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By the summer of 1809, the Spanish Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom was coming under harsh criticism over its handling of the war. The Spanish people demanded that the ancient Cortes be summoned and the Junta agreed. But it was difficult to restore the old assembly and bring it into session. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The Cádiz Cortes would be set up, but until then the Junta exercised power. Anxious to justify its continued existence, the Junta came up with what it hoped would be a war-winning strategy.[106] Undeterred by Wellesley's refusal to contribute British soldiers, the Junta planned to launch a two-pronged offensive to recapture Madrid. They replaced Pedro Caro with Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Duke del Parque as commander of the troops in Galicia and Asturias. Del Parque soon massed 30,000 troops at Ciudad Rodrigo with more on the way. South of Madrid, Juan Carlos de Aréizaga assembled over 50,000 well-equipped men in the Army of La Mancha. The main efforts of Del Parque and Aréizaga would be aided by a third force that operated near Talavera de la Reina under José Miguel de la Cueva y de la Cerda, Duke of Albuquerque. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

The 10,000-man Talavera force was designed to hold French units in place while the main armies attacked Madrid.[107]

In the autumn of 1809, Del Parque's Army of the Left numbered 52,192 men in one cavalry and six infantry divisions. Martin de la Carrera's Vanguard Division had 7,413 soldiers, Francisco Xavier Losada's 1st Division had 8,336, Conde de Belveder's 2nd Division had 6,759, Francisco Ballesteros's 3rd Division had 9,991, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

Nicolás de Mahy's 4th Division had 7,100, and Conde de Castrofuerte's 5th Division had 6,157. All infantry divisions included 14 battalions except the 3rd with 15 and the 5th with seven. The Prince of Anglona's Cavalry Division included 1,682 horsemen in six regiments. Ciudad Rodrigo was provided with a garrison of 3,817 troops and there was an unattached 937-man battalion.[108]DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

With Ney on leave, Jean Gabriel Marchand assumed command of the VI Corps, based at Salamanca. The corps had been forced out of Galicia earlier in 1809 and had been involved in the operations in the aftermath of the Battle of Talavera in July. After hard campaigning and a lack of reinforcements, VI Corps was in a poor condition to fight and Marchand's talents were not equal to those of Ney. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

Del Parque advanced from Ciudad Rodrigo in late September [109] with the divisions of La Carrera, Losada, Belveder, and Anglona. Marchand, overconfident and scornful of his Spanish adversaries, advanced on the village of Tamames, 56 kilometres (35 mi) southwest of Salamanca. In the Battle of Tamames on 18 October 1809, the French suffered an embarrassing defeat.[110] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

The French lost 1,400 killed and wounded out of 14,000 soldiers and 14 guns. Spanish casualties were 700 out of 21,500 men and 18 cannons. After the battle, Del Parque was joined by Ballesteros' division, giving him 30,000 troops. As the Spanish advanced, Marchand abandoned Salamanca and Del Parque's men occupied the city on 25 October.[111] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Marchand retreated north to Toro on the Duero River, where he was joined by François Étienne de Kellermann with 1,500 infantry in three battalions and a 3,000-trooper dragoon division. Kellermann took command of the French force and marched upstream, crossing to the south bank at Tordesillas. Reinforced by General of Brigade Nicolas Godinot's force, Kellermann challenged Del Parque by marching on Salamanca. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

The Spaniard abandoned Salamanca and retreating to the south. In the meantime, the guerrillas in Province of León became very active. Kellermann left the VI Corps holding Salamanca and returned to León to stamp out the uprising.[112]Albuquerque pinned down the French troops near Talavera as planned, but when he found that Aréizaga's army had been defeated at the Battle of Ocaña on 19 November, he withdrew out of reach of the French. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

Del Parque heard of the march of Godinot's and General of Brigade Pierre-Louis Binet de Marcognet's brigades toward Madrid. He had been instructed to join Albuquerque, he instead moved on Salamanca again, hustling one of the VI Corps brigades out of Alba de Tormes.[113] Del Parque occupied Salamanca on 20 November.[114] The French general withdrew behind the Duero and again rendezvoused with Kellermann. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

Hoping to get between Kellermann and Madrid, Del Parque advanced towards Medina del Campo. On 23 November at that town, Marcognet's brigade returned from Segovia while General of Brigade Mathieu Delabassée's brigade arrived from Tordesillas. At this moment, Del Parque's columns came into view and there was a skirmish at El Carpio. The French horsemen drove back the Spanish cavalry but were repulsed by Ballesteros' steady foot soldiers fighting in squares, prompting Marcognet and Delabassée to retreat.[115] HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

On 24 November, Kellermann massed 16,000 French troops on the Duero near Valdestillas. Outnumbered, the French prepared to defend themselves. But on this day the Army of the Left received news of the Ocaña disaster.[116] Understanding that the French could spare plenty of soldiers to track down his army, Del Parque fled south, intending to shelter in the mountains of central Spain.[117] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

On 25 November, Del Parque left so that Kellermann did not begin his pursuit until the next day. For two days, the French could not catch up with their adversaries but on the afternoon of 28 November, their light cavalry found the Army of the Left camped at Alba de Tormes.[116]

By the end of November 1809, Patriot Spain was in poor shape. In Catalonia, Gerona was in its last moments, Spain's two largest armies had been defeated and the British army was preparing to leave the Guadiana. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

Disgusted by what he regarded as the Junta's stupidity, Wellington was convinced that a French march on Lisbon was imminent. Intelligence reports of large masses of fresh enemy troops crossing from France were received.[118] Scattered along the length of the Sierra Morena, the defenders had no way of stopping the French insurgence 19 January 1810. 60,000 French troops—the corps of Victor, SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Mortier and Sebastiani together with other formations—advanced southwards to assault the Spanish positions. Overwhelmed at every point, Aréizaga's men fled eastwards and southwards, leaving town after town to fall into the hands of the enemy. The result was revolution. Abandoning last-minute efforts to turn Seville into another Zaragossa, on 23 January the Junta Central decided to flee to the safety of Cádiz,[119]dissolved itself on 29 January 1810 and set up a five-person Regency Council of Spain and the Indies, charged with convening the Cortes.[67] HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

 Soult cleared all of southern Spain except Cádiz, which he left Victor to blockade.[99] The system of juntas was replaced by a regency and the Cádiz Cortes, which established a permanent government under the Constitution of 1812.

Joseph contented himself with working within the apparatus extant under the old regime, while placing responsibility for local government in many provinces in the hands of royal commissioners. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

After much preparation and debate, on 2 July 1809 Spain was divided into 38 new provinces, each headed by an Intendent appointed by King Joseph, and on 17 April 1810 these provinces were converted into French-style prefectures and sub-prefectures. Named after their chief towns rather than after their dominant geographical features, the new territorial divisions, which were almost equal in size, bore little relation to any historic units.[120] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The decision to retain the historic names of many old provinces in this fashion was a significant concession.[120]

The Proclamation of the Conde de Montarco on 25 March 1812 described the government in Cadiz as an "infamous and illegitimate government ... composed,of the very scum of Spain, dependent on the caprice of an ignorant mob, dominated by British influence, and possessed of no more territory than the prison in which it resides ... HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

that has deceived the foolish Spaniards who submit to its tyranny by promising them an illusory liberty".[121] Under threat of punishment by sequestration of property, escape to the Patriot zone was not a practical possibility except for officials with a secure position in government service, notables with property in the Patriot zone, or career-oriented young men with no family responsibilities. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Thus the French obtained a measure of acquiescence among the propertied classes. While refusing to take service with the French, and in instances serving as spies or couriers, they accepted the presence of the occupying forces and on occasion struck up friendships with them. Francisco de Goya, who remained in Madrid throughout the French occupation, painted Joseph's picture and documented the war a series of 82 prints called Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War). SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

For many imperial officers, life could be comfortable. The German Heinrich von Brandt—an officer in one of Napoleon’s Polish regiments stationed in Aragón after the fall of Zaragoza—said that the French "were not as hated as has since been alleged".[122]

Amongst the liberal, republican and radical segments of the Spanish and Portuguese populations there was much support for a potential French invasion, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

despite Napoleon's having by 1807 abandoned many liberal and republican ideals. Before the invasion, the term afrancesado ("turned French") was used to denote those who supported the Enlightenment, secular ideals, and the French Revolution.[123] Napoleon relied on support from these afrancesados both in the conduct of the war and administration of the country. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

But while Napoleon—through his brother Joseph—fulfilled his promises to remove all feudal and clerical privileges, most Spanish liberals soon came to oppose the occupation because of the violence and brutality it brought.[123] Marxians wrote that there are a positive identification on the part of the people with the Napoleonic revolution, but this is probably impossible to substantiate by the reasons for collaboration being practical rather than ideological. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

The Peninsular War is regarded as one of the first people's wars, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. It is from this conflict that the English language borrowed the word.[125] The Spanish War of Independence was one of the most successful partisan wars in history.This guerrilla warfare was costly for both sides; the guerrillas troubled the French troops, but they frightened their own countrymen with forced conscription and looting. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

Many of the partisans were either fleeing the law or trying to get rich. Later in the war the authorities tried to make the guerrillas reliable, and many of them formed regular army units such as Espoz y Mina's "Cazadores de Navarra".

The idea of turning the guerrillas into an armed force had both positive and negative effects. Uniforms and strict military discipline stopped men from deserting; DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

the more disciplined the unit, the easier it was for French troops to catch them when they sprang an ambush. Some partisan leaders joined up with the military authorities to avoid criminal charges, to retain their status as officers in the Spanish army, or to receive weaponry, clothes, and food.[ The guerrilla style of fighting was the Spanish military's single most effective tactic. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

Most organized attempts by regular Spanish forces to take on the French ended in defeat. Once a battle was lost and the soldiers reverted to their guerrilla roles, they tied down large numbers of French troops over a wide area with a much lower expenditure of men, energy, and supplies.[ According to Glover, "[i]t was these obscure triumphs—a platoon shot down in an ambush, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

a courier and his message captured as he galloped across the plain—which made possible the orthodox victories of Wellington and his Anglo-Portuguese army and the liberation of Portugal and Spain".[126] Mass resistance by the people of Spain prefigured the total wars of the 20th century and inspired parallel struggles by the Russians and Prussians.[ Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Tsar Alexander, when threatened with war, told the French ambassador, "If the Emperor Napoleon decides to make war, it is possible, probable, that we shall be defeated ... But ... the Spaniards have been defeated; and they are not beaten, nor have they surrendered."[127]

In Spain and Portugal, the populace were inured to hardship, were suspicious of foreigners and were versed in ways of life—such as banditry and smuggling—HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

that were characterised by violence and involved constant skirmishes with the security forces. The conviction of General Bigarre became the foundation of the phenomenon of the "customs guards and smugglers who covered the whole of the country under the Prince of the Peace", Captain Blaze saying that, as the Spaniards were "accustomed to extol the exploits of the robbers and smugglers", the chieftains "have been in readiness to become chiefs of the guerrillas".[ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

In the same way, it has been claimed that enlightened absolutism made less progress in Spain and Portugal than elsewhere, with the result that the reforms of the new régime grated on them far more than would have been the case. Tantamount to suggesting that resistance was the product of backwardness—or as the French would have put it, of savagery, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

ignorance and want of civilisation—this latter argument could be supplemented by arguing that Spain was Catholic and therefore given over ipso facto to obscurantism, superstition and counter-revolution. Common French complaints as they grappled with occupying such an independent and spirited Spanish citizenry was that Spain was at least a century behind the rest of Europe in knowledge and the progress of social habits. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Spain's insularity and the severity of its religious institutions had prevented the Spaniards from taking part in the disputes and controversies which had agitated and enlightened Europe.[130]

Hatred of the French and devotion to God, King and Fatherland were not the only the reason to join the Partisans.[131] SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

The French imposed restrictions on movement and on many traditional aspects of street life, so opportunities to find alternative sources of income were limited—industry was at a standstill and many señores were unable to pay their existing retainers and domestic servants, and could not take on new staff. Hunger and despair reigned on all sides.[132] SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

Because the military record was so dismal, many Spanish politicians and publicists took exaggerated comfort from the activities of the guerrillas and elevated them to the status of national heroes, while the issue was exploited by factions determined to argue that the struggle against Napoleon was a people’s war.

Cadiz was built at the end of a sand spit five miles long jutting out from a triangular piece of land known as the Isla de León,Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

reached by crossing a narrow causeway-cum-bridge known as the Puente de Suazo that crossed a wide strip of creeks and salt marshes known as the Rio Sancti Petri. The possible site for a siege battery—a peninsula that half-closed the mouth of the harbour protected by the Isla—was held by troops ensconced at its seaward end in the fort ofMatagorda. Batteries and redoubts commanded the entire length of the Sancti Petri, the Puente de Suazo had been blown up, Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

the isthmus was studded with defences and Cadiz was protected by massive walls. Every boat for miles around had been scuttled, burnt or taken to the Isla de León, while the harbour was full of British and Spanish warships. The Spaniards had fitted out a large number of gunboats and launches that could patrol the Sancti Petri. Alburquerque’s army and the Voluntarios Distinguidos having been reinforced by 3,000 soldiers who had fled Seville and reached the sea at Ayamonte, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

and a strong Anglo-Portuguese brigade commanded by General William Stewart. Shaken by their experiences, the Spaniards had abandoned their earlier scruples about a British garrison.[134]

These defences thwarted the French; an effort to persuade the garrison to surrender was rejected. Victor's French troops camped at the shoreline and tried to bombard the city into surrender. Joseph wrote to Napoleon appealing for naval assistance, but this was never forthcoming; the emperor did not want to risk a second Trafalgar. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

Large numbers of troops and guns were therefore pushed forward to attack Matagorda and the garrison was evacuated on 22 April.[135] With Matagorda in their hands, the French could harass the harbour and isthmus and shell Cadiz itself. Large mortars were constructed for this purpose at Seville, and the city was thereafter bombarded. The bombardment was ineffectual and the confidence of the gaditanos grew and persuaded them that they were heroes. Alcalá Galiano wrote, Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

"From December 1810 bombs ... fired by the enemy batteries had started to fall inside Cádiz. However, these shots ... came very infrequently, and then only a few at a time ... in order to carry so far, the projectiles had had to be increased in weight, and were consequently mostly made up of lead without much space for powder. As a result, they caused little damage ... and in the end little notice was taken of them other than to make them the subject of humour. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

In theatre and streets, then, a popular couplet was sung 'From the bombs fired by the popinjays, the girls of Cádiz make hair curlers.'"[136] With food abundant and falling in price, the bombardment was hopeless despite both hurricane and epidemic—a storm destroyed many ships in the spring of 1810 and the city was ravaged by yellow fever.[137] HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

Once Cádiz was secured, attention turned to the political situation. It was dominated by three factors: the instructions that had been left by the Junta Suprema Central y Gubernativa del Reino concerning the convocation of the Cortes Generales, the installation of a new Consejo de Regencia de España e Indias; and the emergence of Cádiz itself as a player in the political process.[137] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

On 28 October 1809, the Junta Central announced that after a three-month electoral process beginning on the first day of the new year, the cortes would open on 1 March. On 1 January 1810 instructions had appeared that the suffrage was to be extended to all male householders over 25. Voting was to be public and the electors were to choose parish representatives who would attend district-level assemblies. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

These would choose deputies to send to the provincial meetings that would be the bodies from which the members of the cortes would emerge. There would be one deputy to every 50,000 inhabitants. The provincial juntas and the towns and cities that had been represented in the cortes of the antiguo régimen would elect one deputy each. Whether the new assembly should have a single chamber or whether the clergy and nobility should have their own organs of representation were unclear.[138] HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

From 1 February 1810—the date when it first met—the implementation of these decrees had been in the hands of the new council of regency selected by the Junta Central. Composed of General Castaños— the former minister and president of the Junta of Seville, Francisco Saavedra, Admiral Antonio Escaño,Miguel de Lardizábal—an official of the Ministry of State who had represented his native Mexico in the Junta Central, and the Bishop of Orense—who was in Galicia and did not appear in Cádiz until 29 May. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

This was a conservative body which in theory enjoyed absolute power. The leading reformer Argilelles said, "Its authority was as absolute and arbitrary as that of the governments of the past. There was no remedy against the use of power. The freedoms of speech and of publication ... were as chained up as they were before the insurrection.[139] HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The Junta agreed that the viceroyalties of the overseas territories; New Spain, Peru, New Kingdom of Granada, and Buenos Aires, and the independent captaincies general of the island of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Chile, Province of Venezuela, and Philippines would send one representative. This scheme was criticized in America for providing unequal representation to the overseas territories. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

Several important and large cities had no direct representation in the Supreme Central Junta. In particular Quito and Charcas, which saw themselves as the capitals of kingdoms and resented being subsumed in the larger "kingdom" of Peru. This unrest led to the establishment of juntas in these cities in 1809, which were quashed by the authorities within the year. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

 (See Luz de América and Bolivian War of Independence.) Throughout early 1809 the governments of the capitals of the viceroyalties and captaincies general elected representatives to the Junta, but none arrived in time to serve on it.

The French took the Spanish fortified town of Ciudad Rodrigo after a siege lasting from 26 April to 9 July 1810.

Fearing a new French assault on Portugal, Wellesley created a powerful defensive position near Lisbon, to which he could fall back if necessary.[140] COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

To protect the city, he ordered the construction of the Lines of Torres Vedras—three strong lines of forts, blockhouses, redoubts, and ravelins with fortified artillery positions—under the supervision of Sir Richard Fletcher. The various parts of the lines communicated with each other by semaphore, allowing immediate response to any threat. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

The work began in the autumn of 1809 and the first line was finished one year later. To further hamper the enemy, the areas in front of the lines were subjected to a scorched earth policy: they were denuded of food, forage and shelter. 200,000 inhabitants of neighbouring districts were relocated inside the lines. Though not without its problems, Wellington exploited the facts that the French could conquer Portugal only by conquering Lisbon, and that they could in practice reach Lisbon only from the north. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

He exploited Lisbon's geographical situation and the harshness of the Portuguese countryside. In consequence, despite serious worries about his army, Wellesley was confident. He wrote to Lord Liverpool on 14 November 1809:

From all I have learned of the state of the enemy’s force at present in the Peninsula, I am of opinion that unless the Spanish armies should meet with misfortune, the enemy could not make an attack upon Portugal; DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

and [that] if events in Spain should enable the enemy to make such an attack, the force at present in Portugal is able to defend that country. If in consequence of the peace in Germany the enemy’s army in the Peninsula should be reinforced, it is obvious that the enemy will acquire the means of attacking Portugal... in this case I conceive that till Spain shall have been conquered... SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

the enemy will find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain possession of Portugal.[141]

Until these changes occurred the Portuguese administration was free to resist British influence, Beresford's position being rendered tolerable by the firm support of the Minister of War, Miguel de Pereira Forjaz.[142] Wellesley held him to be the ablest man in Portugal.[143] HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

The French re-invaded Portugal with an army of around 65,000, led by Marshal Masséna, and forced Wellesley back through Almeida to Busaco.[99] The first significant clash in Portugal was at the Battle of the Côa, where the French drove back Robert Crauford's outnumbered Light Division. Masséna moved to attack the held British position on the heights of Bussaco—a 10-mile (16 km)-long ridge—resulting in the Battle of Buçaco on 27 September. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Suffering heavy casualties, the French failed to dislodge the Anglo-Portuguese army. Masséna was now cut off from Spain by the militia and the ordenança, tied to one of the worst roads in the peninsula, surrounded by deserted towns and villages, and running short of food. Large cavalry patrols were soon riding out to examine the countryside, and within a matter of hours discovered an unguarded track leading northwards around the Allied line.[144] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Trant’s militia had been sent to hold this road, but Wellesley did not believe they could do so. By doing the unexpected, Masséna had wrong-footed Wellington, and frustrated his plan to turn back the invasion before it reached Lisbon.[145] The next day, Masséna turned Wellington's flank, and the latter thereupon retired, devastating the countryside as he went into a fortified position called the "Lines of Torres Vedras".[99] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

By 10 October 1810, the British light division and cavalry patrols remained outside the "Lines".[146] Wellesley manned the fortifications with "secondary troops"—25,000 Portuguese militia, 8,000 Spaniards and 2,500 British marines and artillerymen—keeping his main field army of British and Portuguese regulars dispersed to meet a French assault on any point of the Lines.[147]Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Masséna's Army of Portugal concentrated around Sobral in preparation to attack. After a fierce skirmish on 14 October in which the strength of the Lines became apparent, the French dug themselves in rather than launch a full-scale assault.[95] Surprised by the French army's resilience in the desert-like conditions of Portugal, Wellington wrote to Lord Liverpool on 21 December 1810:ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

It is astonishing that the enemy have been able to remain in this country so long; and it is an extraordinary instance of what a French army can do. It is a fact that they brought no provisions with them, and they have not received a letter since they entered Portugal. With all our money and having in our favour the good inclinations of the country, I assure you that I could not maintain one division in the district in which they have maintained not less than 60,000 men and 20,000 animals for more than two months.[148] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

In late October, after holding his starving army before Lisbon for a month, Masséna fell back to a position between Santarém and Rio Maior, [149]where Wellesley choose not to attack him. In March, with supplies exhausted, Masséna managed a skillful retreat on Salamanca, with Ney again displaying a savage talent for rear-guard fighting.[99SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

] Following Masséna's withdrawal, Wellesley moved the 2nd Division under Lieutenant General Hill, along with two Portuguese brigades and an attachment of Dragoons, across the Tagus to protect the plains of Alentejo—both from Masséna and a possible attack from Andalusia by the French Army of the South.[150] The British suffered a setback at about the same time in the Battle of Fuengirola. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

On 15 October, a much smaller Polish garrison held off British troops under Lord Blayney, who was taken captive and held by the French until 1814.

