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10 avril 2012 2 10 /04 /avril /2012 03:17

Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He is most noted for his novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885),[2] the latter often called "the Great American Novel." Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

Twain grew up in Hannibal, Missouri, which would later provide the setting for Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. He apprenticed with a printer. He also worked as a typesetter and contributed articles to his older brother Orion's newspaper.  Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

After toiling as a printer in various cities, he became a master riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River, before heading west to join Orion. He was a failure at gold mining, so he next turned to journalism. While a reporter, he wrote a humorous story,  Sony VGP-BPS8B battery

 "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", which became very popular and brought nationwide attention. His travelogues were also well-received. Twain had found his calling. HP G62-153CA Battery

He achieved great success as a writer and public speaker. His wit and satire earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty. HP G62-154CA Battery

 

He lacked financial acumen, and, though he made a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, he squandered it on various ventures, in particular the Paige Compositor, and was forced to declare bankruptcy. With the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers he eventually overcame his financial troubles. Twain worked hard to ensure that all of his creditors were paid in full, even though his bankruptcy had relieved him of the legal responsibility. HP G62-165SL Battery

 

Twain was born during a visit by Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well. He died the day following the comet's subsequent return. He was lauded as the "greatest American humorist of his age,"[3] and William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature."[4]HP G62-166SB Battery

 

Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born in Florida, Missouri on November 30, 1835. He was the son of Jane (née Lampton; 1803–1890), a native of Kentucky, and John Marshall Clemens (1798–1847), a Virginian by birth. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri and were married several years later, in 1823.[5][6] He was the sixth of seven children but only three of his siblings survived childhood: HP G62-200XX Battery

his brother Orion (1825–1897), Henry, who died in a riverboat explosion (1838–1858), and Pamela (1827–1904). His sister Margaret (1833–1839) died when he was three, and his brother Benjamin (1832–1842) died three years later. Another brother, Pleasant (1828–1829), died at six months.[7] Twain was born two weeks after the closest approach to Earth of Halley's Comet. HP G62-201XX Battery

 

When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri,[8] a port town on theMississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.[9] Missouri was a slave state and young Twain became familiar with the institution of slavery, a theme he would later explore in his writing. HP G62-219WM Battery

Twain's father was an attorney and judge.[10] The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was organized in his office in 1846. The railroad connected the second and third largest cities in the state and was the westernmost United States railroad until the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad. It delivered mail to and from the Pony Express.[11]HP G62-251XX Battery

 

In 1847, when Twain was 11, his father died of pneumonia.[12] The next year, he became a printer's apprentice. In 1851, he began working as a typesetter and contributor of articles and humorous sketches for the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper owned by his brother Orion. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City,Philadelphia, HP G62-400 Battery

St. Louis, and Cincinnati. He joined the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers union and educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school.[13]HP G62-450SA Battery

 Clemens came from St. Louis on the packet Keokuk in 1854,[14] and lived in Muscatine during part of the summer of 1855. The Muscatine newspaper published eight stories which amounted to almost 6,000 words.[15]HP G62-451SA Battery

 

On a voyage to New Orleans down the Mississippi, steamboat pilot Horace E. Bixby inspired Twain to become a pilot himself. As Twain observed in Life on the Mississippi, the pilot surpassed a steamboat's captain in prestige and authority; it was a rewarding occupation with wages set at $250 per month.[16]HP G62-452SA Battery

 A steamboat pilot needed to know the ever-changing river to be able to stop at the hundreds of ports and wood-lots. Twain studied 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the Mississippi for more than two years before he received his steamboat pilot license in 1859. HP G62-454TU Battery

This occupation gave him his pen name, Mark Twain, from "mark twain," the cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him. Henry was killed on June 21, 1858, when the steamboat he was working on, the Pennsylvania, exploded. Twain had foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier,[17] HP G62-456TU Battery

which inspired his interest inparapsychology; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research.[18]Twain was guilt-stricken and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. He continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the American Civil War broke out in 1861 and traffic along the Mississippi was curtailed. HP G62-460TX Battery

 

During the Civil War, Missouri was considered by many to be part of the South and was represented in both the Confederate and Federal governments. Twain wrote a sketch, "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed," which claimed he and his friends had been Confederate volunteers for two weeks before disbanding their company.[19]HP G62-467TX Battery

Travels

Twain joined Orion, who in 1861 became secretary to James W. Nye, the governor ofNevada Territory, and headed west. Twain and his brother traveled more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, visiting the Mormon community in Salt Lake City. HP G62-468TX Battery

The experiences inspired Roughing It and provided material for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia City, Nevada, where he became a miner.[19]HP G62-550EE Battery

 Twain failed as a miner and worked at a Virginia City newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise.[20] Here he first used his pen name. On February 3, 1863, he signed a humorous travel account "Letter From Carson – re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson's; music" with "Mark Twain."[21]HP G62-a00 Battery

Twain moved to San Francisco, California in 1864, still as a journalist. He met writers such as Bret Harte, Artemus Ward, and Dan DeQuille. The young poet Ina Coolbrith may have romanced him.[22]HP G62-a00EF Battery

 

His first success as a writer came when his humorous tall tale, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," was published in a New York weekly, The Saturday Press, on November 18, 1865. It brought him national attention. A year later, he traveled to theSandwich Islands (present-day Hawaii) as a reporter for the Sacramento Union. His travelogues were popular and became the basis for his first lectures.[23]HP G62-a01SA Battery

 

In 1867, a local newspaper funded a trip to the Mediterranean. During his tour of Europe and the Middle East, he wrote a popular collection of travel letters, which were later compiled as The Innocents Abroad in 1869. It was on this trip that he met his future brother-in-law, Charles Langdon. HP G62-a03SA Battery

Both were passengers aboard the Quaker City on their way to the Holy Land. Langdon showed a picture of his sister Olivia to Twain; Twain claimed to have fallen in love at first sight. HP G62-a04EA Battery

 

Upon returning to the United States, Twain was offered honorary membership in the secret society Scroll and Key of Yale University in 1868.[24] Its devotion to "fellowship, moral and literary self-improvement, and charity" suited him well. HP G62-a04SA Battery

 

Marriage and children

vThroughout 1868, Twain and Olivia Langdon corresponded but she rejected his first marriage proposal. Two months later, they were engaged. In February 1870, Twain and Langdon were married in Elmira, New York,[23] where he had courted her. HP G62-a10SA Battery

She came from a "wealthy but liberal family," and through her he met abolitionists, "socialists, principled atheists and activists for women's rights and social equality," including Harriet Beecher Stowe (his next-door neighbor in Hartford, Connecticut), Frederick Douglass, and the writer and utopian socialist William Dean Howells,[25] HP G62-a13SA Battery

who became a long-time friend. The couple lived in Buffalo, New York from 1869 to 1871. Twain owned a stake in the Buffalo Express newspaper and worked as an editor and writer. While living in Buffalo, their son Langdon died of diphtheria at 19 months. HP G62-a13SE Battery

They had three daughters: Susy (1872–1896),Clara (1874–1962)[26] and Jean (1880–1909). The couple's marriage lasted 34 years, until Olivia's death in 1904. All of the Clemens family are buried in Elmira's Woodlawn Cemetery. HP G62-a15EO Battery

Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where starting in 1873, he arranged the building of a home (local admirers saved it from demolition in 1927 and eventually turned it into a museum focused on him). In the 1870s and 1880s, Twain and his family summered at Quarry Farm, the home of Olivia's sister, Susan Crane.[27][28]HP G62-a15SA Battery

 In 1874,[27] Susan had a study built apart from the main house so that her brother-in-law would have a quiet place in which to write. Also, Twain smoked pipes constantly, and Susan Crane did not wish him to do so in her house. During his seventeen years in Hartford (1874–1891) and over twenty summers at Quarry Farm, HP G62-a16SA Battery

Twain wrote many of his classic novels, among them The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), The Prince and the Pauper (1881), Life on the Mississippi (1883), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889). HP G62-a17EA Battery

 

Twain made a second tour of Europe, described in the 1880 book A Tramp Abroad. His tour included a stay in Heidelberg from May 6 until July 23, 1878, and a visit to London. HP G62-a17SA Battery

 

Love of science and technology

Twain was fascinated with science and scientific inquiry. He developed a close and lasting friendship with Nikola Tesla, and the two spent much time together in Tesla's laboratory. HP G62-a18SA Battery

Twain patented three inventions, including an "Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments" (to replace suspenders) and a history trivia game.[29] Most commercially successful was a self-pasting scrapbook; a dried adhesive on the pages only needed to be moistened before use. HP G62-a19EA Battery

His book A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court features a time traveler from contemporary America, using his knowledge of science to introduce modern technology toArthurian England. This type of storyline would later become a common feature of ascience fiction sub-genre, alternate history. HP G62-a19SA Battery

In 1909, Thomas Edison visited Twain at his home in Redding, Connecticut and filmed him. Part of the footage was used in The Prince and the Pauper (1909), a two-reel short film. HP G62-a20SA Battery

Financial troubles

Twain made a substantial amount of money through his writing, but he lost a great deal through investments, mostly in new inventions and technology, particularly the Paige typesetting machine. It was a beautifully engineered mechanical marvel that amazed viewers when it worked, but was prone to breakdowns. HP G62-a21EA Battery

Twain spent $300,000 (equal to $8,058,462 today[30]) on it between 1880 and 1894,[31] but before it could be perfected, it was made obsolete by the Linotype. He lost not only the bulk of his book profits but also a substantial portion of his wife's inheritance.[32]HP G62-a21SA Battery

 

Twain also lost money through his publishing house, which enjoyed initial success selling the memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, but went broke soon after, losing money on a biography of Pope Leo XIII; fewer than two hundred copies were sold.[32]HP G62-a22SA Battery

 

Twain's writings and lectures, combined with the help of a new friend, enabled him to recover financially.[33] In 1893, he began a 15-year-long friendship with financier Henry Huttleston Rogers, a principal of Standard Oil. Rogers first made Twain file for bankruptcy. HP G62-a23SA Battery

Then Rogers had Twain transfer the copyrights on his written works to his wife, Olivia, to prevent creditors from gaining possession of them. Finally, Rogers took absolute charge of Twain's money until all the creditors were paid. HP G62-a22SE Battery

 

Twain embarked on a year-long, around-the-world lecture tour in July 1895[34] to pay off his creditors in full, although he was no longer under any legal obligation to do so.[35] It would be a long, arduous journey and he was sick much of the time, mostly from a cold and a carbuncle. HP G62-a24SA Battery

The itinerary took him to Hawaii, Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka,India, Mauritius, South Africa and England. Twain's three months in India became the centerpiece of his 712-page book Following the Equator. HP G62-a25EA Battery

 

In mid-1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House. Twain wrote of Dollis Hill that he had "never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit's throw of the metropolis of the world."[36] He then returned to America in 1900, having earned enough to pay off his debts. HP G62-a25SA Battery

 

Speaking engagements

Twain was in demand as a featured speaker, performing solo humorous talks similar to what would become stand-up comedy.[37] He gave paid talks to many men's clubs, including the Authors' Club, Beefsteak Club, Vagabonds, White Friars, and Monday Evening Club of Hartford. He was made an honorary member of the Bohemian Club in San Francisco. HP G62-a26SA Battery

In the late 1890s, he spoke to the Savage Club in London and was elected honorary member. When told that only three men had been so honored, including thePrince of Wales, he replied "Well, it must make the Prince feel mighty fine."[38]HP G62-a27SA Battery

 In 1897, Twain spoke to the Concordia Press Club in Vienna as a special guest, following diplomatCharlemagne Tower, Jr.. In German, to the great amusement of the assemblage, Twain delivered the speech "Die Schrecken der deutschen Sprache" ("The Horrors of the German Language").[39]HP G62-a28SA Battery

 

Later life and death

Twain passed through a period of deep depression, which began in 1896 when his daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom.[40] On May 20, 1909, his close friend Henry Rogers died suddenly. In 1906, Twain began his autobiography in the North American Review. HP G62-a29EA Battery

In April, Twain heard that his friend Ina Coolbrith had lost nearly all she owned in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and he volunteered a few autographed portrait photographs to be sold for her benefit. To further aid Coolbrith, George Wharton James visited Twain in New York and arranged for a new portrait session. Initially resistant, Twain admitted that four of the resulting images were the finest ones ever taken of him.[41]HP G62-a29SA Battery

 

Twain formed a club in 1906 for girls he viewed as surrogate granddaughters, the Angel Fish and Aquarium Club. The dozen or so members ranged in age from 10 to 16. Twain exchanged letters with his "Angel Fish" girls and invited them to concerts and the theatre and to play games. Twain wrote in 1908 that the club was his "life's chief delight."[42]HP G62-a30SA Battery

 

Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse, but evolved into a chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, with Huckleberry Finn, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative and social criticism. HP G62-a38EE Battery

Twain was a master at rendering colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literature built on American themes and language. Many of Twain's works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger," which was in common usage in the pre-Civil War period in which the novel was set. HP G62-a40SA Battery

 

A complete bibliography of his works is nearly impossible to compile because of the vast number of pieces written by Twain (often in obscure newspapers) and his use of several different pen names. Additionally, a large portion of his speeches and lectures have been lost or were not written down; thus, the collection of Twain's works is an ongoing process. Researchers rediscovered published material by Twain as recently as 1995.[32]HP G62-a43SA Battery

 

While writing for the Virginia City newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise in 1863, Clemens met lawyer Tom Fitch, editor of the competing newspaper Virginia Daily Union and known as the "silver-tongued orator of the Pacific."[48]:51HP G62-a44EE Battery

 He credited Fitch with giving him his "first really profitable lesson" in writing. In 1866, Clemens presented his lecture on the Sandwich Islands to a crowd in Washoe City, Nevada.[49] Clemens commented that, "When I first began to lecture, and in my earlier writings, my sole idea was to make comic capital out of everything I saw and heard." HP G62-a44SA Battery

Fitch told him, "Clemens, your lecture was magnificent. It was eloquent, moving, sincere. Never in my entire life have I listened to such a magnificent piece of descriptive narration. But you committed one unpardonable sin—the unpardonable sin. HP G62-a45SA Battery

It is a sin you must never commit again. You closed a most eloquent description, by which you had keyed your audience up to a pitch of the intensest interest, with a piece of atrocious anti-climax which nullified all the really fine effect you had produced."[50] It was in these days that Twain became a writer of the Sagebrush School, and was known later as the most notable within this literary genre.[51]HP G62-a50SG Battery

 

Twain's first important work, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," was first published in the New York Saturday Press on November 18, 1865. The only reason it was published there was that his story arrived too late to be included in a book Artemus Ward was compiling featuring sketches of the wild American West. HP G62-a53SG Battery

 

After this burst of popularity, the Sacramento Union commissioned Twain to write letters about his travel experiences. The first journey he took for this job was to ride the steamerAjax in its maiden voyage to Hawaii, referred to at the time as the Sandwich Islands. HP G62-a60SA Battery

These humorous letters proved the genesis to his work with the San Francisco Alta California newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City via the Panama isthmus. HP G62-b00SA Battery

All the while, Twain was writing letters meant for publishing back and forth, chronicling his experiences with his burlesque humor. On June 8, 1867, Twain set sail on the pleasure cruiser Quaker City for five months. This trip resulted in The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrims' Progress. HP G62-b09SA Battery

 

This book is a record of a pleasure trip. If it were a record of a solemn scientific expedition it would have about it the gravity, that profundity, and that impressive incomprehensibility which are so proper to works of that kind, and withal so attractive. HP G62-b10SA Battery

Yet not withstanding it is only a record of a picnic, it has a purpose, which is, to suggest to the reader how he would be likely to see Europe and the East if he looked at them with his own eyes instead of the eyes of those who traveled in those countries before him. I make small pretense of showing anyone how he ought to look at objects of interest beyond the sea – other books do that, and therefore, even if I were competent to do it, there is no need. HP G62-b11SA Battery

 

In 1872, Twain published a second piece of travel literature, Roughing It, as a semi-sequel to InnocentsRoughing It is a semi-autobiographical account of Twain's journey to Nevada and his subsequent life in the American West. HP G62-b12SA Battery

The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that Innocents critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. Twain's next work kept Roughing It's focus on American society but focused more on the events of the day. HP G62-b13EA Battery

Entitled The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, it was not a travel piece, as his previous two books had been, and it was his first attempt at writing anovel. The book is also notable because it is Twain's only collaboration; it was written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner. HP G62-b13SA Battery

 

Twain's next two works drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. Old Times on the Mississippi, a series of sketches published in the Atlantic Monthly in 1875, featured Twain's disillusionment with Romanticism.[52] Old Times eventually became the starting point for Life on the Mississippi. HP G62-b14SA Battery

 

TOM SAWYER AND HUCKLEBERRY FINN

Twain's next major publication was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which drew on his youth in Hannibal. Tom Sawyer was modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of two schoolmates, John Briggs and Will Bowen. The book also introduced in a supporting role Huckleberry Finn, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship. HP G62-b15SA Battery

 

The Prince and the Pauper, despite a storyline that is omnipresent in film and literature today, was not as well received. Telling the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, the book acts as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. HP G62-b16EA Battery

Pauper was Twain's first attempt at historical fiction, and blame for its shortcomings is usually put on Twain for having not been experienced enough in English society, and also on the fact that it was produced after a massive hit. HP G62-b16SA Battery

In between the writing of Pauper, Twain had started Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (which he consistently had problems completing[53]) and started and completed another travel book,A Tramp Abroad, which follows Twain as he traveled through central and southern Europe. HP G62-b17EO Battery

 

Twain's next major published work, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, solidified him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel, and the book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States.Huckleberry Finn was an offshoot from Tom Sawyer and had a more serious tone than its predecessor. HP G62-b17SA Battery

The main premise behind Huckleberry Finn is the young boy's belief in the right thing to do though most believed that it was wrong. Four hundred manuscript pages of Huckleberry Finn were written in mid-1876, right after the publication of Tom Sawyer.Some accounts have Twain taking seven years off after his first burst of creativity, eventually finishing the book in 1883. HP G62-b18SA Battery

Other accounts have Twain working on Huckleberry Finn in tandem with The Prince and the Pauper and other works in 1880 and other years. The last fifth of Huckleberry Finn is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experienced, as critic Leo Marx puts it, a "failure of nerve." Ernest Hemingway once said ofHuckleberry Finn: HP G62-b19SA Battery

 

If you read it, you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.

Hemingway also wrote in the same essay:

All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.[54]HP G62-b20SA Battery

 

Near the completion of Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote Life on the Mississippi, which is said to have heavily influenced the former book.[32] The work recounts Twain's memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi. In it, he also states that "Mark Twain" was the call made when the boat was in safe water – two fathoms(12 ft/3.7 m). HP G62-B20so Battery

 

LATER WRITING

After his great work, Twain began turning to his business endeavors to keep them afloat and to stave off the increasing difficulties he had been having from his writing projects. Twain focused on President Ulysses S. Grant's Memoirs for his fledgling publishing company, HP G62-b21SA Battery

finding time in between to write "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed" for The Century Magazine. This piece detailed his two-week stint in a Confederate militia during the Civil War. The name of his publishing company was Charles L. Webster & Company, which he owned with Charles L. Webster, his nephew by marriage.[55]HP G62-b22SA Battery

 

Twain next focused on A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, which featured him making his first big pronouncement of disappointment with politics. Written with the same "historical fiction" style of The Prince and the PauperHP G62-b23SA Battery

A Connecticut Yankee showed the absurdities of political and social norms by setting them in the court of King Arthur. The book was started in December 1885, then shelved a few months later until the summer of 1887, and eventually finished in the spring of 1889. HP G62-b24SA Battery

 

Twain had begun to furiously write articles and commentary with diminishing returns to pay the bills and keep his business projects afloat, but it was not enough. He filed for bankruptcy in 1894. HP G62-b25SA Battery

 

His next large-scale work, Pudd'nhead Wilson, was written rapidly, as Twain was desperately trying to stave off the bankruptcy. From November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote 60,000 words for the novel.[32] HP G62-b26SA Battery

Critics have pointed to this rushed completion as the cause of the novel's rough organization and constant disruption of continuous plot. There were parallels between this work and Twain's financial failings, notably his desire to escape his current constraints and become a different person. HP G62-b27EA Battery

 

Like The Prince and the Pauper, this novel also contains the tale of two boys born on the same day who switch positions in life. Considering the circumstances of Twain's birth and Halley's Comet, and his strong belief in the paranormal, it is not surprising that these "mystic" connections recur throughout his writing. HP G62-b27SA Battery

 

The actual title is not clearly established. It was first published serially in Century Magazine, and when it was finally published in book form, Pudd'nhead Wilson appeared as the main title; however, the disputed "subtitles" make the entire title read: The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins.[32]HP G62 Battery


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WASHINGTON WINE

Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind onlyCalifornia.[50] By 2006, the state had over 31,000 acres (130 km2) of vineyards, a harvestof 120,000 short tons (109,000 t) of grapes, and exports going to over 40 countries around the world from the 600 wineries located in the state. HP G42-361TU Battery

While there are some viticulturalactivities in the cooler, wetter western half of the state, the majority (99%) of wine grape production takes place in the desert-like eastern half.[51] HP G42-361TX Battery

The rain shadow of the Cascade Range leaves the Columbia River Basin with around 8 inches (200 mm) of annual rain fall, making irrigation and water rights of paramount interest to the Washington wine industry. HP G42-364TX Battery

Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours (on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season) and consistent temperatures.[52] HP G42-365TX Battery

 

Washington has a system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as an extensiveferry system which is the largest in the nation[53] and the third largest in the world. HP G42-366TU Battery

There are 140 public airfields in Washington, including 16 state airports owned by theWashington State Department of Transportation. Boeing Field in Seattle is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the US. HP G42-366TX Battery

Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SeaTac) is the other major airport of greater Seattle.[54] The unique geography of Washington creates exceptional transportation challenges. HP G42-367CL Battery

 

There are extensive waterways in the midst of Washington's largest cites, includingSeattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area. HP G42-367TU Battery

Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to 147,000 sailings each year. HP G42-368TX Battery

Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington, and the Hood Canal Bridge which connects the Olympic Peninsula and Kitsap Peninsula. HP G42-369TU Battery

 

The Cascade Mountain Range also provides unique transportation challenges. Washington operates and maintains roads over seven major mountain passes and eight minor passes. During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, HP G42-370TU Battery

and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all are able to stay open through the winter. The North Cascades Highway, State Route 20, closes every year. This is because the extraordinary amount of snowfall and frequency of avalanches in the area of Washington Pass make it unsafe in the winter months. HP G42-370TX Battery

 

Washington was rated the best state (amongst fifty U.S. states) in the 2011 American State Litter Scorecard, for overall effectiveness and quality of its public space cleanliness from state and related litter/debris removal efforts, unseating Vermont, the previous topmost winner.[55] HP G42-371TU Battery

 

Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads, and Amtrak's passenger Cascade route between Eugene, OR and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the USA and one of the few profitable routes in the system. HP G42-372TU Battery

Public transportation has generally lagged, although the much-delayed link light rail system in the greater Seattle region opened its first line in 2002. Residents of Vancouver have resisted proposals to extend Portland's mass transit system into Washington. HP G42-372TX Battery

 

Environment

In 2007, Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxicbrominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used. HP G42-375TX Battery

A 2004 study of 40 mothers from Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Montana found PBDEs in the breast milk of every woman tested. HP G42-378TX Battery

 

Three recent studies by the Washington Department of Ecology showed that toxic chemicals banned decades ago continue to linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain. HP G42-380TX Battery

In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish collected from 45 sites. The toxic substances included PCBs; HP G42-381TX Battery

dioxins, two chlorinated pesticides, DDE and dieldrin, and PBDEs. As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish. HP G42-382TX Battery

Based on the 2007 information and a previous 2004 Ecology study, theWashington Department of Health is advising the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins theColumbia, HP G42-383TX Battery

due to unhealthy levels of PCBs. Study results also indicated high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.[56] HP G42-384TX Battery

 

On March 27, 2006 Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law the recently approved House Bill 2322. This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0.5 percent over the next six years. HP G42-385TX Battery

Though the ban would be effective statewide in 2010, it would take place in Whatcom County, Spokane County, and Clark County in 2008.[57] HP G42-386TX Battery

 A recent discovery had linked high contents of phosphorus in water to a boom in algae population. An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would eventually lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.[58] HP G42-387TX Battery

 

ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY

As of the 2008–2009 school year, 1,040,750 students were enrolled in elementary andsecondary schools in Washington, with 59,562 teachers employed to educate them.[62] HP G42-388TX Battery

As of August 2009, there were 295 school districts in the state, serviced by nine Educational Service Districts.[63] Washington School Information Processing Cooperative (a non-profit, opt-in, State agency) provides information management systems for fiscal & human resources and student data. HP G42-394TX Battery

Elementary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), led by State School Superintendent Randy Dorn.[64]HP G42-397TX Battery

 

High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of utilizing the state'sRunning Start program. Initiated by the state legislature in 1990, the program allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.[65] HP G42-398TX Battery

 

The state also has several public arts focused high schools including Tacoma School of the Arts, Vancouver school of Arts and Academics, and The Center School. HP G42 Battery

There area also three Science and Math based high schools one in the Tri-Cities, Washington known as Delta, one in Tacoma, Washington known as SAMI, and another in Des Moines known as Aviation High School. HP G42T-200 CTO Battery

 

The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, withWestern Washington being liberal (particularly the I-5 Corridor) and Eastern Washingtonbeing conservative. Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since 1988. HP G42t-300 CTO Battery

 

Due to Western Washington's large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide. The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area, home to almost two-thirds of Washington's population, HP G42t Battery

generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington. This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle itself and almost a third of the state's population. HP G42t Notebook PC Series Battery

 

Washington was considered a key swing state in 1968, and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon. HP G56-100SA Battery

Washington was considered a part of the 1994 Republican Revolution, and had the biggest pickup in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington's nine House seats.[59] HP G56-105SA Battery

However, this dominance did not last for long as Democrats picked up one seat in the 1996 election[60] and two more in 1998, giving the Democrats a 5–4 majority.[61] HP G56-106EA Battery

 

The two current United States Senators from Washington are Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell, both Democrats. The governorship is currently held by Democrat Christine Gregoire, HP G56-106SA Battery

who was re-elected to her second term in the 2008 gubernatorial election. Washington is the first and only state in the country to have elected women to both of itsUnited States Senate seats and the office of Governor. HP G56-107SA Battery

