead transmission lines, as well as 500 substations.

The transport infrastructure prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi. Among others, 8 flyovers, 102 bridges, tens of tunnels and a bypass route for heavy trucks — 367 km (228 miles) of roads were paved.[50]  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Sochi Light Metro is located between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana connecting the Olympic Park, Sochi International Airport, and the venues in Krasnaya Polyana.

The existing 102 km (63-mile), Tuapse-to-Adler railroad was renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In December 2009 Russian Railwaysordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 which would be partly built in Russia.[52] Russian Railways established a high-speed Moscow-Adler link and a new railroad (more than 60 kilometres or 37 miles long) passing by the territory of Ukraine.[53] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

At Sochi International Airport, a new terminal had been built along a 3.5 km (2.2-mile) runway extension, overlapping Mzymta River.[54] Backup airports were built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar by 2009.[55] A new railway line was built to connect central Sochi and the local airport. The line is served by Lastochka trains;  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

a new type of electric locomotive, based on the Siemens Desiro design, eveloped for commuting in the Russian environment. All Russian Railways facilities in Sochi have been built or retrofitted to accommodate disabled passengers.At the Port of Sochi, a new offshore terminal 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3,000 passengers.[56] HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The cargo terminal of the seaport is to be moved from the centre of Sochi.

Roadways have been detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.[57]

In May 2009, Russian Railways started the construction of tunnel complex No. 1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in the Krasnaya Polyana region. ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Russian Railways president Vladimir Yakunin said the road construction would cost more than 200 billion rubles.[59]

In addition, Sochi's railway stations were renovated. These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta, Khosta, Lazarevskaya, and Loorailway stations. In Adler, a new railway station was built while the original building was preserved, and in the Olympic park cluster,SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

a new station was built from scratch, the Olympic Park railway station. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.

New bus routes for the guests of the Olympics have begun operating in the city, stretching some 150 kilometres (93 mi) along the Black Sea coast. The buses run with 5-minute intervals during the Games. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Some 963 operate during the Olympics, while half of all the transport facilities will be used during the Paralympics. The guests will be able to board buses at transportation hubs, located near the railway station in the centre of Sochi and also in Matsesta, Khosta, and Adler neighborhoods, as well as in Krasnaya Polyana, Estosadok, Rosa Khutor Alpine Center, and near the Sliding Center Sanki. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Funds were spent on the construction of hotels for 10,300 guests.[61] The first of the Olympic hotels, Zvezdny (Stellar), is rebuilt anew.[62] Significant funds were spent on the construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.[63] Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Six post offices were opened at competition venues, two of them in the main media centre in Olympic Park and in the mountain village of Estosadok. In addition to standard services, clients have access to unique services including two new products: "Fotomarka" and "Retropismo". Fotomarka gives the opportunity to get a stylized post block with eight souvenir stamps with one's own photos, using the services of a photographer in the office. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Retropismo service gives the customer to write their own stylus or pen on antique paper with further letters, winding string and wax seal affixing. All new postal items and Post Offices in Sochi will be working during the Olympics until late at night all week, and workers were trained to speak English.

The torch relay lasted 123 days and measured over 64,000 kilometres (40,000 mi) in length, excluding Earth orbits in space.ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A total of 14,000 torch carriers took part in the relay. The Olympic flame was taken to the Caucasus’ tallest peak — Mount Elbrus, lowered to the bottom of Lake Baikal, and visited the North Pole and the International Space Station.[50]

On 29 September 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay started at Moscow on 7 October 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi on the day of the opening ceremony, 7 February 2014.[65] It is the longest torch relay in Olympic history, a 40,000-mile route that passes through all regions of the country, from Kaliningrad in the west to Chukotka in the east. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Olympic torch reached the North Pole for first time via a nuclear-powered icebreaker (50 Let Pobedy). The torch was also passed for the first time in space, though not lit for the duration of the flight for safety reasons, on flight Soyuz TMA-11Mto the International Space Station (ISS). The spacecraft itself was adorned with Olympic-themed livery including the Games' emblem. Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazansky waved the torch on a spacewalk outside ISS.  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The torch returned to Earth five days later on board Soyuz TMA-09M.[66][67] The torch also reached the Europe's highest mountain Mount Elbrus, and even the depths of Siberia's Lake Baikal.The opening ceremony took place on February 7, 2014. More than 3,000 people from artistic groups participated in dance, ballet, acrobatic and circus performances during the opening ceremony which was watched by a 40,000 strong audience at Sochi's Fisht Olympic Stadium. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Figure skater Irina Rodnina and ice hockey player Vladislav Tretiak lit the torch.

A record 88 nations qualified to compete,[70] which beat the previous record of 82 set at the previous Winter Olympics inVancouver. The number of athletes who qualified per country is listed below . Seven nations, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Dominica, Malta, Paraguay,Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, and Zimbabwe, are making their Winter Olympics debut.[71]

Kristina Krone qualified to compete in her second consecutive games for Puerto Rico, but the island's Olympic Committee chose not to send her to compete again as they did in 2010.[72] Similarly, South Africa decided not to send alpine skier Sive Speelman to Sochi.[73] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Algeria also did not enter its only qualified athlete, Mehdi-Selim Khelifi.