During 1811, Victor's force was diminished because of requests for reinforcement from Soult to aid his siege of Badajoz.[151] This brought the French numbers down to between 20,000 and 15,000 and encouraged the defenders of Cádiz to attempt a breakout,[152] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

in conjunction with the arrival of an Anglo-Spanish relief army of around 16,000 troops under the overall command of Spanish General Manuel La Peña, with the British contingent being led by Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Graham. Marching towards Cádiz on February 28, this force met two French divisions under Victor at Barrosa. Indecisive,[152] the Battle of Barrosa on 5 March was part of an unsuccessful manoeuvre to break the siege of Cádiz, HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

but the cowardice of La Peña made it a fruitless success and Victor soon renewed the blockade.[99] Soult came from the south to threaten Extremadura. He captured the fortress town of Badajoz before returning to Andalusia with most of his army. This timid surrender contrasted with the resistance mounted at Girona and Zaragoza. Badadoz's garrison numbered 8,000 effectives, had a month's ammunition and food, and was expecting a relief column under Beresford. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

The city's fall crowned a campaign in which, with 20,000 men, Soult had seized two fortress, taken 16,000 prisoners and defeated the Spanish army in Extremadura. Soult was relieved at the operation's speedy conclusion, for three pieces of disturbing information had reached him on 8 March and his presence was required elsewhere.

Wellesley's confidence and moral authority had been much boosted by Torres Vedras, Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

the spring of 1811 found him intending to move over to the offensive, for which policy he had received de facto authorisation from London, where talks of major reductions in the size of the army employed in Portugal had been replaced by promises of major reinforcements. Supply difficulties, sickness among the troops and want of siege artillery meant that in the short term no great strokes of strategy could be envisaged, HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

but it was hoped that Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz might be all recaptured, opening the way for lightning strikes on Salamanca or Seville.[154] In March 1811 in Cadiz, Henry Wellesley was tricked by serviles eager to engineer British discontent with the Regency into putting forward a plan favoured by both himself and his eldest brother; HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

the elder Wellesley would be given command of the Spanish army and British officers posts in its ranks in exchange for the UK granting the enormous loan which the Spaniards saw as the way out of their penury. This was impractical—gaditano opinion was hostile, while Arthur Wellesley's enthusiasm failed to win over his Cabinet colleagues. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

A further suggestion that the provinces bordering on Portugal should be placed under British authority was also rejected. With the French ensconced in Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the problems these measures were designed to combat—a repetition of the troubles of the Talavera campaign—were academic.[155]

An Anglo-Portuguese army led by the British Marshal William Beresford and a Spanish army led by the Spanish generals Joaquín Blake and Francisco Castaños, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

attempted to retake Badajoz by laying siege to the French garrison Soult had left behind. Soult regathered his army and marched to relieve the siege. Beresford lifted the siege and his army intercepted the marching French. Part of Wellington's army had besieged Badajoz until Soult forced it to retire after the Battle of Albuera. Soult outmaneuvered Beresford but could not win the battle, HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

writing later that he had never seen "so desperate and bloody a conflict" and commenting on the steadfastness of the British troops: "There is no beating these troops ... I had turned their right, pierced their centre and everywhere victory was mine—but they did not know how to run!"[156] He retired his army to Seville.

The allies, reinforced by fresh British troops in early 1811, began an offensive. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

In April, Arthur Wellesley besieged Almeida. Massena advanced to its relief, attacking Wellesley at Fuentes de Oñoro (3–5 May). The French claimed victory because they won the passage at Poco Velho, cleared the wood, turned the British right flank, obliged the cavalry to retire, and forced Wellesley to relinquish three miles of ground. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

The British claimed victory because they took the village of Fuentes and their object (covering the blockade of Almeida) was attained. The French retired without being attacked. The innate toughness of Wellesley's troops and Bessières's failure to support Masséna assisted the Allied effort. Bessières led the cavalry of the Imperial Guard and refused to obey Masséna's orders. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

After this battle, the Almeida garrison escaped through the British lines in a night march.[99] An infuriated Wellesley wrote, "I have never been so much distressed by any military event as by the escape of a man of them."[157] Napier wrote, "In the battle of Fuentes Onoro, more errors than skill were observable on both sides, and the train of accidents did not stop there. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

The prize contended for was to present another example of the uncertainty of war."[158]Masséna was forced to withdraw, having lost a total of 25,000 men in Portugal, and was replaced by Auguste Marmont. Wellesley joined Beresford and renewed the siege of Badajoz. Marmont joined Soult and Wellesley retired.[99]

The greatest Spanish coup at this time was the work of the Catalans. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Aided by three young clerks employed by the garrison, on the night of 9–10 April the former cleric, Francisco Rovira, let himself into the fortress of Figueras at the head of 2,000 men. Because it commanded the main road from Barcelona to the frontier, the French would not accept its loss and after confused fighting in which Rovira and his men received ineffectual support from troops of the First Army brought up by its latest commander, HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

the Conde de Campoverde, the fortress was blockaded. Thinking that relief was unlikely, Marshal Macdonald, the commander of the French Army of Catalonia, eschewed formal siege operations in favour of starving the defenders into surrender. Defended by irregulars, the fortress held out much longer than expected, but on 17 August, with no food remaining it was forced to capitulate after a desperate attempt at a break-out was foiled. Macdonald wrote, HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

"The unevenness of the ground caused the head of the columns to waver and made their weapons jingle, and this attracted the attention of our advanced outposts... We awaited their approach, and as soon as they opened the attack we threw hand grenades amongst them... The Spaniards lost a large number of killed, wounded and... Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

prisoners; on our side no one had a scratch. Next day the enemy ran up the white flag... I accorded them the honours of war. The garrison laid down their arms and remained prisoners; out of respect for their bravery the officers retained their swords."[159]The fighting had not prevented the French from seizing more ground. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The French next attacked the vital city of Tarragona. The Spaniards had been able to maintain a small, regular army in southern and central Catalonia because Tarragona was a port, a fortress, and the last region whose resources remained intact as far as the Patriot cause was concerned. The emperor had deemed that it should be taken. Tasked with this was the Army of Aragón under its commander, Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

General Suchet, who was given a third of the Army of Catalonia to ensure that his operations were not marred by friction with Macdonald.[160] Wellesley soon appeared before Ciudad Rodrigo. In September, Marmont repelled him and re-provisioned the fortress.[99] Sorties continued to be made out of Cádiz from April to August 1811,[161] and British naval gunboats destroyed French positions at St. Mary's.[162] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

An attempt by Victor to crush the small Anglo-Spanish garrison at Tarifaover the winter of 1811-1812 was frustrated by torrential rains and an obstinate defence, marking an end to French operations against the city's outer works. The war now fell into a temporary lull, with the superior French unable to find an advantage and coming under increasing pressure from Spanish guerrillas. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The French had over 350,000 soldiers in L'Armée de l'Espagne, but over 200,000 were deployed to protect the French lines of supply, rather than as substantial fighting units.

Wellesley renewed the allied advance into Spain in early 1812, besieging and capturing the border fortress towns of Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 January and Badajoz on 6 April after an assault. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

The allied army took Salamanca on 17 June, as Marshal Marmont approached. The two forces met on 22 July, when Wellesley soundly defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca, during which Marmont was wounded.The emperor wants me to take the offensive ... but his Majesty does not realize that the smallest movement in these parts expends quantities of resources and of horses ... HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

To make a requisition on the poorest village we have to send a detachment of 200 men and, to be able to live, we have to scatter over distances.

After the allied victory at Salamanca on 22 July 1812, King Joseph Bonaparte abandoned Madrid on 11 August.[164] Because Suchet had a secure base at Valencia, Joseph and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan retreated there. Soult, realising he would soon be cut off from his supplies, ordered a retreat from Cádiz set for August 24; HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

the French were forced to end the two-and-a-half year long siege.[4] After a long artillery barrage, the French placed together the muzzles of over 600 cannons to render unusable to the Spanish and British. Although the cannons were useless, the Allied forces captured 30 gunboats and a large quantity of stores.[165] The French were forced to abandon Andalusia for fear of being cut off by the allied armies.[166] HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

 In August, Wellesley entered Madrid, destroying a famous ceramic factory in the city, and a wool factory and Roman bridge at Alcantara.[99] Marshals Suchet and Soult joined Joseph and Jourdan at Valencia. Spanish armies defeated the French garrisons at Astorga and Guadalajara.

As the French regrouped, the allies advanced towards Burgos. Between September 19 and October 21 Wellesley besieged Burgos but failed to capture it. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

Together, Joseph and the three marshals planned to recapture Madrid and drive Wellesley from central Spain. The French counteroffensive caused Wellesley to lift the Siege of Burgos and retreat to Portugal in the autumn of 1812,[167] pursued by the French and losing several thousand men.[99] Napier wrote that about 1,000 allied troops were killed, wounded and missing in action, and that Hill lost 400 between the Tagus and the Tormes, SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

and another 100 in the defence of Alba de Tormes. 300 were killed and wounded at the Huebra where many stragglers died in woodland, and 3,520 allied prisoners were taken to Salamanca up to 20 November. Napier estimated that the double retreat cost the allies around 9,000, including the loss in the siege, and said French writers said 10,000 were taken between the Tormes and the Agueda. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

But Joseph's dispatches said the whole loss was 12,000, including the garrison of Chinchilla, whereas English authors mostly reduced the British loss to hundreds.[168] As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias. For Napoleon, losing in Spain in 1812 or 1813 would have meant little if a decisive victory had occurred in Germany or Russia. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

By the end of 1812 the Grande Armée that had invaded the Russian Empire had ceased to exist. Unable to resist the oncoming Russians, the French had to evacuateEast Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. With both the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia joining his opponents, Napoleon withdrew more troops from Spain,[169] including some foreign units and three battalions of sailors sent to assist with the Siege of Cádiz. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

20,000 men were withdrawn; the numbers were not overwhelming, but the occupying forces were left in a difficult position. In much of the area under French control—the Basque provinces, Navarre, Aragon, Old Castile, La Mancha, the Levante, and parts of Catalonia and León—their presence was a few scattered garrisons. Trying to hold a front line in an arc fromBilbao to Valencia, they were still vulnerable to assault, and with hopes of victory abandoned. IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

According to Esdaile, the best policy would have been to have fallen back to the Ebro, but the political situation in 1813 made this impossible; Napoleon wanted to avoid being seen as weak in the face of German princes watching the advancing Russians and wondering whether they should change sides.[170] French prestige suffered another blow when on 17 March el rey intruso left Madrid in the company of another vast caravan of refugees.[170] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

The following year, Wellesley marched 121,000 troops (53,749 British, 39,608 Spanish, and 27,569 Portuguese)[171] from northern Portugal across the mountains of northern Spain and the Esla River, skirting Jourdan's army of 68,000 strung out between the Douro and the Tagus. British and Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos, outflanking the French army and forcing Joseph Bonaparte into the Zadorra valley. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

At the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June, Joseph's 65,000-man army were routed by 52,000 British, 28,000 Portuguese, and 25,000 Spaniards.[171] Wellesley failed to pursue and the French recovered. Wellesley shortened his communications by shifting his base of operations to the northern Spanish coast, and began operations against San Sebastian and Pampeluna. Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

Soult was given command of all French troops in Spain and advanced through the western Pyrenees, but was repulsed.[99] The Spanish army of Enrique José O'Donnell tookPancorbo on 3 July, with the French troops capitulating.[172] With 18,000 men, Wellesley captured the French-garrisoned city of San Sebastián under Brigadier-General Louis Emmanuel Rey after a siege that lasted from 7 July to 8 September 1813 and incurred heavy British losses. HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

The city in turn was sacked and burnt to the ground by the Anglo-Portuguese.

The war was not over. Although Bonapartist Spain had effectively collapsed, most of France’s troops had escaped and fresh troops were soon gathering beyond the Pyrenees. By themselves, such forces were unlikely to score more than a few local victories, but French troop losses elsewhere in Europe could not be taken for granted. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

Austria, Russia and Prussia might be beaten, but with the divisions between the allies there was no guarantee that one power would not make a separate peace. By giving Britain more credibility on the continent, Vitoria had helped a little, but the thought of Napoleon descending on the Pyrenees with the grande armée was not regarded with equanimity. Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

Welcoming the news that Austria had entered the war and that the Allied armies had avoided a decisive defeat at Dresden in August 1813, British headquarters had misgiving about the eastern powers. Wellesley's brother-in-law Edward Pakenham wrote, "I should think that much must depend upon proceedings in the north: I begin to apprehend ... that Boney may avail himself of the jealousy of the Allies to the material injury of the cause."[174] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

But the defeat or defection of Austria, Russia and Prussia was not the only danger. It was also uncertain that Wellesley could continue to count on Spanish support.[175]

Moreover, things were going badly for the British Army itself. The summer of 1813 in the Basque provinces and Navarre was a wet one, and with the army drenched by incessant rain, the decision to strip the men of their greatcoats was looking unwise. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

Sickness was widespread—at one point a third of Wellesley's British troops were hors de combat—and fears about the army's discipline and general reliability grew. By 9 July, Wellesley reported that 12,500 men were absent without leave, whilst plundering was rife. Major General Sir Frederick Robinson wrote, "We paint the conduct of the French in this country in very ... harsh colours, but be assured we injure the people much more than they do ... HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

Wherever we move devastation marks our steps."[176] With the army established on the borders of France, desertion had become a problem. The Chasseurs Britanniques—recruited mainly from French deserters—lost 150 men in a single night. Wellesley wrote, "The desertion is terrible, and is unaccountable among the British troops. I am not astonished that the foreigners should go ... HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

 but, unless they entice away the British soldiers, there is no accounting for their going away in such numbers as they do."[177]

The Allies chased the retreating French, reaching the Pyrenees in early July. Marshal Soult began a counter-offensive and defeated the Allies at the Battle of Maya and the Battle of Roncesvalles. Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

Pushing on into Spain, by 27 July the Roncesvalles wing of Soult's army was within ten miles of Pamplona but found its way blocked by a substantial allied force posted on a high ridge in between the villages of Sorauren and Zabaldica.[178] Soult was repulsed by the Allies at theBattle of Sorauren, lost momentum, and was defeated by the Spanish Army of Galicia under General Manuel Freire at the Battle of San Marcial on 31 August 1813. HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

On 7 October, after Wellesley received news of the reopening of hostilities in Germany, the Allies crossed into France and forded the Bidasoa river. On 11 December, Napoleon, beleaguered and desperate, agreed to a separate peace with Spain under the Treaty of Valençay, under which he would release and recognize Ferdinand in exchange for a complete cessation of hostilities. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

But the Spanish had no intention of trusting Napoleon and the fighting continued. Soult was not finished. On 13 December he switched his troops to the right bank of the Nive and launched them against Sir Rowland Hill's forces, and a furious battle followed. The Allies were in danger; rain in the Pyrenees had sent floodwater down the Nive and had swept away their pontoon bridges, while the French made considerable progress. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

According to Bell, "Every point was attacked to weaken our force and keep us separate, their guns keeping up a terrific fire, knocking the dust out of Saint Pierre ... ploughing up the side of the hill, thinning our ranks, and playing Old Harry, having no regard for life or limb ... ‘Dead or alive,’ said our chief, ‘we must hold our ground.’[179]

Over 11,000 men were killed or injured at the Battle of the Nive. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

The French losses outnumbered those of the Allies, and on the evening of 10 December, some 1,400 troops from three German battalions deserted in response to a secret message from the Duke of Nassau—one of the many German rulers who had switched sides following the Battle of Leipzig—ordering them to s

witch to the Allies. In addition, Soult and Suchet lost the rest of their German units—another 3,000 men—as it was felt that they must be disbanded. Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

The Adour’s defenders were depleted, but all incapable of further offensive action. Twice their disposable strength had fallen on a single wing of the Allied army, and twice it had been repelled. Soult could now only defend the line of the Adour. As shown by the battles at Orthez, on 27 February 1814, and Toulouse, on 10 April 1814, although the armée d’Espagne was not broken, all chance of carrying the fight beyond the Pyrenees had gone. Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

In France, after a considerable time of inactivity spent in winter quarters, British, Portuguese and Spanish soldiers continued to fight the enemy, but the history of how the allies besieged Bayonne, liberated Bourdeaux, and fought Soult’s army at Toulouse is one that belongs as much to the tale of the Peninsular War as to that of the great invasion of France that produced Napoleon’s abdication on 6 April 1814. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Nor does much interest attach to such military events as took place in the Peninsula, for these boiled down to little more than a series of ineffectual blockades that are remarkable for the evidence they provide of the condition of the Spanish army and the erstwhile guerrillas’ lack of interest in prosecuting the war. The French garrisons that remained had since been besieged by Spanish forces.[181] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The significance of the Peninsular War was of far greater significance in the history of Spain and Portugal than it was in the history of the Napoleonic Wars. On the contrary to the classic tradition, to quote Napoleon himself, ‘It was [the Spanish war] that overthrew me. All my disasters can be traced back to this fatal knot’.[182] By intervening in Spain and Portugal, Napoleon involved himself in a struggle that would have been difficult to win at the best of times: HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

so intense was the national spirit of these two countries, the French armies were confronted by a veritable people’s war.[183] The Grande Armée that campaigned in Russia in 1812 was not inadequate of troops. Rather, what was lacking was the ability to make use of troops, the communications, transport and supply arrangements of the army all proving desperately short for the needs even of the numbers that Napoleon did take with him.[184] Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

Two years later, heartened by French difficulties in Spain, both Russia and Prussia considered going to war against Napoleon; in Prussia leaders of the reform movement such as August von Gneisenau added to the pressure by painting pictures of people’s war a la español.[185] Once he had been beaten in Germany in 1813, Napoleon's only hope of survival—other than accepting the compromise peace that at this point was on offer—was to mobilise  DELL R859C CPU Fan

France for total war in the hope that resistance might be prolonged long enough for the divisions between the Allies to undermine its commitment to their common cause.[186]

King Joseph had been welcomed by Spanish afrancesados (Francophiles), who believed that collaboration with France would bring modernisation and liberty; an example was the abolition of the Spanish Inquisition. Priests and patriots stirred up agitation,Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

which became widespread after the French army's first examples of repression (such as that in Madrid in 1808) were presented as fact to unite and enrage the people. The remaining afrancesados were exiled to France following the departure of French troops.