Both houses of the Washington State Legislature (the Washington Senate and the Washington House of Representatives) are also controlled by the Democratic Party. HP G56-108SA Battery

 

The Running Start program in Washington state allows high school juniors and seniors to attend college courses numbered 100 or above, tuition-free, while completing high school. HP G56-109SA Battery

It is similar to dual enrollment programs common at public and private colleges and universities in other states. The program was piloted in the early 1990s and officially approved to begin in the fall of 1993. HP G56-112SA Battery

 

Running Start provides up to two years of paid tuition at any state-run community collegeor four-year university that participates in the Running Start program. HP G56-130SA Battery

High school juniors who can pass the entrance exam for a local community college may take part or all of their coursework at the community college. Successfully passing a course earns a student both high school and college credit. HP G56 Battery

 

Running Start students can complete a substantial number of their first two years of college credits early. After high school, they pay for fewer community college credits before moving on to four-year institutions. It is possible for a motivated student to earn their high school diploma and a two-year college associate's degree simultaneously. HP G62-100 Battery

New state regulations took effect on July 26, 2011, limiting Running Start students to a 1.0 FTE (Full-Time Equivalent) limit for High School or Higher Education courses each, and a 1.2 FTE limit for both institutions combined. HP G62-100EB Battery

 (1.0 FTE is equivalent to 15 college credits, or 1500 High School weekly minutes of instruction).[1] Students who wish to take more than 15 college credits may pay the regular tuition rate and still receive dual credit. HP G62-100EE Battery

 

An associate degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, and bachelor's degree-granting colleges anduniversities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years.HP G62-100EJ Battery

In the United States, and to some extent in Western Canada, an associate degree is equivalent to the first two years of a four-year college or university degree. It is the lowest in the hierarchy of post-secondary academic degrees offered in these countries. HP G62-100SL Battery

Although an associate degree is not usually as lucrative as a bachelor's degree, the resulting careers can still afford a respectable income with greater job security[1] and much less student debt.[2] HP G62-101TU Battery

In most parts of Canada, these two and three year programs at a community or technical college are never associated with the term "Degree" but are called a "College Diploma",HP G62-101XX Battery

as there used to be a strict difference between what was termed a "University" and an Applied Arts, Community, or Technical College. It is roughly equivalent to the foundation degreeand the Business and Technology Education Council's Higher National Diploma in Britain, HP G62-103XX Battery

the two-year General Academic Studies Degree (French: diplôme d'études universitaires générales, DEUG) in France, the Higher Education and Training Awards Council's Higher Certificate in the Republic of Ireland.[3] In 2000, Hong Kong introduced associate degrees, HP G62-104SA Battery

as an equivalence to higher diplomas. These programs are mainly provided through affiliated colleges at universities. In 2004, Australia added "associate degree" to theAustralian Qualifications Framework. HP G62-105SA Battery

This title was given to more academically focused advanced diploma courses. However, very few courses yet use the new title. In the Netherlands, HP G62-106SA Battery

there were four pilots between 2005 and 2011 to assess the added value of the associate degree.[4] In 2011 the associate degree has been added to the Dutch system of higher education as a means to close the gap with the vocational education system.[5] HP G62-107SA Battery

 

Time requirements

The associate degree is awarded to students who complete 2 years of schooling. The requirements usually include courses such as English composition, Algebra, social interaction, humanities, HP G62-110ED Battery

etc. Some people refer to associate degrees as "two-year" degrees because it is possible to obtain the degree in approximately that long. For students who place into developmental (sometimes called pre-college or remedial) courses, the time will be extended since these credits will not apply toward the associate degree. HP G62-110EE Battery

 

A lesser diploma, called a certificate, is awarded for specific studies that may be completed in one year or less, for example certification in a particular field of information technology may only run for four to six months. HP G62-110EO Battery

 

At 2-year colleges in the United States, more students attend part-time than full-time.[6] To accommodate part-time students, many of whom work, most US community colleges offer required courses during evening and weekend hours and, increasingly, online (the Sloan Consortium reports that 51% of all degrees earned online are associate degrees.)[7] HP G62-110EY Battery

 

Computer data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter dataand summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. HP G62-110SA Battery

The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analysing, sorting, summarising, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informativeHP G62-110SO Battery

data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems. Nevertheless, the terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output. HP G62-110SS Battery

 

Data processing may or may not be distinguished from data conversion, when the process is merely to convert data to another format, and does not involve any data manipulation. HP G62-110SW Battery

 

Data analysis

Data Analysis is the domain from which the data are harvested is a science or an engineering field. Data processing and information systems are considered terms that are too broad and the more specialized term data analysis is typically used. HP G62-111EE Battery

This is a focus on the highly-specialized and highly-accurate algorithmic derivations and statistical calculations that are less often observed in the typical general business environment.HP G62-112EE Battery

 In these contexts data analysis packages like DAP, gretl or PSPP are often used. This divergence of culture is exhibited in the typical numerical representations used in data processing versus numerical; HP G62-112SO Battery

data processing's measurements are typically represented by integers or by fixed-point or binary-coded decimal representations of numbers whereas the majority of data analysis's measurements are often represented by floating-pointrepresentation of rational numbers. HP G62-113SO Battery

 

Processing

Basically, data are nothing but facts (organized or unorganized) which can be converted into other forms to make it useful, clear and pratically used. This process of converting facts to information is Processing. HP G62-115SE Battery

Practically all naturally occurring processes can be viewed as examples of data processing systems where "observable" information in the form of pressure, light, etc. HP G62-115SO Battery

are converted by human observers into electrical signals in thenervous system as the senses we recognize as touch, sound, and vision. Even the interaction of non-living systems may be viewed in this way as rudimentary information processing systems. HP G62-117SO Battery

Conventional usage of the terms data processing and information systems restricts their use to refer to the algorithmic derivations, logical deductions, and statistical calculations that recur perennially in general business environments, HP G62-118EO Battery

rather than in the more expansive sense of all conversions of real-world measurements into real-world information in, say, an organic biological system or even a scientific or engineering system.HP G62-120EC Battery

 

Data conversion is the conversion of computer data from one format to another. Throughout a computer environment, data is encoded in a variety of ways. For example,computer hardware is built on the basis of certain standards, which requires that data contains, HP G62-120EE Battery

for example, parity bit checks. Similarly, the operating system is predicated on certain standards for data and file handling. Furthermore, each computer program handles data in a different manner. HP G62-120EG Battery

Whenever any one of these variable is changed, data must be converted in some way before it can be used by a different computer, operating system or program. Even different versions of these elements usually involve different data structures. HP G62-120EH Battery

For example, the changing of bits from one format to another, usually for the purpose of application interoperability or of capability of using new features, is merely a data conversion. HP G62-120EK Battery

Data conversions may as simple as the conversion of a text file from onecharacter encoding system to another; or more complex, such as the conversion of office file formats, or the conversion of image and audio file formats. HP G62-120EL Battery

 

There are many ways in which data is converted within the computer environment. This may be seamless, as in the case of upgrading to a newer version of a computer program. HP G62-120EP Battery

Alternatively, the conversion may require processing by the use of a special conversion program, or it may involve a complex process of going through intermediary stages, or involving complex "exporting" and "importing" procedures, HP G62-120EQ Battery

which may converting to and from a tab-delimited or comma-separated text file. In some cases, a program may recognise several data file formats at the data input stage and then is also capable of storing the output data in a number of different formats. HP G62-120ER Battery

Such a program may be used to convert a file format. If the source format or target format is not recognised, then at times third program may be available which permits the conversion to an intermediate format, which can then be reformatted using the first program. There are many possible scenarios. HP G62-120ES Battery

 

Information basics

Before any data conversion is carried out, the user or application programmer should keep a few basics of computing and information theory in mind. These include: HP G62-120ET Battery

 

§  Information can easily be discarded by the computer, but adding information takes effort.

§  The computer can add information only in a rule-based fashion.[citation needed]

Upsampling the data or converting to a more feature-rich format does not add information; it merely makes room for that addition, which usually a human must do.[clarification needed] HP G62-120EY Battery

§   

For example, a true color image can easily be converted[clarification needed] to grayscale, while the opposite conversion is a painstaking process. Converting a Unix text file to aMicrosoft (DOS/Windows) text file involves adding characters, HP G62-120SE Battery

but this does not increase the entropy since it is rule-based; whereas the addition of color information to a grayscale image cannot be done programmatically, since only a human[citation neededHP G62-120SL Battery

] knows which colors are needed for each section of the picture–there are no rules that can be used to automate that process. Converting a 24-bit PNG to a 48-bit one does not add information to it, it only pads existing RGB pixel values with zeroes[citation needed]HP G62-120SS Battery

so that a pixel with a value of FF C3 56, for example, becomes FF00 C300 5600. The conversion makes it possible to change a pixel to have a value of, for instance, FF80 C340 56A0, but the conversion itself does not do that, only further manipulation of the image can. HP G62-120SW Battery

Converting an image or audio file in a lossy format (like JPEG or Vorbis) to a lossless (likePNG or FLAC) or uncompressed (like BMP or WAV) format only wastes space, since the same image with its loss of original information (the artifacts of lossy compression) becomes the target. HP G62-121EE Battery

A JPEG image can never be restored to the quality of the original lossless[clarification needed] image from which it was made, no matter how much the user tries the "JPEG Artifact Removal" feature of his or her image manipulation program. HP G62-125EK Battery

 

Automatic restorage of information that was lost through a lossy compression process would probably require important advances in artificial intelligence. HP G62-125EL Battery

 

Because of these realities of computing and information theory, data conversion is more often[clarification needed] than not a complex and error-prone process that requires the help of experts. HP G62-125EV Battery

Pivotal conversion

Data conversion can occur directly from one format to another, but many applications that convert between multiple formats use a pivotal encoding by way of which any source format is converted to its target. HP G62-125SL Battery

For example, it is possible to convert Cyrillic text fromKOI8-R to Windows-1251 using a lookup table between the two encodings, but the modern approach is to convert the KOI8-R file to Unicode first and from that to Windows-1251. HP G62-130 Battery

This is a more manageable approach: an application specializing in character encoding conversion would have to keep hundreds of lookup tables, for all the permutations of character encoding conversions available, while keeping lookup tables just for each character set to Unicode scales down the number to a few tens. HP G62-130EG Battery

 

Pivotal conversion is similarly used in other areas. Office applications, when employed to convert between office file formats, use their internal, default file format as a pivot. HP G62-130EK Battery

For example, a word processor may convert an RTF file to a WordPerfect file by converting the RTF to OpenDocument and then that to WordPerfect format. An image conversion program does not convert a PCX image to PNG directly; HP G62-130ET Battery

instead, when loading the PCX image, it decodes it to a simple bitmap format for internal use in memory, and when commanded to convert to PNG, that memory image is converted to the target format. HP G62-130EV Battery

An audio converter that converts from FLAC to AAC decodes the source file to raw PCM data in memory first, and then performs the lossy AAC compression on that memory image to produce the target file. HP G62-130SD Battery

Lost and inexact data conversion

The objective of data conversion is to maintain all of the data, and as much of the embedded information as possible. This can only be done if the target format supports the same features and data structures present in the source file. HP G62-130SL Battery

Conversion of a word processing document to a plain text file necessarily involves loss of formatting information, because plain text format does not support word processing constructs such as marking a word as boldface. HP G62-134CA Battery

For this reason, conversion from one format to one which does not support a feature which is important to the user is rarely carried out, though it may be necessary for interoperability, e.g. converting a file from one version of Microsoft Word to an earlier version to eHP G62-135EV Battery

HP G62-140EQ Battery

nable transfer and use by other users who do not have the same later version of Word installed on their computer. HP G62-140EL Battery

 

Loss of information can be mitigated by approximation in the target format. There is no way of converting a character like ä to ASCII, since the ASCII standard lacks it, but the information may be retained by approximating the character as ae. Of course, this is not an optimal solution, HP G62-140ES Battery

and can impact operations like searching and copying; and if a language makes a distinction between ä and ae, then that approximation does involve loss of information. HP G62-140ET Battery

 

Data conversion can also suffer from inexactitude, the result of converting between formats that are conceptually different. The WYSIWYG paradigm, extant in word processors and desktop publishing applications, HP G62-140SF Battery

versus the structural-descriptive paradigm, found in SGML, XML and many applications derived therefrom, like HTML andMathML, is one example. Using a WYSIWYG HTML editor conflates the two paradigms, HP G62-140SS Battery

and the result is HTML files with suboptimal, if not nonstandard, code. In the WYSIWYG paradigm a double linebreak signifies a new paragraph, as that is the visual cue for such a construct, HP G62-140US Battery

but a WYSIWYG HTML editor will usually convert such a sequence to <BR><BR>, which is structurally no new paragraph at all. As another example, converting fromPDF to an editable word processor format is a tough chore, because PDF records the textual information like engraving on stone, HP G62-143CL Battery

with each character given a fixed position and linebreaks hard-coded, whereas word processor formats accommodate text reflow. PDF does not know of a word space character—the space between two letters and the space between two words differ only in quantity. HP G62-144DX Battery

Therefore, a title with ample letter-spacing for effect will usually end up with spaces in the word processor file, for example INTRODUCTION with spacing of 1 em as I N T R O D U C T I O N on the word processor. HP G62-145NR Battery

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9 avril 2012 1 09 /04 /avril /2012 03:22

FEDERAL LAND, RESERVATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION

Olympic National Park is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as well asInternational Biosphere Reserve. Toshiba Satellite M55 Series Battery

Battery1

The following United States federal areas are in Washington. 

Dryland farming caused a large dust storm in arid parts of eastern Washington on October 4, 2009. Courtsey: NASA/GSFC, MODIS Rapid Response.[13]Ibm/Lenovo Thinkpad X300 Battery

Washington's climate varies greatly from west to east. An oceanic climate (also called "west coast marine climate") predominates in western Washington, and a much driersemi-arid climate prevails east of the Cascade Range. Dell Studio 1537 Laptop Battery

Major factors determining Washington's climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressuresystems of the north Pacific Ocean, Dell Latitude C640 AC Adapter/Charger

the continental air masses of North America, and the Olympic and Cascade mountains. In the spring and summer, a high pressure anticyclonesystem dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion. HP Pavilion dm4 Laptop Battery

 

For Washington this means prevailing winds from the northwest bringing relatively cool air and a predictably dry season. In the autumn and winter, a low pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean, with air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion. Acer Aspire 557x Battery

This causes Washington's prevailing winds to come from the southwest, bringing relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season. The term Pineapple Express is used to describe the extreme form of this wet season pattern.[14]Acer Aspire 5052ANWXMi Battery

 

Despite western Washington having a marine climate similar to those of many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the "Big Snow" events of 1880, 1881, Acer Aspire 5920G AC Adapter,Charger

1893 and 1916 and the "deep freeze" winters of 1883–84, 1915–16, 1949–50 and 1955–56, among others. During these events western Washington experienced up to 6 feet (1.8 m) of snow, Dell XPS M1330 Battery

sub-zero (−18°C) temperatures, three months with snow on the ground, and lakes and rivers frozen over for weeks.[15] Seattle's lowest officially recorded temperature is 0 °F (−18 °C) set on January 31, 1950, but low-altitude areas approximately three hours away from Seattle have recorded lows as cold as −48 °F (−44 °C).[16]Dell Mini 1010 Laptop Battery

In 2006, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington’s Economy, a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.[17]Dell Latitude D820 AC Adapter,Charger

 

[edit] Rain shadow effects

 

Washington experiences extensive variation in rainfall.

Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. The western side of the Olympic Peninsula receives as much as 160 inches (4,100 mm) of precipitation annually, Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks or even months may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall (in some places more than 200 inches (510 cm) water equivalent) HP Pavilion ZX5200 Battery

in the country. In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only 6 inches (150 mm). Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains. HP Pavilion dv2-1000 Laptop Battery

 

The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causingorographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Laptop Battery

This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures. HP Pavilion ZT1270 Battery

While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations. (Mount Baker, near the state's northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world: in 1999, it set the world record for snowfall in a single season: 1,140 inches, or 95 feet (29 m).[18]HP Pavilion dm4-1123tx Battery

 

East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects. Semi-aridconditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau—HP Pavilion dm4-1140sa Battery

especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus instead of rain forests much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe. HP Pavilion dm4-1162ef Battery

 

[edit] Temperatures

The average annual temperature ranges from 51 °F (11 °C) on the Pacific coast to 40 °F (4 °C) in the northeast. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was −48 °F (−44 °C) in Winthrop and Mazama. The highest recorded temperature in the state was 118 °F (48 °C) at Ice Harbor Dam. HP Pavilion dm4-1164nr Battery

Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover and long-lasting drizzles in the winter, and sunny and dry summers. The western region occasionally experiences extreme climate. HP Pavilion dm4-1170sf Battery

Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. In the Western region, temperatures have reached as high as 112 °F (44 °C) in Marietta[19] and as low as −20 °F (−29 °C) in Longview.[20]HP Pavilion dm4-1173cl Battery

 [EDIT] EARLY HISTORY

Prior to the arrival of explorers from Europe, the region had many established tribes ofNative Americans, notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. HP Pavilion dm4-1180ef Battery

Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among theMakah, whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, HP Pavilion dm4-1180sf Battery

food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries. The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s devastated the Amerindian population.[21]HP Pavilion dm4-1211tx Battery

 

[EDIT] EUROPEAN EXPLORATION

The first European record of a landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with theSonora. HP Pavilion dm4-1218tx Battery

They claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound in the north forSpain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they maintained made the Pacific a "Spanish lake" and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire. HP Pavilion dm4-1221tx Battery

 

In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to theStrait of Juan de Fuca, but Cook thought the strait did not exist. It was not discovered untilCharles William Barkley, HP Pavilion dm4-1250ca Battery

captain of the Imperial Eagle, sighted it in 1787. The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and British explorer George Vancouver in 1792. HP Pavilion dm4-1253cl Battery

 

[EDIT] SETTLEMENT

The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notablyBritain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States. HP Pavilion dm4-1265dx Battery

American captain Robert Gray(for whom Grays Harbor County is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805. HP Pavilion dm4-1273ca Battery

 

Explorer David Thompson, on his voyage down the Columbia River camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9, 1811 and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site. HP Pavilion dm4-1275ca Battery

 

Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of theAnglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. HP Pavilion dm4-1277sb Battery

Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, were deferred until a later time.Spain, in 1819, ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession. HP Pavilion dm4-1300 Battery

 

 

Fur trading at Fort Nez Percés in 1841

Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States. Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. lasted for several decadesHP Pavilion dm4-1300ea Battery

American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson's Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District. HP Pavilion dm4-1301sg Battery

Fur trapper James Sinclair, on orders from Sir George Simpson, Governor of theHudson's Bay Company, led some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in 1841 to settle on Hudson Bay Company farms near Fort Vancouver. HP Pavilion dm4-1360ef Battery

The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present-day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, then traveled south-west down the Kootenai River and Columbia River. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846. HP Pavilion dm4-1360sf Battery

 

In 1836, a group of missionaries including Marcus Whitman established several missions and Whitman’s own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County, HP Pavilion dm4t-1000 Battery

in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez PerceIndian tribes. Whitman’s settlement would in 1843 help the Oregon Trail, the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in following decades. HP Pavilion dm4t-1000 CTO Battery

Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients – lacking immunity to new, ‘European’ diseases – died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, HP Pavilion Dm4t-1100 Battery

they held ‘medicine man’ Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in 1847. This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians. HP Pavilion dm4t-1100 CTO Battery

 

Fort Nisqually, a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in 1833. Black pioneerGeorge Washington Bush and his caucasian wife, Isabella James Bush, from Missouriand Tennessee, HP Pavilion dm4t-1200 CTO Battery

respectively, led four white families into the territory and founded New Market, now Tumwater, in 1846. They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's discriminatory settlement laws.[22] After them, many more settlers, migrating overland along the Oregon trail, wandered north to settle in the Puget Sound area. HP Pavilion dm4t Battery

 

[EDIT] STATEHOOD

 

Yesler Way, Seattle, 1887

In 1852, people from all over what was to become Washington state gathered in Monticello (now Longview) to draft a memorandum to Congress. The memorandum expressed a desire to be granted statehood under the name of Columbia. HP Envy 15-1100 Battery

This meeting came to be known as the Monticello Convention. The Convention's requests were met favorably in Congress, but it was decided that a state named Columbia might be confused with the preexisting District of Columbia. HP Envy 17-1000 Battery

In a manner which strangely enough did not solve the problem of being confused with the nation's capital, the state was instead named Washington in honor of the first U.S. president.[23][24] Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.[25]HP Envy 17-1001tx Battery

 

Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry-farming techniques became particularly productive. HP Envy 17-1001xx Battery

Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas-fir. Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. HP Envy 17-1002TX Battery 

Boeing B-17Es under construction c. 1942

For a long period, Tacoma was noted for its large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large shipbuilding industry. HP Envy 17-1003tx Battery

The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War Iand World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area. HP Envy 17-1004tx Battery

During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity. This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest concrete structure in the United States. HP Envy 17-1006tx Battery

 

During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries, with the BoeingCompany producing many of the nation's heavy bombers and ports in Seattle, Bremerton,Vancouver, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. HP Envy 17-1007tx Battery

Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of which were quartered atGolden Gardens Park. In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs. HP Envy 17-1008tx Battery

 

On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face ofMount St. Helens exploded outward, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. This eruption flattened the forests, HP Envy 17-1009tx Battery

killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.[26][27]HP Envy 17-1010el Battery

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Washington was 6,830,038 on July 1, 2011, a 1.57% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2]HP Envy 17-1010ew Battery

 

Washington Population Density Map.

According to the U.S. Census, as of 2010, Washington has a historical estimated population of 6,724,540 which is an increase of 830,419 or 14.1 percent, since the year 2000.[29] HP Envy 17-1010nr Battery

This includes a natural increase of 380,400 people, and an increase from net migration of 450,019 people into the state. Washington ranks first in the Pacific Northwest region in terms of population, followed by Oregon, and Idaho. There has historically been a lot of German American, Irish American and English American immigration to what is now the state of Washington. HP Envy 17-1010tx Battery

 

The center of population of Washington in the year 2000 was located in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County, southeast of North Bend, northeast of Enumclaw and west of Snoqualmie Pass.[30]HP Envy 17-1011tx Battery

 

As of the Census 2010, the Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Metropolitan Area's population was 3,439,809, approximately half the state's total population.[31]HP Envy 17-1012nr Battery

 

6.7 percent of Washington's population was reported as under five years of age, 25.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 11.2 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2 percent of the population. HP Envy 17-1013tx Battery

 

The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:[32]HP Envy 17-1017tx Battery

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 716,133; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 178,000 (253,166 year-end 2007); and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 127,854.[35]HP Envy 17-1050ea Battery

 

As with many other Western states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as "non-religious" is higher than the national average. The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is the highest of any state other than Colorado.[36]HP Envy 17-1050eb Battery

 

[EDIT] RACIAL DEMOGRAPHICS

According to the 2010 United States census, the racial and ethnic composition of Washington was the following: HP Envy 17-1085eo Battery

 

§  White: 77.3% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 72.5%)

§  Black or African American: 3.6%

§  Native American: 1.5%

§  Asian: 7.2% (2.04% Filipino, 1.4% Chinese, 1.0% Vietnamese, 0.9% Korean, 0.9% Indian, 0.5% Japanese, 0.3% Cambodian, 0.1% Laotian, 0.1% Thai)

§  Pacific Islander: 0.6% (0.2% Samoan, 0.1% Guamanian, 0.09% Hawaiian)

§  Two or more races: 4.7%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 11.2%HP Envy 17-1090ca Battery

§   

African-Americans concentrate in southern Seattle and inner Tacoma, in one of the country's lowest black populated states. HP Envy 17-1090ez Battery

The Black community of Seattle developed after World War II when wartime industries and the US Armed Forces employeed/recruited tens of thousands of African-Americans from the Southeastern US. HP Envy 17-1103tx Battery

They left a high influence in west coast rock (Rock & Roll) and R&B/Soul in the 1960s, including Seattle native Jimi Hendrix (half-Black/Cherokee Indian), a pioneer in hard rock. HP Envy 17-1100 Battery

 

 

Chinese New Year, Seattle, 2011

American Indians lived on Indian reservations or jurisdictory lands such as the Colville Indian Reservation, Makah, Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, Quinault (tribe), Salish people,HP Envy 17-1104tx Battery

 Spokane Indian Reservation and Yakima Indian Reservation. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook,Lummi and Salish. HP Envy 17-1190ea Battery

But Urban Indian communities formed by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation programs in Seattle since the end of World War II brought a variety of Native American cultures to this diverse metropolis. The city was actually named for Chief Seattle when European Americans settled the isthmus in the 1880s. HP Envy 17-1200 Battery

 

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders such as Chinese and Taiwanese, Hmong andLaotian, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai and Vietnamese whom established communities and neighborhoods in the Seattle Metropolitan Area from Mount Vernon on the Canadian border down to Vancouver, Washington across from Portland, HP Envy 17-2001tx Battery

Oregon, and about 10% of residents in Spokane are Asian. Filipinos make up the largest Asian American group in the state with a population of 137,083 as of the 2010 Census.[37]HP Envy 17-2002xx Battery

 

The most numerous (ethnic not racial group) are Latinos at 11%, as Mexican Americansformed a large ethnic group in the Chehalis Valley, farming areas of Yakima Valley andEastern Washington. HP Envy 17-2003ef Battery

In the late 20th century, large-scale Mexican immigration and other Latinos settled in the southern suburbs of Seattle with limited concentrations in King,Pierce and Snohomish Counties during the region's real estate construction booms in the 1980s and 1990s. HP Envy 17-2009tx Battery

 

Economy

The 2010 total gross state product for Washington was $351.5 billion, placing it 14th in the nation.[38] The per capita personal income in 2009 was $52,403, 10th in the nation. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft (Boeing), HP Envy 17-2012tx Battery

automotive (Paccar), computer software development (Microsoft, Bungie,Amazon.com, Nintendo of America, Valve Corporation), Arena Net, telecom (T-Mobile USA), electronics, biotechnology, aluminum production, lumber and wood products (Weyerhaeuser), HP Envy 17-2013tx Battery

 mining, beverages (Starbucks, Jones Soda), real estate (John L. Scott), retail (Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Car Toys, Costco, R.E.I.), and tourism (Alaska Airlines,Expedia, Inc.). The state has significant amounts of hydroelectric power generation. HP Envy 17-2014tx Battery