Security during the Games will is being handled by over 40,000 law enforcement officials, including police and the Russian Armed Forces.[103][104] A Presidential Decree signed by President Vladimir Putin took effect on 7 January, requiring that any protests and demonstrations in Sochi and the surrounding area through 21 March (the end of the Paralympics) be approved by the Federal Security Service.[105] HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

For the duration of the decree, travel restrictions will also be in effect in and around Sochi: "controlled" zones, dubbed the "ring of steel" by the media, cover the Coastal and Mountain clusters which encompass all of the Games' venues and infrastructure, including transport hubs such as railway stations. To enter controlled areas, visitors must pass through security checkpoints with x-ray machines, metal detectors and explosive material scanners.[1HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

06] Several areas are designated as "forbidden", including Sochi National Park and the border with Abkhazia.[105][107] An unmanned aerial vehicle squadron, along with S-400 and Pantsir-S1 air defense rockets will be used to protect Olympic airspace. Fourgunboats were also deployed on the Black Sea to protect the coastline.[108]

A number of security organizations and forces began stationing in and around Sochi in January 2014; HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

Russia's Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) was stationed in Sochi for the Games beginning on 7 January 2014.[109][110] A group of 10,000 Internal Troops of the Ministry of Interior will also provide security services during the Games.[111] In mid-January, 1,500 Siberian Regional Command troops were stationed in a military town near Krasnaya Polyana.[112] HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

A group of 400 cossacks in traditional uniforms are also present to accompany police patrols.[113][114] The 58th Army unit of the Russian Armed Forces, will defend theGeorgia-Russia border.[115] The United States also supplied Navy ships and other assets for security purposes.

Organizers received several threats prior to the Games. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

In a July 2013 video release, Chechen Islamist commander Dokka Umarov called for attacks on the Games, stating that the Games were being staged "on the bones of many, many Muslims killed ...and buried on our lands extending to the Black Sea."[117]

Threats were received from the group Vilayat Dagestan, which had claimed responsibility for the Volgograd bombings under the demands of UmarovHP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

, and a number of National Olympic Committees had also received threats via e-mail, threatening that terrorists would kidnap or "blow up" athletes during the Games. However, while the IOC did state that the letters "[contained] no threat and appears to be a random message from a member of the public", the U.S. ski and snowboarding teams hired a private security agency to provide additional protection during the Games.[ HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

On 7 February 2014, during the opening ceremony, a Pegasus Airlines jetliner from Kharkiv, Ukraine, to Istanbul, Turkey, was threatened by a passenger claiming to have a bomb and wanting to hijack the plane to fly it to Sochi. The plane landed at its intended destination in Istanbul. The Ukrainian foreign ministry reported that the passenger was arrested, and no weapons or bombs were found aboard the plane. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

The goal of the attempt was related to protesters being arrested during the Euromaidan protests in Ukraine.

In most regions, broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics were packaged together with broadcast rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but some broadcasters obtained rights to further games as well. Domestic broadcast rights were sold by Sportfive to a consortium of three Russian broadcasters; IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

Channel One, VGTRK, and NTV Plus.[123]

In the United States, the 2014 Winter Olympics will be the first in a US$4.38 billion contract with NBC, extending its broadcast rights to the Olympic Games through 2020.[124]

In Canada, after losing the 2010 and 2012 Games to CTV, the 2014 Winter Olympics will mark the return of the Olympics to CBC Television and French sister network Ici Radio-Canada Télé for the first time since 2008.[125] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

In Australia, after all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Games due to cost concerns, the IOC awarded broadcast rights to just the 2014 Winter Olympics to Network Ten for A$20 million.

The lead-up to the Games were affected by numerous controversies and concerns; primarily concerning exploitation of workers engaged in Olympic construction; Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

allegations of the illegal dumping of construction waste threatening residents' health and safety; evictions and displacement of residents to make way for Olympic venues; economic issues; and harassment of environmental and human rights activists and journalists who criticise Olympic preparations or thegovernment's anti-LGBT policies;[ Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

and disputes with Circassian nationalists, who demanded that the events be cancelled or moved unless Russia apologises for the 19th-century deaths, which Circassians regard to be a genocide.

LGBT rights in Russia were a major concern leading up to the Games. In March 2012, the Russian government blocked the establishment of a Pride House in Sochi for the Games, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

ruling that it would "[lead] to propaganda of non-traditional sexual orientation which can undermine the security of Russian society", and that it contradicted with public morality and the country's policies "in the area of family motherhood and childhood protection."[138] The passing of a law in June 2013 banning the distribution of "propaganda of non-traditional sexual relations" to minors was criticized by LGBT rights activists, Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

human rights activists, and world leaders, for being a broad attempt to suppress LGBT culture in Russia. In particular, activists argued the law was too vague (Human Rights Campaign president Chad Griffin believed that even kissing a same-sex partner or displaying LGBT symbols like the rainbow flag in public was illegal under the law), attributed it to an increase in the level of homophobic violence in the country,[ Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

and considered it inconsistent with the Olympic Charter, which states that "[discrimination] on grounds of race, religion, politics, gender or otherwise is incompatible with belonging to the Olympic Movement."[144] On 16 February 2013, Italian LGBT activist Vladimir Luxuriaannounced that she had been briefly detained by Sochi police after carrying a rainbow flag that said "Gay is OK" in Russian.[145] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Although the IOC and Russian President Vladimir Putin both guaranteed the safety of LGBT athletes and spectators during the Games,[146] Olympic protests of Russian anti-gay laws were held and there were calls to boycott the Games,[134][147] although a writer for the Financial Times felt that a boycott would have been counter-productive, as there was no boycott of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing despite China's poor human rights record.[148] Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