After the Peninsular War, the pro-independence traditionalists and liberals clashed in the Carlist Wars, as King Ferdinand VII, ("the Desired One"; later "the Traitor King"),SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

revoked all the changes made by the independent Cortes in Cádiz. He restored absolute monarchy, prosecuted and put to death everyone suspected of liberalism, and altered the laws of royal succession in favour of his daughter Isabella II, starting a century of civil wars against the supporters of the former legal heir to the throne. The liberal Cortes had approved the first Spanish Constitution on 19 March 1812, which King Ferdinand later nullified. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

In Spanish America, Spanish and Criollo officials formed Juntas that swore allegiance to King Ferdinand. This experience in self-government led the later Libertadores (Liberators) to promote the independence of Spain’s American colonies.

The whole country had been pillaged, and society subjected to destabilising change, even anarchy.[187] SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

The Peninsular War gave birth to the violence and popular antagonism that, along with military intervention in politics, were to be nineteenth-century Spain's most pronounced characteristics. Portugal's position was more favorable than Spain's. Revolt had not spread to Brazil, there was no colonial struggle and there had been no attempt at political revolution.[188] HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

Exposing the limitations of eighteenth-century enlightened absolutism, the war dealt a blow to both the Church and the nobility. The Church had suffered great losses—one third of the clergy may have died in the struggle—and it had also been stripped of much of its property, and desamortización, hostility to the tithes and the demands of the French and the Patriots for funds had left it without resources.[189] Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

The Peninsular War signified Portugal's traumatic entry into the modern age. The Governors of Portugal nominated by the absent king had scant influence because of the successive French invasions and British occupation. The Portuguese Court's transfer to Rio de Janeiro initiated Brazil's state-building that produced its independence in 1822. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

The Portuguese Navy's skillful evacuation of more than 15,000 people from the court, administration, and army was a

bonus for Brazil and a blessing in disguise for Portugal, as it liberated the energies of the country. HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan,SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

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The Peninsular War[a] (1807–1814) was a military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, theUnited Kingdom and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.

The Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española(Spanish War of Independence), which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincialjuntas. In 1810, a reconstituted national government, the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz but could not raise effective armies because it was besieged by 70,000 French troops. British and Portuguese forces eventually secured Portugal, HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army and to provide whatever supplies they could get to the Spanish, while Spanish armies and guerrillas tied down vast numbers of Napoleon's troops. These combined regular and irregular allied forces prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces by restricting French control of territory and the war continued through years of stalemate.[3] HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The years of fighting in Spain was a heavy burden on France's Grande Armée. While the French were victorious in battle, their communications and supplies were severely tested and their units were frequently isolated, harassed, or overwhelmed by partisans. The Spanish armies were repeatedly beaten and driven to the peripheries but time and again they would regroup and hound the French. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had unwittingly provoked total war, to call the conflict the Spanish Ulcer.[4][5]

The British force under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. Allied to the British, the demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of General William Carr Beresford,[6] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

who had been appointed commander-in-chief of the Portuguese forces by the exiled Portuguese royal family, and fought as part of a combined Anglo-Portuguese army under Wellesley. In 1812, as Napoleon embarked upon his disastrous invasion of Russia, a combined allied army under Wellesley pushed into Spain and took Madrid. Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult led the exhausted and demoralized French forces in a fighting withdrawal across the Pyrenees and into France during the winter of 1813-1814. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

War and revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, later a cornerstone of European liberalism.[7] The burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions led by officers trained in the Peninsular War persisted in Iberia until 1850. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion, revolution, and restoration led to the independence of most of Spain's American colonies and the independence of Brazil from Portugal.

Subdued by its defeat in the Pyrenees War, Spain allied with France. In 1806, while in Berlin, Napoleon Bonaparte declared the Continental System, a blockade forbidding British imports into continental Europe.[8] FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Neutral Portugal tried in vain to avoid Napoleon's ultimatum—since 1373 it had had a treaty of alliance with England, which became an alliance with theUnited Kingdom. After the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, which cemented French dominance over central and eastern Europe, Napoleon decided to capture the Iberian ports.[9][10] The decision went against Napoleon's own advice from earlier in his career; SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

he had once remarked that the conquest of Spain would be "too hard a nut to crack".[11] On 27 October 1807, Spain's prime minister Manuel de Godoy signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau with France, agreeing that after Spain and France had defeated Portugal, it would be split into three kingdoms; the new Kingdom of Northern Lusitania, the Algarve (expanded to include Alentejo), and a rump Kingdom of Portugal.[12][13] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

In November 1807, after the refusal of the Prince Regent, John VI of Portugal, to join the Continental System, Napoleon sent an army into Spain under General Jean-Andoche Junot with the task of invading Portugal.

Godoy initially requested Portugal's alliance against the invading French armies, but later secretly agreed with France that in return for Spain's cooperation, it would receive Portugal's territories. Spain's main ambition was the seizure of the Portuguese fleet, and sent two divisions to help French troops occupy Portugal. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Junot initiated the Invasion of Portugal on 19 November 1807. The Portuguese army was positioned to defend the ports and the coast against a French attack, and Lisbon was captured with no military opposition on 1 December. On 29 November, the escape of Maria I of Portugal and Prince Regent John, together with the administration and the Court—around 10,000 people and 9,000 sailors aboard 23 Portuguese warships and 31 merchant ships—was a setback HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

for Napoleon which enabled the Prince Regent to continue to rule over his overseas possessions, including Brazil. The Portuguese royal family would remain in Rio de Janeirofor the next 13 years.

In 1807, Spain was experiencing political corruption; Charles IV was considered to be incompetent to run the country. Napoleon, now Emperor of the French, decided to take advantage of the dissensions in the Spanish court. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Feigning sympathy with their situation, he listened to Charles and his son Ferdinand, inviting them to Paris. Ferdinand responded favourably to Napoleon's advice and asked for the hand of a Bonaparte princess. Napoleon played the part of an ally and coaxed the two Spaniards into believing he had friendly and peaceful intentions. In the absence of Charles and Ferdinand, Napoleon took the opportunity to invade Spain.[14] FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

All over Spain, townsfolk and peasants, who had been forced to bury family members in new municipal cemeteries, stole their bodies back at night and tried to restore them to the protection of the old resting-places. In Madrid, the growing Francophilia of the court was met by the majos—shopkeepers, artisans, taverners and labourers who dressed in traditional style and took pleasure in picking fights with petimetres (fops).[15] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Under the pretext of reinforcing the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, French imperial troops entered Spain, where they were greeted with enthusiasm by the populace despite growing diplomatic unease. In February 1808, Napoleon turned on his ally and ordered French commanders to seize key Spanish fortresses.[16] Barcelona was taken on 29 February 1808 when a French column disguised as a convoy of wounded soldiers persuaded the authorities to open the city's gates.[1Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

] Many commanders were not particularly concerned about the fate of the ruling regime, nor were they in any position to fight.

The Spanish Royal Army of 100,000 men found itself paralysed; it was under-equipped; for instance its 26 cavalry regiments of 15,000 men possessed only 9,000 horses.[18] It was frequently leaderless, confused by the turmoil in Madrid, and was scattered from Portugal to the Balearic Islands. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

15,000 of its finest troops—Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana's Division of the North—had been lent to Napoleon in 1807 and remained stationed in Denmark under French command. Only the peripheries contained armies of any strength; Joaquín Blake's Army of Galicia, and that of Andalusia, under Francisco Javier Castaños. The French were thus able to seize much of northeastern Spain by coups de main and any hope of turning back the invasion ended. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

In March 1808, riots and a popular revolt at the winter palace in Aranjuez forced King Charles IV to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand VII on March 19.[19] The rebellion seemed popular; inspired from outside the military, it was in effect a coup d'état by the Royal Guard. Challenged by this call to arms, Godoy and his royal patrons found they had few defenders. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The officer corps was disgruntled by the failure of the favourite's reforms to make any difference to its situation and his orders to resist the French were already being disobeyed. Much of the upper nobility and the Catholic Church were hostile. Reformist circles had lost faith in Godoy's political credentials and the common people were in open revolt. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Spain's political leaders had lost faith in Godoy, and Ferdinand was hailed as a saviour when he entered Madrid on 24 March. Alcalá Galiano wrote, "The cheers were loud, repeated and delivered with ... eyes full of tears of pleasure, kerchiefs were waved ... from balconies with hands trembling with pleasure ... and not for a moment did the passion... or the thunderous noise of the joyful crowd diminish." Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Ever since the Mutiny of Aranjuez, Spain had been astir. Attacks on godoyistas were frequent while the failure of the French to recognise Ferdinand caused much discontent and gave rise to the suspicion that they intended to bring back Godoy.[21] By the beginning of May 1808, rumours were spreading that the Junta de Gobierno—the council of regency left behind by Ferdinand—was being pressurised into sending the last members of the royal family to Bayonne.[22] HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

On 2 May, the citizens of Madrid rebelled against the French occupation, killing 150 French soldiers before the uprising was put down by Joachim Murat's elite Imperial Guard and Mamluk cavalry, which crashed into the city and trampled the rioters.[23] The next day, as immortalized by Francisco Goya in his painting The Third of May 1808, the French army shot hundreds of Madrid's citizens in retaliation.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Similar reprisals occurred in other cities and continued for days, strengthening the resistance. Bloody, spontaneous fighting known as guerrilla (literally "little war") erupted in much of Spain. Locally organised rebel groups were unaware of the resistance being prepared elsewhere in Spain. According to Esdaile, the partisans were as committed to driving the ancien regime out of Spain as they were to fighting foreign armies; Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

the Patriots had no scruples about killing officials sceptical of their revolutionary program.[24]

When Ferdinand departed for Bayonne he had left a structure of government headed by the Junta de Gobierno. Presided over by Ferdinand's uncle, the infante Don Antonio, it comprised the ministers appointed by Ferdinand to head the ministries of Foreign Affairs, War, Finance, SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

Navy, and Grace and Justice; which since the reign of Carlos III had constituted the heart of the Spanish administration. Coexistent with the departments were the Councils of Castile, the Indies, War, the Admiralty, the Treasury, the Military Orders, and the Inquisition. Spain was divided into 32 provinces—each headed by a Treasury official known as an intendente, and 14 military regions—each headed by a viceroy, captain general or commandant general.[25] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

New heads were found for all the ministries; the Duque de Infantado, an old enemy of Godoy, was appointed president of the Council of Castile and Gregorio García de la Cuesta was made Captain General of Old Castile. Despite a few officials having been driven from their posts by popular fury, the overall system was unchanged.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Although the Spanish government, including the Council of Castile, had accepted Napoleon's decision to grant the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph, the Spanish population rejected Napoleon's plans and expressed their opposition through the local municipal and provincial governments. Following traditional Spanish political theories, which held that the monarchy was a contract between the monarch and the people, local governments responded to the crisis by transforming themselves into ad hoc governmental juntas. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The first wave of uprisings that took place without any knowledge of revolt elsewhere were in Cartagena and Valencia on 23 May, Zaragoza and Murcia on 24 May, and the province of Asturias, which cast out its French governor on 25 May, and "declared war on Napoleon at the height of his greatness."[27] Within weeks, all the Spanish provinces followed suit.[28] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

In Cartagena, red cockades—the traditional badge of the Bourbon monarchy—were handed out to the people, and the garrison supported the rising, whereupon the captain general and the military governor were arrested. A provincial junta was established under a prominent admiral. In Zaragoza, where José Palafox, abrigadier of the elite Royal Guards, had been hiding outside the city, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

the conspirators' agents steered the crowds into calling for him to lead them. The captain general was imprisoned and Palafox was installed as de facto governor of Zaragoza and captain general of Aragon.[29] He wasted no time in declaring war on Napoleon and, with his elder brother, commanded a series of attacks against the French, and which led to the First Siege of Zaragoza (15 June—14 August 1808). HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Most major towns now had emergency administrations—two exceptions were Cádiz, where the town council held sway, and Zaragoza, which was in the sole charge of Palafox—but the resultant juntas refused the bourgeois revolution of Marxist legend.[30]

The deteriorating strategic situation forced France to increase its military commitments; in February 1808, Napoleon had boasted that 12,000 men could conquer Spain;[31HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

] by 1 June, over 65,000 troops were rushing into the country to control the crisis.[32] The main French army of 80,000 held a narrow strip of central Spain from Pamplona and San Sebastián in the north to Madrid and Toledo in the south. The French in Madrid sheltered behind an additional 30,000 troops under Marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Jean-Andoche Junot's corps were stranded in Portugal, cut off by 300 miles (480 km) of hostile territory, but within days of the outbreak of revolt, French columns in Old Castile, New Castile, Aragón and Catalonia were searching for the insurgent forces.

Napoleon had expected popular risings, but believed that the Spanish army would either remain neutral or put itself under his command.[33] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

From Murat's optimistic reports, Napoleon believed the uprisings would die down and Spain would become peaceful if his brother retained the throne while French flying columns seized and pacified Spain's cities. He also had no respect for the "insolent" Spanish militias which opposed him.[34] The first Army of Spain out-numbered and had inferior troops.[35] To this end, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de l'Étang led 24,430 men south toward Seville and Cádiz; Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bessières moved into Aragón and Old Castile with 25,000 men, aiming to capture Santander and Zaragoza. Moncey marched toward Valencia with 29,350 men and Guillaume Philibert Duhesme marshalled 12,710 troops in Catalonia and moved against Girona.[36] Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

However, at the two successive Battles of the Bruch, in the mountains some 50 kilometres (31 mi) outside Barcelona,Schwarz's 4,000 troops, marching from the city towards Zaragoza, were forced back following the heavy casualties inflicted on them by local Catalan militia, the Miquelets (also known as somatenes). ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Duhesmes Franco-Italian division of almost 6,000 troops failed to storm the city at the Gerona, and leaving Chabran's brigade to hold Mataro, was forced to return to Barcelona.[37] In Aragon, Charles, comte Lefebvre-Desnouettes—the commander of the 6,000-strong French force bearing down onZaragoza—decided to rush the city.[38] French calls for an honourable capitulation met with the reply, "War to the knife."[39] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Resorting to urban warfare, Palafox defied the French for three months. Moncey's push toward the coast ended in defeat outside the walls of Valencia, where 1,000 French recruits died trying to storm the city. Managing to defeat Spanish counterattacks, Moncey began a long, harried retreat.[34]

In the north, the French found a measure of success. When Bessières's march on Santander was checked by partisan attacks in July, the French turned back and encountered Blake and Cuesta with their combined army. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In the Battle of Medina del Rio Seco, the Spanish generals, at Cuesta's insistence, hurried toward the vulnerable French supply lines at Valladolid. The two armies deployed on 14 July, but Cuesta had left a gap between his troops and Blake's which the French used to their advantage and with Cuesta defeated, Old Castile returned to French control. Blake escaped, but the Spaniards lost at least 1,000 dead or wounded, twelve hundred prisoners and thirteen guns. French losses had been minimal—perhaps 400 men.[40] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Bessières's victory salvaged the French army's strategic position in northern Spain. The road to Madrid lay open to Joseph, and the defeats at Gerona, Valencia, and Zaragoza were forgotten. All that remained was to reinforce Dupont and allow him to force his way south through Andalusia. With the Spanish threat scattered, Joseph entered Madrid on 20 July;[40] and on 25 July he was crowned King of Spain.[41] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

A delighted Napoleon said, "If Marshal Bessiéres has been able to beat the Army of Galicia with few casualties and small effort, less than 8,000 troops being engaged, there can be no doubt that with 20,000 men General Dupont will be able to overthrow everybody he meets."[42] However, on 10 June, every French ship of the lineanchored at Cádiz was seized in the Capture of the Rosily Squadron.[43] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Much alarmed, Dupont was disturbed enough to curtail his march at Cordoba, and then on 16 June to fall back to Andujar.[44] Dupont, cowed by the mass hostility of the Andalusians, broke off his offensive and was defeated at the Battle of Bailén and surrendered his entire Army Corps toCastaños.

The catastrophe was total. With the loss of 24,000 troops, Napoleon's military machine in Spain collapsed. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Stunned by the defeat, on 1 August Joseph—who had no more than 23,000 troops in Madrid and believed that thousands of vengeful Spaniards were about to attack him—evacuated the capital for Old Castile, whilst ordering Verdier to abandon the siege of Zaragoza and Bessieres to retire from Leon; the entire French army sheltered behind the Ebro.[45] By this time, Gerona had resisted asecond siege. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Europe welcomed this first check to the hitherto unbeatable Imperial armies—a Bonaparte had been chased from his throne; tales of Spanish heroism inspired Austria and showed the force of national resistance. Bailén set in motion the rise of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon. According to Chandler, "This was an historic occasion; news of it spread like wildfire throughout Spain and then all Europe. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

It was the first time since 1801 that a sizable French force had laid down its arms, and the legend of French invincibility underwent a severe shaking. Everywhere anti-French elements drew fresh inspiration from the tidings. The Pope published an open denunciation of Napoleon; Prussian patriots were heartened; and, most of all, the Austrian war party began to secure the support of the Emperor Francis for a renewed challenge to the French Empire." Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The beginning of the United Kingdom's involvement in the Peninsular War marked a considerable shift of fortune in its struggle against Napoleon. From it would stem the UK's engagement in a prolonged campaign in Europe, after which the country could no longer be accused, in Sheridan's words, of doing no more than 'filching sugar islands'. To the UK, HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

which wanted to become a military power as well as a naval one, it seemed that the Spanish people had rejected Napoleon and all his works and the UK found itself on the side of freedom.[47] Despite opposition, the UK and Napoleon’s opponents had acquired a new moral legitimacy.[48]

Five days after having declared war on Napoleon, the Junta General of Asturias sent a delegation to London to request help, as did others from Galicia and Seville. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

While they did not specifically ask for troops, the dispatch of a British army was soon under consideration by the Portland administration. Three British Army officers, led by a lieutenant colonel, reachedGijón on 27 June 1808 to assess the state of affairs from a military viewpoint. Following the Spanish victory at Bailén, theSecretary of State for War and the Colonies, HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Viscount Castlereagh sent a second delegation, this time led by General Sir James Leith, who arrived in Gijón on 30 August 1808 with a view to seeing how the north of Spain could best be reinforced to prevent Napoleon sending in more troops through Irun, and isolating him in Madrid or Burgos. Leith would later join Baird's forces in November 1808.[49] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

There were fewer constraints than normal. The authorisation of embodied members of the militia to volunteer for service in the line offered a steady supply of fresh men; the need to provide against French invasion had been much reduced. Brent Spencer's division had been assembled at Cork, and brigades that had been about to raid the invasion port of Boulogne were available for immediate action.[50] HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

In August 1808, the British army—including the King's German Legion—landed in Portugal under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, who drove back Henri François Delaborde's forces at the Battle of Roliça on 17 August, as the Portuguese Observation Army of Bernardim Freire de Andrade shadowed Louis Henri Loison's division. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

On 21 August, Wellesley—who had turned to the mouth of the Maceira river to protect landing reinforcements—was attacked at Vimeiro Hill by Jean-Andoche Junot. The Battle of Vimeiro was the first occasion on which Napoleonic offensive tactics combining skirmishers, columns and supporting artillery fire failed against the British infantry line and Wellesley's defensive skills. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Considered too junior an officer to command the reinforced expedition to Portugal, Wellesley was replaced first by Sir Harry Burrard and then Sir Hew Dalrymple. Dalrymple granted Junot favourable armistice terms which allowed for his unmolested evacuation from Portugal by the Royal Navy in the controversial Convention of Sintra in August. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

In early October 1808, following the scandal in Britain over the Convention of Sintra and the recall of the generals Dalrymple, Burrard, and Wellesley, Sir John Moore took command of the 30,000 man British force in Portugal.[51] In addition, Sir David Baird, in command of an expedition of reinforcements out of Falmouth consisting of 150 transports carrying between 12,000 and 13,000 men, convoyed by HMS LouieToshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

 HMS Amelia and HMS Champion, entered Corunna Harbour on the 13 October.[52]

Meanwhile, the British had made a substantial contribution to the Spanish cause by helping to evacuate some 9,000 men of La Romana's Division of the North. The division, stationed in Denmark, had been sent to northern Europe in 1807 to assist the Grande Armée while Spain and France were still allies.[53] HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

However, on learning that Napoleon had placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne, La Romana and his officers, who included Joseph O'Donnell, secretly negotiated for the British Baltic fleet to help transport the Spanish division back to Spain. In August 1808, after seizing Danish ports and ships to make their way to a rendezvous with Admiral Richard Goodwin Keats' British squadron on Langeland island, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

all but three regiments which had been unable to escape, were transferred to Gothenburg, Sweden, before setting sail for Santander, where they arrived in October 1808.