 

Significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound. (See list of United States companies by state.) A Fortune magazine survey of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the US has 4 Washington based companies in it, Amazon.com,Starbucks, Microsoft, and Costco.[39]HP Envy 17-2070nr Battery

 

Washington is one of eighteen states which has a government monopoly on sales of alcoholic beverages, although beer and wine with less than 20% alcohol by volume can be purchased in convenience stores and supermarkets. HP Envy 17-2090eg Battery

Liqueurs (even if under 20 percent alcohol by volume) and spirits can only be purchased in state-run or privately-owned-state-contracted liquor stores.[40] This will change on June 1, 2012, HP Envy 17-2090nr 3D Battery

due to passage of Initiative 1183 in the November 2011 elections. As a result, the state will close all state-run liquor stores and liquor sales will shift from the state to grocery and warehouse stores.[41]HP Envy 17-2093eg Battery

 

Among its resident billionaires, Washington boasts Bill Gates, former chairman ofMicrosoft, who, with a net worth of $40 billion, was ranked the second wealthiest man in the world as of February 2011, HP Envy 17-2096eg Battery

according to Forbes magazine.[42] Other Washington state billionaires include Paul Allen (Microsoft), Steve Ballmer (Microsoft), Jeff Bezos (Amazon),Craig McCaw (McCaw Cellular Communications), James Jannard (Oakley), Howard Schultz (Starbucks), and Charles Simonyi (Microsoft).[43]HP Envy 17 Notebook PC Battery

 

As of January 2010, the state's unemployment rate is 9.0 percent.[44]

TAXES

The state of Washington is one of only seven states that does not levy a personal income tax. The state also does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax.HP Envy 17t-1000 Battery

However, Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies, including thebusiness and occupation tax (B & O), a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses. HP Envy 17t-2000 CTO 3D Battery

 

Washington's state base sales tax is 6.5 percent which is combined with a local rate. As of April 2010, the rate is 9.5 percent in Seattle and other cities.[45] These taxes apply to services as well as products.[46] HP Envy 17t-2000 CTO Battery

Most foods are exempt from sales tax; however, prepared foods, dietary supplements and soft drinks remain taxable. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 8 and 9 percent.[47]HP Envy 17t Battery

 

An excise tax applies to certain select products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30 percent of Washington's total state and local revenue. HP G32 Battery

It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection,libraries, parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts. HP G42-100 Battery

 

All real property and personal property is subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Personal property also is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. HP G42-101XX Battery

Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. HP G42-154CA Battery

Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. HP G42-240LA Battery

Washington does not collect inheritance taxes; however, the estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore the state imposes its own estate tax. HP G42-164LA Battery

 

Washington's tax policy differs significantly from neighboring Oregon's, which levies no sales tax but a very high income tax. This leads to border economic anomalies in thePortland-Vancouver metropolitan area. Additional border economies exist with neighboring Canada. HP G42-250LA Battery

 

Washington is a leading agricultural state. (The following figures are from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington Field Office.) For 2003, HP G42-301NR Battery

the total value of Washington's agricultural products was $5.79 billion, the 11th highest in the country. The total value of its crops was $3.8 billion, the 7th highest. The total value of its livestock and specialty products was $1.5 billion, the 26th highest. HP G42-303DX Battery

 

In 2004, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries (90.0 percent of total U.S. production), wrinkled seed peas (80.6 percent), hops (75.0 percent),spearmint oil (73.6 percent), apples (58.1 percent), sweet cherries (47.3 percent), HP G42-328CA Battery

pears(42.6 percent), peppermint oil (40.3 percent), Concord grapes (39.3 percent), carrots for processing (36.8 percent), and Niagara grapes (31.6 percent). Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of lentils, fall potatoes, dry edible peas, apricots, HP G42-352TU Battery

 grapes(all varieties taken together), asparagus (over a third of the nation's production), sweet corn for processing, and green peas for processing; third in tart cherries, prunes andplums, and dry summer onions; fourth in barley and trout; and fifth in wheat, cranberries, and strawberries. HP G42-352TX Battery

 

The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.S. in apple production since the 1920s.[48] HP G42-360TU Battery

Two areas account for the vast majority of the state's apple crop: the Wenatchee–Okanogan region (comprising Chelan,Okanogan, Douglas, and Grant counties), and the Yakima region (Yakima, Benton andKittitas counties).[49]HP G42-360TX Battery

 

 

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challengedand removed. (May 2011) HP Envy 17-1050ep Battery

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Washington's position on the Pacific Ocean and the harbors of Puget Sound give the state a leading role in maritime trade with Alaska, Canada, and the Pacific Rim. Puget Sound's many islands are served by the largest ferry fleet in the United States. HP Pavilion g7-1003eg Battery

 

Washington is a land of contrasts. The deep forests of the Olympic Peninsula, such as the Hoh Rain Forest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States, HP Pavilion g7-1004eg Battery

but the semi-desert east of the Cascade Range has few trees. Mount Rainier, the highest mountain in the state,[10] is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the lower 48 states.[11] HP Pavilion g7-1004sa Battery

 

Washington's climate varies greatly from west to east. An oceanic climate (also called "west coast marine climate") predominates in western Washington, and a much driersemi-arid climate prevails east of the Cascade Range. HP Pavilion g7-1004sg Battery

Major factors determining Washington's climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressuresystems of the north Pacific Ocean, the continental air masses of North America, HP Pavilion g7-1006eg Battery

and the Olympic and Cascade mountains. In the spring and summer, a high pressure anticyclonesystem dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion. HP Pavilion g7-1006sg Battery

For Washington this means prevailing winds from the northwest bringing relatively cool air and a predictably dry season. In the autumn and winter, a low pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean, with air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion. HP Pavilion g7-1007sg Battery

This causes Washington's prevailing winds to come from the southwest, bringing relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season. The term Pineapple Express is used to describe the extreme form of this wet season pattern.[14] HP Pavilion g7-1010eg Battery

Despite western Washington having a marine climate similar to those of many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the "Big Snow" events of 1880, 1881, HP Pavilion g7-1011eg Battery

1893 and 1916 and the "deep freeze" winters of 1883–84, 1915–16, 1949–50 and 1955–56, among others. During these events western Washington experienced up to 6 feet (1.8 m) of snow, HP Pavilion g7-1017cl Battery

sub-zero (−18°C) temperatures, three months with snow on the ground, and lakes and rivers frozen over for weeks.[15] HP Pavilion g7-1019wm Battery

Seattle's lowest officially recorded temperature is 0 °F (−18 °C) set on January 31, 1950, but low-altitude areas approximately three hours away from Seattle have recorded lows as cold as −48 °F (−44 °C).[16] HP Pavilion g7-1020eg Battery

 

In 2006, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington’s Economy, a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.[17] HP Pavilion g7-1022eg Battery

 

Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. The western side of the Olympic Peninsula receives as much as 160 inches (4,100 mm) of precipitation annually, HP Pavilion g7-1023eg Battery

making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks or even months may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall (in some places more than 200 inches (510 cm) water equivalent) in the country. HP Pavilion g7-1024eg Battery

In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only 6 inches (150 mm). Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains. HP Pavilion g7-1025eg Battery

 

The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causingorographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels. HP Pavilion g7-1030sf Battery

This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, HP Pavilion g7-1033cl Battery

cool temperatures. While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations. HP Pavilion g7-1033eg Battery

 (Mount Baker, near the state's northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world: in 1999, it set the world record for snowfall in a single season: 1,140 inches, or 95 feet (29 m).[18] HP Pavilion g7-1033sg Battery

 

East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects. Semi-aridconditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau—HP Pavilion g7-1040ef Battery

especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus instead of rain forests much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe. HP Pavilion g7-1040sf Battery

 

Temperatures

The average annual temperature ranges from 51 °F (11 °C) on the Pacific coast to 40 °F (4 °C) in the northeast. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was −48 °F (−44 °C) in Winthrop and Mazama. HP Pavilion g7-1045ef Battery

The highest recorded temperature in the state was 118 °F (48 °C) at Ice Harbor Dam. Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, HP Pavilion g7-1045sf Battery

frequent cloud cover and long-lasting drizzles in the winter, and sunny and dry summers. The western region occasionally experiences extreme climate. Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. HP Pavilion g7-1046ef Battery

In the Western region, temperatures have reached as high as 112 °F (44 °C) in Marietta[19] and as low as −20 °F (−29 °C) in Longview.[20] HP Pavilion g7-1046sf Battery

Prior to the arrival of explorers from Europe, the region had many established tribes ofNative Americans, notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. HP Pavilion g7-1050sa Battery

Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among theMakah, whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, HP Pavilion g7-1050sf Battery

food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries. The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s devastated the Amerindian population.[21] HP Pavilion g7-1051ef Battery

 

The first European record of a landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with theSonoraHP Pavilion g7-1051sf Battery

They claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound in the north forSpain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they maintained made the Pacific a "Spanish lake" and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire. HP Pavilion g7-1051xx Battery

 

In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to theStrait of Juan de Fuca, but Cook thought the strait did not exist. It was not discovered untilCharles William Barkley, HP Pavilion g7-1053ef Battery

captain of the Imperial Eagle, sighted it in 1787. The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and British explorer George Vancouver in 1792. HP Pavilion g7-1053sf Battery

 

SETTLEMENT

The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notablyBritain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States. HP Pavilion g7-1054sa Battery

American captain Robert Gray(for whom Grays Harbor County is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805. HP Pavilion g7-1070us Battery

 

Explorer David Thompson, on his voyage down the Columbia River camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9, 1811 and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site. HP Pavilion g7-1075dx Battery

 

Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of theAnglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. HP Pavilion g7-1075nr Battery

Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, were deferred until a later time.Spain, in 1819, ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession. HP Pavilion g7-1081nr Battery

Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States. HP Pavilion g7-1086eg Battery

Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. lasted for several decades. With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson's Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, HP Pavilion g7-1090sg Battery

reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District. Fur trapper James Sinclair, on orders from Sir George Simpson, Governor of theHudson's Bay Company, HP Pavilion G72 Battery

led some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in 1841 to settle on Hudson Bay Company farms near Fort Vancouver. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present-day Radium Hot Springs, HP Pavilion G72t Battery

British Columbia, then traveled south-west down the Kootenai River and Columbia River. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846. HP Pavilion g7 Battery

In 1836, a group of missionaries including Marcus Whitman established several missions and Whitman’s own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County, in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez PerceIndian tribes.HP Pavilion g7t-1000 CTO Battery

Whitman’s settlement would in 1843 help the Oregon Trail, the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in following decades. HP Pavilion dm4 Battery

Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients – lacking immunity to new, ‘European’ diseases – died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, HP Pavilion dm4-1000 Battery

they held ‘medicine man’ Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in 1847. This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians. HP Pavilion dm4-1001tu Battery

 

Fort Nisqually, a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in 1833. Black pioneerGeorge Washington Bush and his caucasian wife, Isabella James Bush, from Missouriand Tennessee, HP Pavilion dm4-1001tx Battery

respectively, led four white families into the territory and founded New Market, now Tumwater, in 1846. They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's discriminatory settlement laws.[22] After them, many more settlers, migrating overland along the Oregon trail, wandered north to settle in the Puget Sound area. HP Pavilion dm4-1002tu Battery

 

In 1852, people from all over what was to become Washington state gathered in Monticello (now Longview) to draft a memorandum to Congress. The memorandum expressed a desire to be granted statehood under the name of Columbia. HP Pavilion dm4-1003xx Battery

This meeting came to be known as the Monticello Convention. The Convention's requests were met favorably in Congress, but it was decided that a state named Columbia might be confused with the preexisting District of Columbia. HP Pavilion dm4-1004tu Battery

In a manner which strangely enough did not solve the problem of being confused with the nation's capital, the state was instead named Washington in honor of the first U.S. president.[23][24] Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.[25] HP Pavilion dm4-1004xx Battery

 

Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry-farming techniques became particularly productive. HP Pavilion dm4-1006tu Battery

Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas-fir. Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. HP Pavilion dm4-1006tx Battery

 

For a long period, Tacoma was noted for its large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large shipbuilding industry. HP Pavilion dm4-1008tu Battery

The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War Iand World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area. HP Pavilion dm4-1008tx Battery

 

During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity. This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest concrete structure in the United States. HP Pavilion dm4-1009tx Battery

 

During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries, with the BoeingCompany producing many of the nation's heavy bombers and ports in Seattle, Bremerton,Vancouver, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. HP Pavilion dm4-1010eg Battery

 Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of which were quartered atGolden Gardens Park. In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs. HP Pavilion dm4-1010tx Battery

 

On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face ofMount St. Helens exploded outward, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. HP Pavilion dm4-1012TX Battery

This eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night HP Pavilion dm4-1013tx Battery

 

According to the U.S. Census, as of 2010, Washington has a historical estimated population of 6,724,540 which is an increase of 830,419 or 14.1 percent, since the year 2000.[29] HP Pavilion dm4-1014TX Battery

 This includes a natural increase of 380,400 people, and an increase from net migration of 450,019 people into the state. Washington ranks first in the Pacific Northwest region in terms of population, HP Pavilion dm4-1015TX Battery

 followed by Oregon, and Idaho. There has historically been a lot of German American, Irish American and English American immigration to what is now the state of Washington. HP Pavilion dm4-1016tx Battery

 

The center of population of Washington in the year 2000 was located in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County, southeast of North Bend, northeast of Enumclaw and west of Snoqualmie Pass.[30] HP Pavilion dm4-1017tx Battery

 

As of the Census 2010, the Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Metropolitan Area's population was 3,439,809, approximately half the state's total population.[31] HP Pavilion dm4-1018tx Battery

 

6.7 percent of Washington's population was reported as under five years of age, 25.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 11.2 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2 percent of the population. HP Pavilion dm4-1019tx Battery

 

American Indians lived on Indian reservations or jurisdictory lands such as the Colville Indian Reservation, Makah, Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, Quinault (tribe), Salish people, HP Pavilion dm4-1020tx Battery

Spokane Indian Reservation and Yakima Indian Reservation. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook,Lummi and Salish. HP Pavilion dm4-1021tx Battery

But Urban Indian communities formed by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation programs in Seattle since the end of World War II brought a variety of Native American cultures to this diverse metropolis. The city was actually named for Chief Seattle when European Americans settled the isthmus in the 1880s. HP Pavilion dm4-1022tx Battery

 

Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders such as Chinese and Taiwanese, Hmong andLaotian, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai and Vietnamese whom established communities and neighborhoods in the Seattle Metropolitan Area from Mount Vernon on the Canadian border down to Vancouver, HP Pavilion dm4-1023tx Battery

Washington across from Portland, Oregon, and about 10% of residents in Spokane are Asian. Filipinos make up the largest Asian American group in the state with a population of 137,083 as of the 2010 Census.[37] HP Pavilion dm4-1024tx Battery

 

The most numerous (ethnic not racial group) are Latinos at 11%, as Mexican Americansformed a large ethnic group in the Chehalis Valley, farming areas of Yakima Valley andEastern Washington. HP Pavilion dm4-1027tx Battery

In the late 20th century, large-scale Mexican immigration and other Latinos settled in the southern suburbs of Seattle with limited concentrations in King,Pierce and Snohomish Counties during the region's real estate construction booms in the 1980s and 1990s. HP Pavilion dm4-1028tx Battery

"Washington state" redirects here. For the university, see Washington State University. HP Pavilion dm4-1029tx Battery

Washington (i/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United Stateslocated north of Oregon, west of Idaho and south of the Canadian province of British Columbia, HP Pavilion dm4-1030ez Battery

on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Washington was carved out of the western part of Washington Territory which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty as settlement of the Oregon Boundary Dispute. It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. HP Pavilion dm4-1030tx Battery

Washington is the 18th most extensive and the 13th most populous of the 50 United States. Approximately 60 percent of Washington's residents live in the Seattle metropolitan area, the center of transportation, business, HP Pavilion dm4-1031tx Battery

and industry along the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea, an inlet of the Pacific consisting of numerous islands, deep fjords, and bays carved out by glaciers. HP Pavilion dm4-1033tx Battery

The remainder of the state consists of deep rainforests in the west, mountain ranges in the west, center, northeast and far southeast, and a semi-arid eastern basin given over to intensive agriculture. Washington is the second most populous state on the west coast and in the western United States after California. HP Pavilion dm4-1034tx Battery

 

Name

Washington was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States, and is the only U.S. state named after a president. Washington is commonly calledWashington state or occasionally the State of Washington to distinguish it from the U.S. capital. HP Pavilion dm4-1035tx Battery

However, Washingtonians (residents of Washington) and many residents of neighboring states and Canadians from southern B.C. normally refer to the state simply as "Washington",HP Pavilion dm4-1036tx Battery

while usually referring to the nation's capital as "Washington, D.C." or simply "D.C." The area was originally called "Columbia" after the Columbia River; however, to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, the area was renamed Washington. HP Pavilion dm4-1047tx Battery

 

Geography

Washington is the north-western most state of the contiguous United States. Its northern border lies mostly along the 49th parallel, and then via marine boundaries through theStrait of Georgia, HP Pavilion dm4-1048tx Battery

 Haro Strait and Strait of Juan de Fuca, with the Canadian province ofBritish Columbia to the north. Washington borders Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part and the 46th parallel forming the eastern part of the southern boundary. HP Pavilion dm4-1050ca Battery

 

To the east, Washington borders Idaho, bounded mostly by the meridian running north from the confluence of the Snake River and Clearwater River (about 116°57' west), HP Pavilion dm4-1050ea Battery

except for the southernmost section where the border follows the Snake River. To the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean.[6] Washington was a Union territory during theAmerican Civil War, although it never actually participated in the war. HP Pavilion dm4-1050et Battery

 

Washington is part of a region known as the Pacific Northwest, a term which always includes Washington and Oregon and may or may not include Idaho, western Montana, northern California, HP Pavilion dm4-1050so Battery

and part or all of British Columbia, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory, depending on the user's intent. HP Pavilion dm4-1050ss Battery

 

The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state. Western Washington, from the Cascades westward, has a mostly marine west coast climate with mild temperatures and wet winters, HP Pavilion dm4-1060ea Battery

autumns, and springs, and relatively dry summers. Western Washington also supports dense forests of conifers and areas of temperate rain forest.[7] HP Pavilion dm4-1060ee Battery

Washington also is home to several other mountain ranges, the most prominent of which are the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic peninsula; the Kettle River Range in the northeast; and the Blue Mountains in the southeast. HP Pavilion dm4-1060sf Battery

 

In contrast, Eastern Washington, east of the Cascades, has a relatively dry climate with large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rainshadow of the Cascades; HP Pavilion dm4-1060ss Battery

 the Hanford reservation receives an average annual precipitation of between six and seven inches (178 mm). Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches (538 mm) in Pullman.[8] HP Pavilion dm4-1060us Battery

 The Palouse southeast region of Washington was grassland that has been mostly converted into farmland. Other parts of eastern Washington are forested and mountainous. HP Pavilion dm4-1062nr Battery

 

The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains. From the north to the south these volcanoes are Mount Baker, HP Pavilion dm4-1063cl Battery

Glacier Peak, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount St. Helens is currently the only Washington volcano that is actively erupting; however, all of them are considered active volcanoes. HP Pavilion dm4-1063he Battery

The state is also home to Mt. Rainier, a volcano 50 miles (80 km) south of the city of Seattle, from which it is prominently visible. The 14,411-foot (4,392 m)-tall Mt. Rainier is considered the most dangerous volcano in the continental U.S.,[9] due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area. It is also listed as a Decade Volcano. HP Pavilion dm4-1065dx Battery

 

Washington's position on the Pacific Ocean and the harbors of Puget Sound give the state a leading role in maritime trade with Alaska, Canada, and the Pacific Rim. Puget Sound's many islands are served by the largest ferry fleet in the United States. HP Pavilion dm4-1070ee Battery

 

Washington is a land of contrasts. The deep forests of the Olympic Peninsula, such as the Hoh Rain Forest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States, HP Pavilion dm4-1070ef Battery

but the semi-desert east of the Cascade Range has few trees. Mount Rainier, the highest mountain in the state,[10] is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the lower 48 states.[11] HP Pavilion dm4-1070sf Battery

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6 avril 2012 5 06 /04 /avril /2012 04:26

Bill Gates

William Henry "BillGates III (born October 28, 1955 in Seattle, Washington)[4] is anAmerican business magnate, investor, philanthropist, and author. Gates is the former chief executive officer (CEO) and current chairman of Microsoft, the software company he founded with Paul Allen. HP Compaq 6710b AC Adapter/Charger

He is consistently ranked among the world's wealthiest people[5]and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third;[6] in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the second wealthiest person.[7][8]Dell Latitude E6400 Laptop Battery

During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock.[9] He has also authored or co-authored several books. Ibm/Lenovo Thinkpad X200 Battery

Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts.[10][11] Dell Inspiron 1464 Laptop Battery

In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.[12]Fujitsu Siemens LifeBook S6000 AC Adapter/Charger

Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work, Compaq Presario C700 AC Adapter/Charger

and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie, chief software architect, and Craig Mundie, chief research and strategy officer. Gates's last full-time day at Microsoft was June 27, 2008. He remains at Microsoft as non-executive chairman. Sony DSC-P5 Battery

HP 586006-361 Laptop Battery

 

Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, to William H. Gates, Sr. and Mary Maxwell Gates. His parents are of English, German, and Scots-Irish descent.[13][14]

 His father was a prominent lawyer, and his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates's maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, anational bank president. Gates has one elder sister, Kristi (Kristianne), HP Compaq 6715b AC Adapter/Charger

and one younger sister, Libby. He was the fourth of his name in his family, but was known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix.[15] Early on in his life, Gates's parents had a law career in mind for him.[16] When Gates was young, his family regularly attended aCongregational church.[17][18][19]Acer Aspire 5920 Battery

 

At 13 he enrolled in the Lakeside School, an exclusive preparatory school.[20] When he was in the eighth grade, the Mothers Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric (GE) computer for the school's students.[21]Dell XPS M1530 AC Adapter/Charger

 Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, and was excused from math classes to pursue his interest. He wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. sony VAIO PCG-SRX3E/BD Battery

Gates was fascinated by the machine and how it would always execute software code perfectly. When he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine."[22] HP Pavilion dv5 AC Adapter/Charger

After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), Acer Travelmate 2200 AC Adapter/Charger

which banned four Lakeside students—Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans—for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.[23]HP 391173-001 AC Adapter/Charger

 

At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in FORTRAN, LISP, and machine language. HP Pavilion dv3-2310tx Battery

The arrangement with CCC continued until 1970, when the company went out of business. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. HP Pavilion dv3-2311tx Battery

After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's computer program to schedule students in classes. He modified the code so that he was placed in classes with mostly female students. HP Pavilion dv3-2312tx Battery

He later stated that "it was hard to tear myself away from a machine at which I could so unambiguously demonstrate success."[22] At age 17, Gates formed a venture with Allen, called Traf-O-Data, to make traffic counters based on the Intel 8008 processor.[24] In early 1973, Bill Gates served as a congressional page in the U.S. House of Representatives.[25]HP Pavilion dv3-2313tx Battery

 

Gates graduated from Lakeside School in 1973. He scored 1590 out of 1600 on theSAT[26] and enrolled at Harvard College in the autumn of 1973.[27] While at Harvard, he met Steve Ballmer, who later succeeded Gates as CEO of Microsoft. HP Pavilion dv3-2314tx Battery

 

In his sophomore year, Gates devised an algorithm for pancake sorting as a solution to one of a series of unsolved problems[28] presented in a combinatorics class by Harry Lewis, one of his professors. HP Pavilion dv3-2315tx Battery

Gates's solution held the record as the fastest version for over thirty years;[28][29] its successor is faster by only one percent.[28] His solution was later formalized in a published paper in collaboration with Harvard computer scientistChristos Papadimitriou.[30]HP Pavilion dv3-2316tx Battery

 

Gates did not have a definite study plan while a student at Harvard[31] and spent a lot of time using the school's computers. Gates remained in contact with Paul Allen, and he joined him at Honeywell during the summer of 1974.[32] HP Pavilion dv3-2317tx Battery

The following year saw the release of the MITS Altair 8800 based on the Intel 8080 CPU, and Gates and Allen saw this as the opportunity to start their own computer software company.[33] He had talked this decision over with his parents, who were supportive of him after seeing how much Gates wanted to start a company.[31]HP Pavilion dv3-2319tx Battery

 

Microsoft

After reading the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800, Gates contacted Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), HP Pavilion dv3-2320ep Battery

the creators of the new microcomputer, to inform them that he and others were working on a BASICinterpreter for the platform.[34] In reality, Gates and Allen did not have an Altair and had not written code for it; they merely wanted to gauge MITS's interest. HP Pavilion dv3-2320es Battery

The demonstration, held at MITS's offices in Albuquerque was a success and resulted in a deal with MITS to distribute the interpreter as Altair BASIC. Paul Allen was hired into MITS,[35] HP Pavilion dv3-2321tx Battery

and Gates took a leave of absence from Harvard to work with Allen at MITS in Albuquerque in November 1975. They named their partnership "Micro-Soft" and had their first office located in Albuquerque.[35] HP Pavilion dv3-2322tx Battery

Within a year, the hyphen was dropped, and on November 26, 1976, the trade name "Microsoft" was registered with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico.[35] Gates never returned to Harvard to complete his studies. HP Pavilion dv3-2323tx Battery

 

Microsoft's BASIC was popular with computer hobbyists, but Gates discovered that a pre-market copy had leaked into the community and was being widely copied and distributed. HP Pavilion dv3-2324tx Battery

In February 1976, Gates wrote an Open Letter to Hobbyists in the MITS newsletter saying that MITS could not continue to produce, distribute, and maintain high-quality software without payment.[36] HP Pavilion dv3-2326tx Battery

This letter was unpopular with many computer hobbyists, but Gates persisted in his belief that software developers should be able to demand payment. Microsoft became independent of MITS in late 1976, and it continued to develop programming language software for various systems.[35] HP Pavilion dv3-2326tx Battery

The company moved from Albuquerque to its new home in Bellevue, Washington on January 1, 1979, after the former rejected his loan application.[34]HP Pavilion dv3-2327tx Battery

 

During Microsoft's early years, all employees had broad responsibility for the company's business. Gates oversaw the business details, but continued to write code as well. In the first five years, Gates personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped, and often rewrote parts of it as he saw fit.[37]HP Pavilion dv3-2329tx Battery