In early February 2014, a group of 40 major human and LGBT rights organizations sent a joint letter to the ten Worldwide Olympic Partner companies, urging them to support the rights of LGBT people under the Olympic Charter, and pressure the IOC to show greater scrutiny towards the human rights abuses of future host countries.[149] On 3 February 2014, HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

AT&T, a supporter of the United States Olympic Committee, issued a statement in support of LGBT rights at the Games, becoming the first major Olympic advertiser to condemn Russia's policies.[150]

A number of world leaders, including Barack Obama, David Cameron, François Hollande and Stephen Harper, declined to attend the Opening Ceremony as national delegates. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

Although they denied their decisions were for political reasons, there was speculation it may had been a symbolic boycott related to the anti-LGBT laws. In response to the controversy, the U.S. appointed Billie Jean King and Caitlin Cahow, who are both openly gay, as its delegation instead. Although he stressed diversity and made no reference to the controversy when announcing them,Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

U.S. president Barack Obama confirmed the intent of the selections in an interview prior to the games, stating that "there is no doubt we wanted to make it very clear that we do not abide by discrimination in anything, including discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation."[154][155] Although the U.S. government was praised by HRC for the decision, a writer for The Washington Post has since noted that, though not to the same extent as the Russian law, HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

eight U.S. states (including Utah, which hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics) have laws regulating or banning the coverage of homosexuality in school sex education classes.

Some Circassian organisations have objected to the Games being held on land their ancestors held until 1864,[157][158] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

when most of them were vanquished at the end of the Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864), in what they consider to be ethnic cleansing or genocide. The Games also coincide with the 150th anniversary of this event.[159][160] They demanded the Games be cancelled or moved unless Russia apologises.[161] Some Circassian groups accepted the Olympics, and argued that symbols of Circassian history and culture should be featured, HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

as Australia, the United States and Canada did for their indigenous cultures in 2000, 2002, and 2010 respectively.[162]

The Games use of Krasnaya Polyana as a site for skiing and snowboarding events was also considered controversial to Circassians, as Krasnaya Polyana (which translates to "Red Hill" or "Red Glade"), was named for a group of Circassians who were defeated in a bloody battle with Russians while attempting to return home over it in 1864. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

While Olympic Games typically have high cost overruns, for the 2014 Games they are much higher than usual, with the costs being more than all the previous 21 Winter Olympics combined.[165] Allison Stewart of the Saïd Business School at Oxford, notes that relations between the government and construction companies appear closer in Sochi than in other games.[166] Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

Oligarch Arkady Rotenberg has won contracts worth $7.4 billion.[166] In a press conference, IOC president Thomas Bach defended the high costs of the Games, stating that the costs were in line with previous Olympics, but that the additional costs were a "long-term investment" into making Sochi a year-round resort and winter sports complex.[167] Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

Criticism also surfaced over the quality and availability of accommodation in Sochi during the final weekend before the Games. Due to contractors failing to meet deadlines, along with inclement weather, three of the nine hotels for accredited media were left with unfinished rooms. Journalists reported various issues, including rooms that were unclean, no working water, discoloured tap water, and missing furniture or amenities. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Executive Director Gilbert Felli stated that the rooms would be finished by 5 February, while Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Kozak noted that the media hotels just needed a "final cleaning".TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan,HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan,Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan,DELL R859C CPU Fan

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Sochi (Russian: Со́чи, IPA: [ˈsot͡ɕɪ] ( listen)) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi area, which includes territories and localities subordinated to Sochi proper, has a total area of 3,526 square kilometers (1,361 sq mi)[4] and sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi) along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains.[ HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi).[4] According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334,[5] up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census,[11] making it Russia's largest resort city. It is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

With the alpine and Nordic events held at the nearby ski resort of Roza Khutor in Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi is hosting the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020, subject to the circuit being ready in time.[12][13] It will also be one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

Greater Sochi is elongated along the Black Sea coast for 145 kilometers (90 mi). Depending on how one chooses todivide Europe and Asia, some sources claim Sochi is in Europe, whereas if one uses the Caucasus Mountains as the divide, Sochi is in Southwest Asia, falling on the southern (Asian) side of the Greater Caucasus.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

In terms of human geography, Sochi falls within Krasnodar Krai, which is geographically located entirely within European Russiaas does, generally, all territory of Russia west of the Ural Mountains and Ural River.[19][20] Sochi is approximately 1,603 kilometers (996 mi) from Moscow.[21]

The city of Sochi borders with Tuapsinsky District in the northwest, with Apsheronsky District and with Maykopsky District of the Republic of Adygea in the north, IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

with Mostovsky District in the northwest, and with Abkhazia in the southeast. From the southwest, it is bounded by the Black Sea.