Because of the crippling social and political tensions caused by the rebellion, the Spanish social fabric decayed, the patriots were divided on every question and their war effort suffered. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

With the fall of the monarchy, constitutional power devolved to local juntas, which interfered with the army and the business of war, undermined the tentative central government forming in Madrid, and proved almost as dangerous to each other as to the French. According to Chandler, "the particular interests of the provincial delegates made the pretense of centralised government a travesty."[55][56SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

] The British army in Portugal, itself immobilized by logistical problems and mired in administrative disputes, did not move.[57] Months of inaction passed at the front, the revolution having "crippled Patriot Spain at the very moment when decisive action could have changed the whole course of the war."[58] The French, all but masters of Spain in June, stood with their backs to the Pyrenees clutching at Navarre and Catalonia. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

By October 1808, French strength in Spain—including garrisons—was about 75,000 soldiers. They were facing 86,000 Spanish troops[51] with 35,000 British troops en route.[59]

No attack was forthcoming. The Supreme Central Junta grew out of the political confusion that followed the abdication of the House of Bourbon, leading to more confusion since there was no central government and most juntas did not recognise the presumptuous claim to represent the monarchy. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The Junta of Seville claimed authority over the overseas empire because of the province's historical role as the exclusive entrepôt of the empire. Realizing that unity was needed to coordinate efforts against the French and to deal with British aid, several Supreme Juntas—Murcia, Valencia, Seville, and Castile and León—called for the formation of a central junta. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

After negotiations between the juntas and the discredited Council of Castile—which supported Joseph I—a "Supreme Central and Governmental Junta of Spain and the Indies" met in Aranjuez on 25 September 1808, with the Conde de Floridablanca as its president.[60] Serving as surrogate for the absent king and royal government, it called on representatives from the Iberian provinces and the overseas possessions to meet in an "Extraordinary and GeneralCortes of the Spanish Nation";HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

so called because it would be the single legislative body for the whole empire and the body which would write a constitution for it. As agreed to in the negotiations, the Supreme Central Junta was composed of two representatives chosen by the juntas of the capitals of the peninsular kingdoms of the Spanish Monarchy. Early on, the Junta rejected the idea of establishing a regency, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

which would have meant the concentration of executive power in a small number of persons, and assumed that role itself claiming the style of "Majesty".

After the surrender of a French army corps at Bailén[61] and the loss of Portugal, Napoleon was convinced of the peril he faced in Spain. Disturbed by news of Sintra, he said, "I see that everybody has lost their head since the infamous capitulation of Bailén. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

I realise that I must go there myself to get the machine working again." [62] While the allies advanced slowly, conscription and arms from the far reaches of the French Empire brought 100,000 veterans of the Grande Armée into Spain, led in person by Napoleon and his marshals.[63] With his Armée d'Espagne of 278,670 men drawn up on the Ebro, facing 80,000 raw, disorganized Spanish troops, the Emperor announced to the Spanish deputies, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

"I am here with the soldiers who conquered at Austerlitz, at Jena, at Eylau. Who can withstand them? Not your wretched Spanish troops who do not know how to fight. I shall conquer Spain in two months and acquire the rights of a conqueror."[64] Napoleon led the French on a brilliant offensive involving a massive double envelopment of the Spanish lines.[65] The attack began in November 1808 and has been described as "an avalanche of fire and steel".[66] ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

In the west, a Spanish wing escaped when Lefebvre failed to encircle the Army of Galicia after a premature and indecisive attack at the Battle of Pancorbo; Blake withdrew his artillery to safety and the bloodied Spanish infantry followed. Lefebvre and Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin offered a careless chase that ended in humiliation at the Battle of Valmaseda, where their scattered troops were handled by La Romana's repatriated Spanish veterans and escaped to safety. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The campaign in the south, where Napoleon's main army overran the unprotected Spanish centre in a devastating attack near Burgos, ended quickly. The Spanish militias—untrained and unable to form infantry squares—scattered in the face of massed French cavalry, while the Spanish Royal Guard and Walloon Guards stood their ground in vain and were overcome by Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle and his sabreursToshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Marshal Jean Lannes with a powerful force smashed through the Spanish right wing at theBattle of Tudela on 23 November, routing Castaños and prompting a new inscription on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Blake's isolated army reversed direction on 17 November and dug in at the Battle of Espinosa. His lines repelled French attacks over a day and night of vicious fighting, before giving up the next day. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Blake again outmarched Marshal Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult and escaped with a rump army to Santander, but the Spanish front had been fragmented and the Imperial armies raced forward over undefended provinces. Napoleon sent 45,000 men south into the Sierra de Guadarrama, which shielded Madrid.

The mountains slowed Napoleon: at the Battle of Somosierra on 30 November 1808 his Polish and Guard cavalry squadrons charged up a narrow gorge through raking fire to overrun Benito de San Juan's artillery. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

San Juan's militias gave way before the relentless French infantry, while the Spanish royal artillerymen held their positions and fought to the last. French patrols reached Madrid on 1 December and entered the city in triumph on 4 December. Joseph Bonaparte was restored to his throne. San Juan retreated west to Talavera, where his mutinous conscripts shot him before dispersing. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The Junta was forced to abandon Madrid in November 1808, and resided in the Alcázar of Seville from 16 December 1808 until 23 January 1810; hence the appellation of "Junta of Seville"—not to be confused with the earlier provincial junta.[67]

In Catalonia, Napoleon's faltering army was reinforced in October 1808, ordering Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr with 17,000 men to the relief of Duhesme in Barcelona. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

The presence of the Royal Navy along the coasts of France and Spain slowed the French entry into eastern and southern Spain and drained their military resources in the area. Frigates commanded the strategic Gulf of Roses north of Barcelona close to the French border, and were involved in the Siege of Roses. Lord Thomas Cochrane held a cliff-top fortress against the French for a month, destroying it when the main citadel capitulated to a superior French force.[68] DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

The successful Siege of Roses opened the path south for Saint-Cyr, who bypassed Gerona and fell upon and destroyed part of Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu's Spanish army at the Battle of Cardadeu near Barcelona on 16 December. Five days later, Saint-Cyr defeated the Spaniards under Conde de Caldagues andTheodor von Reding, capturing 1,200 men at the Battle of Molins de Rey.HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

By November 1808, the British army led by Moore was advancing into Spain with orders to assist the Spanish armies' fight against Napoleon's forces.[69] Moore received desperate appeals from the British ambassador John Hookham Frere and the Junta Central to help the Patriot cause. However, Moore's forces were dispersed and his capacity to act remained limited. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

While the main army under Moore had advanced to Salamanca, by 28 November none of Baird's troops had passed Astorga to the north, while Sir John Hope was still 70 miles (110 km) to the east[70][71] with all Moore's cavalry and artillery.[72] The main army was joined by Hope's detachment on 3 December, when Moore received news that the Spanish forces had suffered several defeats. He considered that to avoid disaster he must give up and retreat back to Portugal.[73] ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Letters from both Moore and Berthier on 10 December 1808 indicate that both sides were aware that the allies were defeated and that the British were prepared to retreat. Moore wrote, "I had no time to lose to secure my retreat", while Berthier was quoted as writing, "...everything inclines us to think that they (the British) are in full retreat...".[74] Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Before retreating, Moore received intelligence[75] of Soult's 16,000-man corps' scattered and isolated position atCarrión[76] and that the French were unaware of the British army's position. On 15 December, he began to advance on the French near Madrid hoping to defeat Soult and divert Napoleon’s forces.[77] On 20 December, Moore joined forces with Baird, who was advancing from Corunna, and his strength grew to 23,500 infantry, 2,400 cavalry[78] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

and 60 guns[79] and he opened his attack with a successful raid by Lieutenant-General Paget's cavalry on the French picquets at Sahagún on 21 December.[80]Moore failed to follow-up against a surprised Soult, halting for two days and allowing Soult to concentrate his corps.[81] As soon as the orders for the advance had been dispatched, dramatic news arrived from the south that masses of French troops were debouching from the Sierra de Guadarrama into the plains of Old Castile. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Napoleon had discovered the British army's presence and was heading north to wipe it out. Fresh orders were sent out and the British forces turned around, heading for the coast.[82] Moore's intelligence regarding the enemy's positions and intentions, was mainly due to the guerrillas' capture of large numbers of French couriers.[83]

Even if the weather had been favourable, Moore was so far north that a French force coming from Madrid would not have been able to cut him off. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Napoleon's only chance was to catch his opponent unawares, but Moore was aware of this danger and retreated westwards as soon as he heard that Napoleon was advancing. Moore had requested that his sea transports should be sent from Lisbon to meet him at La Coruna. Vigorous action from Soult might have slowed Moore down enough to allow Napoleon's forces to get behind him, but Soult waited for reinforcements from Burgos and was slowed down by torrential rain.[84] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Although La Romana tried to cover Moore's retreat, he was defeated by Soult at the Battle of Mansilla. Moore's retreat was marked by a breakdown of discipline in many regiments and punctuated by stubborn rearguard actions, with Paget capturing Lefebvre-Desnouettes at Benavente, with Napoleon watching from a distance.[85] Another minor victory was the brief respite gained at the Battle of Cacabelos, HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

a minor battle at which the cavalry brigadier general Auguste-Marie-Francois Colbert was killed at long range.[86]

The British troops escaped to the sea after fending off a strong French attack at the Battle of Corunna, at which Moore was killed. Some 26,000 troops reached Britain, with 7,000 men lost over the course of the expedition.[87] With Moore dead, over a fifth of his army missing and several thousand more sick or wounded, the British intervention had ended in humiliation and disaster.Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The retreat looked like a rout; although the army had saved all its guns it had lost much of its baggage and had been forced to destroy almost all the horses that had reached La Coruna. Hundreds more men were lost in winter storms in the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. Immense quantities of material, including 4,000 barrels of powder blown up on 13 January, HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

had been lost and the French had occupied the most populated region in Spain, including the important towns of Lugo and La Coruna.[88] Worse than the physical losses suffered by the Allies, immense damage had been done to Anglo-Spanish relations. Misled by journalists who had claimed that Moore's army was actually much larger than it was and had represented Sahagun as a victory, the Spanish were shocked by the British retreat. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

This was worsened by the angry accounts of the Marques de la Romana and other observers, who accused Moore of betrayal and bad faith.[89]

Meanwhile, Zaragoza, already scarred from Lefebvre's bombardments that summer, was under a second siege that had commenced on 20 December. Despite Lannes and Moncey having committed two army corps of 45,000 men and considerable material, the Spanish citizen-soldiers were able to hold out for two months. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Palafox's second defence brought the city enduring national and international fame.[90] Gates wrote that the siege "was a demonstration the French army was never to forget and ... it was to inspire Spaniards to maintain replica struggles that have few parallels in the history of war."[91] The Spaniards fought with determination, endured disease and starvation, entrenching themselves in convents and burning their own homes.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The garrison of 44,000 left 8,000 survivors—1,500 of them ill—[87] but the Grande Armée did not advance beyond the Ebro's shore. On 20 February 1809, the French left behind burnt-out ruins filled with 64,000 corpses, of which 10,000 were French.[90][92] After just over two months in Spain, Napoleon returned to France, giving back the command to his marshals. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

After the Battle of Corunna and the British evacuation of Spain, Soult turned his attention to the invasion of Portugal. In the grand strategy Napoleon drafted in late 1808, he envisaged a three-pronged offensive into Portugal, consisting of Soult's corps from the north, Lapisse's 9,000 men from the east and Claude Victor's forces from the south.[93] With peace restored to the northern half of the peninsula, Andalucia and the Levante would be invaded and the conflict ended. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

Napoleon thought there was no reason why the war should continue past the summer, and such was the disarray in the Patriot camp in Spain and Portugal that it is hard to question his confidence altogether.[94] The Junta took over direction of the Spanish war effort and established war taxes, organized an Army of La Mancha, and signed a treaty of alliance with the UK on 14 January 1809. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The Junta agreed that the overseas kingdoms would send one representative. As it became apparent that the war would last longer than thought, the Junta again took up the issue of convening a Cortes in April 1809, issuing a royal decree to the effect on 22 May. A committee presided over by Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos organised the legal and logistical efforts to carry this out.[67] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Officially, Soult had 40,000 men at his disposal, but after the rigorous campaign in Galicia thousands of his troops were sick and he could muster 20,000 men. He experienced difficulties in equipping all of these, and a chronic shortage of horses and transport vehicles compounded his problems, but Soult persevered. He captured the Spanish naval base at Ferrol on 26 January 1809, capturing eight ships of the lines, HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

three frigates and several thousand prisoners. Of more immediate value were enormous equipment stockpiles, including 20,000 Brown Bess muskets, which enabled Soult to repair his army's material deficiencies and to proceed with the projected invasion of Portugal.[95]

In March 1809, Soult initiated the second invasion of Portugal through the northern corridor. Soult's forces faced 12,000 men represented by the line regiments, militia and ordenança of the province of Tras-os-Montes. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Commanded by Francisco da Silveira, these forces quickly retreated amid riot and disorder, and within two days of crossing the border Soult had taken the fortress of Chaves.[96] Swinging west, the French were confronted by 25,000 unprepared and undisciplined Portuguese. While waiting for Soult's army to arrive, the Portuguese militia lynched their own commander, Bernardim Freire de Andrade, who wanted to retreat. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

On 20 March, 16,000 of Soult's professional troops of the II Corps advanced and killed 4,000 Portuguese troops in the Battle of Braga. A similar mismatch occurred when the French reached Porto. In the First Battle of Porto on 29 March, the Portuguese defenders panicked and thousands drowned trying to flee across the DouroRiver. It was a French victory; IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

with fewer than 500 casualties Soult had secured Portugal's second city with its valuable dockyards and arsenals intact. The Portuguese sustained appalling losses, losing 200 guns and between 6,000 and 20,000 men dead, wounded or captured.[97] The French booty included immense stocks of food and munitions, and 30 shiploads of wine.[98] Soult occupied northern Portugal but halted at Porto to refit his army before advancing on Lisbon.[99] Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

By May 1809, the French armies were victorious almost everywhere in Spain. Victor advanced on Badajoz, defeating Cuesta at Medellín.[99] The whole Spanish army fled south across the plain in disorder and the French cavalry pursued them, inflicting appalling casualties. Lasalle claimed that the 'disgusting Spaniards' lost 14,000 men at Medellín. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

By the time a thunderstorm ended to the carnage, at least 8,000 Spanish were dead and another 2,000 taken prisoner. Victor's soldiers carried off nine standards and twenty guns. Estimates of the French losses range between 300 and 2,000 men.[100]

On 27 March, Spanish forces defeated the French at Vigo, and the French troops at Marín and Pontevedra were forced to retreat to Santiago de Compostela for fear of being outflanked. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

The Spanish force that besieged Vigo was based around a division of new troops called the División del Miño. Hall wrote:"On reaching the camp ... we found the patriot army exercising by divisions ... When we approached a general halt was ordered, and those who had muskets presented them as well they might, while those who had none went through the motions well with their pikes or staves formed out of scythes and reaping hooks ... HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Under our auspices the peasantry continued to flock in from the adjacent country ... we could supply a twentieth part of these patriots with arms ... And that small fraction not being supplied with officers, or disciplined, or organised in any way, it was like children playing at soldiers."[101]

Spanish forces took the initiative and most of the cities in the province of Pontevedra were recaptured. In February 1809,Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

Reding led a reconstituted army against the French right wing and, after vigorous marching and counter-marching, took a stand at the Battle of Valls and was ridden down and wounded by French cavalry.

Wellesley returned to Portugal in April 1809 to command the Anglo-Portuguese forces. He strengthened the British army with Portuguese regiments trained byGeneral Beresford and helped them adapt to the British campaign style. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

These new forces turned Soult out of Portugal at the Battle of Grijó (10–11 May) and theSecond Battle of Porto (12 May), and the other northern cities were recaptured by General Silveira. With Portugal in revolt, Soult seemed doomed, but he escaped without his heavy equipment by marching through the mountains to Orense.[99] On 7 June, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

the French army of Marshal Michel Ney was defeated at the Battle of Puente Sanpayo by Spanish forces under the command of Colonel Pablo Morillo, and Ney and his forces retreated to Lugo on 9 June while being harassed by Spanish guerrillas. In Lugo, Ney's troops joined up with those of Soult and these forces withdrew from Galicia in July 1809. This marked the final evacuation of Galicia by the French army and the creation of a new front. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

With Portugal secured, Wellesley advanced into Spain to unite with General Cuesta's forces. The combined allied force prepared for an assault on Victor's I Corps at Talavera on 23 July. Cuesta was reluctant to agree, but was persuaded to advance on the following day.[102] This delay gave the French time to withdraw. Cuesta sent his army after Victor, and was faced by the entire French army in New Castile, IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

Victor having been reinforced by the Toledo and Madrid garrisons. The Spanish retreated, while two British divisions advanced to cover their retreat.[103]

On 27 July at the Battle of Talavera, the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times, but at a heavy cost to the British force. Wellesley, ignoring Cuesta's urgings to proceed to a general attack, decided on a gradual retreat, leaving Talavera on 4 August. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

Wellesley was concerned about the imminent arrival of Soult with his army and was afraid of being cut off from his base in Portugal. He sent the Light Brigade to hold the bridge over the Tagus River at Almaraz and, on 8 August, Soult's army faced the Spanish army at Puente del Arzobispo. With communications and supply from Lisbon secured, Wellesley considered rejoining Cuesta, .com/acer-travelmate-8104wlmi-cpu-fan.html">ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

but considerable friction had developed between the British and the Spanish; after Talevera, the Spanish had abandoned the British wounded to the French. Also, actions taken by the Spanish forces resulted in Wellesley's strategic position being compromised. The Spanish had promised to provide supplies for the British if they advanced into Spain, but this was not done.DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The ensuing lack of supplies and the threat of French reinforcement in the spring led to the British decision to retreat into Portugal. By making this choice Wellesley was supported by the government perception about Talavera. About himself, London was all gratitude, and rewarded him with the peerage of Viscount Wellington. But considerations pointed to a careful course of action. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The peace party accused the general of being outgeneraled, while insinuations were being made that Talavera was fought for no objective beyond getting an aristocratic title.[104] A string of embarrassments appeared about the excess of patronage where the principal exponents were the Duke of York and Lord Castlereagh. There was also much dissatisfaction with Wellington, as he was now known: HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

considered an authoritarian, he also made himself more distrusted by writing about the conduct of theCabinet and what he perceived as not enough support from them.[105]

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The Peninsular War[a] (1807–1814) was a military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, theUnited Kingdom and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its ally until then. HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.

The Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española(Spanish War of Independence), which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincialjuntas. In 1810, a reconstituted national government, the Cádiz Cortes—effectively a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz but could not raise effective armies because it was besieged by 70,000 French troops. British and Portuguese forces eventually secured Portugal, HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army and to provide whatever supplies they could get to the Spanish, while Spanish armies and guerrillas tied down vast numbers of Napoleon's troops. These combined regular and irregular allied forces prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces by restricting French control of territory and the war continued through years of stalemate.[3] HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The years of fighting in Spain was a heavy burden on France's Grande Armée. While the French were victorious in battle, their communications and supplies were severely tested and their units were frequently isolated, harassed, or overwhelmed by partisans. The Spanish armies were repeatedly beaten and driven to the peripheries but time and again they would regroup and hound the French. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had unwittingly provoked total war, to call the conflict the Spanish Ulcer.[4][5]

The British force under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. Allied to the British, the demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of General William Carr Beresford,[6] SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

who had been appointed commander-in-chief of the Portuguese forces by the exiled Portuguese royal family, and fought as part of a combined Anglo-Portuguese army under Wellesley. In 1812, as Napoleon embarked upon his disastrous invasion of Russia, a combined allied army under Wellesley pushed into Spain and took Madrid. Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult led the exhausted and demoralized French forces in a fighting withdrawal across the Pyrenees and into France during the winter of 1813-1814. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

War and revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, later a cornerstone of European liberalism.[7] The burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions led by officers trained in the Peninsular War persisted in Iberia until 1850. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion, revolution, and restoration led to the independence of most of Spain's American colonies and the independence of Brazil from Portugal.

Subdued by its defeat in the Pyrenees War, Spain allied with France. In 1806, while in Berlin, Napoleon Bonaparte declared the Continental System, a blockade forbidding British imports into continental Europe.[8] FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Neutral Portugal tried in vain to avoid Napoleon's ultimatum—since 1373 it had had a treaty of alliance with England, which became an alliance with theUnited Kingdom. After the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, which cemented French dominance over central and eastern Europe, Napoleon decided to capture the Iberian ports.[9][10] The decision went against Napoleon's own advice from earlier in his career; SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

he had once remarked that the conquest of Spain would be "too hard a nut to crack".[11] On 27 October 1807, Spain's prime minister Manuel de Godoy signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau with France, agreeing that after Spain and France had defeated Portugal, it would be split into three kingdoms; the new Kingdom of Northern Lusitania, the Algarve (expanded to include Alentejo), and a rump Kingdom of Portugal.[12][13] HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

In November 1807, after the refusal of the Prince Regent, John VI of Portugal, to join the Continental System, Napoleon sent an army into Spain under General Jean-Andoche Junot with the task of invading Portugal.

Godoy initially requested Portugal's alliance against the invading French armies, but later secretly agreed with France that in return for Spain's cooperation, it would receive Portugal's territories. Spain's main ambition was the seizure of the Portuguese fleet, and sent two divisions to help French troops occupy Portugal. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Junot initiated the Invasion of Portugal on 19 November 1807. The Portuguese army was positioned to defend the ports and the coast against a French attack, and Lisbon was captured with no military opposition on 1 December. On 29 November, the escape of Maria I of Portugal and Prince Regent John, together with the administration and the Court—around 10,000 people and 9,000 sailors aboard 23 Portuguese warships and 31 merchant ships—was a setback HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

for Napoleon which enabled the Prince Regent to continue to rule over his overseas possessions, including Brazil. The Portuguese royal family would remain in Rio de Janeirofor the next 13 years.

In 1807, Spain was experiencing political corruption; Charles IV was considered to be incompetent to run the country. Napoleon, now Emperor of the French, decided to take advantage of the dissensions in the Spanish court. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Feigning sympathy with their situation, he listened to Charles and his son Ferdinand, inviting them to Paris. Ferdinand responded favourably to Napoleon's advice and asked for the hand of a Bonaparte princess. Napoleon played the part of an ally and coaxed the two Spaniards into believing he had friendly and peaceful intentions. In the absence of Charles and Ferdinand, Napoleon took the opportunity to invade Spain.[14] FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

All over Spain, townsfolk and peasants, who had been forced to bury family members in new municipal cemeteries, stole their bodies back at night and tried to restore them to the protection of the old resting-places. In Madrid, the growing Francophilia of the court was met by the majos—shopkeepers, artisans, taverners and labourers who dressed in traditional style and took pleasure in picking fights with petimetres (fops).[15] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Under the pretext of reinforcing the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, French imperial troops entered Spain, where they were greeted with enthusiasm by the populace despite growing diplomatic unease. In February 1808, Napoleon turned on his ally and ordered French commanders to seize key Spanish fortresses.[16] Barcelona was taken on 29 February 1808 when a French column disguised as a convoy of wounded soldiers persuaded the authorities to open the city's gates.[1Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

] Many commanders were not particularly concerned about the fate of the ruling regime, nor were they in any position to fight.

The Spanish Royal Army of 100,000 men found itself paralysed; it was under-equipped; for instance its 26 cavalry regiments of 15,000 men possessed only 9,000 horses.[18] It was frequently leaderless, confused by the turmoil in Madrid, and was scattered from Portugal to the Balearic Islands. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

15,000 of its finest troops—Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana's Division of the North—had been lent to Napoleon in 1807 and remained stationed in Denmark under French command. Only the peripheries contained armies of any strength; Joaquín Blake's Army of Galicia, and that of Andalusia, under Francisco Javier Castaños. The French were thus able to seize much of northeastern Spain by coups de main and any hope of turning back the invasion ended. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

In March 1808, riots and a popular revolt at the winter palace in Aranjuez forced King Charles IV to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand VII on March 19.[19] The rebellion seemed popular; inspired from outside the military, it was in effect a coup d'état by the Royal Guard. Challenged by this call to arms, Godoy and his royal patrons found they had few defenders. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

The officer corps was disgruntled by the failure of the favourite's reforms to make any difference to its situation and his orders to resist the French were already being disobeyed. Much of the upper nobility and the Catholic Church were hostile. Reformist circles had lost faith in Godoy's political credentials and the common people were in open revolt. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Spain's political leaders had lost faith in Godoy, and Ferdinand was hailed as a saviour when he entered Madrid on 24 March. Alcalá Galiano wrote, "The cheers were loud, repeated and delivered with ... eyes full of tears of pleasure, kerchiefs were waved ... from balconies with hands trembling with pleasure ... and not for a moment did the passion... or the thunderous noise of the joyful crowd diminish." Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Ever since the Mutiny of Aranjuez, Spain had been astir. Attacks on godoyistas were frequent while the failure of the French to recognise Ferdinand caused much discontent and gave rise to the suspicion that they intended to bring back Godoy.[21] By the beginning of May 1808, rumours were spreading that the Junta de Gobierno—the council of regency left behind by Ferdinand—was being pressurised into sending the last members of the royal family to Bayonne.[22] HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

On 2 May, the citizens of Madrid rebelled against the French occupation, killing 150 French soldiers before the uprising was put down by Joachim Murat's elite Imperial Guard and Mamluk cavalry, which crashed into the city and trampled the rioters.[23] The next day, as immortalized by Francisco Goya in his painting The Third of May 1808, the French army shot hundreds of Madrid's citizens in retaliation.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Similar reprisals occurred in other cities and continued for days, strengthening the resistance. Bloody, spontaneous fighting known as guerrilla (literally "little war") erupted in much of Spain. Locally organised rebel groups were unaware of the resistance being prepared elsewhere in Spain. According to Esdaile, the partisans were as committed to driving the ancien regime out of Spain as they were to fighting foreign armies; Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

the Patriots had no scruples about killing officials sceptical of their revolutionary program.[24]

When Ferdinand departed for Bayonne he had left a structure of government headed by the Junta de Gobierno. Presided over by Ferdinand's uncle, the infante Don Antonio, it comprised the ministers appointed by Ferdinand to head the ministries of Foreign Affairs, War, Finance, SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

Navy, and Grace and Justice; which since the reign of Carlos III had constituted the heart of the Spanish administration. Coexistent with the departments were the Councils of Castile, the Indies, War, the Admiralty, the Treasury, the Military Orders, and the Inquisition. Spain was divided into 32 provinces—each headed by a Treasury official known as an intendente, and 14 military regions—each headed by a viceroy, captain general or commandant general.[25] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

New heads were found for all the ministries; the Duque de Infantado, an old enemy of Godoy, was appointed president of the Council of Castile and Gregorio García de la Cuesta was made Captain General of Old Castile. Despite a few officials having been driven from their posts by popular fury, the overall system was unchanged.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Although the Spanish government, including the Council of Castile, had accepted Napoleon's decision to grant the Spanish crown to his brother Joseph, the Spanish population rejected Napoleon's plans and expressed their opposition through the local municipal and provincial governments. Following traditional Spanish political theories, which held that the monarchy was a contract between the monarch and the people, local governments responded to the crisis by transforming themselves into ad hoc governmental juntas. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The first wave of uprisings that took place without any knowledge of revolt elsewhere were in Cartagena and Valencia on 23 May, Zaragoza and Murcia on 24 May, and the province of Asturias, which cast out its French governor on 25 May, and "declared war on Napoleon at the height of his greatness."[27] Within weeks, all the Spanish provinces followed suit.[28] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

In Cartagena, red cockades—the traditional badge of the Bourbon monarchy—were handed out to the people, and the garrison supported the rising, whereupon the captain general and the military governor were arrested. A provincial junta was established under a prominent admiral. In Zaragoza, where José Palafox, abrigadier of the elite Royal Guards, had been hiding outside the city, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

the conspirators' agents steered the crowds into calling for him to lead them. The captain general was imprisoned and Palafox was installed as de facto governor of Zaragoza and captain general of Aragon.[29] He wasted no time in declaring war on Napoleon and, with his elder brother, commanded a series of attacks against the French, and which led to the First Siege of Zaragoza (15 June—14 August 1808). HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Most major towns now had emergency administrations—two exceptions were Cádiz, where the town council held sway, and Zaragoza, which was in the sole charge of Palafox—but the resultant juntas refused the bourgeois revolution of Marxist legend.[30]

The deteriorating strategic situation forced France to increase its military commitments; in February 1808, Napoleon had boasted that 12,000 men could conquer Spain;[31HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

] by 1 June, over 65,000 troops were rushing into the country to control the crisis.[32] The main French army of 80,000 held a narrow strip of central Spain from Pamplona and San Sebastián in the north to Madrid and Toledo in the south. The French in Madrid sheltered behind an additional 30,000 troops under Marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Jean-Andoche Junot's corps were stranded in Portugal, cut off by 300 miles (480 km) of hostile territory, but within days of the outbreak of revolt, French columns in Old Castile, New Castile, Aragón and Catalonia were searching for the insurgent forces.

Napoleon had expected popular risings, but believed that the Spanish army would either remain neutral or put itself under his command.[33] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

From Murat's optimistic reports, Napoleon believed the uprisings would die down and Spain would become peaceful if his brother retained the throne while French flying columns seized and pacified Spain's cities. He also had no respect for the "insolent" Spanish militias which opposed him.[34] The first Army of Spain out-numbered and had inferior troops.[35] To this end, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont de l'Étang led 24,430 men south toward Seville and Cádiz; Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bessières moved into Aragón and Old Castile with 25,000 men, aiming to capture Santander and Zaragoza. Moncey marched toward Valencia with 29,350 men and Guillaume Philibert Duhesme marshalled 12,710 troops in Catalonia and moved against Girona.[36] Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

However, at the two successive Battles of the Bruch, in the mountains some 50 kilometres (31 mi) outside Barcelona,Schwarz's 4,000 troops, marching from the city towards Zaragoza, were forced back following the heavy casualties inflicted on them by local Catalan militia, the Miquelets (also known as somatenes). ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Duhesmes Franco-Italian division of almost 6,000 troops failed to storm the city at the Gerona, and leaving Chabran's brigade to hold Mataro, was forced to return to Barcelona.[37] In Aragon, Charles, comte Lefebvre-Desnouettes—the commander of the 6,000-strong French force bearing down onZaragoza—decided to rush the city.[38] French calls for an honourable capitulation met with the reply, "War to the knife."[39] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Resorting to urban warfare, Palafox defied the French for three months. Moncey's push toward the coast ended in defeat outside the walls of Valencia, where 1,000 French recruits died trying to storm the city. Managing to defeat Spanish counterattacks, Moncey began a long, harried retreat.[34]

In the north, the French found a measure of success. When Bessières's march on Santander was checked by partisan attacks in July, the French turned back and encountered Blake and Cuesta with their combined army. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In the Battle of Medina del Rio Seco, the Spanish generals, at Cuesta's insistence, hurried toward the vulnerable French supply lines at Valladolid. The two armies deployed on 14 July, but Cuesta had left a gap between his troops and Blake's which the French used to their advantage and with Cuesta defeated, Old Castile returned to French control. Blake escaped, but the Spaniards lost at least 1,000 dead or wounded, twelve hundred prisoners and thirteen guns. French losses had been minimal—perhaps 400 men.[40] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Bessières's victory salvaged the French army's strategic position in northern Spain. The road to Madrid lay open to Joseph, and the defeats at Gerona, Valencia, and Zaragoza were forgotten. All that remained was to reinforce Dupont and allow him to force his way south through Andalusia. With the Spanish threat scattered, Joseph entered Madrid on 20 July;[40] and on 25 July he was crowned King of Spain.[41] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

A delighted Napoleon said, "If Marshal Bessiéres has been able to beat the Army of Galicia with few casualties and small effort, less than 8,000 troops being engaged, there can be no doubt that with 20,000 men General Dupont will be able to overthrow everybody he meets."[42] However, on 10 June, every French ship of the lineanchored at Cádiz was seized in the Capture of the Rosily Squadron.[43] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Much alarmed, Dupont was disturbed enough to curtail his march at Cordoba, and then on 16 June to fall back to Andujar.[44] Dupont, cowed by the mass hostility of the Andalusians, broke off his offensive and was defeated at the Battle of Bailén and surrendered his entire Army Corps toCastaños.

The catastrophe was total. With the loss of 24,000 troops, Napoleon's military machine in Spain collapsed. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Stunned by the defeat, on 1 August Joseph—who had no more than 23,000 troops in Madrid and believed that thousands of vengeful Spaniards were about to attack him—evacuated the capital for Old Castile, whilst ordering Verdier to abandon the siege of Zaragoza and Bessieres to retire from Leon; the entire French army sheltered behind the Ebro.[45] By this time, Gerona had resisted asecond siege. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Europe welcomed this first check to the hitherto unbeatable Imperial armies—a Bonaparte had been chased from his throne; tales of Spanish heroism inspired Austria and showed the force of national resistance. Bailén set in motion the rise of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon. According to Chandler, "This was an historic occasion; news of it spread like wildfire throughout Spain and then all Europe. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

It was the first time since 1801 that a sizable French force had laid down its arms, and the legend of French invincibility underwent a severe shaking. Everywhere anti-French elements drew fresh inspiration from the tidings. The Pope published an open denunciation of Napoleon; Prussian patriots were heartened; and, most of all, the Austrian war party began to secure the support of the Emperor Francis for a renewed challenge to the French Empire." Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The beginning of the United Kingdom's involvement in the Peninsular War marked a considerable shift of fortune in its struggle against Napoleon. From it would stem the UK's engagement in a prolonged campaign in Europe, after which the country could no longer be accused, in Sheridan's words, of doing no more than 'filching sugar islands'. To the UK, HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

which wanted to become a military power as well as a naval one, it seemed that the Spanish people had rejected Napoleon and all his works and the UK found itself on the side of freedom.[47] Despite opposition, the UK and Napoleon’s opponents had acquired a new moral legitimacy.[48]

Five days after having declared war on Napoleon, the Junta General of Asturias sent a delegation to London to request help, as did others from Galicia and Seville. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

While they did not specifically ask for troops, the dispatch of a British army was soon under consideration by the Portland administration. Three British Army officers, led by a lieutenant colonel, reachedGijón on 27 June 1808 to assess the state of affairs from a military viewpoint. Following the Spanish victory at Bailén, theSecretary of State for War and the Colonies, HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Viscount Castlereagh sent a second delegation, this time led by General Sir James Leith, who arrived in Gijón on 30 August 1808 with a view to seeing how the north of Spain could best be reinforced to prevent Napoleon sending in more troops through Irun, and isolating him in Madrid or Burgos. Leith would later join Baird's forces in November 1808.[49] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

There were fewer constraints than normal. The authorisation of embodied members of the militia to volunteer for service in the line offered a steady supply of fresh men; the need to provide against French invasion had been much reduced. Brent Spencer's division had been assembled at Cork, and brigades that had been about to raid the invasion port of Boulogne were available for immediate action.[50] HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

In August 1808, the British army—including the King's German Legion—landed in Portugal under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, who drove back Henri François Delaborde's forces at the Battle of Roliça on 17 August, as the Portuguese Observation Army of Bernardim Freire de Andrade shadowed Louis Henri Loison's division. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

On 21 August, Wellesley—who had turned to the mouth of the Maceira river to protect landing reinforcements—was attacked at Vimeiro Hill by Jean-Andoche Junot. The Battle of Vimeiro was the first occasion on which Napoleonic offensive tactics combining skirmishers, columns and supporting artillery fire failed against the British infantry line and Wellesley's defensive skills. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Considered too junior an officer to command the reinforced expedition to Portugal, Wellesley was replaced first by Sir Harry Burrard and then Sir Hew Dalrymple. Dalrymple granted Junot favourable armistice terms which allowed for his unmolested evacuation from Portugal by the Royal Navy in the controversial Convention of Sintra in August. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

In early October 1808, following the scandal in Britain over the Convention of Sintra and the recall of the generals Dalrymple, Burrard, and Wellesley, Sir John Moore took command of the 30,000 man British force in Portugal.[51] In addition, Sir David Baird, in command of an expedition of reinforcements out of Falmouth consisting of 150 transports carrying between 12,000 and 13,000 men, convoyed by HMS LouieToshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

 HMS Amelia and HMS Champion, entered Corunna Harbour on the 13 October.[52]

Meanwhile, the British had made a substantial contribution to the Spanish cause by helping to evacuate some 9,000 men of La Romana's Division of the North. The division, stationed in Denmark, had been sent to northern Europe in 1807 to assist the Grande Armée while Spain and France were still allies.[53] HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

However, on learning that Napoleon had placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne, La Romana and his officers, who included Joseph O'Donnell, secretly negotiated for the British Baltic fleet to help transport the Spanish division back to Spain. In August 1808, after seizing Danish ports and ships to make their way to a rendezvous with Admiral Richard Goodwin Keats' British squadron on Langeland island, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

all but three regiments which had been unable to escape, were transferred to Gothenburg, Sweden, before setting sail for Santander, where they arrived in October 1808.