 

IBM PARTNERSHIP

IBM approached Microsoft in July 1980 regarding its upcoming personal computer, the IBM PC.[38] The computer company first proposed that Microsoft write the BASIC interpreter. HP Pavilion dv3-2330tx Battery

When IBM's representatives mentioned that they needed an operating system, Gates referred them to Digital Research (DRI), makers of the widely used CP/M operating system.[39] HP Pavilion dv3-2340ez Battery

IBM's discussions with Digital Research went poorly, and they did not reach a licensing agreement. IBM representative Jack Sams mentioned the licensing difficulties during a subsequent meeting with Gates and told him to get an acceptable operating system. HP Pavilion dv3-2350ed Battery

A few weeks later Gates proposed using 86-DOS (QDOS), an operating system similar to CP/M that Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products (SCP) had made for hardware similar to the PC. HP Pavilion dv3-2350ee Battery

Microsoft made a deal with SCP to become the exclusive licensing agent, and later the full owner, of 86-DOS. After adapting the operating system for the PC, Microsoft delivered it to IBM as PC-DOS in exchange for a one-time fee of $50,000.[40]HP Pavilion dv3-2350el Battery

 

Gates did not offer to transfer the copyright on the operating system, because he believed that other hardware vendors would clone IBM's system.[40] They did, and the sales of MS-DOS made Microsoft a major player in the industry.[41] HP Pavilion dv3-2355ee Battery

Despite IBM's name on the operating system the press quickly identified Microsoft as being very influential on the new computer, with PC Magazine asking if Gates were "The Man Behind The Machine?"[38] HP Pavilion dv3-2360ee Battery

He oversaw Microsoft's company restructuring on June 25, 1981, which re-incorporated the company in Washington state and made Gates President of Microsoft and the Chairman of the Board.[34]HP Pavilion dv3-2380eg Battery

 

WINDOWS

Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows on November 20, 1985, and in August, the company struck a deal with IBM to develop a separate operating system called OS/2. HP Pavilion dv3-2390eg Battery

Although the two companies successfully developed the first version of the new system, mounting creative differences caused the partnership to deteriorate. It ended in 1991 when Gates led Microsoft to develop a version of OS/2 independently from IBM.[42]HP Pavilion dv3-2390eo Battery

 

MANAGEMENT STYLE

From Microsoft's founding in 1975 until 2006, Gates had primary responsibility for the company's product strategy. He aggressively broadened the company's range of products, and wherever Microsoft achieved a dominant position he vigorously defended it. HP Pavilion dv3t-2000 Battery

He gained a reputation for being distant to others; as early as 1981 an industry executive complained in public that "Gates is notorious for not being reachable by phone and for not returning phone calls."[43]HP Pavilion g4-1010us Battery

As an executive, Gates met regularly with Microsoft's senior managers and program managers. Firsthand accounts of these meetings describe him as verbally combative, HP Pavilion g4-1011nr Battery

berating managers for perceived holes in their business strategies or proposals that placed the company's long-term interests at risk.[44][45] He often interrupted presentations with such comments as, "That's the stupidest thing I've ever heard!"[46]HP Pavilion g4-1013tx Battery

 and, "Why don't you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?"[47] The target of his outburst then had to defend the proposal in detail until, hopefully, Gates was fully convinced.[46] When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating, he was known to remark sarcastically, "I'll do it over the weekend."[48][49][50]HP Pavilion g4-1014tx Battery

Gates's role at Microsoft for most of its history was primarily a management and executive role. However, he was an active software developer in the early years, particularly on the company's programming language products. HP Pavilion g4-1015tx Battery

He has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100,[51] but wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in the company's products.[49] HP Pavilion g4-1016tx Battery

On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors, placing Ray Ozziein charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in charge of long-term product strategy.[52]HP Pavilion g4-1017tu Battery

 

ANTITRUST LITIGATION

Many decisions that led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft's business practices have had Gates's approval. In the 1998 United States v. Microsoft case, Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. HP Pavilion g4-1018tu Battery

He argued with examinerDavid Boies over the contextual meaning of words such as, "compete", "concerned", and "we".[53] BusinessWeek reported: HP Pavilion g4-1020us Battery

 

Gates later said he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. As to his demeanor during the deposition, he said, "Did I fence with Boies? ... HP Pavilion g4-1021tx Battery

I plead guilty. Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree."[55] Despite Gates's denials, the judge ruled that Microsoft had committedmonopolization and tying, and blocking competition, both in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.[55]HP Pavilion g4-1022TU Battery

 

APPEARANCE IN ADS

Gates appeared in a series of ads to promote Microsoft in 2008. The first commercial, co-starring Jerry Seinfeld, is a 90-second talk between strangers as Seinfeld walks up on a discount shoe store (Shoe Circus) in a mall and notices Gates buying shoes inside. HP Pavilion g4-1022tx Battery

The salesman is trying to sell Mr. Gates shoes that are a size too big. As Gates is buying the shoes, he holds up his discount card, which uses a slightly altered version of his own mugshot of his arrest in New Mexico in 1977 for a traffic violation.[56] HP Pavilion g4-1023TU Battery

As they are walking out of the mall, Seinfeld asks Gates if he has melded his mind to other developers, after getting a yes, he then asks if they are working on a way to make computers edible, HP Pavilion g4-1026TX Battery

again getting a yes. Some say that this is an homage to Seinfeld's own show about "nothing" (Seinfeld).[57] In a second commercial in the series, Gates and Seinfeld are at the home of an average family trying to fit in with normal people. HP Pavilion g4-1027TX Battery

 

Post-Microsoft

Since leaving Microsoft, Gates continues his philanthropy and, among other projects, purchased the video rights to the Messenger Lectures series called The Character of Physical Law, HP Pavilion g4-1048tx Battery

given at Cornell University by Richard Feynman in 1964 and recorded by the BBC. The videos are available online to the public at Microsoft's Project Tuva.[58][59]HP Pavilion g4-1038tx Battery

HP Pavilion g4-1047tx Battery

 

In April 2010, Gates was invited to visit and speak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he asked the students to take on the hard problems of the world in their futures.[60][61]HP Pavilion g4-1049tu Battery

 

Gates married Melinda French on January 1, 1994. They have two daughters, Jennifer Katharine Gates (1996) and Phoebe Adele (2002), and one son, Rory John (1999). HP Pavilion g4-1050tx Battery

 

The Gates's home is an earth-sheltered house in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina. According to King County public records, as of 2006 the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million, and the annual property tax is $991,000. HP Pavilion g4-1051xx Battery

 

His 66,000 sq ft (6,100 m2) estate has a 60-foot (18 m) swimming pool with an underwater music system, as well as a 2,500 sq ft (230 m2) gym and a 1,000 sq ft (93 m2) dining room.[62]HP Pavilion g4-1052TX Battery

Also among Gates's private acquisitions is the Codex Leicester, a collection of writings byLeonardo da Vinci, which Gates bought for $30.8 million at an auction in 1994.[63] HP Pavilion G42 Battery

Gates is also known as an avid reader, and the ceiling of his large home library is engraved with a quotation from The Great Gatsby.[64] He also enjoys playing bridge, tennis, and golf.[65][66]HP Pavilion g4-1053TX Battery

Gates was number one on the Forbes 400 list from 1993 through to 2007 and number one on Forbes list of The World's Richest People from 1995 to 2007 and 2009. HP Pavilion g4 Battery

 In 1999, Gates's wealth briefly surpassed $101 billion, causing the media to call him a "centibillionaire".[67] Since 2000, the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft's stock price after the dot-com bubble burst and the multi-billion dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. HP Pavilion g4t-1000 CTO Battery

In a May 2006 interview, Gates commented that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world because he disliked the attention it brought.[68] Gates has several investments outside Microsoft, which in 2006 paid him a salary of $616,667 and $350,000 bonus totalling $966,667.[69] HP Pavilion g6-1000 Battery

He founded Corbis, a digital imaging company, in 1989. In 2004 he became a director ofBerkshire Hathaway, the investment company headed by long-time friend Warren Buffett.[70] In March 2010 Bill Gates was bumped down to the second wealthiest man behind Carlos Slim. HP Pavilion g6-1005tu Battery

PHILANTHROPY

Gates began to appreciate the expectations others had of him when public opinion mounted suggesting that he could give more of his wealth to charity. Gates studied the work of Andrew Carnegie and John D. HP Pavilion g6-1006tu Battery

Rockefeller, and in 1994 sold some of his Microsoft stock to create the William H. Gates Foundation. In 2000, Gates and his wife combined three family foundations into one to create the charitable Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which is the largest transparently operated charitable foundation in the world.[71] HP Pavilion g6-1008tx Battery

The foundation allows benefactors access to information regarding how its money is being spent, unlike other major charitable organizations such as the Wellcome Trust.[72][73] HP Pavilion g6-1009tx Battery

The generosity and extensive philanthropy of David Rockefeller has been credited as a major influence. Gates and his father met with Rockefeller several times, and modeled their giving in part on the Rockefeller family's philanthropic focus, HP Pavilion g6-1010tx Battery

namely those global problems that are ignored by governments and other organizations.[74] As of 2007, Bill and Melinda Gates were the second-most generous philanthropists in America, having given over $28 billion to charity.[75] They plan to eventually give 95% of their wealth to charity.[76]HP Pavilion g6-1011tx Battery

 

The foundation was at the same time criticized because it invests assets that it has not yet distributed with the exclusive goal of maximizing return on investment. As a result, HP Pavilion g6-1012tx Battery

its investments include companies that have been charged with worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the Foundation is attempting to relieve poverty. HP Pavilion g6-1013tu Battery

These include companies that pollute heavily, and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world.[77] In response to press criticism, the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments, to assess social responsibility.[78] HP Pavilion g6-1013tx Battery

It subsequently canceled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.[79] The Gates Millennium Scholars program has been criticized for its exclusion of Caucasian students.[80][81]HP Pavilion g6-1014tu Battery

 

Gates's wife urged people to learn a lesson from the philanthropic efforts of the Salwen family, which had sold its home and given away half of its value, as detailed in The Power of Half.[82]HP Pavilion g6-1014tx Battery

 Gates and his wife invited Joan Salwen to Seattle to speak about what the family had done, and on December 9, 2010, Gates, investor Warren Buffett, HP Pavilion g6-1015tu Battery

and Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook's CEO) signed a promise they called the "Gates-Buffet Giving Pledge", in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time.[83][84][85]HP Pavilion g6-1016tu Battery

RECOGNITION

In 1987, Gates was officially declared a billionaire in the pages of Forbes' 400 Richest People in America issue, just days before his 32nd birthday. As the world's youngest self-made billionaire, he was worth $1.25 billion, over $900 million more than he'd been worth the year before, when he'd debuted on the list.[86]HP Pavilion g6-1022tx Battery

 

Time magazine named Gates one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century, as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004, 2005, and 2006. Timealso collectively named Gates, HP Pavilion g6-1023tx Battery

his wife Melinda and U2's lead singer Bono as the 2005Persons of the Year for their humanitarian efforts.[87] In 2006, he was voted eighth in the list of "Heroes of our time".[88] HP Pavilion g6-1024tx Battery

Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the "Top 50 Cyber Elite" by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the "Top 100 influential people in media" in 2001.[89]HP Pavilion g6-1025sf Battery

 

In 1994, he was honoured as the twentieth Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society. Gates has received honorary doctorates from Nyenrode Business Universiteit,Breukelen, HP Pavilion g6-1025tx Battery

The Netherlands, in 2000;[90] the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2002; invited in 2003 to deliver the keynote address[91] of the Golden Jubilee of the Indian Institute of Technology,held in San Jose, California;[92] HP Pavilion g6-1026tx Battery

Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, in 2005; Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in April 2007;[93] Harvard University in June 2007;[94] the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, in January 2008,[95] HP Pavilion g6-1027tx Battery

and Cambridge University in June 2009.[96] He was also made an honorary trustee of Peking University in 2007.[97] HP Pavilion g6-1030tx Battery

Gates was also made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005,[98] in addition to havingentomologists name the Bill Gates flower fly, Eristalis gatesi, in his honor.[99]HP Pavilion g6-1030ef Battery

 

In November 2006, he and his wife were awarded the Order of the Aztec Eagle for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education, particularly in Mexico, and specifically in the program "Un país de lectores".[100] HP Pavilion g6-1031tx Battery

In October 2009, it was announced that Gates will be awarded the 2010 Bower Award for Business Leadership ofThe Franklin Institute for his achievements in business and for his philanthropic work. HP Pavilion g6-1040sf Battery

In 2010 he was honored with the Silver Buffalo Award by the Boy Scouts of America, its highest award for adults, for his service to youth.[101]HP Pavilion g6-1040ef Battery

 

In 2011, Bill Gates was ranked as the fifth most powerful person in the world, according to rankings by Forbes magazine.[102]HP Pavilion g6-1041ef Battery

 

Washington (i/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United Stateslocated north of Oregon, west of Idaho and south of the Canadian province of British Columbia, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. HP Pavilion g6-1042ef Battery

Washington was carved out of the western part of Washington Territory which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty as settlement of the Oregon Boundary Dispute. It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. HP Pavilion g6-1045ef Battery

 

Washington is the 18th most extensive and the 13th most populous of the 50 United States. Approximately 60 percent of Washington's residents live in the Seattle metropolitan area, the center of transportation, HP Pavilion g6-1046ef Battery

business, and industry along the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea, an inlet of the Pacific consisting of numerous islands, deep fjords, and bays carved out by glaciers. The remainder of the state consists of deep rainforests in the west, HP Pavilion g6-1046sf Battery

 mountain ranges in the west, center, northeast and far southeast, and a semi-arid eastern basin given over to intensive agriculture. Washington is the second most populous state on the west coast and in the western United States after California. HP Pavilion g6-1047ef Battery

 

Geography

Washington is the north-western most state of the contiguous United States. Its northern border lies mostly along the 49th parallel, and then via marine boundaries through theStrait of Georgia, HP Pavilion g6-1050ef Battery

Haro Strait and Strait of Juan de Fuca, with the Canadian province ofBritish Columbia to the north. Washington borders Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part and the 46th parallel forming the eastern part of the southern boundary. HP Pavilion g6-1050sf Battery

 

To the east, Washington borders Idaho, bounded mostly by the meridian running north from the confluence of the Snake River and Clearwater River (about 116°57' west), HP Pavilion g6-1051ef Battery

except for the southernmost section where the border follows the Snake River. To the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean.[6] Washington was a Union territory during theAmerican Civil War, although it never actually participated in the war. HP Pavilion G62 Battery

 

Washington is part of a region known as the Pacific Northwest, a term which always includes Washington and Oregon and may or may not include Idaho, western Montana, northern California, and part or all of British Columbia, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory, depending on the user's intent. HP Pavilion G62t Battery

 

The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state. Western Washington, from the Cascades westward, has a mostly marine west coast climate with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns, and springs, and relatively dry summers. HP Pavilion g6 Battery

Western Washington also supports dense forests of conifers and areas of temperate rain forest.[7] HP Pavilion g7-1000 Battery

Washington also is home to several other mountain ranges, the most prominent of which are the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic peninsula; the Kettle River Range in the northeast; and the Blue Mountains in the southeast. HP Pavilion g7-1000eg Battery

In contrast, Eastern Washington, east of the Cascades, has a relatively dry climate with large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rainshadow of the Cascades; HP Pavilion g7-1000sa Battery

the Hanford reservation receives an average annual precipitation of between six and seven inches (178 mm). Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches (538 mm) in Pullman.[8]HP Pavilion g7-1000sg Battery

 The Palouse southeast region of Washington was grassland that has been mostly converted into farmland. Other parts of eastern Washington are forested and mountainous. HP Pavilion g7-1001eg Battery

 

The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains. From the north to the south these volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. HP Pavilion g7-1001sg Battery

Mount St. Helens is currently the only Washington volcano that is actively erupting; however, all of them are considered active volcanoes. The state is also home to Mt. Rainier, a volcano 50 miles (80 km) south of the city of Seattle, from which it is prominently visible. HP Pavilion g7-1001xx Battery

The 14,411-foot (4,392 m)-tall Mt. Rainier is considered the most dangerous volcano in the continental U.S.,[9] due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area. It is also listed as a Decade Volcano. HP Pavilion g7-1002sg Battery


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Hoffman's symbolic theatrics were successful at convincing many young people to become more active in the politics of the time.[6] HP Pavilion dv3-2000 BatteryAnother one of Hoffman's well-known protests was on August 24, 1967, when he led members of the movement to the gallery of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). HP Pavilion dv3-2001tu BatteryThe protesters threw fistfuls of real and fake dollars down to the traders below, some of whom booed, while others began to scramble frantically to grab the money as fast as they could.[7] HP Pavilion dv3-2001TX BatteryAccounts of the amount of money that Hoffman and the group tossed was said to be as little as $30 to $300.[8] Hoffman claimed to be pointing out that, metaphorically, HP Pavilion dv3-2001xx Batterythat's what NYSE traders "were already doing." "We didn't call the press", wrote Hoffman, "at that time we really had no notion of anything called a media event." HP Pavilion dv3-2002tu BatteryThe press was quick to respond and by evening the event was reported around the world. Since that incident, the stock exchange has spent $20,000 to enclose the gallery with bulletproof glass.[9] HP Pavilion dv3-2002tx Battery

 In late 1966, Hoffman met with a radical community-action group called the Diggers[10]and studied their ideology. He later returned to New York and published a book with this knowledge.[10] Doing so was considered a violation by the Diggers. Diggers co-founderPeter Coyote explained: HP Pavilion dv3-2003tu Battery

 

Abbie, who was a friend of mine, was always a media junky. We explained everything to those guys, and they violated everything we taught them. Abbie went back, HP Pavilion dv3-2003tx Battery

and the first thing he did was publish a book, with his picture on it, that blew the hustle of every poor person on the Lower East Side by describing every free scam then current in New York -- which were then sucked dry by disaffected kids from Scarsdale.[11] HP Pavilion dv3-2004tu Battery

 

CHICAGO EIGHT CONSPIRACY TRIAL

Hoffman was arrested and tried for conspiracy and inciting to riot as a result of his role inanti-Vietnam War protests, which were met by a violent police response during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.[12] HP Pavilion dv3-2004tx Battery

He was among the group that came to be known as the Chicago Seven (originally known as the Chicago Eight), which included fellow Yippie Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, HP Pavilion dv3-2005ee Battery

Rennie Davis, John Froines, Lee Weiner, futureCalifornia state senator Tom Hayden and Black Panther Party co-founder Bobby Seale(before his trial was severed from the others). HP Pavilion dv3-2005tu Battery

 

Presided over by Judge Julius Hoffman (no relation to Abbie, which Abbie joked about throughout the trial[13]), Abbie Hoffman's courtroom antics frequently grabbed the headlines; HP Pavilion dv3-2005tx Battery

one day, defendants Hoffman and Rubin appeared in court dressed in judicial robes, while on another day, Hoffman was sworn in as a witness with his hand giving the finger. HP Pavilion dv3-2006tu Battery

Judge Hoffman became the favorite courtroom target of the Chicago Seven defendants, who frequently would insult the judge to his face.[14] Abbie Hoffman told Judge Hoffman "you are a 'shande fur de Goyim' [disgrace in front of the gentiles]. HP Pavilion dv3-2006tx Battery

You would have served Hitler better." He later added that "your idea of justice is the only obscenity in the room."[14] Both Davis and Rubin told the Judge "this court is bullshit." When Abbie was asked in what state he resided, he replied the "state of mind of my brothers and sisters".HP Pavilion dv3-2007ee Battery

 

Other celebrities were called as "cultural witnesses" including Allen Ginsberg, Phil Ochs,Arlo Guthrie, Norman Mailer and others. Abbie closed the trial with a speech in which he quoted Abraham Lincoln, making the claim that the President himself, if alive today, would also be arrested in Chicago's Lincoln Park. HP Pavilion dv3-2007tu Battery

On February 18, 1970, Hoffman and four of the other defendants (Rubin, Dellinger, Davis, and Hayden) were found guilty of intent to incite a riot while crossing state lines. HP Pavilion dv3-2007tx Battery

All seven defendants were found not guilty of conspiracy. At sentencing, Hoffman suggested the judge try LSD and offered to set him up with "a dealer he knew in Florida" (the judge was known to be headed to Florida for a post-trial vacation). Each of the five was sentenced to five years in prison and a $5,000 fine.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2008tu Battery

 

However, all convictions were subsequently overturned by the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals. The Kerner Commission later found that in fact it had been a "police riot." HP Pavilion dv3-2008tx Battery

 

CONTROVERSY AT WOODSTOCK

At Woodstock in 1969, Hoffman reportedly interrupted The Who's performance to attempt to speak against the jailing of John Sinclair of the White Panther Party. He grabbed a microphone and yelled, "I think this is a pile of shit while John Sinclair rots in prison ..." HP Pavilion dv3-2009tx Battery

The Who's guitarist, Pete Townshend, was adjusting his amplifier between songs and turned to look at Hoffman over his right shoulder. Townshend reportedly ran at Hoffman with his guitar and hit Hoffman in the back, HP Pavilion dv3-2010el Battery

although this was later denied by Townshend.[16]Townshend later said that while he actually agreed with Hoffman on Sinclair'simprisonment, he would have knocked him offstage regardless of the content of his message, HP Pavilion dv3-2010et Battery

given that Hoffman had violated the "sanctity of the stage," i.e., the right of the band to perform uninterrupted by distractions not relevant to the actual show. The incident took place during a camera change, and was not captured on film. HP Pavilion dv3-2010tx Battery

The audio of this incident, however, can be heard on The Who's box set, Thirty Years of Maximum R&B(Disc 2, Track 20, "Abbie Hoffman Incident").HP Pavilion dv3-2011tx Battery

 

In Woodstock Nation, Hoffman mentions the incident, and says he was on a bad LSD tripat the time. Joe Shea, then a reporter for the Times Herald-Record, a Dow Jones-Ottaway newspaper that covered the event on-site, said he saw the incident. HP Pavilion dv3-2012tx Battery

He recalled that Hoffman was actually hit in the back of the head by Townshend's guitar and toppled directly into the pit in front of the stage. He does not recall any "shove" from Townshend, and discounts both men's accounts. HP Pavilion dv3-2013tx Battery

 

UNDERGROUND

In 1971, Hoffman published Steal This Book, which advised readers on how to live basically for free. Many of his readers followed Hoffman's advice and stole the book, leading many bookstores to refuse to carry it. He was also the author of several other books, HP Pavilion dv3-2014tx Battery

 including Vote!, co-written with Rubin and Ed Sanders.[17] Hoffman was arrested August 28, 1973 on drug charges for intent to sell and distribute cocaine. HP Pavilion dv3-2015ee Battery

He always maintained that undercover police agents entrapped him into a drug deal and planted suitcases of cocaine in his office. In the spring of 1974, Hoffman skipped bail, underwent cosmetic surgery to alter his appearance, and hid from authorities for several years. HP Pavilion dv3-2015tx Battery

 

Some believed Abbie made himself a target. In 1998, Peter Coyote opined:

The FBI couldn't infiltrate us. We did everything anonymously, and we did everything for nothing, because we wanted our actions to be authentic. It's the mistake that Abbie Hoffman made. HP Pavilion dv3-2016tx Battery

He came out, he studied with us, we taught him everything, and then he went back and wrote a book called Free, and he put his name on it! He set himself up to be a leader of the counterculture, and he was undone by that. Big mistake.[18] HP Pavilion dv3-2017ee Battery

 

Despite being "in hiding" during part of this period (Hoffman lived in Fineview, New York near Thousand Island Park, a private resort on Wellesley Island on the St. Lawrence River under the name "Barry Freed"), HP Pavilion dv3-2017tx Battery

he helped coordinate an environmental campaign to preserve the Saint Lawrence River (Save the River organization).[19] During his time on the run, he was also the "travel" columnist for Crawdaddy! magazine. HP Pavilion dv3-2018tx Battery

On September 4, 1980, he surrendered to authorities; on the same date, he appeared on a pre-taped edition of ABC-TV's 20/20 in an interview with Barbara Walters. Hoffman received a one-year sentence, but was released after four months. HP Pavilion dv3-2019tx Battery

 

BACK TO VISIBILITY

In November 1986, Hoffman was arrested along with fourteen others, including Amy Carter, the daughter of former President Jimmy Carter, for trespassing at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2020ei Battery

The charges stemmed from a protest against the Central Intelligence Agency's recruitment on the UMass campus.[21] Since the university's policy limited campus recruitment to law-abiding organizations, Hoffman asserted in his defense the CIA's lawbreaking activities. HP Pavilion dv3-2020el Battery

The federal district court judge permitted expert witnesses, including former Attorney General Ramsey Clark and a former CIA agent who testified about the CIA's illegal Contra war against the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua in violation of the Boland Amendment.[22] HP Pavilion dv3-2020et Battery

 

In three days of testimony, more than a dozen defense witnesses, including Daniel Ellsberg, Ramsey Clark, and former Contra leader Edgar Chamorro, HP Pavilion dv3-2020tx Battery

described the CIA's role in more than two decades of covert, illegal and often violent activities. In his closing argument, Hoffman, acting as his own attorney, placed his actions within the best tradition of American civil disobedience. He quoted from Thomas Paine, HP Pavilion dv3-2021tx Battery

"the most outspoken and farsighted of the leaders of the American Revolution: 'Every age and generation must be as free to act for itself, in all cases, as the ages and generations which preceded it. Man has no property in man, neither has any generation a property in the generations which are to follow.'"HP Pavilion dv3-2022tx Battery

 

Hoffman concluded: "Thomas Paine was talking about this Spring day in this courtroom. A verdict of not guilty will say, 'When our country is right, keep it right; but when it is wrong, right those wrongs.'" On April 15, 1987, the jury found Hoffman and the other defendants not guilty. HP Pavilion dv3-2023tx Battery

 

After his acquittal,[21] Hoffman acted in a cameo appearance in Oliver Stone's later-released anti-Vietnam War movie, Born on the Fourth of July.[23] He essentially played himself in the movie, waving a flag on the ramparts of an administration building during a campus protest that was being teargassed and crushed by state troopers. HP Pavilion dv3-2024tx Battery

 

In 1987 Hoffman summed up his views.