The vast majority of the population of Sochi lives in a narrow strip along the coast and is organized in independent microdistricts (formerly settlements). The biggest of these microdistricts, from the northwest to the southeast, are Lazarevskoye, Loo,Dagomys, Sochi proper (Tsentralny City District), Khosta, Matsesta, andAdler. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

The whole city is located on the slopes of the Western Caucasuswhich descend to the Black Sea and are cut by the rivers. The biggest rivers in Sochi are the Mzymta, which is in fact the longest Black Sea tributary in Russia, and the Shakhe. Other rivers include the Ashe, the Psezuapse, the Sochi, the Khosta, and the Matsesta. The Psou River makes the border with Abkhazia. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The northeastern part of the city belongs to the Caucasus Zapovednik which is a World Heritage Site spanning vast areas in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea. Almost the whole area of the Greater Sochi, with the exception of the coast and of the area which belong to the Caucasus Zapovednik, are included into Sochi National Park.

Sochi has a humid subtropical climate[22][23] with mild winters (average 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

at night) in the period from December to March and warm summers (average 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night) in the period from May to October.

Before the whole area was conquered by Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian invaders, the Zygii people lived in Smaller Abkhazia under the Kingdom of Pontus, then the Roman Empire's influence in antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

the area successively belonged to the kingdom of Lazica and kingdom of Abkhazia who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries. The Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading Göktürks,Khazars, Mongols and other nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands in the Loo Microdistrict.[24] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

From the 14th to the 19th centuries, the region was dominated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as Ubykhia was part of historical Circassia, and was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, which was their principal trading partner in the Muslim world. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Caucasian War and Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829; however, the Circassians did not admit the Russian control over Circassia and kept resisting the newly established Russian outposts along the Circassian coast (Adyghe:Адыгэ хы аушу).[8][25] Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom that occurred in 1836 over the mission of the Vixen.[26] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route fromGelendzhik to Gagra, and across the mountains to Kabarda, in the 1830s. In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year later, was founded at the mouth of the Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

At the outbreak of the Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on Cape Adler soon after.

The last battle of the Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 O.S., where the ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army. On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) on June 2 (May 21 O.S.), 1864, by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia.[8]

After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864–1870) almost all Ubykhs and a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire (see Circassian Genocide). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Starting in 1866 the coast was actively colonized by Russians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Greeks, Germans, Georgians and other people from inner Russia.[8][25]

In 1874–1891, the first Russian Orthodox church, St. Michael's Church, was constructed, and the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky Posad on April 13, 1874 (O.S.). In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

In 1896, the Dakhovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad (after the name of local river) and incorporated into the newly formed Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort. The first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909 (O.S.). Sochi was granted town status in 1917.

During the Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw sporadic armed clashes involving the Red Army, HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

White movement forces, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia. As a result of the war Sochi has become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a railway which runs fromTuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure.[8] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite dacha built in the city. Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public.[27] During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The centerpiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–1931). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.[8]

Following Russia's loss of the traditionally popular resorts of the Crimean peninsula (transferred away from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 byNikita Khrushchev), Sochi emerged as the unofficial summer capital of the country.[28] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

During Vladimir Putin's term in office, the city witnessed a significant increase in investment, although many Russian holidaymakers still flock to the cheaper resorts of neighbouring Abkhazia (Georgia), Ukraine, or to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Additionally, Sochi has also served as the location for the signing of many treaties, especially those between theGeorgian, separatist Abkhazian, and separatist South Ossetian governing authorities. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The area of the Russian city of Sochi was populated more than 100,000 years by ancient people of Asia Minor migrating through Colchis (olden Georgia). Ancient Greeks sailed to the region via the Black Sea in the 5th–6th centuries BC and encountered the Maeotae, Sindi, Cercetae, Zygii and other local tribes. They were the ancestors of the Abkhaz, Ubykh andAdyghe people who lived here until 1864; HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

many toponyms in Sochi, including the city itself, originate from their languages. The first Russian outpost was set up in central Sochi in 1838 as a part of the Russian expansion along theBlack Sea coast. The local resistance to this process resulted in the Caucasian War of 1817–1864, which ended in a Russian victory and the expulsion of the local population, mostly to Turkey. DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The Russian settlement built in the area was named Sochi in 1896 and received the status of a city (town) in 1917. The first tea plantations were established there in 1901–1905 and resulted in the production of the most prominent brand of Russian tea. From the end of the 19th century, the city has been developed as a dedicated area for sanatoriums and hospitals. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

It served as a rehabilitation center during World War II and, despite a decline following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, remains the majorresort town of Russia. An important recent event was selection of Sochi as the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics.