Because of the crippling social and political tensions caused by the rebellion, the Spanish social fabric decayed, the patriots were divided on every question and their war effort suffered. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

With the fall of the monarchy, constitutional power devolved to local juntas, which interfered with the army and the business of war, undermined the tentative central government forming in Madrid, and proved almost as dangerous to each other as to the French. According to Chandler, "the particular interests of the provincial delegates made the pretense of centralised government a travesty."[55][56SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

] The British army in Portugal, itself immobilized by logistical problems and mired in administrative disputes, did not move.[57] Months of inaction passed at the front, the revolution having "crippled Patriot Spain at the very moment when decisive action could have changed the whole course of the war."[58] The French, all but masters of Spain in June, stood with their backs to the Pyrenees clutching at Navarre and Catalonia. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

By October 1808, French strength in Spain—including garrisons—was about 75,000 soldiers. They were facing 86,000 Spanish troops[51] with 35,000 British troops en route.[59]

No attack was forthcoming. The Supreme Central Junta grew out of the political confusion that followed the abdication of the House of Bourbon, leading to more confusion since there was no central government and most juntas did not recognise the presumptuous claim to represent the monarchy. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The Junta of Seville claimed authority over the overseas empire because of the province's historical role as the exclusive entrepôt of the empire. Realizing that unity was needed to coordinate efforts against the French and to deal with British aid, several Supreme Juntas—Murcia, Valencia, Seville, and Castile and León—called for the formation of a central junta. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

After negotiations between the juntas and the discredited Council of Castile—which supported Joseph I—a "Supreme Central and Governmental Junta of Spain and the Indies" met in Aranjuez on 25 September 1808, with the Conde de Floridablanca as its president.[60] Serving as surrogate for the absent king and royal government, it called on representatives from the Iberian provinces and the overseas possessions to meet in an "Extraordinary and GeneralCortes of the Spanish Nation";HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

so called because it would be the single legislative body for the whole empire and the body which would write a constitution for it. As agreed to in the negotiations, the Supreme Central Junta was composed of two representatives chosen by the juntas of the capitals of the peninsular kingdoms of the Spanish Monarchy. Early on, the Junta rejected the idea of establishing a regency, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

which would have meant the concentration of executive power in a small number of persons, and assumed that role itself claiming the style of "Majesty".

After the surrender of a French army corps at Bailén[61] and the loss of Portugal, Napoleon was convinced of the peril he faced in Spain. Disturbed by news of Sintra, he said, "I see that everybody has lost their head since the infamous capitulation of Bailén. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

I realise that I must go there myself to get the machine working again." [62] While the allies advanced slowly, conscription and arms from the far reaches of the French Empire brought 100,000 veterans of the Grande Armée into Spain, led in person by Napoleon and his marshals.[63] With his Armée d'Espagne of 278,670 men drawn up on the Ebro, facing 80,000 raw, disorganized Spanish troops, the Emperor announced to the Spanish deputies, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

"I am here with the soldiers who conquered at Austerlitz, at Jena, at Eylau. Who can withstand them? Not your wretched Spanish troops who do not know how to fight. I shall conquer Spain in two months and acquire the rights of a conqueror."[64] Napoleon led the French on a brilliant offensive involving a massive double envelopment of the Spanish lines.[65] The attack began in November 1808 and has been described as "an avalanche of fire and steel".[66] ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

In the west, a Spanish wing escaped when Lefebvre failed to encircle the Army of Galicia after a premature and indecisive attack at the Battle of Pancorbo; Blake withdrew his artillery to safety and the bloodied Spanish infantry followed. Lefebvre and Marshal Claude Victor-Perrin offered a careless chase that ended in humiliation at the Battle of Valmaseda, where their scattered troops were handled by La Romana's repatriated Spanish veterans and escaped to safety. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The campaign in the south, where Napoleon's main army overran the unprotected Spanish centre in a devastating attack near Burgos, ended quickly. The Spanish militias—untrained and unable to form infantry squares—scattered in the face of massed French cavalry, while the Spanish Royal Guard and Walloon Guards stood their ground in vain and were overcome by Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle and his sabreursToshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Marshal Jean Lannes with a powerful force smashed through the Spanish right wing at theBattle of Tudela on 23 November, routing Castaños and prompting a new inscription on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Blake's isolated army reversed direction on 17 November and dug in at the Battle of Espinosa. His lines repelled French attacks over a day and night of vicious fighting, before giving up the next day. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Blake again outmarched Marshal Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult and escaped with a rump army to Santander, but the Spanish front had been fragmented and the Imperial armies raced forward over undefended provinces. Napoleon sent 45,000 men south into the Sierra de Guadarrama, which shielded Madrid.

The mountains slowed Napoleon: at the Battle of Somosierra on 30 November 1808 his Polish and Guard cavalry squadrons charged up a narrow gorge through raking fire to overrun Benito de San Juan's artillery. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

San Juan's militias gave way before the relentless French infantry, while the Spanish royal artillerymen held their positions and fought to the last. French patrols reached Madrid on 1 December and entered the city in triumph on 4 December. Joseph Bonaparte was restored to his throne. San Juan retreated west to Talavera, where his mutinous conscripts shot him before dispersing. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The Junta was forced to abandon Madrid in November 1808, and resided in the Alcázar of Seville from 16 December 1808 until 23 January 1810; hence the appellation of "Junta of Seville"—not to be confused with the earlier provincial junta.[67]

In Catalonia, Napoleon's faltering army was reinforced in October 1808, ordering Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr with 17,000 men to the relief of Duhesme in Barcelona. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

The presence of the Royal Navy along the coasts of France and Spain slowed the French entry into eastern and southern Spain and drained their military resources in the area. Frigates commanded the strategic Gulf of Roses north of Barcelona close to the French border, and were involved in the Siege of Roses. Lord Thomas Cochrane held a cliff-top fortress against the French for a month, destroying it when the main citadel capitulated to a superior French force.[68] DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

The successful Siege of Roses opened the path south for Saint-Cyr, who bypassed Gerona and fell upon and destroyed part of Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu's Spanish army at the Battle of Cardadeu near Barcelona on 16 December. Five days later, Saint-Cyr defeated the Spaniards under Conde de Caldagues andTheodor von Reding, capturing 1,200 men at the Battle of Molins de Rey.HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

By November 1808, the British army led by Moore was advancing into Spain with orders to assist the Spanish armies' fight against Napoleon's forces.[69] Moore received desperate appeals from the British ambassador John Hookham Frere and the Junta Central to help the Patriot cause. However, Moore's forces were dispersed and his capacity to act remained limited. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

While the main army under Moore had advanced to Salamanca, by 28 November none of Baird's troops had passed Astorga to the north, while Sir John Hope was still 70 miles (110 km) to the east[70][71] with all Moore's cavalry and artillery.[72] The main army was joined by Hope's detachment on 3 December, when Moore received news that the Spanish forces had suffered several defeats. He considered that to avoid disaster he must give up and retreat back to Portugal.[73] ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Letters from both Moore and Berthier on 10 December 1808 indicate that both sides were aware that the allies were defeated and that the British were prepared to retreat. Moore wrote, "I had no time to lose to secure my retreat", while Berthier was quoted as writing, "...everything inclines us to think that they (the British) are in full retreat...".[74] Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Before retreating, Moore received intelligence[75] of Soult's 16,000-man corps' scattered and isolated position atCarrión[76] and that the French were unaware of the British army's position. On 15 December, he began to advance on the French near Madrid hoping to defeat Soult and divert Napoleon’s forces.[77] On 20 December, Moore joined forces with Baird, who was advancing from Corunna, and his strength grew to 23,500 infantry, 2,400 cavalry[78] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

and 60 guns[79] and he opened his attack with a successful raid by Lieutenant-General Paget's cavalry on the French picquets at Sahagún on 21 December.[80]Moore failed to follow-up against a surprised Soult, halting for two days and allowing Soult to concentrate his corps.[81] As soon as the orders for the advance had been dispatched, dramatic news arrived from the south that masses of French troops were debouching from the Sierra de Guadarrama into the plains of Old Castile. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Napoleon had discovered the British army's presence and was heading north to wipe it out. Fresh orders were sent out and the British forces turned around, heading for the coast.[82] Moore's intelligence regarding the enemy's positions and intentions, was mainly due to the guerrillas' capture of large numbers of French couriers.[83]

Even if the weather had been favourable, Moore was so far north that a French force coming from Madrid would not have been able to cut him off. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Napoleon's only chance was to catch his opponent unawares, but Moore was aware of this danger and retreated westwards as soon as he heard that Napoleon was advancing. Moore had requested that his sea transports should be sent from Lisbon to meet him at La Coruna. Vigorous action from Soult might have slowed Moore down enough to allow Napoleon's forces to get behind him, but Soult waited for reinforcements from Burgos and was slowed down by torrential rain.[84] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Although La Romana tried to cover Moore's retreat, he was defeated by Soult at the Battle of Mansilla. Moore's retreat was marked by a breakdown of discipline in many regiments and punctuated by stubborn rearguard actions, with Paget capturing Lefebvre-Desnouettes at Benavente, with Napoleon watching from a distance.[85] Another minor victory was the brief respite gained at the Battle of Cacabelos, HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

a minor battle at which the cavalry brigadier general Auguste-Marie-Francois Colbert was killed at long range.[86]

The British troops escaped to the sea after fending off a strong French attack at the Battle of Corunna, at which Moore was killed. Some 26,000 troops reached Britain, with 7,000 men lost over the course of the expedition.[87] With Moore dead, over a fifth of his army missing and several thousand more sick or wounded, the British intervention had ended in humiliation and disaster.Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The retreat looked like a rout; although the army had saved all its guns it had lost much of its baggage and had been forced to destroy almost all the horses that had reached La Coruna. Hundreds more men were lost in winter storms in the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. Immense quantities of material, including 4,000 barrels of powder blown up on 13 January, HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

had been lost and the French had occupied the most populated region in Spain, including the important towns of Lugo and La Coruna.[88] Worse than the physical losses suffered by the Allies, immense damage had been done to Anglo-Spanish relations. Misled by journalists who had claimed that Moore's army was actually much larger than it was and had represented Sahagun as a victory, the Spanish were shocked by the British retreat. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

This was worsened by the angry accounts of the Marques de la Romana and other observers, who accused Moore of betrayal and bad faith.[89]

Meanwhile, Zaragoza, already scarred from Lefebvre's bombardments that summer, was under a second siege that had commenced on 20 December. Despite Lannes and Moncey having committed two army corps of 45,000 men and considerable material, the Spanish citizen-soldiers were able to hold out for two months. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Palafox's second defence brought the city enduring national and international fame.[90] Gates wrote that the siege "was a demonstration the French army was never to forget and ... it was to inspire Spaniards to maintain replica struggles that have few parallels in the history of war."[91] The Spaniards fought with determination, endured disease and starvation, entrenching themselves in convents and burning their own homes.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The garrison of 44,000 left 8,000 survivors—1,500 of them ill—[87] but the Grande Armée did not advance beyond the Ebro's shore. On 20 February 1809, the French left behind burnt-out ruins filled with 64,000 corpses, of which 10,000 were French.[90][92] After just over two months in Spain, Napoleon returned to France, giving back the command to his marshals. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

After the Battle of Corunna and the British evacuation of Spain, Soult turned his attention to the invasion of Portugal. In the grand strategy Napoleon drafted in late 1808, he envisaged a three-pronged offensive into Portugal, consisting of Soult's corps from the north, Lapisse's 9,000 men from the east and Claude Victor's forces from the south.[93] With peace restored to the northern half of the peninsula, Andalucia and the Levante would be invaded and the conflict ended. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

Napoleon thought there was no reason why the war should continue past the summer, and such was the disarray in the Patriot camp in Spain and Portugal that it is hard to question his confidence altogether.[94] The Junta took over direction of the Spanish war effort and established war taxes, organized an Army of La Mancha, and signed a treaty of alliance with the UK on 14 January 1809. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The Junta agreed that the overseas kingdoms would send one representative. As it became apparent that the war would last longer than thought, the Junta again took up the issue of convening a Cortes in April 1809, issuing a royal decree to the effect on 22 May. A committee presided over by Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos organised the legal and logistical efforts to carry this out.[67] Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

Officially, Soult had 40,000 men at his disposal, but after the rigorous campaign in Galicia thousands of his troops were sick and he could muster 20,000 men. He experienced difficulties in equipping all of these, and a chronic shortage of horses and transport vehicles compounded his problems, but Soult persevered. He captured the Spanish naval base at Ferrol on 26 January 1809, capturing eight ships of the lines, HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

three frigates and several thousand prisoners. Of more immediate value were enormous equipment stockpiles, including 20,000 Brown Bess muskets, which enabled Soult to repair his army's material deficiencies and to proceed with the projected invasion of Portugal.[95]

In March 1809, Soult initiated the second invasion of Portugal through the northern corridor. Soult's forces faced 12,000 men represented by the line regiments, militia and ordenança of the province of Tras-os-Montes. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Commanded by Francisco da Silveira, these forces quickly retreated amid riot and disorder, and within two days of crossing the border Soult had taken the fortress of Chaves.[96] Swinging west, the French were confronted by 25,000 unprepared and undisciplined Portuguese. While waiting for Soult's army to arrive, the Portuguese militia lynched their own commander, Bernardim Freire de Andrade, who wanted to retreat. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

On 20 March, 16,000 of Soult's professional troops of the II Corps advanced and killed 4,000 Portuguese troops in the Battle of Braga. A similar mismatch occurred when the French reached Porto. In the First Battle of Porto on 29 March, the Portuguese defenders panicked and thousands drowned trying to flee across the DouroRiver. It was a French victory; IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

with fewer than 500 casualties Soult had secured Portugal's second city with its valuable dockyards and arsenals intact. The Portuguese sustained appalling losses, losing 200 guns and between 6,000 and 20,000 men dead, wounded or captured.[97] The French booty included immense stocks of food and munitions, and 30 shiploads of wine.[98] Soult occupied northern Portugal but halted at Porto to refit his army before advancing on Lisbon.[99] Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

By May 1809, the French armies were victorious almost everywhere in Spain. Victor advanced on Badajoz, defeating Cuesta at Medellín.[99] The whole Spanish army fled south across the plain in disorder and the French cavalry pursued them, inflicting appalling casualties. Lasalle claimed that the 'disgusting Spaniards' lost 14,000 men at Medellín. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

By the time a thunderstorm ended to the carnage, at least 8,000 Spanish were dead and another 2,000 taken prisoner. Victor's soldiers carried off nine standards and twenty guns. Estimates of the French losses range between 300 and 2,000 men.[100]

On 27 March, Spanish forces defeated the French at Vigo, and the French troops at Marín and Pontevedra were forced to retreat to Santiago de Compostela for fear of being outflanked. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

The Spanish force that besieged Vigo was based around a division of new troops called the División del Miño. Hall wrote:"On reaching the camp ... we found the patriot army exercising by divisions ... When we approached a general halt was ordered, and those who had muskets presented them as well they might, while those who had none went through the motions well with their pikes or staves formed out of scythes and reaping hooks ... HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Under our auspices the peasantry continued to flock in from the adjacent country ... we could supply a twentieth part of these patriots with arms ... And that small fraction not being supplied with officers, or disciplined, or organised in any way, it was like children playing at soldiers."[101]

Spanish forces took the initiative and most of the cities in the province of Pontevedra were recaptured. In February 1809,Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

Reding led a reconstituted army against the French right wing and, after vigorous marching and counter-marching, took a stand at the Battle of Valls and was ridden down and wounded by French cavalry.

Wellesley returned to Portugal in April 1809 to command the Anglo-Portuguese forces. He strengthened the British army with Portuguese regiments trained byGeneral Beresford and helped them adapt to the British campaign style. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

These new forces turned Soult out of Portugal at the Battle of Grijó (10–11 May) and theSecond Battle of Porto (12 May), and the other northern cities were recaptured by General Silveira. With Portugal in revolt, Soult seemed doomed, but he escaped without his heavy equipment by marching through the mountains to Orense.[99] On 7 June, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

the French army of Marshal Michel Ney was defeated at the Battle of Puente Sanpayo by Spanish forces under the command of Colonel Pablo Morillo, and Ney and his forces retreated to Lugo on 9 June while being harassed by Spanish guerrillas. In Lugo, Ney's troops joined up with those of Soult and these forces withdrew from Galicia in July 1809. This marked the final evacuation of Galicia by the French army and the creation of a new front. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

With Portugal secured, Wellesley advanced into Spain to unite with General Cuesta's forces. The combined allied force prepared for an assault on Victor's I Corps at Talavera on 23 July. Cuesta was reluctant to agree, but was persuaded to advance on the following day.[102] This delay gave the French time to withdraw. Cuesta sent his army after Victor, and was faced by the entire French army in New Castile, IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

Victor having been reinforced by the Toledo and Madrid garrisons. The Spanish retreated, while two British divisions advanced to cover their retreat.[103]

On 27 July at the Battle of Talavera, the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times, but at a heavy cost to the British force. Wellesley, ignoring Cuesta's urgings to proceed to a general attack, decided on a gradual retreat, leaving Talavera on 4 August. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

Wellesley was concerned about the imminent arrival of Soult with his army and was afraid of being cut off from his base in Portugal. He sent the Light Brigade to hold the bridge over the Tagus River at Almaraz and, on 8 August, Soult's army faced the Spanish army at Puente del Arzobispo. With communications and supply from Lisbon secured, Wellesley considered rejoining Cuesta, .com/acer-travelmate-8104wlmi-cpu-fan.html">ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

but considerable friction had developed between the British and the Spanish; after Talevera, the Spanish had abandoned the British wounded to the French. Also, actions taken by the Spanish forces resulted in Wellesley's strategic position being compromised. The Spanish had promised to provide supplies for the British if they advanced into Spain, but this was not done.DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The ensuing lack of supplies and the threat of French reinforcement in the spring led to the British decision to retreat into Portugal. By making this choice Wellesley was supported by the government perception about Talavera. About himself, London was all gratitude, and rewarded him with the peerage of Viscount Wellington. But considerations pointed to a careful course of action. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The peace party accused the general of being outgeneraled, while insinuations were being made that Talavera was fought for no objective beyond getting an aristocratic title.[104] A string of embarrassments appeared about the excess of patronage where the principal exponents were the Duke of York and Lord Castlereagh. There was also much dissatisfaction with Wellington, as he was now known: HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

considered an authoritarian, he also made himself more distrusted by writing about the conduct of theCabinet and what he perceived as not enough support from them.[105]

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By the end of November 1809, Patriot Spain was in poor shape. In Catalonia, Gerona was in its last moments, Spain's two largest armies had been defeated and the British army was preparing to leave the Guadiana. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Disgusted by what he regarded as the Junta's stupidity, Wellington was convinced that a French march on Lisbon was imminent. Intelligence reports of large masses of fresh enemy troops crossing from France were received.[118] Scattered along the length of the Sierra Morena, the defenders had no way of stopping the French insurgence 19 January 1810. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

60,000 French troops—the corps of Victor, Mortier and Sebastiani together with other formations—advanced southwards to assault the Spanish positions. Overwhelmed at every point, Aréizaga's men fled eastwards and southwards, leaving town after town to fall into the hands of the enemy. The result was revolution. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Abandoning last-minute efforts to turn Seville into another Zaragossa, on 23 January the Junta Central decided to flee to the safety of Cádiz,[119]dissolved itself on 29 January 1810 and set up a five-person Regency Council of Spain and the Indies, charged with convening the Cortes.[67] Soult cleared all of southern Spain except Cádiz, which he left Victor to blockade.[99] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

The system of juntas was replaced by a regency and the Cádiz Cortes, which established a permanent government under the Constitution of 1812.