You are talking to a leftist. I believe in the redistribution of wealth and power in the world. I believe in universal hospital care for everyone. I believe that we should not have a single homeless person in the richest country in the world. And I believe that we should not have a C.I.A. HP Pavilion dv3-2025ee Battery

that goes around overwhelming governments and assassinating political leaders, working for tight oligarchies around the world to protect the tight oligarchy here at home.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2025eg Battery

 

Later that same year, Hoffman and Jonathan Silvers wrote Steal This Urine Test(published October 5, 1987), which exposed the internal contradictions of the War on Drugs and suggested ways to circumvent its most intrusive measures. He stated, for instance, that Federal Express, HP Pavilion dv3-2025tx Battery

which received high praise from management guru Tom Peters for "empowering" workers, in fact subjected most employees to random drug tests, firing any who got a positive result, with no retest or appeal procedure, despite the fact that FedEx chose a drug lab (the lowest bidder) with a proven record of frequent false positive results.[citation needed] HP Pavilion dv3-2026tx Battery

 

Stone's Born on the Fourth of July was released on December 20, 1989, more than eight months after Hoffman's suicide on April 12, 1989. At the time of his death, Hoffman was at the height of a renewed public visibility, one of the few 1960s radicals who still commanded the attention of all kinds of mass media. HP Pavilion dv3-2027ee Battery

He regularly lectured audiences about the CIA's covert activities, including assassinations disguised as suicides. HisPlayboy article (October, 1988) outlining the connections that constitute the "October Surprise," brought that alleged conspiracy to the attention of a wide-ranging American readership for the first time.[24] HP Pavilion dv3-2027tx Battery

 

In 1960, Hoffman married Sheila Karklin[2] and had two children: Andrew (born 1960) and Amy (1962–2007), who later went by the name Ilya. They divorced in 1966. HP Pavilion dv3-2028tx Battery

 

In 1967, Hoffman married Anita Kushner in Manhattan's Central Park.[25] They had one son, america Hoffman, deliberately named using a lowercase "a" to indicate both patriotism and non-jingoistic intent.[26] HP Pavilion dv3-2029tx Battery

Although Abbie and Anita were effectively separated after Abbie became a fugitive, starting in 1973, and he subsequently fell in love withJohanna Lawrenson in 1974, while a fugitive, they were not formally divorced until 1980. HP Pavilion dv3-2030ef Battery

 

His personal life drew a great deal of scrutiny from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. By their own admission, they kept a file on him that was 13,262 pages long.[27] HP Pavilion dv3-2030ei Battery

 

DEATH

Hoffman was 52 at the time of his death on April 12, 1989, which was caused by swallowing 150 phenobarbital tablets along with hard liquor. He had been diagnosed withbipolar disorder in 1980.[28] HP Pavilion dv3-2030ek Battery

At the time he had recently changed treatment medications and was reportedly depressed when his 83-year old mother was diagnosed with cancer (she died in 1996 at the age of 90). HP Pavilion dv3-2030eo Battery

Some close to Hoffman claimed that as a natural prankster who valued youth, he was also unhappy about reaching middle age, combined with the fact that the ideas of the 1960s had given way to a conservative backlash in the 1980s. (Jezer, 1993). HP Pavilion dv3-2030ez Battery

Hoffman's body was found in his apartment in a converted turkey coop on Sugan Road in Solebury Township, near New Hope, Pennsylvania. At the time of his death, he was surrounded by about 200 pages of his own handwritten notes, many about his own moods. HP Pavilion dv3-2030tx Battery

 

His death was officially ruled a suicide.[29] As reported by The New York Times, "Among the more vocal doubters at the service today was Mr. Dellinger, who said, 'I don't believe for one moment the suicide thing.' HP Pavilion dv3-2032tx Battery

He said he had been in fairly frequent touch with Mr. Hoffman, who had 'numerous plans for the future.'" Yet the same New York Times article reported that the coroner found the residue of about 150 pills and quoted the coroner in a telephone interview saying 'There is no way to take that amount of phenobarbital without intent. It was intentional and self-inflicted.' [29] HP Pavilion dv3-2033eg Battery

 

A week after Hoffman's death, a thousand friends and relatives gathered for a memorial inWorcester, Massachusetts at Temple Emanuel, the synagogue he attended as a child. Senior Rabbi Norman Mendel officiated. HP Pavilion dv3-2033tx Battery

Two of his colleagues from the Chicago Seven conspiracy trial were there: David Dellinger and Jerry Rubin, Hoffman's co-founder of the Yippies, by then a businessman. HP Pavilion dv3-2034tx Battery

 

As The New York Times reported: "Indeed, most of the mourners who attended the formal memorial at Temple Emanuel here were more yuppie than yippie and there were more rep ties than ripped jeans among the crowd..."[30] HP Pavilion dv3-2036tx Battery

 

The Times report continued:

Bill Walton, the radical Celtic of basketball renown, told of a puckish Abbie, then underground evading a cocaine charge in the '70s, leaping from the shadows on a New York street to give him an impromptu basketball lesson after a loss to the Knicks. HP Pavilion dv3-2050ea Battery

'Abbie was not a fugitive from justice,' said Mr. Walton. 'Justice was a fugitive from him.' On a more traditional note, Rabbi Norman Mendell said in his eulogy that Mr. Hoffman's long history of protest, antic though much of it had been, was 'in the Jewish prophetic tradition, which is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.'[30] HP Pavilion dv3-2050ec Battery

 

Hofmann, later, was to discover 4-Acetoxy-DET (4-acetoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine), also known as ethacetin, ethylacybin, or 4-AcO-DET, a hallucinogenic tryptamine. He first synthesized 4-AcO-DET in 1958 in the Sandoz lab. HP Pavilion dv3-2050ep Battery

Hofmann became director of the natural products department at Sandoz and continued studying hallucinogenic substances found in Mexican mushrooms and other plants used by the aboriginal people. HP Pavilion dv3-2050es Battery

This led to the synthesis of psilocybin, the active agent of many "magic mushrooms."[9] Hofmann also became interested in the seeds of the Mexican morning glory species Rivea corymbosa, the seeds of which are called Ololiuhqui by the natives. HP Pavilion dv3-2051ea Battery

He was surprised to find the active compound of Ololiuhqui, ergine (LSA, lysergic acid amide), to be closely related to LSD. HP Pavilion dv3-2055ea Battery

 

In 1962, he and his wife Anita Hofmann (born Guanella) traveled to southern Mexico to search for the plant "Ska Maria Pastora" (Leaves of Mary the Shepherdess), later known as Salvia divinorum. He was able to obtain samples of this plant but never succeeded in identifying its active compound which has since been identified as the diterpenoidSalvinorin A. HP Pavilion dv3-2080eo Battery

 

In 1963, Hofmann attended the annual convention of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences (WAAS) in Stockholm. HP Pavilion dv3-2090ej Battery

 

Hofmann called LSD "medicine for the soul" and was frustrated by the worldwide prohibition of it. "It was used very successfully for 10 years in psychoanalysis," he said, HP Pavilion dv3-2090en Battery

adding that the drug was misused by the Counterculture of the 1960s and then criticized unfairly by the establishment. Because LSD is such a powerful[vague] compound, he conceded that it could be dangerous if misused.[10] HP Pavilion dv3-2100 Battery

 

In December 2007, Swiss medical authorities permitted a psychotherapist to perform psychotherapeutic experiments with patients who suffer from terminal-stage cancer and other deadly diseases. HP Pavilion dv3-2101tu Battery

Although not yet started, these experiments will represent the first study of the therapeutic effects of LSD on humans in 35 years, as other studies have focused on the drug's effects on consciousness and body. Hofmann acclaimed the study, and continued to say he believed in the therapeutic benefits of LSD.[11] HP Pavilion dv3-2101tx Battery

 

Albert Hofmann's autobiographical account of his experience with LSD was published inLSD: My Problem Child (1980). Hofmann also co-authored The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries (Hermes Press, 1998, North Atlantic Books, 2008), HP Pavilion dv3-2102tu Battery

a collaborative effort with mycologist R. Gordon Wasson, and classical scholars Carl Ruckand Blaise Staples, which investigates the secret mystic elixir that was a component of the Eleusinian Mysteries. HP Pavilion dv3-2102tx Battery

Hofmann further describes the relevance of the Eleusinian Mysteries for today's world, and the application of psychedelic experience to the study ofmetaphysics, in essays published in Entheogens and the Future of Religion, (Council on Spiritual Practices, San Francisco, 1999);HP Pavilion dv3-2103tx Battery

and discusses his relationship with LSD enthusiast Timothy Leary in Outside Looking In (Park Street Press, Rochester, VT, 1999). Also, a posthumous book by Albert Hoffman, Hofmann's Elixir: LSD and the New Eleusis, collecting the last essays the author wrote, was released February 24, 2010.[16] HP Pavilion dv3-2105ee Battery

 

According to the Bible, a giant storm sent by God flooded the Earth. Noah and his family and the animals entered the Ark, and "the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, HP Pavilion dv3-2105tu Battery

and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights." The flood covered even the highest mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet, and all creatures died; only Noah and those with him on the Ark were left alive. In the New Testament, Jesus Christ is recorded to have calmed a storm on the Sea of Galilee. HP Pavilion dv3-2106tu Battery

 

In Greek mythology there were several gods of storms: Briareos, the god of sea storms;Aigaios, a god of the violent sea storms; and Aiolos, keeper of storm-winds, squalls and tempests. HP Pavilion dv3-2107tu Battery

 

The Sea Venture was wrecked near Bermuda in 1609 which led to the colonization of Bermuda[49] and provided the inspiration for Shakespeare's The Tempest. William Shakespeare's play The Tempest (1611) was based on the following incident.[50] HP Pavilion dv3-2108tu Battery

 Sir Thomas Gates, future governor of Virginia, was on his way to England from Jamestown, Virginia. On Saint James Day while between Cuba and the Bahamas a hurricane raged for nearly two days. HP Pavilion dv3-2110er Battery

Though one of the small vessels in the fleet sank to the bottom of theFlorida Straits, seven of the remaining vessels reached Virginia within several days after the storm. HP Pavilion dv3-2112tx Battery

The flagship of the fleet, known as Sea Adventure, disappeared and was presumed lost. A small bit of fortune befell the ship and her crew when they made landfall on Bermuda. HP Pavilion dv3-2115ea Battery

The vessel was damaged on a surrounding coral reef, but all aboard survived for nearly a year on the island. The British colonists claimed the island and quickly settled Bermuda. In May 1610, they set forth for Jamestown, this time arriving at their destination. HP Pavilion dv3-2115ee Battery

 

The Romantic seascape painters J. M. W. Turner and Ivan Aivazovsky created some of the most lasting impressions of the sublime and stormy seas that are firmly imprinted on the popular mind.HP Pavilion dv3-2116tx Battery

Turner's representations of powerful natural forces reinvented the traditional seascape during the first half of the nineteenth century. Upon his travels to Holland, HP Pavilion dv3-2117tx Battery

he took note of the familiar large rolling waves of the English seashore transforming into the sharper, choppy waves of a Dutch storm. A characteristic example of Turner’s dramatic seascape is The Slave Ship of 1840. HP Pavilion dv3-2119tx Battery

Aivazovsky left several thousand turbulent canvases in which he increasingly eliminated human figures and historical background to focus on such essential elements as light, sea, and sky. His grandiose Ninth Wave (1850) is an ode to human daring in the face of the elements. HP Pavilion dv3-2120ea Battery

 

Storms were also portrayed in several works of music. Examples are Beethoven'sPastoral Symphony (the fourth movement), Presto of the violin concerto RV 315 (Summer) from the Four Seasons by Vivaldi, and a scene in Act II of Rossini's opera The Barber of SevilleHP Pavilion dv3-2120ss Battery

 

Hail is one of the most significant thunderstorm hazards to aircraft.[41] When hail stones exceed 0.5 inches (13 mm) in diameter, planes can be seriously damaged within seconds.[42] HP Pavilion dv3-2121tx Battery

The hailstones accumulating on the ground can also be hazardous to landing aircraft. Strong wind outflow from thunderstorms causes rapid changes in the three-dimensional wind velocity just above ground level. HP Pavilion dv3-2122tx Battery

Initially, this outflow causes a headwind that increases airspeed, which normally causes a pilot to reduce engine power if they are unaware of the wind shear. As the aircraft passes into the region of the downdraft, HP Pavilion dv3-2123tx Battery

the localized headwind diminishes, reducing the aircraft's airspeed and increasing its sink rate. Then, when the aircraft passes through the other side of the downdraft, the headwind becomes a tailwind, reducing lift generated by the wings, and leaving the aircraft in a low-power, low-speed descent. HP Pavilion dv3-2125ee Battery

This can lead to an accident if the aircraft is too low to effect a recovery before ground contact. As the result of the accidents in the 1970s and 1980s, in 1988 the U.S. HP Pavilion dv3-2126tx Battery

 Federal Aviation Administration mandated that all commercial aircraft haveon-board wind shear detection systems by 1993. Between 1964 and 1985, wind shear directly caused or contributed to 26 major civil transport aircraft accidents in the U.S. HP Pavilion dv3-2129tx Battery

that led to 620 deaths and 200 injuries. Since 1995, the number of major civil aircraft accidents caused by wind shear has dropped to approximately one every ten years, due to the mandated on-board detection as well as the addition of Doppler weather radar units on the ground. (NEXRAD)[43] HP Pavilion dv3-2130ea Battery

 

AGRICULTURE

Hail can cause serious damage, notably to automobiles, aircraft, skylights, glass-roofed structures, livestock, and most commonly, farmers' crops.[34] Wheat, corn, soybeans, HP Pavilion dv3-2130ef Battery

and tobacco are the most sensitive crops to hail damage.[35] Hail is one of Canada's most expensive hazards.[36] Snowfall can be beneficial to agriculture by serving as a thermal insulator,HP Pavilion dv3-2130ei Battery

conserving the heat of the Earth and protecting crops from subfreezing weather. Some agricultural areas depend on an accumulation of snow during winter that will melt gradually in spring, HP Pavilion dv3-2130es Battery

providing water for crop growth. If it melts into water and refreezes upon sensitive crops, such as oranges, the resulting ice will protect the fruit from exposure to lower temperatures.[37] HP Pavilion dv3-2130ez Battery

Although tropical cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may be important factors in the precipitation regimes of places they affect and bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions. HP Pavilion dv3-2131tx Battery

Hurricanes in the eastern north Pacific often supply moisture to the Southwestern United States and parts of Mexico.[38] Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons.[39] HP Pavilion dv3-2133tx Battery

Hurricane Camilleaverted drought conditions and ended water deficits along much of its path,[40] though it also killed 259 people and caused $9.14 billion (2005 USD) in damage. HP Pavilion dv3-2135tx Battery

 

Shipwrecks are common with the passage of strong tropical cyclones. Such shipwrecks can change the course of history,[11] as well as influence art and literature. HP Pavilion dv3-2136tx Battery

A hurricane led to a victory of the Spanish over the French for control of Fort Caroline, and ultimately the Atlantic coast of North America, in 1565.[12] HP Pavilion dv3-2137tx Battery

Strong winds from any storm type can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, and other outside objects, turning loose debris into deadly flying projectiles. HP Pavilion dv3-2138tx Battery

In the United States, major hurricanes comprise just 21% of all landfalling tropical cyclones, but account for 83% of all damage.[13] Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens or hundreds of thousands of people, preventing vital communication and hampering rescue efforts.[14] HP Pavilion dv3-2139tx Battery

Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it. Furthermore, HP Pavilion dv3-2140ei Battery

the damage caused by tropical cyclones to buildings and dwellings can result in economic damage to a region, and to a diaspora of the population of the region.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2140eo Battery

The storm surge, or the increase in sea level due to the cyclone, is typically the worst effect from landfalling tropical cyclones, historically resulting in 90% of tropical cyclone deaths.[15] HP Pavilion dv3-2144tx Battery

The relatively quick surge in sea level can move miles/kilometers inland, flooding homes and cutting off escape routes. The storm surges and winds of hurricanes may be destructive to human-made structures, but they also stir up the waters of coastal estuaries, which are typically important fish breeding locales. HP Pavilion dv3-2145tx Battery

 

Cloud-to-ground lightning frequently occur within the phenomena of thunderstorms and have numerous hazards towards landscapes and populations. One of the more significant hazards lightning can pose is the wildfires they are capable of igniting.[16] HP Pavilion dv3-2146tx Battery

Under a regime of low precipitation (LP) thunderstorms, where little precipitation is present, rainfall cannot prevent fires from starting when vegetation is dry as lightning produces a concentrated amount of extreme heat.[17] HP Pavilion dv3-2147tx Battery

Wildfires can devastate vegetation and the biodiversity of an ecosystem. Wildfires that occur close to urban environments can inflict damages upon infrastructures, buildings, crops, and provide risks to explosions, should the flames be exposed to gas pipes. HP Pavilion dv3-2149tx Battery

Direct damage caused by lightning strikes occurs on occasion.[18]In areas with a high frequency for cloud-to-ground lightning, like Florida, lightning causes several fatalities per year, most commonly to people working outside.[19] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ec Battery

 

Precipitation with low potential of hydrogen levels (pH), otherwise known as acid rain, is also a frequent risk produced by lightning. Distilled water, which contains no carbon dioxide, HP Pavilion dv3-2150ej Battery

has a neutral pH of 7. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are bases. “Clean” or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic pH of about 5.2, HP Pavilion dv3-2150el Battery

because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid (pH 5.6 in distilled water), but unpolluted rain also contains other chemicals.[20] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ep Battery

Nitric oxide present during thunderstorm phenomena,[21] caused by the splitting of nitrogen molecules, can result in the production of acid rain, if nitric oxide forms compounds with the water molecules in precipitation, thus creating acid rain. HP Pavilion dv3-2150es Battery

Acid rain can damage infrastructures containing calcite or other solid chemical compounds containing carbon. In ecosystems, acid rain can dissolve plant tissues of vegetations and increase acidification process in bodies of water and in soil, resulting in deaths of marine and terrestrial organisms.[22] HP Pavilion dv3-2150ev Battery

 

Hail damage to roofs often goes unnoticed until further structural damage is seen, such as leaks or cracks. It is hardest to recognize hail damage on shingled roofs and flat roofs, but all roofs have their own hail damage detection problems.[5] Metal roofs are fairly resistant to hail damage,HP Pavilion dv3-2150tx Battery

but may accumulate cosmetic damage in the form of dents and damaged coatings.[23] Hail is also a common nuisance to drivers of automobiles, severely denting the vehicle and cracking or even shattering windshields and windows. Rarely, HP Pavilion dv3-2150us Battery

massive hailstones have been known to cause concussions or fatal head trauma. Hailstorms have been the cause of costly and deadly events throughout history. One of the earliest recorded incidents occurred around the 9th century in Roopkund, Uttarakhand, India.[24] HP Pavilion dv3-2154ca Battery

The largest hailstone in terms of diameter and weight ever recorded in the United States fell on July 23, 2010 in Vivian, South Dakota in the United States; it measured 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter and 18.62 inches (47.3 cm) in circumference, HP Pavilion dv3-2155ee Battery

weighing in at 1.93 pounds (0.88 kg).[25] This broke the previous record for diameter set by a hailstone 7 inches diameter and 18.75 inches circumference which fell in Aurora, Nebraska in the United States on June 22, 2003, as well as the record for weight, set by a hailstone of 1.67 pounds (0.76 kg) that fell in Coffeyville, Kansas in 1970.[25] HP Pavilion dv3-2157cl Battery

 

Various hazards, ranging from hail to lightning can have an impact on outside technology facilities, such as antennas, satellite dishes, and towers. As a result, companies with outside facilities have begun installing such facilities underground, in order to reduce the risk of damage from storms.[26] HP Pavilion dv3-2160eo Battery

 

Substantial snowfall can disrupt public infrastructure and services, slowing human activity even in regions that are accustomed to such weather. Air and ground transport may be greatly inhibited or shut down entirely. HP Pavilion dv3-2175ee Battery

Populations living in snow-prone areas have developed various ways to travel across the snow, such as skis, snowshoes, and sledspulled by horses, dogs, or other animals and later, snowmobiles. HP Pavilion dv3-2200 Battery

Basic utilities such aselectricity, telephone lines, and gas supply can also fail. In addition, snow can make roads much harder to travel and vehicles attempting to use them can easily become stuck.[27] HP Pavilion dv3-2225TX Battery

 

The combined effects can lead to a "snow day" on which gatherings such as school, work, or church are officially canceled. In areas that normally have very little or no snow, HP Pavilion dv3-2301tu Battery

a snow day may occur when there is only light accumulation or even the threat of snowfall, since those areas are unprepared to handle any amount of snow. In some areas, such as some states in the United States, schools are given a yearly quota of snow days (or "calamity days").HP Pavilion dv3-2301tx Battery

 Once the quota is exceeded, the snow days must be made up.[28][29][30] In other states, all snow days must be made up.[31] For example, schools may extend the remaining school days later into the afternoon, shorten spring break, or delay the start ofsummer vacation. HP Pavilion dv3-2303tx Battery

 

Accumulated snow is removed to make travel easier and safer, and to decrease the long-term impact of a heavy snowfall. This process utilizes shovels and snowplows, HP Pavilion dv3-2304tx Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2305tx Battery

and is often assisted by sprinkling salt or other chloride-based chemicals, which reduce the melting temperature of snow.[32] In some areas with abundant snowfall, such asYamagata Prefecture, HP Pavilion dv3-2306tx Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2307tx Battery

HP Pavilion dv3-2308tx Battery

 Japan, people harvest snow and store it surrounded by insulation in ice houses. This allows the snow to be used through the summer for refrigeration and air conditioning, which requires far less electricity than traditional cooling methods.[33] HP Pavilion dv3-2309tx Battery

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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (French pronunciation: [ɡystav flobɛʁ]) (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857), and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and styleHP Pavilion dv2-1010ed Battery

 

Flaubert was born on December 12, 1821, in Rouen, in the Seine-Maritime department ofUpper Normandy, in northern France. HP Pavilion dv2-1010eo Battery

He was the second son of Achille-Cléophas Flaubert (1784–1846), a surgeon, and Anne Justine Caroline (née Fleuriot) (1793–1872). He began writing at an early age, as early as eight according to some sources.[1]HP Pavilion dv2-1010ep Battery

 

He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen.[2] and did not leave until 1840, when he went to Paris to study law. In Paris, he was an indifferent student and found the city distasteful. He made a few acquaintances, including Victor Hugo. Toward the close of 1840, he traveled in the Pyrenees and Corsica. In 1846, after an attack of epilepsy, he left Paris and abandoned the study of law. HP Pavilion dv2-1010et Battery

 

PERSONAL LIFE

From 1846 to 1854, Flaubert had a relationship with the poet Louise Colet; his letters to her survive. HP Pavilion dv2-1010ez Battery

After leaving Paris, he returned to Croisset, near the Seine, close to Rouen, and lived with his mother in their home for the rest of his life. He made occasional visits to Paris and England, where he apparently had a mistress. HP Pavilion dv2-1010la Battery

Flaubert never married. According to his biographer Émile Faguet, his affair with Louise Colet was his only serious romantic relationship. He sometimes visited prostitutes.[3] Eventually, the end of his affair with Colet led Flaubert to lose interest in romance and seek platonic companionship, particularly with other writers. HP Pavilion dv2-1011au Battery

 

With his lifelong friend Maxime Du Camp, he traveled in Brittany in 1846. In 1849–1850 he went on a long journey to the Middle East, visiting Greece and Egypt. In Beirut he contracted syphilis. He spent five weeks in Constantinople in 1850. He visited Carthage in 1858 to conduct research for his novel Salammbô. HP Pavilion dv2-1011ax Battery

 

Flaubert was very open about his sexual activities with prostitutes in his writings on his travels. He suspected that a chancre on his penis was from a Maronite or a Turkish girl.[4]HP Pavilion dv2-1012au Battery

He also engaged in intercourse with male prostitutes in Beirut and Egypt; in one of his letters, he describes a "pockmarked young rascal wearing a white turban" with whom he had anal sex.[5][6] He had intercourse with a 14-year-old Maronite boy in 1850.[7]HP Pavilion dv2-1013ax Battery

 

Flaubert was a tireless worker and often complained in his letters to friends about the strenuous nature of his work. He was close to his niece, Caroline Commanville, and had a close friendship and correspondence with George Sand. HP Pavilion dv2-1014au Battery

He occasionally visited Parisian acquaintances, including Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Ivan Turgenev, and Edmond andJules de Goncourt. HP Pavilion dv2-1015ax Battery

 

The 1870s were a difficult time for Flaubert. Prussian soldiers occupied his house during the War of 1870, and his mother died in 1872. After her death, he fell into financial difficulty. HP Pavilion dv2-1015ee Battery

Flaubert suffered from venereal diseases most of his life. His health declined and he died at Croisset of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1880 at the age of 58. He was buried in the family vault in the cemetery of Rouen. A monument to him by Henri Chapu was unveiled at the museum of Rouen. HP Pavilion dv2-1016ax Battery

 

His first finished work was November, a novella, which was completed in 1842.