Geologically, the area of Sochi is composed of  Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

They had experienced significant changes due to the volcanic and seismic activity, with the earthquakes measuring up to 9 on the Richter scale. It was populated during the Lower Paleolithic more than 100,000 years ago by early humans migrating from Asia Minor through Colchis. They first formed open-type settlements, but during the Middle Paleolithic (100,000–35,000 years ago) moved to caves due to the global cooling. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

One evidence of that is known as a 40,000–50,000 old site in the Akhshtyrskaya Cave, 15 km from Adlersky City District. The cave is protected by the UNESCO and contains human remains, early tools and bones of bears, deer and other animals indicating the hunting nature of the inhabitants.[1][2] In the Upper Paleolithic (35,000–10,000 years ago) they have developed techniques of producing elaborated stone tools.[3] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The Ancient Greeks sailed to the Sochi area in the fifth–sixth centuries BC and kept visiting it till about first century BC. They encountered the Aehi, Zygiiand other people who were apparently keen for the luxury goods brought by Greeks and exchanged them for slaves. Slaves were a major commodity of the time, and thus the Caucasian coast became a slave trade center.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

An ethnic group of a few thousands of Greeks still lives around Krasnaya Polyana. Between 2,000 and 1,800 BC, the coastal area around Sochi had one cultural entity.A detailed description of the coastal area around Sochi originated from the naval expedition of the Frenchman Frédéric Dubois de Montpéreux (1708–1850) in 1833. He also compiled former descriptions of the region. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Montpéreux however could not land at the site of Sochi as his ship was met with a strong gun fire from the coast. He mentions that in the Middle Ages, a Genoan city of Mamai stood on river Psakhe (modern Mamaika in Sochi), and some 60 north from it a German fortress and a monastery.

Ottoman Turkey had much interest in the Black Sea coast as an outpost for its northern expansions, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

however, it had lost this area to Russia as a result of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829) and the Treaty of Adrianople. To further protect the coast from Turkey, a coastal line of defense was built in 1830–1839 consisting of 17 fortresses. Several of these fortresses were founded in the suburbs of the modern Sochi, such as the fortress of Holy Spirit in Adler (1837),[2] Lazarevskoye (1839) and Golovinskoe (1839). HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

On 23 April 1838, the first stone of the fortress was laid in central Sochi, at the mouth of the Sochi River. This day coincided with the birthday of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, the wife of Tsar Nicholas I, and the fortress was named Alexandria after her. It was however soon renamed into Navaginsky (for uncertain reason). The construction was completed in July 1838.[6] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

During the Crimean War of 1853–1856 it was abandoned and partly destroyed; it was rebuilt in 1864 under a new name Dakhovsky.[7] The locals however did not recognize Russian rule and fiercely opposed what they perceived as colonization. This opposition attracted the interest of Britain, which was apparently selling weapons and ammunition to the Circassians. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

This caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and Great Britain in 1836, centered on the Mission of the Vixen. The British ship Vixen loaded with weapons for the rebels was captured and confiscated by the Russians at the port Sudzhuk-Kale (nowadays Novorossiysk). The British protested, but the position of Tsar Nicholas I was firm and a quick order was given to prepare the army for a war with Britain.[8] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

The conflict quickly subsided, but not the local resistance, which resulted in the Russian Circassian War of 1817–1864, the longest in the history of the region. Its end was proclaimed on 21 May 1864 (Old Style) at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by the Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

On 10 May 1864, 12 Cossack stations were set up around the Sochi area for its protection. On 10 March 1866, a decree was proclaimed promoting relocation to the Sochi area of all peoples of Russia. A rural settlement quickly grew on the Black Sea coast. On 23 May 1896 it was named Sochi[7][9] and shortly after included into the newly formed Black Sea Governoratewith the administrative center in Novorossiysk. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

On 1 May 1898, the governing structure of Sochi was established, which consisted of a chair, vice-chair, and 12 deputies elected by people. In July 1917, the settlement received the status of atown. On 10 February 1961, it was expanded by the inclusion of Adler and Lazarevskoye districts and with an area of 3505 km² and length of 145 km became one of the world's longest cities.ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

In comparison, its area and length in 1941 were 32 km² and 30 km, respectively. From September 1937 until the present day, Sochi is a part of Krasnodar Krai

The major occupation of the new settlers was in agriculture, and many of them attempted to grow tea, which was then an expensive, yet the most popular non-alcoholic beverage in Russia. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Several attempts in the 1870s and 1880s failed because of the cold climate, and the first success was achieved in the early 1900s by the Ukrainian peasant Judas Antonovich Koshman (1838–1935). Koshman previously worked for a tea factory in Adjara, a place south to Sochi on the Black Sea coast. That tea was known in Russia but its taste was unpopular. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In 1901, Koshman brought seeds of tea plants from Adjara to Sochi (Solokhaul settlement) and developed a brand which was not only resistant to cold but also had a rich taste. The first successful plantation is dated to 1905. This new tea later became the distinct brand of Krasnodarsky Tea, which is the most prominent Russia-grown tea and is one of the northernmost teas in the world. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

The house of Koshman still stands in Solokhaul along with the tea bushes planted by his hands.