Joseph contented himself with working within the apparatus extant under the old regime, while placing responsibility for local government in many provinces in the hands of royal commissioners. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

After much preparation and debate, on 2 July 1809 Spain was divided into 38 new provinces, each headed by an Intendent appointed by King Joseph, and on 17 April 1810 these provinces were converted into French-style prefectures and sub-prefectures. Named after their chief towns rather than after their dominant geographical features, HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

the new territorial divisions, which were almost equal in size, bore little relation to any historic units.[120] The decision to retain the historic names of many old provinces in this fashion was a significant concession.[120]

The Proclamation of the Conde de Montarco on 25 March 1812 described the government in Cadiz as an "infamous and illegitimate government ... APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

composed,of the very scum of Spain, dependent on the caprice of an ignorant mob, dominated by British influence, and possessed of no more territory than the prison in which it resides ... that has deceived the foolish Spaniards who submit to its tyranny by promising them an illusory liberty".[121] Under threat of punishment by sequestration of property, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

escape to the Patriot zone was not a practical possibility except for officials with a secure position in government service, notables with property in the Patriot zone, or career-oriented young men with no family responsibilities. Thus the French obtained a measure of acquiescence among the propertied classes. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

While refusing to take service with the French, and in instances serving as spies or couriers, they accepted the presence of the occupying forces and on occasion struck up friendships with them. Francisco de Goya, who remained in Madrid throughout the French occupation, painted Joseph's picture and documented the war a series of 82 prints called Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War). Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

For many imperial officers, life could be comfortable. The German Heinrich von Brandt—an officer in one of Napoleon’s Polish regiments stationed in Aragón after the fall of Zaragoza—said that the French "were not as hated as has since been alleged".[122]

Amongst the liberal, republican and radical segments of the Spanish and Portuguese populations there was much support for a potential French invasion, SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

despite Napoleon's having by 1807 abandoned many liberal and republican ideals. Before the invasion, the term afrancesado ("turned French") was used to denote those who supported the Enlightenment, secular ideals, and the French Revolution.[123] Napoleon relied on support from these afrancesados both in the conduct of the war and administration of the country. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

But while Napoleon—through his brother Joseph—fulfilled his promises to remove all feudal and clerical privileges, most Spanish liberals soon came to oppose the occupation because of the violence and brutality it brought.[123] Marxians wrote that there are a positive identification on the part of the people with the Napoleonic revolution, SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

but this is probably impossible to substantiate by the reasons for collaboration being practical rather than ideological.

The Peninsular War is regarded as one of the first people's wars, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. It is from this conflict that the English language borrowed the word.[125] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The Spanish War of Independence was one of the most successful partisan wars in history. This guerrilla warfare was costly for both sides; the guerrillas troubled the French troops, but they frightened their own countrymen with forced conscription and looting. Many of the partisans were either fleeing the law or trying to get rich. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

Later in the war the authorities tried to make the guerrillas reliable, and many of them formed regular army units such as Espoz y Mina's "Cazadores de Navarra".

The idea of turning the guerrillas into an armed force had both positive and negative effects. Uniforms and strict military discipline stopped men from deserting; the more disciplined the unit, the easier it was for French troops to catch them when they sprang an ambush. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Some partisan leaders joined up with the military authorities to avoid criminal charges, to retain their status as officers in the Spanish army, or to receive weaponry, clothes, and food. The guerrilla style of fighting was the Spanish military's single most effective tactic. Most organized attempts by regular Spanish forces to take on the French ended in defeat. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

Once a battle was lost and the soldiers reverted to their guerrilla roles, they tied down large numbers of French troops over a wide area with a much lower expenditure of men, energy, and supplies. According to Glover, "[i]t was these obscure triumphs—a platoon shot down in an ambush, a courier and his message captured as he galloped across the plain—which made possible the orthodox victories of Wellington and his Anglo-Portuguese army and the liberation of Portugal and Spain".[126] Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

Mass resistance by the people of Spain prefigured the total wars of the 20th century and inspired parallel struggles by the Russians and Prussians. Tsar Alexander, when threatened with war, told the French ambassador, "If the Emperor Napoleon decides to make war, it is possible, probable, that we shall be defeated ... But ... the Spaniards have been defeated; and they are not beaten, nor have they surrendered."[127] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In Spain and Portugal, the populace were inured to hardship, were suspicious of foreigners and were versed in ways of life—such as banditry and smuggling—that were characterised by violence and involved constant skirmishes with the security forces. The conviction of General Bigarre became the foundation of the phenomenon of the "customs guards and smugglers who covered the whole of the country under the Prince of the Peace", ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Captain Blaze saying that, as the Spaniards were "accustomed to extol the exploits of the robbers and smugglers", the chieftains "have been in readiness to become chiefs of the guerrillas".[128][129] In the same way, it has been claimed that enlightened absolutism made less progress in Spain and Portugal than elsewhere, Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

with the result that the reforms of the new régime grated on them far more than would have been the case. Tantamount to suggesting that resistance was the product of backwardness—or as the French would have put it, of savagery, ignorance and want of civilisation—this latter argument could be supplemented by arguing that Spain was Catholic and therefore given over ipso facto to obscurantism, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

superstition and counter-revolution. Common French complaints as they grappled with occupying such an independent and spirited Spanish citizenry was that Spain was at least a century behind the rest of Europe in knowledge and the progress of social habits. Spain's insularity and the severity of its religious institutions had prevented the Spaniards from taking part in the disputes and controversies which had agitated and enlightened Europe.[130] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

Hatred of the French and devotion to God, King and Fatherland were not the only the reason to join the Partisans.[131] The French imposed restrictions on movement and on many traditional aspects of street life, so opportunities to find alternative sources of income were limited—industry was at a standstill and many señores were unable to pay their existing retainers and domestic servants, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

and could not take on new staff. Hunger and despair reigned on all sides.[132] Because the military record was so dismal, many Spanish politicians and publicists took exaggerated comfort from the activities of the guerrillas and elevated them to the status of national heroes, while the issue was exploited by factions determined to argue that the struggle against Napoleon was a people’s war. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Cadiz was built at the end of a sand spit five miles long jutting out from a triangular piece of land known as the Isla de León, reached by crossing a narrow causeway-cum-bridge known as the Puente de Suazo that crossed a wide strip of creeks and salt marshes known as the Rio Sancti Petri. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

The possible site for a siege battery—a peninsula that half-closed the mouth of the harbour protected by the Isla—was held by troops ensconced at its seaward end in the fort ofMatagorda. Batteries and redoubts commanded the entire length of the Sancti Petri, the Puente de Suazo had been blown up, the isthmus was studded with defences and Cadiz was protected by massive walls.ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

Every boat for miles around had been scuttled, burnt or taken to the Isla de León, while the harbour was full of British and Spanish warships. The Spaniards had fitted out a large number of gunboats and launches that could patrol the Sancti Petri. Alburquerque’s army and the Voluntarios Distinguidos having been reinforced by 3,000 soldiers who had fled Seville and reached the sea at Ayamonte, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

and a strong Anglo-Portuguese brigade commanded by General William Stewart. Shaken by their experiences, the Spaniards had abandoned their earlier scruples about a British garrison.[134]

These defences thwarted the French; an effort to persuade the garrison to surrender was rejected. Victor's French troops camped at the shoreline and tried to bombard the city into surrender. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Joseph wrote to Napoleon appealing for naval assistance, but this was never forthcoming; the emperor did not want to risk a second Trafalgar. Large numbers of troops and guns were therefore pushed forward to attack Matagorda and the garrison was evacuated on 22 April.[135] With Matagorda in their hands, the French could harass the harbour and isthmus and shell Cadiz itself. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

Large mortars were constructed for this purpose at Seville, and the city was thereafter bombarded. The bombardment was ineffectual and the confidence of the gaditanos grew and persuaded them that they were heroes. Alcalá Galiano wrote, "From December 1810 bombs ... fired by the enemy batteries had started to fall inside Cádiz. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

However, these shots ... came very infrequently, and then only a few at a time ... in order to carry so far, the projectiles had had to be increased in weight, and were consequently mostly made up of lead without much space for powder. As a result, they caused little damage ... and in the end little notice was taken of them other than to make them the subject of humour. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

In theatre and streets, then, a popular couplet was sung 'From the bombs fired by the popinjays, the girls of Cádiz make hair curlers.'"[136] With food abundant and falling in price, the bombardment was hopeless despite both hurricane and epidemic—a storm destroyed many ships in the spring of 1810 and the city was ravaged by yellow fever.[137] Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

Once Cádiz was secured, attention turned to the political situation. It was dominated by three factors: the instructions that had been left by the Junta Suprema Central y Gubernativa del Reino concerning the convocation of the Cortes Generales, the installation of a new Consejo de Regencia de España e Indias; and the emergence of Cádiz itself as a player in the political process.[137] Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

On 28 October 1809, the Junta Central announced that after a three-month electoral process beginning on the first day of the new year, the cortes would open on 1 March. On 1 January 1810 instructions had appeared that the suffrage was to be extended to all male householders over 25. Voting was to be public and the electors were to choose parish representatives who would attend district-level assemblies. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

These would choose deputies to send to the provincial meetings that would be the bodies from which the members of the cortes would emerge. There would be one deputy to every 50,000 inhabitants. The provincial juntas and the towns and cities that had been represented in the cortes of the antiguo régimen would elect one deputy each. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Whether the new assembly should have a single chamber or whether the clergy and nobility should have their own organs of representation were unclear.[138] From 1 February 1810—the date when it first met—the implementation of these decrees had been in the hands of the new council of regency selected by the Junta Central. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

Composed of General Castaños— the former minister and president of the Junta of Seville, Francisco Saavedra, Admiral Antonio Escaño,Miguel de Lardizábal—an official of the Ministry of State who had represented his native Mexico in the Junta Central, and the Bishop of Orense—who was in Galicia and did not appear in Cádiz until 29 May. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

This was a conservative body which in theory enjoyed absolute power. The leading reformer Argilelles said, "Its authority was as absolute and arbitrary as that of the governments of the past. There was no remedy against the use of power. The freedoms of speech and of publication ... were as chained up as they were before the insurrection.[139] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Junta agreed that the viceroyalties of the overseas territories; New Spain, Peru, New Kingdom of Granada, and Buenos Aires, and the independent captaincies general of the island of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Chile, Province of Venezuela, and Philippines would send one representative. This scheme was criticized in America for providing unequal representation to the overseas territories. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

Several important and large cities had no direct representation in the Supreme Central Junta. In particular Quito and Charcas, which saw themselves as the capitals of kingdoms and resented being subsumed in the larger "kingdom" of Peru. This unrest led to the establishment of juntas in these cities in 1809, which were quashed by the authorities within the year. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

 (See Luz de América and Bolivian War of Independence.) Throughout early 1809 the governments of the capitals of the viceroyalties and captaincies general elected representatives to the Junta, but none arrived in time to serve on it.

The French took the Spanish fortified town of Ciudad Rodrigo after a siege lasting from 26 April to 9 July 1810. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Fearing a new French assault on Portugal, Wellesley created a powerful defensive position near Lisbon, to which he could fall back if necessary.[140] To protect the city, he ordered the construction of the Lines of Torres Vedras—three strong lines of forts, blockhouses, redoubts, and ravelins with fortified artillery positions—under the supervision of Sir Richard Fletcher. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The various parts of the lines communicated with each other by semaphore, allowing immediate response to any threat. The work began in the autumn of 1809 and the first line was finished one year later. To further hamper the enemy, the areas in front of the lines were subjected to a scorched earth policy: they were denuded of food, forage and shelter. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

200,000 inhabitants of neighbouring districts were relocated inside the lines. Though not without its problems, Wellington exploited the facts that the French could conquer Portugal only by conquering Lisbon, and that they could in practice reach Lisbon only from the north. He exploited Lisbon's geographical situation and the harshness of the Portuguese countryside. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

In consequence, despite serious worries about his army, Wellesley was confident. He wrote to Lord Liverpool on 14 November 1809:

From all I have learned of the state of the enemy’s force at present in the Peninsula, I am of opinion that unless the Spanish armies should meet with misfortune, the enemy could not make an attack upon Portugal; COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

and [that] if events in Spain should enable the enemy to make such an attack, the force at present in Portugal is able to defend that country. If in consequence of the peace in Germany the enemy’s army in the Peninsula should be reinforced, it is obvious that the enemy will acquire the means of attacking Portugal... IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

in this case I conceive that till Spain shall have been conquered... the enemy will find it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain possession of Portugal.[141]

Until these changes occurred the Portuguese administration was free to resist British influence, Beresford's position being rendered tolerable by the firm support of the Minister of War, Miguel de Pereira Forjaz.[142] HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

Wellesley held him to be the ablest man in Portugal.[143]

The French re-invaded Portugal with an army of around 65,000, led by Marshal Masséna, and forced Wellesley back through Almeida to Busaco.[99] The first significant clash in Portugal was at the Battle of the Côa, where the French drove back Robert Crauford's outnumbered Light Division. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Masséna moved to attack the held British position on the heights of Bussaco—a 10-mile (16 km)-long ridge—resulting in the Battle of Buçaco on 27 September. Suffering heavy casualties, the French failed to dislodge the Anglo-Portuguese army. Masséna was now cut off from Spain by the militia and the ordenança, tied to one of the worst roads in the peninsula, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

surrounded by deserted towns and villages, and running short of food. Large cavalry patrols were soon riding out to examine the countryside, and within a matter of hours discovered an unguarded track leading northwards around the Allied line.[144] Trant’s militia had been sent to hold this road, but Wellesley did not believe they could do so. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

By doing the unexpected, Masséna had wrong-footed Wellington, and frustrated his plan to turn back the invasion before it reached Lisbon.[145] The next day, Masséna turned Wellington's flank, and the latter thereupon retired, devastating the countryside as he went into a fortified position called the "Lines of Torres Vedras".[99] Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

By 10 October 1810, the British light division and cavalry patrols remained outside the "Lines".[146] Wellesley manned the fortifications with "secondary troops"—25,000 Portuguese militia, 8,000 Spaniards and 2,500 British marines and artillerymen—keeping his main field army of British and Portuguese regulars dispersed to meet a French assault on any point of the Lines.[147]Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Masséna's Army of Portugal concentrated around Sobral in preparation to attack. After a fierce skirmish on 14 October in which the strength of the Lines became apparent, the French dug themselves in rather than launch a full-scale assault.[95] Surprised by the French army's resilience in the desert-like conditions of Portugal, Wellington wrote to Lord Liverpool on 21 December 1810:Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

It is astonishing that the enemy have been able to remain in this country so long; and it is an extraordinary instance of what a French army can do. It is a fact that they brought no provisions with them, and they have not received a letter since they entered Portugal. With all our money and having in our favour the good inclinations of the country, Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

I assure you that I could not maintain one division in the district in which they have maintained not less than 60,000 men and 20,000 animals for more than two months.[148]

In late October, after holding his starving army before Lisbon for a month, Masséna fell back to a position between Santarém and Rio Maior, [149]where Wellesley choose not to attack him. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

In March, with supplies exhausted, Masséna managed a skillful retreat on Salamanca, with Ney again displaying a savage talent for rear-guard fighting.[99] Following Masséna's withdrawal, Wellesley moved the 2nd Division under Lieutenant General Hill, along with two Portuguese brigades and an attachment of Dragoons, across the Tagus to protect the plains of Alentejo—both from Masséna and a possible attack from Andalusia by the French Army of the South.[150] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

The British suffered a setback at about the same time in the Battle of Fuengirola. On 15 October, a much smaller Polish garrison held off British troops under Lord Blayney, who was taken captive and held by the French until 1814.

During 1811, Victor's force was diminished because of requests for reinforcement from Soult to aid his siege of Badajoz.[151]SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

This brought the French numbers down to between 20,000 and 15,000 and encouraged the defenders of Cádiz to attempt a breakout,[152] in conjunction with the arrival of an Anglo-Spanish relief army of around 16,000 troops under the overall command of Spanish General Manuel La Peña, with the British contingent being led by Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Graham.SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Marching towards Cádiz on February 28, this force met two French divisions under Victor at Barrosa. Indecisive,[152] the Battle of Barrosa on 5 March was part of an unsuccessful manoeuvre to break the siege of Cádiz, but the cowardice of La Peña made it a fruitless success and Victor soon renewed the blockade.[99] Soult came from the south to threaten Extremadura. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

He captured the fortress town of Badajoz before returning to Andalusia with most of his army. This timid surrender contrasted with the resistance mounted at Girona and Zaragoza. Badadoz's garrison numbered 8,000 effectives, had a month's ammunition and food, and was expecting a relief column under Beresford. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

The city's fall crowned a campaign in which, with 20,000 men, Soult had seized two fortress, taken 16,000 prisoners and defeated the Spanish army in Extremadura. Soult was relieved at the operation's speedy conclusion, for three pieces of disturbing information had reached him on 8 March and his presence was required elsewhere. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

Wellesley's confidence and moral authority had been much boosted by Torres Vedras, the spring of 1811 found him intending to move over to the offensive, for which policy he had received de facto authorisation from London, where talks of major reductions in the size of the army employed in Portugal had been replaced by promises of major reinforcements. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Supply difficulties, sickness among the troops and want of siege artillery meant that in the short term no great strokes of strategy could be envisaged, but it was hoped that Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz might be all recaptured, opening the way for lightning strikes on Salamanca or Seville.[154] HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

In March 1811 in Cadiz, Henry Wellesley was tricked by serviles eager to engineer British discontent with the Regency into putting forward a plan favoured by both himself and his eldest brother; the elder Wellesley would be given command of the Spanish army and British officers posts in its ranks in exchange for the UK granting the enormous loan which the Spaniards saw as the way out of their penury. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

This was impractical—gaditano opinion was hostile, while Arthur Wellesley's enthusiasm failed to win over his Cabinet colleagues. A further suggestion that the provinces bordering on Portugal should be placed under British authority was also rejected. With the French ensconced in Almeida, Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the problems these measures were designed to combat—a repetition of the troubles of the Talavera campaign—were academic.[155] COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

An Anglo-Portuguese army led by the British Marshal William Beresford and a Spanish army led by the Spanish generals Joaquín Blake and Francisco Castaños, attempted to retake Badajoz by laying siege to the French garrison Soult had left behind. Soult regathered his army and marched to relieve the siege. Beresford lifted the siege and his army intercepted the marching French.Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

Part of Wellington's army had besieged Badajoz until Soult forced it to retire after the Battle of Albuera. Soult outmaneuvered Beresford but could not win the battle, writing later that he had never seen "so desperate and bloody a conflict" and commenting on the steadfastness of the British troops: "There is no beating these troops ... HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

 I had turned their right, pierced their centre and everywhere victory was mine—but they did not know how to run!"[156] He retired his army to Seville.