In September 1849, Flaubert completed the first version of a novel, The Temptation of Saint Anthony. He read the novel aloud to Louis Bouilhet and Maxime Du Camp over the course of four days, HP Pavilion dv2-1017ax Battery

 not allowing them to interrupt or give any opinions. At the end of the reading, his friends told him to throw the manuscript in the fire, suggesting instead that he focus on day-to-day life rather than fantastic subjects. HP Pavilion dv2-1018ax Battery

 

In 1850, after returning from Egypt, Flaubert began work on Madame Bovary. The novel, which took five years to write, was serialized in the Revue de Paris in 1856. HP Pavilion dv2-1019ax Battery

The government brought an action against the publisher and author on the charge of immorality, which was heard during the following year, but both were acquitted. WhenMadame Bovary appeared in book form, it met with a warm reception. HP Pavilion dv2-1020ax Battery

 

In 1858, Flaubert traveled to Carthage to gather material for his next novel, Salammbô. The novel was completed in 1862 after four years of work. HP Pavilion dv2-1020ef Battery

 

Drawing on his youth, Flaubert next wrote L'Éducation sentimentale (Sentimental Education), an effort that took seven years. His last complete novel, it was published in 1869. HP Pavilion dv2-1020el Battery

 

He wrote an unsuccessful drama, Le Candidat, and published a reworked version of The Temptation of Saint Anthony, portions of which had been published as early as 1857. HP Pavilion dv2-1020er Battery

He devoted much of his time to an ongoing project, Les Deux Cloportes (The Two Woodlice), which later became Bouvard et Pécuchet, breaking from the obsessive project only to write the Three Tales in 1877. HP Pavilion dv2-1020es Battery

This book comprised three stories: Un Cœur simple (A Simple Heart), La Légende de Saint-Julien l'Hospitalier (The Legend of St. Julian the Hospitaller), and Hérodias (Herodias). HP Pavilion dv2-1020et Battery

After the publication of the stories, he spent the remainder of his life toiling on the unfinished Bouvard et Pécuchet, which was posthumously printed in 1881. It was a grand satire on the futility of human knowledge and the ubiquity of mediocrity. HP Pavilion dv2-1020la Battery

He believed the work to be his masterpiece, though the posthumous version received lukewarm reviews. Flaubert was a prolific letter writer, and his letters have been collected in several publications. HP Pavilion dv2-1021ax Battery

 

At the time of his death, he may have been working on a further historical novel, based on the Battle of Thermopylae[8]HP Pavilion dv2-1022ax Battery

 

Perfectionist style

Flaubert scrupulously avoids the inexact, the abstract, the vaguely inapt expression which is the bane of ordinary methods of composition; he never allowed a cliche to pass him.[9]In a letter to George Sand he said that he spends his time "trying to write harmonious sentences, avoiding assonances."[10][11]HP Pavilion dv2-1023ax Battery

 

Flaubert believed in, and pursued, the principle of finding "le mot juste" ("the right word"), which he considered as the key mean to achieve quality in literary art.[12] He worked in sullen solitude — sometimes occupying a week in the completion of one page — never satisfied with what he had composed, HP Pavilion dv2-1024ax Battery

violently tormenting his brain for the best turn of phrase, the final adjective.[9] His private letters show that he was not one of those to whom correct, flowing language came naturally: his style was achieved through the unceasing sweat of his brow.[9]HP Pavilion dv2-1025ax Battery

This painstaking style of writing is also evident when one compares Flaubert’s output over a lifetime to that of his peers (see, for example Balzac or Zola). HP Pavilion dv2-1026ax Battery

Flaubert published much less prolifically than was the norm for his time and never got near the pace of a novel a year, as his peers often achieved during their peaks of activity. Walter Pater famously called Flaubert the "martyr of style."[HP Pavilion dv2-1027ax Battery

 

As a writer, other than a pure stylist, Flaubert was nearly equal parts romantic andrealist.[9] Hence, members of various schools, especially realists and formalists, have traced their origins to his work. HP Pavilion dv2-1028ax Battery

The exactitude with which he adapts his expressions to his purpose can be seen in all parts of his work, especially in the portraits he draws of the figures in his principal romances. HP Pavilion dv2-1029ax Battery

The degree to which Flaubert's fame has extended since his death presents an interesting chapter of literary history in itself. He is also accredited with spreading the popularity of the colour Tuscany Cypress, a colour often mentioned in his chef-d'oeuvre Madame Bovary. HP Pavilion dv2-1030ax Battery

 

Flaubert's lean and precise[citation needed] writing style has had a large influence on 20th century writers such as Franz Kafka and J. M. Coetzee. As Vladimir Nabokov discussed in his famous lecture series:[17]HP Pavilion dv2-1030en Battery

 

The greatest literary influence upon Kafka was Flaubert's. Flaubert who loathed pretty-pretty prose would have applauded Kafka's attitude towards his tool. Kafka liked to draw his terms from the language of law and science, giving them a kind of ironic precision, HP Pavilion dv2-1030ew Battery

with no intrusion of the author's private sentiments; this was exactly Flaubert's method through which he achieved a singular poetic effect. The legacy of his work habits can best be described, therefore, as paving the way towards a slower and more introspective manner of writing. HP Pavilion dv2-1030us Battery

 

The publication of Madame Bovary in 1856 was followed by more scandal than admiration; it was not understood at first that this novel was the beginning of something new: HP Pavilion dv2-1031ax Battery

the scrupulously truthful portraiture of life. Gradually, this aspect of his genius was accepted, and it began to crowd out all others. At the time of his death he was widely regarded as the most influential French Realist. HP Pavilion dv2-1033ax Battery

Under this aspect Flaubert exercised an extraordinary influence over Guy de Maupassant, Edmond de Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Zola. Even after the decline of the Realist school, Flaubert did not lose prestige in the literary community; HP Pavilion dv2-1033cl Battery

he continues to appeal to other writers because of his deep commitment to aesthetic principles, his devotion to style, and his indefatigable pursuit of the perfect expression. HP Pavilion dv2-1035ea Battery

His Œuvres Complètes (8 vols., 1885) were printed from the original manuscripts, and included, besides the works mentioned already, the two plays, Le Candidat and Le Château des cœurs. Another edition (10 vols.) appeared in 1873–1885. Flaubert's correspondence with George Sand was published in 1884 with an introduction by Guy de Maupassant. HP Pavilion dv2-1039wm Battery

 

He has been admired or written about by almost every major literary personality of the 20th century, including philosophers and sociologists such as Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, HP Pavilion dv2-1040eb Battery

Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Paul Sartre whose partially psychoanalytic portrait of Flaubert inThe Family Idiot was published in 1971. Georges Perec named Sentimental Education as one of his favourite novels. HP Pavilion dv2-1040ef Battery

The Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa is another great admirer of Flaubert. Apart from Perpetual Orgy, which is solely devoted to Flaubert's art, one can find lucid discussions in Vargas Llosa's recently published Letters to a Young Novelist. HP Pavilion dv2-1040eo Battery

 

Cultural Influences

Kwaito is a South African urban genre of music. It emerged post-Apartheid amidst the numerous political and social changes that were occurring in South Africa. These changes included the release of Nelson Mandela from prison, and South Africa's first democratic election in 1994.[1]HP Pavilion dv2-1040et Battery

 Through his lyricism, it is evident that Zola is proud of many of his country's unique languages including Afrikaans. Afrikaans is “a more white people's language that is unique to South Africa” according to Zola.[2] HP Pavilion dv2-1043ca Battery

Kwaito is a way of life that has been spurred by the modern democratic freedom South Africans have been experiencing. Kwaito relates to the old tradition of expressing political thought through creative outlets that can be observed in all societies. HP Pavilion dv2-1044ca Battery

For Zola, Kwaito defines something different: “For one, we are trying to find out who we are and where we fit in the role of this democratic South Africa as young people. There's no more fighting. HP Pavilion dv2-1050en Battery

People have to go back to school.”[2] Although lyrics to some Kwaito songs by Zola tend to bear strong sociological messages, the social context of South Africa is generally not receptive to the occasionally poignant lyrics of Kwaito.[1] HP Pavilion dv2-1070eg Battery

Zola also recognizes that people are allowed to start their own record labels now that there is more finance coming to the South African people.[2] In the past, South Africans went to down-town studios where they would record, HP Pavilion dv2-1080en Battery

and thus receive fewer royalties than they do now in their own private studios.[2] This Kwaito artist has not only achieved success in the soundscapes that resonate throughout the globe but Zola also has a reality television show called “Zola 7”. HP Pavilion dv2-1090eo Battery

On this show, people write to Zola and telling him their dreams and Zola helps the people achieve the. Zola is looking forward to collaborating with European artists in the future.[2] Zola has also acted in the Oscar winning movie Tsotsi [3]. HP Pavilion dv2-1100 series Battery

 

Zola 7 clothing range was launched in November 2005.

Zola's previous albums have made him one of the biggest selling artists in South Africa. HP Pavilion dv2z Battery

 

Musician

Zola has enjoyed success as a Kwaito superstar, and is probably the most popular Kwaito artist in the country; Lance Stehr of Ghetto Ruff records has referred to Zola as "the second biggest brand in the country next to Nelson Mandela."[6] HP Pavilion dv2z-1100 Battery

Zola not only performs but also writes and produces some of his own music, signing to the independent label Ghetto Ruff records. Zola will be recording a posthumous collaboration with hip-hop legend Tupac Shakur. HP Pavilion dv2z-1100 CTO Battery

The track will be recorded in South Africa but feature on a CD to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Shakur's death on September 13, 1996. Zola is also the owner of the music company Guluva Entertainment.[6]HP Pavilion dv2-1100eg Battery

 

Originally, Zola was not a fan of Kwaito music, because it "had no message." He has taken upon himself to change this, viewing himself as a role model. "I want to inspire a guy from the ghetto so he can stop hanging around in the corner begging and try to get some life."[7] HP Pavilion dv2-1100eo Battery

In the song "Mdlwembe", which literally means problem child, he expresses his feelings about the neighborhood he grew up in. He talks about the horrible quality of life of the township, particularly the extreme level crime and violence. "Beware of the Zola boys, HP Pavilion dv2-1101au Battery

 We do crime for money" demonstrates Zola's past and also the perpetual anguish of life in a ghetto.[1] Today, Zola works on behalf of younger performers, helping them to be integrated into the music industry. He is a pioneer in social action and benefit projects in South Africa.[8]HP Pavilion dv2-1101ax Battery

Kwaito is branded as apolitical; often associated with the advancement of personal wealth, Glamorized gangster lifestyle, and frivolous consumption themes found in much of Jamaican Dancehall and Rap. HP Pavilion dv2-1102au Battery

The Genre is associated with a new political freedom gain since the end of Apartheid in South Africa and less political strife.[9] The form of the Kwaitoproduced by Zola is in that case an anomaly in that it is very much politically charged and contains a social message.[10]HP Pavilion dv2-1103au Battery

 

Zola raps in isiZulu with high usage of tsotsi. Tsotsitaal is the vernacular slang in South Africa. This infusion of colloquial dialect with a national language allows for better interaction between the artists and the community[11] HP Pavilion dv2-1104au Battery

South Africans in lower socio-economic classes who live in the townships and speak tsotsi can relate to Kwaito music differently than to Cape Town hip hop or US hip hop because of the lyrics. Additionally many of his songs describe situations of life in the townships more specifically in Soweto[1]HP Pavilion dv2-1105ee Battery

 

On 7 July 2007 Zola performed at the South African leg of Live Earth.

Actor

Zola become well known for his role as the notorious gangster Papa Action in Yizo Yizo 2. The character was already popular in Yizo Yizo and had been portrayed by another actor. HP Pavilion dv2-1107ax Battery

Zola resembled the previous performer, and his performance only increased the popularity of the role. He also performed the score and played a role in the Academy Award-winning film, Tsotsi and the movie Drum. Zola also has a prominent role in the documentarySHARP! SHARP!- the kwaito story (2003) directed by Aryan Kaganof. HP Pavilion dv2-1110br Battery

 

Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant[1] (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a popular 19th-century French writer, considered one of the fathers of the modern short story and one of the form's finest exponents. HP Pavilion dv2-1110ef Battery

 

A protégé of Flaubert, Maupassant's stories are characterized by their economy of style and efficient, effortless dénouement. Many of the stories are set during the Franco-Prussian War of the 1870s and several describe the futility of war and the innocent civilians who, HP Pavilion dv2-1110el Battery

caught in the conflict, emerge changed. He authored some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books, and one volume of verse. The story "Boule de Suif" ("Ball of Fat", 1880) is often accounted his masterpiece. His most unsettling horror story, "Le Horla" (1887), was about madness and suicide. HP Pavilion dv2-1110er Battery

 

Biography

Henri-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant was born on August 5, 1850 at the château de Miromesnil, near Dieppe in the Seine-Inférieure (now Seine-Maritime) department in France. HP Pavilion dv2-1110es Battery

He was the first son of Laure Le Poittevin and Gustave de Maupassant, both from prosperous bourgeois families. When Maupassant was eleven and his brother Hervé was five, his mother, an independent-minded woman, risked social disgrace to obtain a legal separation from her husband. HP Pavilion dv2-1110et Battery

 

After the separation, Le Poittevin kept her two sons, the elder Guy and younger Hervé. With the father’s absence, Maupassant’s mother became the most influential figure in the young boy’s life. She was an exceptionally well read woman and was very fond of classical literature, HP Pavilion dv2-1110ez Battery

especially Shakespeare. Until the age of thirteen, Guy happily lived with his mother, to whom he was deeply devoted, at Étretat, in the Villa des Verguies, where, between the sea and the luxuriant countryside, he grew very fond of fishing and outdoor activities. At age thirteen, he was sent to a small seminary near Rouen for classical studies. HP Pavilion dv2-1110us Battery

 

In October 1868, at the age of 18, he saved the famous poet Algernon Charles Swinburnefrom drowning off the coast of Étretat at Normandy.[2] As he entered junior high school, he met the great author Gustave Flaubert. HP Pavilion dv2-1111ax Battery

 

He first entered a seminary at Yvetot, but deliberately got himself expelled. From his early education he retained a marked hostility to religion. Then he was sent to the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen[3] where he proved a good scholar indulging in poetry and taking a prominent part in theatricals. HP Pavilion dv2-1112au Battery

 

The Franco-Prussian War broke out soon after his graduation from college in 1870; he enlisted as a volunteer and fought bravely. Afterwards, in 1871, he left Normandy and moved to Paris where he spent ten years as a clerk in the Navy Department. HP Pavilion dv2-1113ax Battery

 During these ten tedious years his only recreation and relaxation was canoeing on the Seine on Sundays and holidays. Gustave Flaubert took him under his protection and acted as a kind of literary guardian to him, HP Pavilion dv2-1115ea Battery

guiding his debut in journalism and literature. At Flaubert's home he met Émile Zola and the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, as well as many of the proponents of the realist and naturalist schools. HP Pavilion dv2-1115ee Battery

In 1878 he was transferred to the Ministry of Public Instruction and became a contributing editor of several leading newspapers such as Le FigaroGil BlasLe Gaulois and l'Écho de Paris. He devoted his spare time to writing novels and short stories. HP Pavilion dv2-1116ax Battery

 

In 1880 he published what is considered his first masterpiece, "Boule de Suif", which met with an instant and tremendous success. Flaubert characterized it as "a masterpiece that will endure." HP Pavilion dv2-1117ee Battery

This was Maupassant's first piece of short fiction set during the Franco-Prussian War, and was followed by short stories such as "Deux Amis", "Mother Savage", and "Mademoiselle Fifi".HP Pavilion dv2-1118ax Battery

 

The decade from 1880 to 1891 was the most fertile period of Maupassant's life. Made famous by his first short story, he worked methodically and produced two or sometimes four volumes annually. He combined talent and practical business sense, which made him wealthy. HP Pavilion dv2-1119ax Battery

In 1881 he published his first volume of short stories under the title of La Maison Tellier; it reached its twelfth edition within two years; in 1883 he finished his first novel, Une Vie(translated into English as A Woman's Life), 25,000 copies of which were sold in less than a year. HP Pavilion dv2-1120ax Battery

In his novels, he concentrated all his observations scattered in his short stories. His second novel Bel-Ami, which came out in 1885, had thirty-seven printings in four months. HP Pavilion dv2-1120br Battery

 

His editor, Havard, commissioned him to write new masterpieces and Maupassant continued to produce them without the slightest apparent effort. At this time he wrote what many consider to be his greatest novel, Pierre et Jean. HP Pavilion dv2-1120ed Battery

 

With a natural aversion to society, he loved retirement, solitude, and meditation. He traveled extensively in Algeria, Italy, England, Brittany, Sicily, Auvergne, and from each voyage brought back a new volume. He cruised on his private yacht "Bel-Ami," HP Pavilion dv2-1120ef Battery

named after his earlier novel. This feverish life did not prevent him from making friends among the literary celebrities of his day: Alexandre Dumas, fils had a paternal affection for him; at Aix-les-Bains he met Hippolyte Taine and fell under the spell of the philosopher-historian. HP Pavilion dv2-1120eg Battery

 

Flaubert continued to act as his literary godfather. His friendship with the Goncourts was of short duration; his frank and practical nature reacted against the ambience of gossip, scandal, duplicity, and invidious criticism that the two brothers had created around them in the guise of an 18th-century style salon. HP Pavilion dv2-1121ax Battery

 

Maupassant was but one of a fair number of 19th-century Parisians who did not care for the Eiffel tower; indeed, he often ate lunch in the restaurant at its base, not out of any preference for the food, HP Pavilion dv2-1122ax Battery

but because it was only there that he could avoid seeing its otherwise unavoidable profile.[4] Moreover, he and forty-six other Parisian literary and artistic notables attached their names to letter of protest, ornate as it was irate, against the tower's construction to the then Minister of Public Works.[5]HP Pavilion dv2-1123ax Battery

 

Maupassant also wrote under several pseudonyms such as Joseph Prunier, Guy de Valmont, and Maufrigneuse (which he used from 1881 to 1885). HP Pavilion dv2-1124ax Battery

 

In his later years he developed a constant desire for solitude, an obsession for self-preservation, and a fear of death and crazed paranoia of persecution, that came from thesyphilis he had contracted in his early days. HP Pavilion dv2-1125ax Battery

On January 2, in 1892, Maupassant tried to commit suicide by cutting his throat and was committed to the celebrated private asylum of Dr. Esprit Blanche at Passy, in Paris, where he died on July 6, 1893. HP Pavilion dv2-1125ee Battery

 

Guy De Maupassant penned his own epitaph: "I have coveted everything and taken pleasure in nothing." He is buried in Section 26 of the Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris. HP Pavilion dv2-1126ax Battery

 

Significance

Maupassant is considered one of the fathers of the modern short story. He delighted in clever plotting, and served as a model for Somerset Maugham and O. Henry in this respect. His stories about expensive jewelry ("The Necklace", "Les Bijoux") are imitated with a twist by Maugham ("Mr Know-All", "A String of Beads") and Henry James. HP Pavilion dv2-1127ea Battery

 

Taking his cue from Balzac, Maupassant wrote comfortably in both the high-Realist andfantastic modes; stories and novels such as "L'Héritage" and Bel-Ami aim to recreateThird Republic France in a realistic way, whereas many of the short stories (notably "Le Horla" and "Qui sait?") describe apparently supernatural phenomena. HP Pavilion dv2-1130eb Battery

 

The supernatural in Maupassant, however, is often implicitly a symptom of the protagonists' troubled minds; Maupassant was fascinated by the burgeoning discipline ofpsychiatry, and attended the public lectures of Jean-Martin Charcot between 1885 and 1886.[6] This interest is reflected in his fiction. HP Pavilion dv2-1130es Battery

 

Criticism

Maupassant is notable as the subject of one of Leo Tolstoy's essays on art: The Works of Guy de Maupassant.

Friedrich Nietzsche's autobiography mentions him in the following text: HP Pavilion dv2-1131ax Battery

 

"I cannot at all conceive in which century of history one could haul together such inquisitive and at the same time delicate psychologists as one can in contemporary Paris: HP Pavilion dv2-1133ax Battery

I can name as a sample – for their number is by no means small, ... or to pick out one of the stronger race, a genuine Latin to whom I am particularly attached, Guy de Maupassant." HP Pavilion dv2-1132ax Battery

 

Hoffman

Abbot Howard "Abbie" Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a political and social activist who co-founded the Youth International Party ("Yippies").HP Pavilion dv2-1134ax Battery

 

Hoffman was arrested and tried for conspiracy and inciting to riot as a result of his role inprotests that led to violent confrontations with police during the 1968 Democratic National Convention, HP Pavilion dv2-1134nr Battery

along with Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, Lee Weiner and Bobby Seale. The group was known collectively as the "Chicago Eight"; HP Pavilion dv2-1136ax Battery

when Seale's prosecution was separated from the others, they became known as the Chicago Seven. While the defendants were initially convicted of intent to incite a riot, the verdicts were overturned on appeal. HP Pavilion dv2-1137ax Battery

 

Hoffman came to prominence in the 1960s, and continued practicing his activism in the 1970s, and has remained a symbol of the youth rebellion of that era. HP Pavilion dv2-1140ed Battery

 

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION

Hoffman was born November 30, 1936 in Worcester, Massachusetts to John Hoffman and Florence Schamberg, both of Jewish descent. Hoffman was raised in a middle class household and had two younger siblings. HP Pavilion dv2-1140es Battery

As a child of the 1950s, he was a member of what has been described as "the transitional generation between the beatniks and hippies". On June 3, 1954, the 17-year-old Hoffman was arrested for the first time, HP Pavilion dv2-1140en Battery

for driving without a license. During his school days, he became known as a troublemaker who started fights, played pranks, vandalized school property, and referred to teachers by their first names. HP Pavilion dv2-1140eo Battery

In his sophomore year, Hoffman was expelled from Classical High School, a now-closed public high school in Worcester when he wrote a paper questioning God's existence. HP Pavilion dv2-1144ca Battery

His teacher tore the paper up and accused him of being a "communist punk". Hoffman jumped on the teacher and started fighting him until he was restrained and then expelled from school.[2] HP Pavilion dv2-1160ed Battery

After this he attended Worcester Academy, graduating in 1955. Hoffman did many of the things typical of rebellious young men in the 1950s such as driving motorcycles, wearing leather jackets, and sporting a ducktail haircut. He then enrolled in Brandeis University, completing his B.A. in Psychology in 1959. HP Pavilion dv2-1199us Battery

At Brandeis, he studied under professors such as noted psychologist Abraham Maslow, often considered the father of humanistic psychology.[3] He was also a student of the Marxist theoristHerbert Marcuse, whom Hoffman said had a profound effect on his political outlook after studying his philosophy. HP Pavilion dv3-1000 Series Battery

Hoffman would later cite Marcuse's influence during his activism and his theories on revolution. Hoffman later enrolled at University of California, Berkeley to earn a Master's Degree in Psychology, then marrying his pregnant girlfriend Shelia Karkli soon after in May 1960. HP Pavilion dv3-1001TX Battery

 

EARLY PROTESTS

Prior to his days as a leading member of the Yippie movement, Hoffman was involved with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and organized "Liberty House",HP Pavilion dv3-1051xx Battery

which sold items to support the Civil Rights Movement in the southern United States. During the Vietnam War, Hoffman was an anti-war activist, who used deliberately comical and theatrical tactics. HP Pavilion dv3-1073cl Battery

 

In October 1967, David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam asked Jerry Rubin to help mobilize and direct a March on the Pentagon.[4] HP Pavilion dv3-1075ca Battery

The protesters gathered at the Lincoln Memorial as Dellinger and Dr. Benjamin Spock gave speeches to the mass of people.[5] From there, the group marched towards the Pentagon. HP Pavilion dv3-1075us Battery

As the protesters neared the Pentagon, they were met by soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division[5] who formed a human barricade blocking the Pentagon steps.[4] Not to be dissuaded, HP Pavilion dv3-1077ca Battery

 Hoffman vowed to levitate the Pentagon[5] claiming he would attempt to usepsychic energy to levitate the Pentagon until it would turn orange and begin to vibrate, at which time the war in Vietnam would end.[6] Allen Ginsberg led Tibetan chants to assist Hoffman.[5]HP Pavilion dv3z-1000 Battery


 

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REALISM

Balzac's extensive use of detail, especially the detail of objects, to illustrate the lives of his characters made him an early pioneer of literary realism.[72] While he admired and drew inspiration from the Romantic style of Scottish novelist Walter Scott, Balzac sought to depict human existence through the use of particulars.[73] In the preface to the first edition of Scènes de la Vie privéeHP HSTNN-1B1D Battery

he writes: "The author firmly believes that details alone will henceforth determine the merit of works…."[74] Plentiful descriptions of décor, clothing, and possessions help breathe life into the characters.[75] For example, Balzac's friend Hyacinthe de Latouche had knowledge of hanging wallpaper. Balzac transferred this to his descriptions of the Pension Vauquer in Le Père Goriot, making the wallpaper speak of the identities of those living inside.[76] HP HSTNN-OB89 Battery

 

Some critics consider Balzac's writing exemplary of naturalism – a more pessimistic and analytical form of realism, which seeks to explain human behavior as intrinsically linked with the environment. French novelist Émile Zola declared Balzac the father of the naturalist novel.[77] Zola indicated that, whereas Romantics saw the world through a colored lens, the naturalist sees through a clear glass – precisely the sort of effect Balzac attempted to achieve in his works.[78] HP HSTNN-W79C-7 Battery

 

Characters

Balzac sought to present his characters as real people, neither fully good nor fully evil, but fully human. "To arrive at the truth", he wrote in the preface to Le Lys dans la vallée, "writers use whatever literary device seems capable of giving the greatest intensity of life to their characters."[79] HP HSTNN-XB89 Battery

"Balzac's characters", Robb notes, "were as real to him as if he were observing them in the outside world."[80] This reality was noted by playwright Oscar Wilde, who said: "One of the greatest tragedies of my life is the death of [Illusions Perduesprotagonist] Lucien de Rubempré…. It haunts me in my moments of pleasure. I remember it when I laugh."[81] HP NBP8A157B1 Battery

 

At the same time, the characters represent a particular range of social types: the noble soldier, the scoundrel, the proud workman, the fearless spy, the alluring mistress.[82] That Balzac was able to balance the strength of the individual against the representation of the type is evidence of the author's skill. One critic explained that "there is a center and a circumference to Balzac's world."[83] HP NZ375AA Battery

 

Balzac's use of repeating characters, moving in and out of the Comédie's books, strengthens the realist representation. "When the characters reappear", notes Rogers, "they do not step out of nowhere; they emerge from the privacy of their own lives which, for an interval, HP HSTNN-1B52 Battery

we have not been allowed to see."[84] He also used a realist technique which French novelist Marcel Proust later named "retrospective illumination", whereby a character's past is revealed long after she or he first appears. HP HSTNN-1B89 Battery

 

A nearly infinite reserve of energy propels the characters in Balzac's novels. Struggling against the currents of human nature and society, they may lose more often than they win – but only rarely do they give up. This universal trait is a reflection of Balzac's own social wrangling, HP HSTNN-IB89 Battery

that of his family, and an interest in the Austrian mystic and physician Franz Mesmer, who pioneered the study of animal magnetism. Balzac spoke often of a "nervous and fluid force" between individuals, and Raphaël Valentin's decline in La Peau de Chagrinexemplifies the danger of withdrawing from the company of other people.[85] HP HSTNN-I62C-7 Battery

 

Place

Representations of the city, countryside, and building interiors are essential to Balzac's realism, often serving to paint a naturalistic backdrop before which the characters' lives follow a particular course; this gave him a reputation as an early naturalist. HP HSTNN-I61C-5 Battery

Intricate details about locations sometimes stretch for fifteen or twenty pages.[86] As he did with the people around him, Balzac studied these places in depth, traveling to remote locations and surveying notes that he had made on previous visits.[87] HP HSTNN-I60C-5 Battery