During this period, numerous stone monuments (dolmens) were built around Sochi, and at least fifty remain to the present day. It is still unclear how these tombs weighing tens of tons were built with such an accuracy (some stones match each other within millimetres), and what exactly their purpose was.[4] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

Numerous bronze tools and trade objects, dated to 800–700 BC, were found near Sochi indicating active exchange with the nearby areas.[3] In the Middle Ages, the region was mostly influenced by the Byzantine Empire and Christianity, as evidenced by the style of nine churches and eighteen fortresses dating from those times. The northern wall of an eleventh-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands inLoo Microdistrict. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

In the 14th–17th centuries, the area was mostly populated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe peoplewho lived in small clay-wooden houses called “saklya” built on the mountain slopes. Although they shared the same region, which was then sometimes called Circassia, they spoke different languages and had different cultures. Despite their small size and massive external influence, they considered themselves independent nations. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Their early religion was a form of shamanism. However, interaction with Turkey resulted in the dominance of Islam, especially between 1829 and 1864 when it was used as a mean to further separate the locals with Russians, who were mainly Orthodox Christians. After the end of the Caucasus War, the Russian government urged relocation of the coastal tribes. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

This initiative was avidly promoted by the Turkish authorities; however, the relocation to Turkey resulted in much suffering and death as the refugee camps in Turkey could not cope with the large numbers of migrants. Seeing that, the Russians later reversed their policy and invited the locals back, but they already assimilated with Turks and refused the offer.[1] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The new settlers coming belonged to various nationalities (mostly Russians, but also Ukrainians, Georgians, Moldovans, Belorussians, Estonians, Letts and Germans) and religious groups, such as Catholics, Lutherans, Gregorian Armenians, Sunniand other Muslims, but the predominant part was Orthodox Christians. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The first Orthodox church in Sochi, the St. Michael's Church, was designed by Alexander Kaminsky and constructed in 1874–1891. Its construction was promoted by the Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich aiming to commemorate the Russian victory in the Caucasian War and sponsored by Savva Mamontov and Count Felix Felixovich Sumarokov-Elston, among others. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Many areas and geographical features of Sochi retained their original names through its entire history. The city itself and its major river were named after the Ubykh tribe Soatshe which was living in the area before 1864.[3] It is believed that the name Adler originates not from German word for "eagle", but from the name of an Adyghe tribe, so as Loo. Dagomys means "cool place" in Adyghean,[13] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Tuapse means "two waters", Matsesta – "fiery water", Kudepsta – "oily water", and Shepsi – "waterless".

The economical development of Sochi was greatly accelerated by the development of transport. So, in 1888, the construction of a transcoastal road from Novorossiysk to Sukhumi reached Sochi, and a road to Krasnaya Polyana was laid in 1899. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

In 1934–1936, all minor roads within the city were consolidated in a highway named after Stalin (now Kurortnyi Prospect). By 1916, railways were laid connecting Sochi with Russia via Tuapse. The first train station of Sochi was built around 1916 and rebuilt to nearly its present look in 1952. Later, the seaport (1955) and Sochi International Airport were constructed in central Sochi and in Adler, respectively. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

The Sochi Lighthouse was erected much earlier, in February 1890.[3]

Around that time, the development of Sochi was directed toward creating a health resort and a green city. In 1902, a wooden bath complex was raised on the territory of modern Matsesta springs and a joint venture regulating its operation was set up in 1912 led by the merchant M. M. Zensinov and doctor V. F. Podgursky. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The first spa resort named "Kavkazskaya Riviera" was opened on 14 June 1909.[7] The first city doctor was A. L. Gordon (1871–1940) who in 1911 established the first hospital in Sochi with the capacity of 35 beds. A number of writers, painters and artists had moved to the area by then and helped establish the educational system of the city.[3] In particular, the Soviet writer Nikolai Ostrovsky lived in Sochi between 1928 and 1936 and has a monument and a museum devoted to him.[7] SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

As a result of the October Revolution in 1917, all the infrastructure of Sochi was nationalized by the Bolsheviks in the spring of 1918. Georgian intervention resulted in a Russian-Georgian military conflict which lasted from July 1918 to February 1919. Actions of the Volunteer Army and local population resulted in the defeat of Georgian forces. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

In February 1918, the city was occupied by the Volunteer Army which restored the pre-revolution government system and forced local population to join the army. These measures were met with resistance and in April–October 1919, the local peasants had formed 30 partisan units (named the "Green Army") with the total force of 3,000 people. In parallel, in March 1919, a local section of the Red Army was formed and later merged with the main body. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

On 29 April 1920, the Volunteer Army was defeated in the Sochi area and its capitulation was signed on 2 May.[3][7]

In 1920, the management system was set up for developing the health resort infrastructure in Sochi. The first priority was eradicating malaria. In the swampy area of Sochi, this disease was so rampant[15] that the very existence of a health resort here was seriously questioned. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

The first anti-malaria station was established in 1921. Many swamps were dried and Eucalyptustrees were planted to accelerate the process, as they consume much water. A crucial step was introduction in 1925 of the fishGambusia affinis (mosquitofish), which feeds on the aquatic larval and pupal stages of mosquitoes. As a result, the number of malaria cases reduced 6 times by the mid-1930s; HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

however, the disease wasn't completely eradicated until 1956.[3][16] A monument to the fish was raised in Adler in 2010.[17][18]