 

The influence of Paris permeates La Comédie. Nature defers to the artificial metropolis, in contrast to the depictions of weather and wildlife in the countryside. "If in Paris", Rogers says, "we are in a man-made region where even the seasons are forgotten, HP 535753-001 Battery

these provincial towns are nearly always pictured in their natural setting."[88] Balzac said, "the streets of Paris possess human qualities and we cannot shake off the impressions they make upon our minds."[89] His labyrinthine city provided a literary model used later by English novelist Charles Dickens and Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.[90] HP 516479-121 Battery

The centrality of Paris in La Comédie Humaine is key to Balzac's legacy as a realist. "Realism is nothing if not urban", notes critic Peter Brooks; the scene of a young man coming into the city to find his fortune is ubiquitous in the realist novel, and appears repeatedly in Balzac's works, such as Illusions Perdues.[91][92] HP HSTNN-DB94 Battery

 

PERSPECTIVE

Balzac's literary mood evolved over time from one of despondency and chagrin to one of solidarity and courage – but not optimism.[93] La Peau de Chagrin, among his earliest novels, is a pessimistic tale of confusion and destruction. HP HSTNN-IB93 Battery

But the cynicism declined as hisoeuvre progressed, and the characters of Illusions Perdues reveal sympathy for those who are pushed to one side by society. As part of the 19th-century evolution of the novel as a "democratic literary form", Balzac wrote that "les livres sont faits pour tout le monde,"("books are written for everybody").[94] HP HSTNN-IB94 Battery

 

Balzac concerned himself overwhelmingly with the darker essence of human nature and the corrupting influence of middle and high societies.[95] He worked to observe humanity in its most representative state, frequently passing incognito among the masses of Parisian society to do research.[96] He used incidents from his life and the people around him, in works like Eugénie Grandet and Louis Lambert.[97] HP HSTNN-LB93 Battery

 

Balzac influenced the writers of his time and beyond. He has been compared to Charles Dickens and has been called one of Dickens' influences. Critic W. H. Helm calls one "the French Dickens" and the other "the English Balzac".[99] Critic Richard Lehan says that "Balzac was the bridge between the comic realism of Dickens and the naturalism ofZola."[100] HP HSTNN-LB94 Battery

 

Gustave Flaubert was also substantially influenced by Balzac. Praising his portrayal of society while attacking his prose style, Flaubert once wrote: "What a man he would have been had he known how to write!"[101] While he disdained the label of "realist", HP HSTNN-OB93 Battery

Flaubert clearly took heed of Balzac's close attention to detail and unvarnished depictions of bourgeois life.[102] This influence shows in Flaubert's work L'education sentimentale,which owes a debt to Balzac's Illusions Perdues.[103] "What Balzac started", says Lehan, "Flaubert helped finish."[104] HP HSTNN-OB94 Battery

 

Marcel Proust similarly learned from the Realist example; he adored Balzac and studied his works carefully, although he criticised what he called Balzac's "vulgarity."[105][106]Balzac's story Une Heure de ma Vie (An Hour of my Life, 1822), HP HSTNN-XB93 Battery

in which minute details are followed by deep personal reflections, is a clear ancestor of the style which Proust used in À la recherche du temps perdu.[96] However, Proust wrote later in life that the contemporary fashion to rank Balzac higher than Tolstoy was "madness."[107] HP HSTNN-XB94 Battery

 

Perhaps the author most affected by Balzac was American expatriate novelist Henry James. In 1878 James wrote with sadness about the lack of contemporary attention paid to Balzac, and lavished praise on him in four essays (in 1875, 1877, 1902, and 1913). In 1878 James wrote: "Large as Balzac is, he is all of one piece and he hangs perfectly together."[108] HP NU089AA Battery

He wrote with admiration of Balzac's attempt to portray in writing "a beast with a hundred claws."[109] In his own novels James explored more of the psychological motives of the characters and less of the historical sweep exhibited by Balzac – a conscious style preference. HP HSTNN-DB95 Battery

"[T]he artist of the Comédie Humaine," he wrote, "is half smothered by the historian."[110] Still, both authors used the form of the realist novel to probe the machinations of society and the myriad motives of human behavior.[104][111] HP HSTNN-IB95 Battery

 

Balzac's vision of a society in which class, money and personal ambition are the major players has been endorsed by critics of both left-wing and right-wing political tendencies.[112] Marxist Friedrich Engels wrote: "I have learned more [from Balzac] than from all the professional historians, economists and statisticians put together."[113] HP HSTNN-LB95 Battery

Balzac has received high praise from critics as diverse as Walter Benjamin and Camille Paglia.[114] In 1970 Roland Barthes published S/Z, a detailed analysis of Balzac's storySarrasine and a key work in structuralist literary criticism. HP HSTNN-XB95 Battery

 

Balzac has also influenced popular culture. Many of his works have been made into popular films and television serials, including Les Chouans (1947), Le Père Goriot (1968 BBC mini-series), and La Cousine Bette (1974 BBC mini-series, starring Margaret Tyzackand Helen Mirren; 1998 film, starring Jessica Lange). He is included in François Truffaut's 1959 film, HP NU090AA Battery

The 400 Blows. Truffaut believed Balzac and Proust to be the greatest of French writers.[115] He was also adapted into a character in Orson Scott Card's alternate historyseries The Tales of Alvin Maker; he is presented as a crude but deeply witty and insightful man. HP 500028-142 Battery

Chinese author Dai Sijie published Balzac et la Petite Tailleuse Chinoise (Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress)(2000), in which a suitcase filled with novels helps to sustain city youths sent to the countryside for "re-education" during the Chinese Cultural Revolution. It was made into a film (adapted and directed by the author) in 2002. The Japanese rock band Balzac is also named in his honor. HP 500029-142 Battery

 

Alexandre Dumas, pronounced: [a.lɛk.sɑ̃dʁ dy.ma], born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie ([dy.ma da.vi də pa.jət.ʁi]) (24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870)[1] was a Frenchwriter, best known for his historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. Many of his novels, including The Count of Monte CristoHP HSTNN-IB83 Battery

The Three MusketeersTwenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne were originally serialized. He also wrote plays and magazine articles and was a prolific correspondent. Born in poverty, Dumas was the grandson of a French nobleman and a Haitian slave. HP 579320-001 Battery

 

Early life

Alexandre Dumas was born in Villers-Cotterêts in the department of Aisne, in Picardy, France.

Dumas' paternal grandparents were Marquis Alexandre-Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman and Général commissaire in the Artillery in the colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Marie-Cesette Dumas, an Afro-Caribbean Creole of mixed French and African ancestry.[2][3] HP HSTNN-OB92 Battery

Their son, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, married Marie-Louise Élisabeth Labouret, the daughter of an innkeeper. Thomas-Alexandre, then a general in Napoleon's army, fell out of favor and the family was impoverished when Dumas was born. HP HSTNN-XB92 Battery

 

Thomas-Alexandre died in 1806. His widow was unable to provide her son with much of an education, but Dumas read everything he could obtain. His mother's stories of his father's bravery during the years of Napoleon I of France inspired Dumas' vivid imagination for adventure. HP HSTNN-DB90 Battery

Although poor, the family had their father's distinguished reputation and aristocratic position. In 1822, after the restoration of the monarchy, 20-year old Alexandre Dumas moved to Paris, where he worked at the Palais Royal in the office of Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans. HP 292389-001 Battery

Career

While in Paris, Dumas began writing for magazines and plays for the theater. His first play,Henry III and His Courts, was produced in 1829, and was met with acclaim. The next year his second play, Christine, was equally popular, HP 337607-001 Battery

and he was financially able to write full-time. In 1830 he participated in the Revolution which ousted Charles X, and which replaced him on the throne with Dumas' former employer, the Duke of Orléans, who would rule as Louis-Philippe, the Citizen KingHP 337607-003 Battery

 

Until the mid-1830s life in France remained unsettled, with sporadic riots by disgruntled Republicans and impoverished urban workers seeking change. As life slowly returned to normal, the nation began to industrialize, and with an improving economy—combined with the end of press censorship—the times were very rewarding for the skills of Alexandre Dumas.HP 338794-001 Battery

 

After writing more successful plays, he turned his efforts to novels. Although attracted to an extravagant lifestyle, and always spending more than he earned, Dumas proved to be an astute marketer. Since newspapers wanted many serial novels, HP 342661-001 Battery

in 1838 Dumas rewrote one of his plays to create his first serial novel, titled Le Capitaine Paul, which led to his forming a production studio that turned out hundreds of stories, all subject to his personal input and direction. HP 345027-001 Battery

 

From 1839 to 1841 Dumas, with the assistance of several friends, compiled Celebrated Crimes, an eight-volume collection of essays on famous criminals and crimes from European history, including Beatrice Cenci, Martin Guerre, Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia as well as more recent incidents, including the cases of executed alleged murderers Karl Ludwig Sand and Antoine François Desrues. HP 346970-001 Battery

 

Dumas also collaborated with his fencing master Augustin Grisier in his 1840 novel, The Fencing Master. The story is written to be Grisier's narrated account of how he came to witness the events of the Decembrist revolt in Russia. HP 361742-001 Battery

This novel was eventually banned in Russia by Czar Nicholas I, causing Dumas to be banned from visiting Russia until after the Czar's death. Grisier is also mentioned with great respect in The Count of Monte CristoThe Corsican Brothers and in Dumas' memoirs. HP 367759-001 Battery

 

Dumas made extensive use of the aid of numerous assistants and collaborators, of whomAuguste Maquet was the best known. It was Maquet who outlined the plot of The Count of Monte Cristo, and made substantial contributions to The Three Musketeers and its sequels, HP 371785-001 Battery

as well as to several of Dumas' other novels. When they were working together, Maquet proposed plots and wrote drafts, while Dumas added the details, dialogues, and the final chapters. See Andrew Lang essay, Alexandre Dumas—in his Essays In Little(1891)—for an accurate description of these collaborations. HP 371786-001 Battery

 

Dumas' writing earned him a great deal of money, but Dumas was frequently insolvent as a result of spending lavishly on women and sumptuous living. The large Château de Monte-Cristo that he built was often filled with strangers and acquaintances taking advantage of his generosity. HP 372772-001 Battery

 

When King Louis-Philippe was ousted in a revolt, Dumas was not looked upon favorably by the newly elected President, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. In 1851 Dumas fled toBrussels, Belgium, to escape his creditors, and from there he traveled to Russia, where French was the second language, and where his writings were enormously popular. HP 383220-001 Battery

Dumas spent two years in Russia, before moving on to seek adventure and fodder for more stories. In March 1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, with Victor Emmanuel IIas its king. For the next three years Alexandre Dumas would be involved in the fight for a united Italy, founding and leading a newspaper, named Indipendente, and returning to Paris in 1864. HP 395789-001 Battery

 

Despite Alexandre Dumas' success and aristocratic background, his being of mixed race affected him all his life. In 1843 he wrote a short novel, Georges, that addressed some of the issues of race and the effects of colonialism. He once remarked to a man who insulted him about his mixed-race background: HP 396008-001 Battery

 

Personal life

On 1 February 1840 he married actress Ida Ferrier (born Marguerite-Joséphine Ferrand) (1811—1859) but continued with his numerous liaisons with other women, fathering at least four illegitimate children. One of those children, HP 398876-001 Battery

a son named after him, whose mother was Marie-Laure-Catherine Labay (1794—1868), a dressmaker, would follow in his footsteps, also becoming a successful novelist and playwright. Because of their same name and occupation, the father is often referred to as Alexandre Dumas, HP 411462-421 Battery

père, and the son as Alexandre Dumas, fils. His other children were Marie-Alexandrine Dumas (5 March 1831—1878) who later married Pierre Petel and was daughter of Belle Krelsamer (1803—1875), Micaëlla-Clélie-Josepha-Élisabeth Cordier, born in 1860 and daughter of Emélie Cordier, and Henry Bauer, born of an unknown mother. HP 417066-001 Battery

 

In June 2005 Dumas' recently discovered last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, went on sale in France. Within the story Dumas describes the Battle of Trafalgar, HP BAT0302001 Battery

in which the death of Lord Nelson is explained. The novel was being published serially, and was nearly complete at the time of his death. A final two-and-a-half chapters were written by modern-day Dumas scholar Claude Schopp, who based his efforts on Dumas' pre-writing notes.[6] HP 916-2150 Battery

 

Although he was originally buried where he had been born, in 2002 French President,Jacques Chirac, had his body exhumed. During a televised ceremony his new coffin, draped in a blue velvet cloth and flanked by four Republican Guards (costumed as theMusketeers—Athos, HP CGR-B1870AE Battery

 Porthos, Aramis, and D'Artagnan), was transported in a solemn procession to the Panthéon of Paris, the great mausoleum where French luminaries are interred.[7] In his speech President Chirac said: HP DG103A Battery

 

"With you, we were D'Artagnan, Monte Cristo, or Balsamo, riding along the roads of France, touring battlefields, visiting palaces and castles—with you, we dream."[8] HP DM842A Battery

Also during that speech, Chirac acknowledged the racism that had existed, saying that a wrong had now been righted, with Alexandre Dumas enshrined alongside fellow authorsVictor Hugo and Emile Zola.[8][9] The honor recognized that although France has producedmany great writers, none has been so widely read as Alexandre Dumas. His stories have been translated into almost a hundred languages, and have inspired more than 200 motion pictures.[10] HP DP390A Battery

 

Alexandre Dumas' home outside of Paris, the Château de Monte-Cristo, has been restored and is open to the public. The Alexandre Dumas Paris Métro station was named in his honour in 1970. HP DP399A Battery

 

Dumas appears as a character in the Kevin J. Anderson novel Captain Nemo: The Fantastic History of a Dark Genius. He encourages Jules Verne to find his own voice and write about his friend Captain Nemo's exploits rather than emulate Dumas' historical fiction. HP EF419A Battery

 

Victor Hugo

Victor-Marie Hugo (French pronunciation: [viktɔʁ maʁi yɡo]) (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights activist[citation needed] and exponent of the Romantic movement in France. HP EG417AA Battery

 

In France, Hugo's literary fame comes first from his poetry but also rests upon his novels and his dramatic achievements. Among many volumes of poetry, Les Contemplations andLa Légende des siècles stand particularly high in critical esteem,HP EV087AA Battery

and Hugo is sometimes identified as the greatest French poet. Outside France, his best-known works are the novels Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris (also known in English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame). HP EV088AA Battery

 

Though a committed royalist when he was young, Hugo's views changed as the decades passed;[1] he became a passionate supporter of republicanism[citation needed], and his work touches upon most of the political and social issues and artistic trends of his time. He is buried in the PanthéonHP EX941AA Battery

 

Hugo was the third, illegitimate, son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828) and Sophie Trébuchet (1772–1821); his brothers were Abel Joseph Hugo (1798–1855) and Eugène Hugo (1800–1837). He was born in 1802 in Besançon (in the region of Franche-Comté) and lived in France for the majority of his life. HP EX942AA Battery

However, he decided to live in exile as a result of Napoleon III's Coup d'état at the end of 1851. Hugo lived briefly in Brussels(1851) then moved to the Channel Islands, firstly to Jersey (1852–55) and then to the smaller island of Guernsey (1855–1870). HP F1466A Battery

Although a general amnesty was proclaimed by Napoleon III in 1859; Hugo stayed in exile, only ending it when Napoleon III was forced from power as a result of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Hugo returned again to Guernsey (1872–73), after suffering through the Siege of Paris, before finally returning to France for the remainder of his life. HP F1739A Battery

 

Hugo's childhood was a period of national political turmoil. Napoléon was proclaimed Emperor two years after Hugo's birth, and the Bourbon Monarchy was restored before his eighteenth birthday. The opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was an officer who ranked very high[clarification needed] HP F2019 Battery

in Napoleon's army until he failed in Spain[clarification needed] (one of the reasons why his name is not present on the Arc de Triomphe).[citation needed] He was an freethinking republican who considered Napoléon a hero; his mother was a Catholic Royalist who is believed[by whom?] HP F2019A Battery

to have taken as her lover General Victor Lahorie, who was executed in 1812 for plotting against Napoléon.[citation needed] Since Hugo's father was an officer, the family moved frequently and Hugo learned much from these travels.[citation needed] HP F2019B Battery

On his family's journey toNaples, he saw the vast Alpine passes and the snowy peaks, the magnificently blue Mediterranean, and Rome during its festivities.[original research?] Though he was only nearly six at the time, he remembered the half-year-long trip vividly.[citation needed] They stayed in Naples for a few months and then headed back to Paris.[citation needed] HP F2024 Battery

 

Sophie followed her husband to posts in Italy (where Léopold served as a governor of a province near Naples) and Spain (where he took charge of three Spanish provinces). Weary of the constant moving required by military life, HP F2024A Battery

and at odds with her husband's lack of Catholic beliefs, Sophie separated temporarily from Léopold in 1803 and settled in Paris. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing. As a result, Hugo's early work in poetry and fiction reflect a passionate devotion to both King and Faith. HP F2024B Battery

It was only later, during the events leading up to France's 1848 Revolution, that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism andFreethought. HP F2299A Battery

 

Young Victor fell in love and against his mother's wishes and became secretly engaged to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher (1803–1868).[citation needed] HP F3172A Battery

Unusually close to his mother,[citation needed] he married Adèle (in 1822) only after his mother's death in 1821. They had their first child Léopold in 1823, but the boy died in infancy. Hugo's other children were Léopoldine (28 August 1824), Charles (4 November 1826), François-Victor (28 October 1828) and Adèle (24 August 1830). Hugo published his first novel the following year (Han d'Islande, 1823), HP F4486A Battery

and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal, 1826). Between 1829 and 1840 he would publish five more volumes of poetry (Les Orientales, 1829; Les Feuilles d'automne, 1831; Les Chants du crépuscule, 1835; Les Voix intérieures, 1837; and Les Rayons et les ombres, 1840), cementing his reputation as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time. HP F4486B Battery

 

Hugo was devastated when his oldest and favorite daughter, Léopoldine, died at age 19 in 1843, shortly after her marriage. She drowned in the Seine at Villequier, pulled down by her heavy skirts, when a boat overturned. Her young husband Charles Vacquerie also died trying to save her. HP F4809A Battery

Victor Hugo was traveling with his mistress at the time in the south of France, and learned about Léopoldine's death from a newspaper as he sat in a cafe.[2] He describes his shock and grief in his poem À VillequierHP F4812A Battery

 

Like many young writers of his generation, Hugo was profoundly influenced by François-René de Chateaubriand, the famous figure in the literary movement of Romanticism and France's preeminent literary figure during the early 19th century. In his youth, HP HSTNN-DB02 Battery

Hugo resolved to be "Chateaubriand or nothing," and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor in many ways. Like Chateaubriand, Hugo would further the cause of Romanticism, become involved in politics as a champion of Republicanism, HP HSTNN-DB20 Battery

and be forced into exile due to his political stances. The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. His first collection of poetry (Odes et poésies diverses) was published in 1822, when Hugo was only twenty years old, HP HSTNN-IB04 Battery

and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII. Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency, it was the collection that followed four years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades) that revealed Hugo to be a great poet, a natural master of lyric and creative song. HP HSTNN-IB09 Battery

Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829, and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus, HP HSTNN-IB20 Battery

Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Claude Gueux, a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France, appeared in 1834, and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les Misérables. But Hugo's first full-length novel[citation HP PB992A Battery

 would be the enormously successful Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame), which was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across Europe. One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the much-neglectedCathedral of Notre Dame, HP PB994A Battery

which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-Renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved. HP PB995A Battery

 

Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but it would take a full 17 years for Les Misérables to be realized and finally published in 1862. Hugo was acutely aware of the quality of the novel and publication of the work went to the highest bidder. HP PF723A Battery

The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. It also initially published only the first part of the novel ("Fantine"),HP PP2210 Battery

which was launched simultaneously in major cities. Installments of the book sold out within hours, and had enormous impact on French society. The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel; Taine found it insincere, Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity, HP RW556AA Battery

Gustav Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness", the Goncourts lambasted its artificiality, and Baudelaire – despite giving favorable reviews in newspapers – castigated it in private as "tasteless and inept". HP ProBook 4510s Battery

Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the National Assembly of France. Today the novel remains his most enduringly popular work. It is popular worldwide, has been adapted for cinema, television and stage shows. HP ProBook 4510s/CT Battery

 

The shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in 1862. Hugo was on vacation when Les Misérables was published. He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single-character telegram to his publisher, asking "?". The publisher replied with a single "!" to indicate its success.[3] HP ProBook 4515s Battery

 

Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer(Toilers of the Sea), published in 1866. Nonetheless, the book was well received, perhaps due to the previous success of Les MisérablesHP ProBook 4710s Battery

Dedicated to the channel island ofGuernsey where he spent 15 years of exile, Hugo's depiction of Man's battle with the sea and the horrible creatures lurking beneath its depths spawned an unusual fad in Paris:Squids. From squid dishes and exhibitions, HP ProBook 4710s/CT Battery

to squid hats and parties, Parisians became fascinated by these unusual sea creatures, which at the time were still considered by many to be mythical.[citation needed] The word used in Guernsey to refer to squid (pieuvre, also sometimes applied to octopus) was to enter the French language as a result of its use in the book. HP ProBook 4410s Battery

Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel,L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs), which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. However, the novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, HP ProBook 4416s Battery

and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Émile Zola, whose realist andnaturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work. His last novel,Quatre-vingt-treize (Ninety-Three), HP ProBook 4415s Battery

published in 1874, dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. Though Hugo's popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo's better-known novels. HP ProBook 4210s Battery

 

Political life and exile

After three unsuccessful attempts, Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841, solidifying his position in the world of French arts and letters. A group of French academicians, particularly Etienne de Jouy, were fighting against the "romantic evolution" and had managed to delay Victor Hugo's election.[4] HP ProBook 4310s Battery

Thereafter he became increasingly involved in French politics. He was elevated to the peerage by King Louis-Philippe in 1841 and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice,HP ProBook 4311s Battery

and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. However, he was also becoming more supportive of the Republican form of government and, following the 1848 Revolution and the formation of the Second Republic, was elected to the Constitutional Assembly and the Legislative Assembly. HP Pavilion dv2 Battery

 

When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. He relocated toBrussels, then Jersey, and finally settled with his family at Hauteville House in Saint Peter Port, Guernsey, where he would live in exile until 1870. HP Pavilion dv2-1000 Battery

While in exile, Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III,Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. The pamphlets were banned in France, HP Pavilion dv2-1030 Battery

but nonetheless had a strong impact there. He also composed or published some of his best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les Misérables, and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments, 1853; Les Contemplations, 1856; and La Légende des siècles, 1859). HP Pavilion dv2-1000eo Battery

 

He convinced the government of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom to spare the lives of six Irish people convicted of terrorist activities and his influence was credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal and Colombia.[5] HP Pavilion dv2-1001au Battery

He had also pleaded for Benito Juárez to spare the recently captured emperor Maximilian I of Mexico but to no avail. His complete archives (published by Pauvert) show also that he wrote a letter asking the USA, for the sake of their own reputation in the future, to spareJohn Brown's life, but the letter arrived after Brown was executed. HP Pavilion dv2-1001ax Battery

 

Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870, where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate. HP Pavilion dv2-1001eg Battery

 

He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian army in 1870, famously eating animals given to him by the Paris zoo. As the siege continued, and food became ever more scarce, he wrote in his diary that he was reduced to "eating the unknown".HP Pavilion dv2-1002au Battery

 

Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright, he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. However, in Pauvert's published archives, HP Pavilion dv2-1002ax Battery

he states strongly that "any work of art has two authors : the people who confusingly feels something, a creator who translates these feelings, and the people again who consecrates his vision of that feeling. When one of the authors dies, the rights should totally be granted back to the other, the people".HP Pavilion dv2-1002xx Battery

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Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (French pronunciation: [ɔnɔʁe də balzak]; 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright. His magnum opus was a sequence of short stories and novels collectively entitled La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of French life in the years after the 1815 fall of Napoleon. HP Pavilion DV6500 AC Adapter/Charger

Due to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature. He is renowned for his multifaceted characters, who are complex, morally ambiguous and fully human. HP Compaq nx6310 AC Adapter/Charger

His writing influenced many subsequent novelists such as Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Charles Dickens, Edgar Allan Poe, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Gustave Flaubert, Marie Corelli, Henry James, William Faulkner, Jack Kerouac, and Italo Calvino, and philosophers such asFriedrich Engels. Many of Balzac's works have been made into or have inspired films, and they are a continuing source of inspiration for writers, filmmakers and critics. Sony VAIO PCG-955A Battery - 4400mAh

An enthusiastic reader and independent thinker as a child, Balzac had trouble adapting to the teaching style of his grammar school. His willful nature caused trouble throughout his life and frustrated his ambitions to succeed in the world of business. Sony VAIO PCG-NV Battery

Sony NP-FH70 Battery

When he finished school, Balzac was an apprentice in a law office, but he turned his back on the study of law after wearying of its inhumanity and banal routine. Before and during his career as a writer, he attempted to be a publisher, printer, businessman, critic, and politician; he failed in all of these efforts. La Comédie Humaine reflects his real-life difficulties, and includes scenes from his own experience. HP Pavilion ZD7300 Battery

 

Balzac suffered from health problems throughout his life, possibly due to his intense writing schedule. His relationship with his family was often strained by financial and personal difficulties, and he ended several friendships over critical reviews. In 1850 he married Ewelina Hańska, his longtime love; he died five months later. HP Pavilion N6195 Battery

 

FAMILY

Honoré Balzac was born into a family which had struggled nobly to achieve respectability. His father, born Bernard-François Balssa, was one of eleven children from a poor family inTarn, a region in the south of France. In 1760 the elder Balzac set off for Paris with only alouis coin in his pocket, determined to improve his social standing; Sony vaio VPCYB16KG/S Laptop Battery

by 1776 he had become Secretary to the King's Council and a Freemason. (He had also changed his name to that of an ancient noble family, and added – without any official cause – thenobiliary particle de.)[1] After the Reign of Terror (1793–94), he was sent to Tours to coordinate supplies for the Army.[2]Asus A31-K42 Laptop Battery

 

Balzac's mother, born Anne-Charlotte-Laure Sallambier, came from a family ofhaberdashers in Paris. Her family's wealth was a considerable factor in the match: she was eighteen at the time of the wedding, and Bernard-François fifty.[3] Sony VGN-SR45H/B Laptop Battery