In 1924, the Caucasian State Nature Biosphere Reserve was established about 72 km (45 mi) east from central Sochi. It occupies about 2,633 km2 (1,017 sq mi)[9] and preserves some 85 m-high specimens of the Nordmann Fir (Abies nordmanniana), IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

thought to be the tallest trees in Europe, and a unique forest formed by English Yew (Taxus baccata) and European Box (Buxus sempervirens). About a third of its high mountain species of plants are recognized as endemic. The area also includes the Sochi National Park (IUCN management category II). It hosted the rare Caucasian Wisent, but the last three animals were killed in 1927.[19] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

In 1940, a group of wisent-American bison hybrids were released into the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve.[20] These hybrids are described as a different subspecies, the highland bison (Bison bonasus montanus).[21]

The first medical research institution was established in Sochi in 1936 and named after Stalin. Between 1936 and 1939 it was led by professor (and then academician) A. I. Nesterov[22] and included laboratories and 4 hospitals with the total of 200 beds.DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The research of that institute was focused on balneotherapy andphysiotherapy. In January 1934, Sochi was included in the list of the first-priority expansion areas of Soviet Union (which was usually reserved for industry). As a result, by 1940 the city contained more than 60 sanatoriums and hospitals with the total capacity of about 9,000 beds. In comparison, in the late 1920s, there were only 6 sanatoriums with 465 beds.[3] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The development of Sochi was promoted by Joseph Stalin who had his favorite dacha built in the city – a tradition followed by most succeeding Soviet and Russian leaders. Those dachas were used not only for personal leisure, but also hosted numerous (less formal) meetings with high-ranking foreign officials.

During World War II, nearly the whole city became a large hospital for the wounded at the Eastern Front; FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

about 300,000 soldiers convalesced in the 111 hospitals of Sochi during that period. About 2,000 of donors contributed 20 tonnes of blood for this purpose. Also, 18,707 citizens were mobilized into the Army; of them 4,566 were killed and 17 were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union award (8 posthumously). For its achievements during the war, the city was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War in 1980. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

The resort infrastructure of the city was partly destroyed during the war and rebuilt by the early 1950s.[3]

After the war, the city kept its position as the leading sanatorium and health resort of the Soviet Union. By 1960s, it was receiving about 500,000 visitors per year, i.e. about four times its population. This motivated the government to expand the city by including the Adler and Lazarevskoye districts. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

By the 1980s, the number of tourists rose to 5,000,000 per year, including 200,000 foreigners. It decreased dramatically to 300,000 in the 1990s due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and partly recovered to about 1,500,000 by the year 2000.[3]

Technical areas have always played a secondary role in modern Sochi and were represented mostly by construction and food industries. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The latter focuses on production of fruits and vegetables, tea, honey, fish and poultry.[7] The commercial fishing in the Black Sea is rather inactive, but there is a trout aquafarm in the city.[3] A major recent event was the selection of Sochi as the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics that resulted in a major reconstruction of the city. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement and seventy-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.[2]

Sochi is administratively subdivided into four city districts: Tsentralny City District, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Lazarevsky City District, Khostinsky City District, and Adlersky City District. Tsentralny City District, comprising the city of Sochi proper, is by far the smallest out of four in terms of the area, and the other three have comparable areas, with Lazarevsky City District being the biggest. In terms of the population, Tsentralny City District is approximately twice as big as each of the other three city districts. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.[5] The highlights include:

Michael Archangel Cathedral, a diminutive church built in 1873–1891 to Kaminsky's designs in order to commemorate the victorious conclusion of the Caucasian War. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

  • The red-granite Archangel Column, erected in 2006 in memory of the Russian soldiers fallen in Sochi during the Caucasian War. It is capped by a 7-metre bronze statue of Sochi's patron saint, Michael the Archangel.

Sochi Art Museum occupies a large building with a four-columned portico, completed in 1939. The Neoclassical design is byIvan Zholtovsky. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

  • Sochi Arboretum, a large botanical garden with tropical trees from many countries, and the Mayors Alleé—a landscape avenue of palm trees planted by mayors from cities around the world.

The Tree of Friendship, a hybrid citrus tree planted in 1934 in the Subtropical Botanic Garden. Since 1940 numerous citrus cultivars from foreign countries have been grafted onto this tree as a token of friendship and peace. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

  • The associated Friendship Tree Garden Museum has a collection of 20,000 commemorative presents from around the world.
  • The Winter Theater (1934–1937) is another rigorously Neoclassical edifice, surrounded by 88 Corinthian columns, with a pediment bearing the statues of Terpsichore, Melpomene and Thalia, all three cast by Vera Mukhina.

Hall of Organ and Chamber Music. Located centrally in the city of Sochi it conducts organ, symphony, chamber-ensemble, choral, vocal music concerts. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

  • All year round the Sochi Symphony Orchestra, local actors of the city art groups, famous Russian and international performers, International Contests Winners and Laureates give concerts here.
  • The Maritime Passenger Terminal (1955) is notable for its distinctive 71-meter-high steepled tower and four statues symbolizing the cardinal points.