As British writer and critic V. S. Pritchett explained, "She was certainly drily aware that she had been given to an old husband as a reward for his professional services to a friend of her family and that the capital was on her side. She was not in love with her husband."[4]Sony vaio VPCY11V9E Laptop Battery

 

Honoré (so named after Saint Honoré of Amiens, who is commemorated on 16 May, four days before Balzac's birthday) was actually the second child born to the Balzacs; exactly one year previous, Louis-Daniel had been born, but he lived for only a month. Honoré's sisters Laure and Laurence were born in 1800 and 1802, and his brother Henry-François in 1807.[5][6]Sony vaio VPCS149FJ/P Laptop Battery

 

As an infant Balzac was sent to a wet-nurse; the following year he was joined by his sister Laure and they spent four years away from home.[7] (Although Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau's influential book Émile convinced many mothers of the time to nurse their own children, sending babies to wet-nurses was still common among the middle and upper classes.) Sony vaio VPCS139GC/B Laptop Battery

When the Balzac children returned home, they were kept at a frigid distance by their parents, which affected the author-to-be significantly. His 1835 novel Le Lys dans la Vallée features a cruel governess named Miss Caroline, modeled after his own caregiver.[8]Sony vaio VPCY115FGS Laptop Battery

 

At age eight Balzac was sent to the Oratorian grammar school in Vendôme, where he studied for seven years. His father, seeking to instill the same hardscrabble work ethic which had gained him the esteem of society, intentionally gave little spending money to the boy. This made him the object of ridicule among his much wealthier schoolmates.[9][10]Sony vaio VPCM13M1E/L Laptop Battery

 

Balzac had difficulty adapting to the rote style of learning at the school. As a result, he was frequently sent to the "alcove," a punishment cell reserved for disobedient students.[11](The janitor at the school, when asked later if he remembered Honoré, replied: "Remember M. Balzac? Sony vaio VPCYA16EC/R Laptop Battery

 I should think I do! I had the honour of escorting him to the dungeon more than a hundred times!")[12] Still, his time alone gave the boy ample freedom to read every book which came his way. HP 506066-721 Battery

 

Balzac worked these scenes from his boyhood – as he did many aspects of his life and the lives of those around him – into La Comédie Humaine. His time at Vendôme is reflected in Louis Lambert, his 1832 novel about a young boy studying at an Oratorian grammar school at Vendôme. HP 506781-001 Battery

The narrator says : "He devoured books of every kind, feeding indiscriminately on religious works, history and literature, philosophy and physics. He had told me that he found indescribable delight in reading dictionaries for lack of other books."[13]HP HSTNN-CB86 Battery

 

Although his mind was receiving nourishment, the same could not be said for Balzac's body. He often fell ill, finally causing the headmaster to contact his family with news of a "sort of a coma".[14] When he returned home, his grandmother said: "Voilà donc comme le collège nous renvoie les jolis que nous lui envoyons!" ("Look how the academy returns the pretty ones we send them!")[15]HP HSTNN-E01C Battery

 Balzac himself attributed his condition to "intellectual congestion", but his extended confinement in the "alcove" was surely a factor. (Meanwhile, his father had been writing a treatise on "the means of preventing thefts and murders, and of restoring the men who commit them to a useful role in society", in which he heaped disdain on prison as a form of crime prevention.)[16]HP HSTNN-XB87 Battery

 

In 1814 the Balzac family moved to Paris, and Honoré was sent to private tutors and schools for the next two and a half years. This was an unhappy time in his life, during which he attempted suicide on a bridge over the Loire River.[17]HP 586006-761 Battery

 

In 1816 Balzac entered the Sorbonne, where he studied under three famous professors.François Guizot, who later became Prime Minister, was Professor of Modern History.Abel-François Villemain, a recent arrival from the Collège Charlemagne, lectured on French and classical literature. And – most influential of all – Victor Cousin's courses on philosophy encouraged his students to think independently.[18]HP 586007-121 Battery

 

Once his studies were completed, Balzac was persuaded by his father to follow him into the law; for three years he trained and worked at the office of Victor Passez, a family friend. During this time Balzac began to understand the vagaries of human nature. HP 586007-141 Battery

In his 1840 novel Le Notaire, he wrote that a young person in the legal profession sees "the oily wheels of every fortune, the hideous wrangling of heirs over corpses not yet cold, the human heart grappling with the Penal Code."[19HP 586007-541 Battery

 

In 1819 Passez offered to make Balzac his successor, but his apprentice had had enough of the law. He despaired of being "a clerk, a machine, a riding-school hack, eating and drinking and sleeping at fixed hours. I should be like everyone else. HP 586007-851 Battery

And that's what they call living, that life at the grindstone, doing the same thing over and over again…. I am hungry and nothing is offered to appease my appetite."[20] He announced his intention to be a writer. HP 586028-321 Battery

 

The loss of this opportunity caused serious discord in the Balzac household, although Honoré was not turned away entirely. Instead, in April 1819 he was allowed to live in the French capital – as English critic George Saintsbury describes it – "in a garret furnished in the most Spartan fashion, with a starvation allowance and an old woman to look after him", while the rest of the family moved to a house twenty miles [32 km] outside Paris.[21]HP 586028-341 Battery

 

FIRST LITERARY EFFORTS

Balzac's first project was a libretto for a comic opera called Le Corsaire, based on Lord Byron's The Corsair. Realizing he would have trouble finding a composer, however, he turned to other pursuits. HP 588178-141 Battery

 

In 1820 Balzac completed the five-act verse tragedy Cromwell. Although it pales in comparison to later works, some critics consider it a quality text.[22][23] When he finished, Balzac went to Villeparisis and read the entire work to his family; they were unimpressed.[24] He followed this effort by starting (but never finishing) three novels:SténieFalthurne, and Corsino. HP 593550-001 Battery

 

In 1821 Balzac met the enterprising Auguste Lepoitevin, who convinced the author to write short stories, which Lepoitevin would then sell to publishers. Balzac quickly turned to longer works, and by 1826 he had written nine novels, all published under pseudonyms and often produced in collaboration with other writers.[25] HP 593553-001 Battery

For example, the scandalous novel Vicaire des Ardennes (1822) – banned for its depiction of nearly-incestuous relations and, more egregiously, of a married priest – was attributed to a 'Horace de Saint-Aubin'.[26]These books were potboiler novels, designed to sell quickly and titillate audiences. HP 593554-001 Battery

In Saintsbury's view, "They are curiously, interestingly, almost enthrallingly bad."[27]Saintsbury indicates that Robert Louis Stevenson tried to dissuade him from reading these early works of Balzac.[28] American critic Samuel Rogers, however, notes that "without the training they gave Balzac, HP 593562-001 Battery

as he groped his way to his mature conception of the novel, and without the habit he formed as a young man of writing under pressure, one can hardly imagine his producing La Comédie Humaine."[29] Biographer Graham Robb suggests that as he discovered the Novel, Balzac discovered himself.[30]HP HSTNN-CB0W Battery

 

During this time Balzac wrote two pamphlets in support of primogeniture and the Society of Jesus. The latter, regarding the Jesuit order, illustrated his life-long admiration for the Catholic Church. In the preface to La Comédie Humaine he wrote: "Christianity, and especially Catholicism, being a complete repression of man's depraved tendencies, is the greatest element in Social Order."[31]HP HSTNN-CB0X Battery

 

UNE BONNE SPÉCULATION"

In the late 1820s Balzac dabbled in several business ventures, a penchant his sister blamed on the temptation of an unknown neighbor.[32]HP HSTNN-F01C Battery

 His first venture was a publishing enterprise which turned out cheap one-volume editions of French classics including the works of Molière. This business failed miserably, with many of the books "sold as waste paper".[33] Balzac had better luck publishing the memoirs of Laure Junot, Duchess of Abrantès – with whom he also had an affair.[34]HP HSTNN-F02C Battery

 

Balzac borrowed money from his family and friends, and tried to build a printing business, then a typefounder enterprise. His inexperience and lack of capital caused his ruin in these trades. He gave the businesses to a friend (who made them successful) but carried the debts for many years.[33] As of April 1828 Balzac owed 50,000 francs to his mother.[35]HP HSTNN-I78C Battery

 

Balzac never lost his penchant for une bonne spéculation. It resurfaced painfully later when – as a renowned and busy author – he traveled to Sardinia in the hopes of reprocessing the slag from the Roman mines in that country. Near the end of his life Balzac was captivated by the idea of cutting 20,000 acres (81 km2) of oak wood in Ukraineand transporting it for sale in France.[33]HP HSTNN-I79C Battery

 

LA COMÉDIE HUMAINE AND LITERARY SUCCESS

Main article: La Comédie Humaine

After writing several novels, in 1832 Balzac conceived the idea for an enormous series of books that would paint a panoramic portrait of "all aspects of society." When the idea struck, he raced to his sister's apartment and proclaimed: "I am about to become a genius."[36] HP HSTNN-I81C Battery

Although he originally called it Etudes des Mœurs (Study of Mores), it eventually became known as La Comédie Humaine, and he included in it all the fiction that he had published in his lifetime under his own name. This was to be Balzac's life work and his greatest achievement. HP HSTNN-I83C Battery

 

After the collapse of his businesses, Balzac traveled to Brittany and stayed with the de Pommereul family outside Fougères. There he drew inspiration for Les Chouans (1829), a tale of love gone wrong amid the Chouan royalist forces.[25] HP HSTNN-I84C Battery

Although Balzac was a supporter of the crown, Balzac paints the counter-revolutionaries in a sympathetic light – even though they are the center of the book's most brutal scenes. This was the first book Balzac released under his own nameHP HSTNN-IB0N Battery

, and it gave him what one critic called "passage into the Promised Land".[37] It established him as an author of note (even if the surface owes a debt to Walter Scott) and provided him with a name outside his past pseudonyms. HP HSTNN-IB0W Battery

 

Soon afterwards, around the time of his father's death, Balzac wrote El Verdugo – about a 30-year-old man who kills his father (Balzac was 30 years old at the time). This was the first work signed "Honoré de Balzac". Like his father, he added the aristocratic-sounding particle to help him fit into respected society, HP HSTNN-IB0X Battery

but it was a choice based on skill, not birthright. "The aristocracy and authority of talent are more substantial than the aristocracy of names and material power", he wrote in 1830.[38] The timing of the decision was also significant; as Robb explained: HP HSTNN-IB1E Battery

"The disappearance of the father coincides with the adoption of the nobiliary particle. A symbolic inheritance."[39] Just as his father had worked his way up from poverty into respectable society, Balzac considered toil and effort his real mark of nobility. HP HSTNN-LB10 Battery

 

When the July Revolution overthrew Charles X in 1830, Balzac declared himself aLegitimist, supporting Charles' House of Bourbon – but with qualifications. He felt that the new July Monarchy (which claimed widespread popular support) was disorganized and unprincipled, HP HSTNN-OB0X Battery

in need of a mediator to keep the political peace between the King and insurgent forces. He called for "a young and vigorous man who belongs neither to the Directoire nor to the Empire, but who is 1830 incarnate…."[40] He planned to be such a candidate, appealing especially to the higher classes in Chinon. But after a near-fatal accident in 1832 (he slipped and cracked his head on the street), Balzac decided not to stand for election.[41]HP HSTNN-OB0Y Battery

 

1831 saw the success of La Peau de Chagrin (The Wild Ass's Skin or The Magic Skin), a fable-like tale about a despondent young man named Raphaël de Valentin who finds an animal skin which promises great power and wealth. HP HSTNN-Q48C Battery

He obtains these things, but loses the ability to manage them. In the end, his health fails and he is consumed by his own confusion. Balzac meant the story to bear witness to the treacherous turns of life, its "serpentine motion."[42]HP HSTNN-Q47C Battery

 

In 1833 Balzac released Eugénie Grandet, his first best-selling novel.[43] The tale of a young lady who inherits her father's miserliness, it also became the most critically acclaimed book of his career. The writing is simple, yet the individuals (especially the bourgeois title character) are dynamic and complex.[44]HP HSTNN-Q49C Battery

 

Le Père Goriot (Old Father Goriot, 1835) was his next success, in which Balzac transposes the story of King Lear to 1820s Paris in order to rage at a society bereft of all love save the love of money. The centrality of a father in this novel matches Balzac's own position – not only as mentor to his troubled young secretary, HP HSTNN-Q50C Battery

Jules Sandeau,[45] but also the fact that he had (most likely) fathered a child, Marie-Caroline, with his otherwise-married lover, Maria Du Fresnay.[46]HP HSTNN-Q51C Battery

 

In 1836 Balzac took the helm of the Chronique de Paris, a weekly magazine of society and politics. He tried to enforce strict impartiality in its pages and a reasoned assessment of various ideologies.[47] As Rogers notes, HP HSTNN-Q61C Battery

"Balzac was interested in any social, political, or economic theory, whether from the right or the left."[48] The magazine failed, but in July 1840 he founded another publication, the Revue Parisienne. It lasted for three issues.[49]HP HSTNN-Q60C Battery

 

These dismal business efforts – and his misadventures in Sardinia – provided an appropriate milieu in which to set the two-volume Illusions Perdues (Lost Illusions, 1843). The novel concerns Lucien de Rubempré, a young poet trying to make a name for himself, who becomes trapped in the morass of society's darkest contradictions. Lucien's journalism work is informed by Balzac's own failed ventures in the field.[47] HP HSTNN-Q62C Battery

Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes (The Harlot High and Low, 1847) continues Lucien's story. He is trapped by the Abbé Herrera (Vautrin) in a convoluted and disastrous plan to regain social status. The book undergoes a massive temporal rift; the first part (of four) covers a span of six years, while the final two sections focus on just three days.[50]HP HSTNN-Q63C Battery

 

Le Cousin Pons (1847) and La Cousine Bette (1848) tell the story of Les Parents Pauvres(The Poor Relations). The conniving and wrangling over wills and inheritances reflect the expertise gained by the author as a young law clerk. Balzac's health was deteriorating by this point, making the completion of this pair of books a significant accomplishment.[51]HP HSTNN-Q64C Battery

 

Many of his novels were initially serialized, like those of Dickens. Their length was not predetermined. Illusions Perdues extends to a thousand pages after starting inauspiciously in a small-town print shop, whereas La Fille aux yeux d'or (The Girl with the Golden Eyes, 1835) opens with a broad panorama of Paris but becomes a closely plottednovella of only fifty pages. HP HSTNN-UB0W Battery

 

Balzac's work habits are legendary – he did not work quickly, but toiled with an incredible focus and dedication. His preferred method was to eat a light meal at five or six in the afternoon, then sleep until midnight. He then rose and wrote for many hours, fueled by innumerable cups of black coffee. He would often work for fifteen hours or more at a stretch; he claimed to have once worked for 48 hours with only three hours of rest in the middle.[52]HP HSTNN-UB1G Battery

 

Balzac revised obsessively, covering printer's proofs with changes and additions to be reset. He sometimes repeated this process during the publication of a book, causing significant expense for both himself and the publisher.[53] As a result, the finished product was frequently quite different from the original book. HP HSTNN-YB0W Battery

While some of his books never reached a finished state, some of those – such as Les employés (The Government Clerks, 1841) – are nonetheless noted by critics.[54]HP HSTNN-YB0X Battery

 

Although Balzac was "by turns a hermit and a vagrant",[55] he managed to stay connected to the social world which nourished his writing. He was friends with Théophile Gautier andPierre-Marie-Charles de Bernard du Grail de la Villette, and he knew Victor Hugo. Nevertheless, he did not spend as much time in salons and clubs as did many of his characters. HP MU06047 Battery

"In the first place he was too busy", explains Saintsbury, "in the second he would not have been at home there…. [H]e felt it was his business not to frequent society but to create it."[56] HP MU06055 Battery

Nonetheless he often spent long periods at Château de Saché, nearTours, the home of his friend Jean de Margonne, his mother's lover and father to her youngest child. Many of Balzac's tormented characters were created in the small second-floor bedroom. Today the Château is a museum dedicated to the author's life. HP MU06062 Battery

 

MARRIAGE AND LATER LIFE

In February 1832 Balzac received a letter from Odessa – lacking a return address and signed only by "L'Étrangère" ("The Foreigner") – expressing sadness at the cynicism and atheism in La Peau de Chagrin and its negative portrayal of women. HP MU06 Battery

He responded by purchasing a classified advertisement in the Gazette de France, hoping that his secret critic would find it. Thus began a fifteen-year correspondence between Balzac and "the object of [his] sweetest dreams": Ewelina Hańska.[57]HP MU09 Battery

 

Hańska was married to a man twenty years her senior, Wacław Hański, a wealthy Polish landowner living near Kiev. It had been a marriage of convenience to preserve her family's fortune. In Balzac Ewelina found a kindred spirit for her emotional and social desires, with the added benefit of feeling a connection to the glamorous capital of France.[58] HP MU09XL Battery

Their correspondence reveals an intriguing balance of passion, propriety and patience; Robb says it is "like an experimental novel in which the female protagonist is always trying to pull in extraneous realities but which the hero is determined to keep on course, whatever tricks he has to use."[59]HP NBP6A174B1 Battery

 

Wacław Hański died in 1841, and his widow and her admirer finally had the chance to pursue their affections. Competing with the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt, Balzac visited her in St. Petersburg in 1843 and impressed himself on her heart.[60]HP NBP6A174 Battery

 After a series of economic setbacks, health problems, and prohibitions from the Tsar, the couple were finally able to wed.[61] On 14 March 1850, with Balzac's health in serious decline, they drove from her estate in Wierzchownia (village of Verkhivnia) to a church in Berdyczów(city of Berdychiv, today in Ukraine) and were married. The ten-hour journey to and from the ceremony took a toll on both husband and wife: her feet were too swollen to walk, and he endured severe heart trouble.[62]HP NBP6A175B1 Battery

 

Although he married late in life, Balzac had already written two treatises on marriage:Physiologie du Mariage and Scènes de la Vie Conjugale. These works suffered from a lack of firsthand knowledge; Saintsbury points out that "Cœlebs cannot talk of [marriage] with much authority."[63]HP NBP6A175 Battery

 In late April the newly-weds set off for Paris. His health deteriorated on the way, and Ewelina wrote to her daughter about Balzac being "in a state of extreme weakness" and "sweating profusely".[64] They arrived in the French capital on 20 May, his fifty-first birthday.[65]HP WD548AA Battery

 

Five months after his wedding, on 18 August, Balzac died. His mother was the only one with him when he expired; Mme. Hańska had gone to bed.[66] He had been visited that day by Victor Hugo, who later served as pallbearer and eulogist at Balzac's funeral.[67][68]HP WD549AA Battery

 

Balzac was buried at the Cimetière du Père Lachaise in Paris. "Today", said Hugo at the ceremony, "we have a people in black because of the death of the man of talent; a nation in mourning for a man of genius."[69] The funeral was attended by "almost every writer in Paris", HP 513130-321 Battery

including Frédérick Lemaître, Gustave Courbet, Dumas père and Dumas fils.[70]Later, Balzac became the subject of a monumental statue by the French sculptor Auguste Rodin, which stands near the intersection of Boulevard Raspail and Boulevard Montparnasse. Rodin featured Balzac in several of his smaller sculptures as well. HP 535808-001 Battery

 

The Comédie Humaine remained unfinished at the time of his death – Balzac had plans to include numerous other books, most of which he never started.[71] He frequently moved between works in progress, and "finished" works were often revised between editions. HP 591998-141 Battery

This piecemeal style is reflective of the author's own life, a possible attempt to stabilize it through fiction. "The vanishing man", writes Pritchett, "who must be pursued from the rue Cassini to … Versailles, Ville d'Avray, Italy, and Vienna can construct a settled dwelling only in his work."[36]HP 593576-001 Battery

 


 

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Religious views

Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. In his youth, he identified himself as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. From there he became a non-practicing Catholic, HP EG417AA Battery

and increasingly expressed anti-Catholic and anti-clerical views. He frequented Spiritism during his exile (where he participated also in many séances conducted by Madame Delphine de Girardin),[6][7] and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. A census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, and he replied, "No. A Freethinker".HP EV087AA Battery

 

After that point, Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Catholic Church, due largely to what he saw as the Church's indifference to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy; and perhaps also due to the frequency with which Hugo's work appeared on the Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press). HP EV088AA Battery

On the deaths of his sons Charles and François-Victor, he insisted that they be buried without a crucifix or priest, and in his will made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral. However, although Hugo believed Catholic dogma to be outdated and dying, he never directly attacked the actual doctrines of the Church. HP EX941AA Battery

 

Hugo's Rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869, about religious fanaticism), The Pope (1878, anti-clerical), Religions and Religion (1880, denying the usefulness of churches) and, published posthumously, HP EX942AA Battery

The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and Rationalism as an angel). "Religions pass away, but God remains", Vincent van Gogh wrote that Hugo declared (but actually it was Jules Michelet).[8] Christianity would eventually disappear, he predicted, but people would still believe in "God, Soul, and the Power".[citation needed] HP F1466A Battery

 

Although Hugo's many talents did not include exceptional musical ability, he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world through the inspiration that his works provided for composers of the 19th and 20th century. Hugo himself particularly enjoyed the music ofGluck and Weber and greatly admired Beethoven, HP F1739A Battery

and rather unusually for his time, he also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as Palestrina andMonteverdi. Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo: Berlioz andLiszt. The latter played Beethoven in Hugo's home, and Hugo joked in a letter to a friend that thanks to Liszt's piano lessons, HP F2019 Battery

he learned how to play a favourite song on the piano – with only one finger. Hugo also worked with composer Louise Bertin, writing the libretto for her 1836 opera La Esmeralda which was based on the character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame.[9] HP F2019A Battery

Although for various reasons the opera closed soon after its fifth performance and is little known today, it has been recently enjoying a revival, both in a piano/song concert version by Liszt at the Festival international Victor Hugo et Égaux 2007[10] and in a full orchestral version presented in July 2008 at Le Festival de Radio France et Montpellier Languedoc-Roussillon.[11] HP F2019B Battery

 

Well over one thousand musical compositions have been inspired by Hugo's works from the 19th century until the present day. In particular, Hugo's plays, in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre in favour of romantic drama, HP F2024 Battery

attracted the interest of many composers who adapted them into operas. More than one hundred operas are based on Hugo's works and among them are Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia (1833), Verdi's Rigoletto(1851) and Ernani (1844), and Ponchielli's La Gioconda (1876). HP F2024A Battery

Hugo's novels as well as his plays have been a great source of inspiration for musicians, stirring them to create not only opera and ballet but musical theatre such as Notre-Dame de Paris and the ever-popular Les Misérables, HP F2024B Battery

London West End's longest running musical. Additionally, Hugo's beautiful poems have attracted an exceptional amount of interest from musicians, and numerous melodies have been based on his poetry by composers such as Berlioz, Bizet,Fauré, Franck, Lalo, Liszt, Massenet, Saint-Saëns, Rachmaninov and Wagner.[12] HP F2299A Battery

 

Today, Hugo's work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions. For example, Hugo's novel against capital punishment, The Last Day of a Condemned Man, was adapted into an opera by David Alagna, with a libretto by Frédérico Alagna and premiered by their brother, tenor Roberto Alagna, in 2007.[13] HP F3172A Battery

 In Guernsey, every two years the Victor Hugo International Music Festival attracts a wide range of musicians and the premiere of songs specially commissioned from such composers as Guillaume Connesson, Richard Dubugnon, Olivier Kaspar and Thierry Escaich and based on Hugo's poetry. HP F4486A Battery

When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870, the country hailed him as a national hero. Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National Assembly in 1872. Within a brief period, he suffered a mild stroke, his daughter Adèle's internment in an insane asylum, HP F4486B Battery

and the death of his two sons. (Adèle's biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H.) His wife Adèle had died in 1868. His faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet, died in 1883, only two years before his own death. Despite his personal loss, HP F4809A Battery

Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. On 30 January 1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate. The last phase of his political career is considered a failure. Hugo took on the role of a maverick and got little done in the Senate. HP F4812A Battery

 

In February 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. The celebrations began on the 25th when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase, the traditional gift for sovereigns. On the 27th one of the largest parades in French history was held. HP HSTNN-DB02 Battery

Marchers stretched from Avenue d'Eylau, down the Champs-Élysées, and all the way to the center of Paris. The paraders marched for six hours to pass Hugo as he sat in the window at his house. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo; the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Fantine's song in Les Misérables. HP HSTNN-DB20 Battery

 

Victor Hugo's death on 22 May 1885, at the age of 83, generated intense national mourning. He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France. HP HSTNN-IB04 Battery

More than two million people joined his funeral procession in Paris from the Arc de Triomphe to the Panthéon, where he was buried. He shares a crypt within the Panthéon with Alexandre Dumas and Émile Zola. Most large French towns and cities have a street named for him. The avenue where he died, in Paris, now bears his name. HP HSTNN-IB09 Battery

 

His last will

Hugo produced more than 4000 drawings. Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile, when he made the decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet during the period 1848–1851. HP HSTNN-IB20 Battery

 

Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with color. The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. HP PB992A Battery

 

He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils, ink blots, puddles and stains, lace impressions, "pliage" or folding (i.e. Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. HP PB994A Battery

Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page, or during Spiritualist séances, in order to access his unconscious mind, a concept only later popularized by Sigmund Freud. HP PB995A Battery

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Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye, fearing it would overshadow his literary work. However, he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends, often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards, many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. HP PP2210 Battery

Some of his work was shown to, and appreciated by, contemporary artists such as Van Gogh and Delacroix; the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer, he would have outshone the artists of their centuryHP RW556AA Battery

The people of Guernsey erected a statue in Candie Gardens (St. Peter Port) to commemorate his stay in the islands. The City of Paris has preserved his residencesHauteville House, Guernsey and 6, Place des Vosges, Paris as museums. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum. HP ProBook 4510s Battery

Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Dai.[14]

The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the XVIème arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name, and links the Place de l'Étoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place Victor-Hugo. This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honor. HP ProBook 4510s/CT Battery

A number of streets and avenues throughout France are likewise named after him. The school Lycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth, Besançon in France. Avenue Victor-Hugo, located in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, was named to honor him. HP ProBook 4515s Battery

 

In the city of Avellino, Italy, Victor Hugo lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale, when reuniting with his father, Leopold Sigisbert Hugo, in 1808. Hugo would later write about his brief stay here quoting "C’était un palais de marbre...". HP ProBook 4710s Battery

 

In Havana, Cuba there is a park named after him and bust of Hugo stands near the entrance of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing. HP ProBook 4710s/CT Battery

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