The Railway Station (1952) is one of the most remarkable buildings of Sochi. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The Riviera Park was established by Vasily Alexeyevich Khludov in 1883 in the part of the city which later became known as Khludovskaya. The park is popular with tourists and local residents alike. It has a variety of attractions, including an outcrop of funny statues and a "glade of friendship" where magnoliatrees were planted by every Soviet cosmonaut, among other notables. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894people.[5]It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising severalmicrodistricts:Lazarevskoye, 59 km (37 mi) from the city center, contains a delphinarium, an old church (1903), and a new church (1999). Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

The settlement was founded as a Russian military outpost in 1839 and was named after Admiral Mikhail Lazarev.

Loo, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, was once owned by Princes Loov, a noble Abkhazian family claiming patrilineal descent from King Anos, whose royal title was sanctioned by Emperor Heraclius in 623 AD. The district contains the ruins of a medieval church, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

founded in the 8th century, rebuilt in the 11th century, and converted into a fortress in the Late Middle Ages.

Dagomys, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, has been noted for its botanical garden, established by order of Nicholas II, as well as tea plantations and factories. A sprawling hotel complex was opened there in 1982. Dagomys adjoins Bocharov Ruchey, a dacha built for Kliment Voroshilov in the 1950s,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

but later upgraded into a country residence of the President of Russia, where he normally spends his vacations and often confers with leaders of other states.

Golovinka is a historic location at the mouth of the Shakhe River. Formerly marking the border between the Ubykhs and the Shapsugs, the settlement was noted by Italian travelers of the 17th century as Abbasa. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

On May 3, 1838, it was the site of the Subashi landing of the Russians, who proceeded to construct Fort Golovinsky where many convicted Decembrists used to serve. The fort was intentionally destroyed by Russian forces at the beginning of the Crimean War, so as to avoid its capture by the enemy.

Fort Godlik, of which little remains, had a turbulent history. It was built at the mouth of the Godlik River in the Byzantine period (5th to 8th centuries), SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

was destroyed by the Khazars and revived by the Genoese in the High Middle Ages.

Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census.[5] The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars").

Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census,[5] is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient Sadz village and a medievalGenoese trading post. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages (auls), the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the2014 Winter Olympics. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Also located here are the largest trout fishery in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes.

The Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to the Sochi region in the Middle Ages.[37] The region was relatively isolated before 1829.[37] In the North, a few hundred Sunni Muslim Shapsugs, a part of the Adyghe nation, lived around Tkhagapsh, nearLazarevskoye. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Adyghe people (also known as Circassians) converted to Islam from Christianity in the 17th century.[38] In the nineteenth century, Islam spread to the region.[37]

Currently, Sochi is a large predominantly Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims (5% of inhabitants) living there now (the majority are from Adyghe) plus other Eastern Caucasians, Turks, Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.[39] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

A mosque was built in 2008 by United Arab Emirates in the central area of Bytkha, in addition to the old mosque being around 40 km (25 miles) north of the city center[39][40] in the Adyghe aul of Tkhagapsh.

There are around thirty Christian Orthodox churches, the largest being St. Michael's, and two monasteries, plus two Catholic churches, one in the center of Sochi and the other in Lazarevskoye. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Armenian community, which is important in Sochi, gathers in about ten churches.

Sochi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[22] at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months—January and February—the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months—July and August—the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts six months, from May to October. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Two months—April and November—are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual precipitationis about 1,700 millimeters (67 in).[9][23][41] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi lies at 8b/9a hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees.[21] Sochi is situated on the same latitude as Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter for one or two days. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi is unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer,[46] when the city is home to the annual film festival "Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Public transport is represented mainly by bus and taxi. Sochi is served by the Adler-Sochi International Airport. A kind of non-mass public transport are also two funicular (the Central military sanatorium and Ordzhonikidze resort) and three cable cars (at arboretum sanatorium "Dawn" and pension "Neva") also has several cableways in Krasnaya Polyana.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Sochi Port terminal building was built in 1955 by Karo Alabyan and Leonid Karlik in Stalinist architecture. It is topped with a 71-meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers.

Five of the railway stations of Sochi were renovated for the 2014 Winter Olympics. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta andKhosta railway stations. In Adler city district of Sochi, the original railway station was preserved and new railway stationwas built near it. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.

At some point, plans to construct the light metro network to serve the Olympics were considered; however, the Sochi Light Metro plan was abandoned in favor of the reconstruction of the railway. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Sochi is also known for its sport facilities: a local tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as Grand Slam champions Maria Sharapova andYevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. And it's home to FC Zhemchuzhina who play in the Russian First Division.The nearby ski resort of Roza Khutor at Krasnaya Polyana is the location of the alpine and Nordic events for the 2014 Winter Olympics.In June 2006, the International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out Pyeongchang, South Korea and Salzburg, Austria.[48]

This will be Russia's first time hosting the Winter Olympic Games, and its first time hosting the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, in 2008, the city had no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition.[49] HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government committed a $12 billion investment package,[50] shared 60%–40% between the government and private sector.[51] According to some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may exceed that of any previous Olympic games.[49] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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