The allies, reinforced by fresh British troops in early 1811, began an offensive. In April, Arthur Wellesley besieged Almeida. Massena advanced to its relief, attacking Wellesley at Fuentes de Oñoro (3–5 May). HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

The French claimed victory because they won the passage at Poco Velho, cleared the wood, turned the British right flank, obliged the cavalry to retire, and forced Wellesley to relinquish three miles of ground. The British claimed victory because they took the village of Fuentes and their object (covering the blockade of Almeida) was attained. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

The French retired without being attacked. The innate toughness of Wellesley's troops and Bessières's failure to support Masséna assisted the Allied effort. Bessières led the cavalry of the Imperial Guard and refused to obey Masséna's orders. After this battle, the Almeida garrison escaped through the British lines in a night march.[99] SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

An infuriated Wellesley wrote, "I have never been so much distressed by any military event as by the escape of a man of them."[157] Napier wrote, "In the battle of Fuentes Onoro, more errors than skill were observable on both sides, and the train of accidents did not stop there. The prize contended for was to present another example of the uncertainty of war."[158HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

]Masséna was forced to withdraw, having lost a total of 25,000 men in Portugal, and was replaced by Auguste Marmont. Wellesley joined Beresford and renewed the siege of Badajoz. Marmont joined Soult and Wellesley retired.[99]

The greatest Spanish coup at this time was the work of the Catalans. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Aided by three young clerks employed by the garrison, on the night of 9–10 April the former cleric, Francisco Rovira, let himself into the fortress of Figueras at the head of 2,000 men. Because it commanded the main road from Barcelona to the frontier, the French would not accept its loss and after confused fighting in which Rovira and his men received ineffectual support from troops of the First Army brought up by its latest commander, HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

the Conde de Campoverde, the fortress was blockaded. Thinking that relief was unlikely, Marshal Macdonald, the commander of the French Army of Catalonia, eschewed formal siege operations in favour of starving the defenders into surrender. Defended by irregulars, the fortress held out much longer than expected, but on 17 August, with no food remaining it was forced to capitulate after a desperate attempt at a break-out was foiled. Macdonald wrote, HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

"The unevenness of the ground caused the head of the columns to waver and made their weapons jingle, and this attracted the attention of our advanced outposts... We awaited their approach, and as soon as they opened the attack we threw hand grenades amongst them... The Spaniards lost a large number of killed, wounded and... prisoners; on our side no one had a scratch. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Next day the enemy ran up the white flag... I accorded them the honours of war. The garrison laid down their arms and remained prisoners; out of respect for their bravery the officers retained their swords."[159]

The fighting had not prevented the French from seizing more ground. The French next attacked the vital city of Tarragona. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The Spaniards had been able to maintain a small, regular army in southern and central Catalonia because Tarragona was a port, a fortress, and the last region whose resources remained intact as far as the Patriot cause was concerned. The emperor had deemed that it should be taken. Tasked with this was the Army of Aragón under its commander, General Suchet, who was given a third of the Army of Catalonia to ensure that his operations were not marred by friction with Macdonald.[160] Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

Wellesley soon appeared before Ciudad Rodrigo. In September, Marmont repelled him and re-provisioned the fortress.[99] Sorties continued to be made out of Cádiz from April to August 1811,[161] and British naval gunboats destroyed French positions at St. Mary's.[162] An attempt by Victor to crush the small Anglo-Spanish garrison at Tarifaover the winter of 1811-1812 was frustrated by torrential rains and an obstinate defence, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

marking an end to French operations against the city's outer works. The war now fell into a temporary lull, with the superior French unable to find an advantage and coming under increasing pressure from Spanish guerrillas. The French had over 350,000 soldiers in L'Armée de l'Espagne, but over 200,000 were deployed to protect the French lines of supply, rather than as substantial fighting units. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Wellesley renewed the allied advance into Spain in early 1812, besieging and capturing the border fortress towns of Ciudad Rodrigo on 19 January and Badajoz on 6 April after an assault. The allied army took Salamanca on 17 June, as Marshal Marmont approached. The two forces met on 22 July, when Wellesley soundly defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

during which Marmont was wounded.The emperor wants me to take the offensive ... but his Majesty does not realize that the smallest movement in these parts expends quantities of resources and of horses ... To make a requisition on the poorest village we have to send a detachment of 200 men and, to be able to live, we have to scatter over distances. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

After the allied victory at Salamanca on 22 July 1812, King Joseph Bonaparte abandoned Madrid on 11 August.[164] Because Suchet had a secure base at Valencia, Joseph and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan retreated there. Soult, realising he would soon be cut off from his supplies, ordered a retreat from Cádiz set for August 24; HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

the French were forced to end the two-and-a-half year long siege.[4] After a long artillery barrage, the French placed together the muzzles of over 600 cannons to render unusable to the Spanish and British. Although the cannons were useless, the Allied forces captured 30 gunboats and a large quantity of stores.[165] HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

The French were forced to abandon Andalusia for fear of being cut off by the allied armies.[166] In August, Wellesley entered Madrid, destroying a famous ceramic factory in the city, and a wool factory and Roman bridge at Alcantara.[99] Marshals Suchet and Soult joined Joseph and Jourdan at Valencia. Spanish armies defeated the French garrisons at Astorga and Guadalajara. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

As the French regrouped, the allies advanced towards Burgos. Between September 19 and October 21 Wellesley besieged Burgos but failed to capture it. Together, Joseph and the three marshals planned to recapture Madrid and drive Wellesley from central Spain. The French counteroffensive caused Wellesley to lift the Siege of Burgos and retreat to Portugal in the autumn of 1812,[167] SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

pursued by the French and losing several thousand men.[99] Napier wrote that about 1,000 allied troops were killed, wounded and missing in action, and that Hill lost 400 between the Tagus and the Tormes, and another 100 in the defence of Alba de Tormes. 300 were killed and wounded at the Huebra where many stragglers died in woodland, and 3,520 allied prisoners were taken to Salamanca up to 20 November. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

Napier estimated that the double retreat cost the allies around 9,000, including the loss in the siege, and said French writers said 10,000 were taken between the Tormes and the Agueda. But Joseph's dispatches said the whole loss was 12,000, including the garrison of Chinchilla, whereas English authors mostly reduced the British loss to hundreds.[168] HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias. For Napoleon, losing in Spain in 1812 or 1813 would have meant little if a decisive victory had occurred in Germany or Russia.

By the end of 1812 the Grande Armée that had invaded the Russian Empire had ceased to exist. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

Unable to resist the oncoming Russians, the French had to evacuateEast Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. With both the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia joining his opponents, Napoleon withdrew more troops from Spain,[169] including some foreign units and three battalions of sailors sent to assist with the Siege of Cádiz. 20,000 men were withdrawn; IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

the numbers were not overwhelming, but the occupying forces were left in a difficult position. In much of the area under French control—the Basque provinces, Navarre, Aragon, Old Castile, La Mancha, the Levante, and parts of Catalonia and León—their presence was a few scattered garrisons. Trying to hold a front line in an arc fromBilbao to Valencia, they were still vulnerable to assault, and with hopes of victory abandoned. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

According to Esdaile, the best policy would have been to have fallen back to the Ebro, but the political situation in 1813 made this impossible; Napoleon wanted to avoid being seen as weak in the face of German princes watching the advancing Russians and wondering whether they should change sides.[170] Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

 French prestige suffered another blow when on 17 March el rey intruso left Madrid in the company of another vast caravan of refugees.[170]

The following year, Wellesley marched 121,000 troops (53,749 British, 39,608 Spanish, and 27,569 Portuguese)[171] from northern Portugal across the mountains of northern Spain and the Esla River, Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

skirting Jourdan's army of 68,000 strung out between the Douro and the Tagus. British and Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos, outflanking the French army and forcing Joseph Bonaparte into the Zadorra valley. At the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June, Joseph's 65,000-man army were routed by 52,000 British, 28,000 Portuguese, and 25,000 Spaniards.[171]HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

Wellesley failed to pursue and the French recovered. Wellesley shortened his communications by shifting his base of operations to the northern Spanish coast, and began operations against San Sebastian and Pampeluna. Soult was given command of all French troops in Spain and advanced through the western Pyrenees, but was repulsed.[99] Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

The Spanish army of Enrique José O'Donnell tookPancorbo on 3 July, with the French troops capitulating.[172] With 18,000 men, Wellesley captured the French-garrisoned city of San Sebastián under Brigadier-General Louis Emmanuel Rey after a siege that lasted from 7 July to 8 September 1813 and incurred heavy British losses. Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

The city in turn was sacked and burnt to the ground by the Anglo-Portuguese.

The war was not over. Although Bonapartist Spain had effectively collapsed, most of France’s troops had escaped and fresh troops were soon gathering beyond the Pyrenees. By themselves, such forces were unlikely to score more than a few local victories, but French troop losses elsewhere in Europe could not be taken for granted. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Austria, Russia and Prussia might be beaten, but with the divisions between the allies there was no guarantee that one power would not make a separate peace. By giving Britain more credibility on the continent, Vitoria had helped a little, but the thought of Napoleon descending on the Pyrenees with the grande armée was not regarded with equanimity. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

Welcoming the news that Austria had entered the war and that the Allied armies had avoided a decisive defeat at Dresden in August 1813, British headquarters had misgiving about the eastern powers. Wellesley's brother-in-law Edward Pakenham wrote, "I should think that much must depend upon proceedings in the north: I begin to apprehend ... HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

that Boney may avail himself of the jealousy of the Allies to the material injury of the cause."[174] But the defeat or defection of Austria, Russia and Prussia was not the only danger. It was also uncertain that Wellesley could continue to count on Spanish support.[175]

Moreover, things were going badly for the British Army itself. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

The summer of 1813 in the Basque provinces and Navarre was a wet one, and with the army drenched by incessant rain, the decision to strip the men of their greatcoats was looking unwise. Sickness was widespread—at one point a third of Wellesley's British troops were hors de combat—and fears about the army's discipline and general reliability grew. Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

By 9 July, Wellesley reported that 12,500 men were absent without leave, whilst plundering was rife. Major General Sir Frederick Robinson wrote, "We paint the conduct of the French in this country in very ... harsh colours, but be assured we injure the people much more than they do ... Wherever we move devastation marks our steps."[176] HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

With the army established on the borders of France, desertion had become a problem. The Chasseurs Britanniques—recruited mainly from French deserters—lost 150 men in a single night. Wellesley wrote, "The desertion is terrible, and is unaccountable among the British troops. I am not astonished that the foreigners should go ... but, HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

unless they entice away the British soldiers, there is no accounting for their going away in such numbers as they do."[177]

The Allies chased the retreating French, reaching the Pyrenees in early July. Marshal Soult began a counter-offensive and defeated the Allies at the Battle of Maya and the Battle of Roncesvalles. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

Pushing on into Spain, by 27 July the Roncesvalles wing of Soult's army was within ten miles of Pamplona but found its way blocked by a substantial allied force posted on a high ridge in between the villages of Sorauren and Zabaldica.[178] Soult was repulsed by the Allies at theBattle of Sorauren, lost momentum, and was defeated by the Spanish Army of Galicia under General Manuel Freire at the Battle of San Marcial on 31 August 1813. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

On 7 October, after Wellesley received news of the reopening of hostilities in Germany, the Allies crossed into France and forded the Bidasoa river. On 11 December, Napoleon, beleaguered and desperate, agreed to a separate peace with Spain under the Treaty of Valençay, under which he would release and recognize Ferdinand in exchange for a complete cessation of hostilities. Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

But the Spanish had no intention of trusting Napoleon and the fighting continued. Soult was not finished. On 13 December he switched his troops to the right bank of the Nive and launched them against Sir Rowland Hill's forces, and a furious battle followed. The Allies were in danger; rain in the Pyrenees had sent floodwater down the Nive and had swept away their pontoon bridges, Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

while the French made considerable progress. According to Bell, "Every point was attacked to weaken our force and keep us separate, their guns keeping up a terrific fire, knocking the dust out of Saint Pierre ... ploughing up the side of the hill, thinning our ranks, and playing Old Harry, having no regard for life or limb ... ‘Dead or alive,’ said our chief, ‘we must hold our ground.’[179]HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Over 11,000 men were killed or injured at the Battle of the Nive. The French losses outnumbered those of the Allies, and on the evening of 10 December, some 1,400 troops from three German battalions deserted in response to a secret message from the Duke of Nassau—one of the many German rulers who had switched sides following the Battle of Leipzig—ordering them to switch to the Allies. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

In addition, Soult and Suchet lost the rest of their German units—another 3,000 men—as it was felt that they must be disbanded.

The Adour’s defenders were depleted, but all incapable of further offensive action. Twice their disposable strength had fallen on a single wing of the Allied army, and twice it had been repelled. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

Soult could now only defend the line of the Adour. As shown by the battles at Orthez, on 27 February 1814, and Toulouse, on 10 April 1814, although the armée d’Espagne was not broken, all chance of carrying the fight beyond the Pyrenees had gone.

In France, after a considerable time of inactivity spent in winter quarters, British, Portuguese and Spanish soldiers continued to fight the enemy, Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

but the history of how the allies besieged Bayonne, liberated Bourdeaux, and fought Soult’s army at Toulouse is one that belongs as much to the tale of the Peninsular War as to that of the great invasion of France that produced Napoleon’s abdication on 6 April 1814. Nor does much interest attach to such military events as took place in the Peninsula, DELL R859C CPU Fan

for these boiled down to little more than a series of ineffectual blockades that are remarkable for the evidence they provide of the condition of the Spanish army and the erstwhile guerrillas’ lack of interest in prosecuting the war. The French garrisons that remained had since been besieged by Spanish forces.[181] Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

The significance of the Peninsular War was of far greater significance in the history of Spain and Portugal than it was in the history of the Napoleonic Wars. On the contrary to the classic tradition, to quote Napoleon himself, ‘It was [the Spanish war] that overthrew me. All my disasters can be traced back to this fatal knot’.[182] SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

By intervening in Spain and Portugal, Napoleon involved himself in a struggle that would have been difficult to win at the best of times: so intense was the national spirit of these two countries, the French armies were confronted by a veritable people’s war.[183] The Grande Armée that campaigned in Russia in 1812 was not inadequate of troops. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Rather, what was lacking was the ability to make use of troops, the communications, transport and supply arrangements of the army all proving desperately short for the needs even of the numbers that Napoleon did take with him.[184] Two years later, heartened by French difficulties in Spain, both Russia and Prussia considered going to war against Napoleon; SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

in Prussia leaders of the reform movement such as August von Gneisenau added to the pressure by painting pictures of people’s war a la español.[185] Once he had been beaten in Germany in 1813, Napoleon's only hope of survival—other than accepting the compromise peace that at this point was on offer—was to mobilise France for total war in the hope that resistance might be prolonged long enough for the divisions between the Allies to undermine its commitment to their common cause.[ HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

King Joseph had been welcomed by Spanish afrancesados (Francophiles), who believed that collaboration with France would bring modernisation and liberty; an example was the abolition of the Spanish Inquisition. Priests and patriots stirred up agitation, which became widespread after the French army's first examples of repression (such as that in Madrid in 1808) were presented as fact to unite and enrage the people. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

The remaining afrancesados were exiled to France following the departure of French troops.

After the Peninsular War, the pro-independence traditionalists and liberals clashed in the Carlist Wars, as King Ferdinand VII, ("the Desired One"; later "the Traitor King"), revoked all the changes made by the independent Cortes in Cádiz. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

He restored absolute monarchy, prosecuted and put to death everyone suspected of liberalism, and altered the laws of royal succession in favour of his daughter Isabella II, starting a century of civil wars against the supporters of the former legal heir to the throne. The liberal Cortes had approved the first Spanish Constitution on 19 March 1812, which King Ferdinand later nullified.HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan

In Spanish America, Spanish and Criollo officials formed Juntas that swore allegiance to King Ferdinand. This experience in self-government led the later Libertadores (Liberators) to promote the indepen

dence of Spain’s American colonies.

The whole country had been pillaged, and society subjected to destabilising change, even anarchy.[187] SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

The Peninsular War gave birth to the violence and popular antagonism that, along with military intervention in politics, were to be nineteenth-century Spain's most pronounced characteristics. Portugal's position was more favorable than Spain's. Revolt had not spread to Brazil, there was no colonial struggle and there had been no attempt at political revolution.[188] HP Envy 15 CPU Fan

Exposing the limitations of eighteenth-century enlightened absolutism, the war dealt a blow to both the Church and the nobility. The Church had suffered great losses—one third of the clergy may have died in the struggle—and it had also been stripped of much of its property, and desamortización, hostility to the tithes and the demands of the French and the Patriots for funds had left it without resources.[189] HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

The Peninsular War signified Portugal's traumatic entry into the modern age. The Governors of Portugal nominated by the absent king had scant influence because of the successive French invasions and British occupation. The Portuguese Court's transfer to Rio de Janeiro initiated Brazil's state-building that produced its independence in 1822. Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

The Portuguese Navy's skillful evacuation of more than 15,000 people from the court, administration, and army was a bonus for Brazil and a blessing in disguise for Portugal, as it liberated the energies of the country.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan,IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

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The British garrison at Prairie du Chien also fought off another attack by Major Zachary Taylor. In this distant theatre, the British retained the upper hand until the end of the war, through the allegiance of several indigenous tribes that received British gifts and arms, enabling them to take control of parts of what is now Michigan and Illinois, as well as the whole of modern Wisconsin.[115]HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan 

In 1814 U.S. troops retreating from theBattle of Credit Island on the upper Mississippi attempted to make a stand at Fort Johnson, but the fort was soon abandoned, along with most of the upper Mississippi valley.[116]

After the U.S. was pushed out of the Upper Mississippi region, they held on to eastern Missouri and the St. Louis area. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

Two notable battles fought against the Sauk were the Battle of Cote Sans Dessein, in April 1815, at the mouth of the Osage River in the Missouri Territory, and the Battle of the Sink Hole, in May 1815, near Fort Cap au Gris.[117]

At the conclusion of peace, Mackinac and other captured territory was returned to the United States. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

At the end of the war, some British officers and Canadians objected to handing back Prairie du Chien and especially Mackinac under the terms of theTreaty of Ghent. However, the Americans retained the captured post at Fort Malden, near Amherstburg, until the British complied with the treaty.[118]

Fighting between Americans, the Sauk, and other indigenous tribes continued through 1817, well after the war ended in the east.HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

The Creek war in Alabama had different origins, but it "merged with the war of 1812" and the U.S. treated it as a part of the larger war, with Jackson and his forces also in charge of defeating the Creeks .[120] During the same timeline as the War of 1812, the Patriot War and Creek War were also occurring. In March 1814, Jackson led a force of Tennessee militia,Choctaw, Cherokee warriors, and U.S. regulars southward to attack the Creek Indians. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

The Spanish gave some aid to the Creeks; the British sent aid that arrived too late. On March 26, Jackson and General John Coffee decisively defeated the Creek at Horseshoe Bend, killing 800 of 1,000 Creeks at a cost of 49 killed and 154 wounded out of approximately 2,000 American and Cherokee forces. Jackson pursued the surviving Creeks until they surrendered. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

In the autumn of 1813, an appeal was made by the Indians, to the British via the Governor of the Bahamas (George Cameron), for assistance in the Creek War. A tardy response from Lord Bathurst was sent in March 1814, resulting in HMS Orpheus andHMS Shelburne being dispatched to the bay of the Apalachicola river, to initiate first contact with the Indians in May 1814, by which time the Creek War had effectively ended. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The vessels carried gifts, and a message from Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane. John Woodbine, an auxiliary officer of Royal Marines, was appointed as the British agent to the Indians. Woodbine discovered that in addition to the Indians at the Apalachicola river, there were also refugees at Pensacola.[122] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

On 23 June 1814, Sir Alexander Cochrane transmitted to the Admiralty a letter purportedly from Indian chiefs, who had come aboard the Orpheus. They promised to join any body of 'troops that should aid them in regaining their lands, and suggesting an attack on the tower off Mobile.' Having received encouraging correspondence from the commander of the Orpheus, FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

Cochrane sent a company of Royal Marines, commanded by Edward Nicolls, aboard the vessels HMS Hermes and HMS Carron,[123] with further supplies for the Indians, and a proclamation from Cochrane. In addition to training the Indians, Nicolls was tasked to raise a force from escaped slaves, as part of the Corps of Colonial Marines.[124] SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

In July 1814, General Andrew Jackson complained to the Governor of Pensacola, Mateo Gonzalez Manrique, that combatants from the Creek War were being harboured in Spanish territory, and made reference to the British presence on Spanish soil. Although he gave an angry reply to Jackson, Manrique was alarmed at the weak position he found himself in. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

He appealed to the British for help, with Woodbine arriving on 28 July, and Nicolls arriving at Pensacola on 24 August.[125][126]

During the aforementioned Patriot War, James Wilkinson captured Mobile, Alabama from the Spanish in March 1813, and built fortifications. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The first engagement between the British and their Creek allies against the Americans was the attack on Fort Bowyer, the redoubt on Mobile Point. Capturing the fort would enable the British to move on Mobile and thereby block Louisiana's trade. From Mobile, the British could move overland to Natchez to cut off New Orleans from the north.[127] The attack on Fort Bowyer was a defeat for the British. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Andrew Jackson heard reports that the British were organizing ships and armies for a large-scale invasion. The British established a military presence of up to 200 Marines at Pensacola in neutral Spanish West Florida at the end of August 1814. Jackson, with a force of 4,000 men, took the town in November.[128] This underlined the superiority of numbers of Jackson's force in the region.HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Andrew Jackson's force moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, in late 1814. Using 1,000 regulars and 3,000 to 4,000 militia, pirates and other fighters, as well as civilians and slaves sent to work on the fortifications, he built strong defences just south of the city. The 8,000 British regulars under General Edward Pakenham attacked on January 8, 1815. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The Battle of New Orleans was an American victory, as the British failed to take the fortifications on the East Bank. The British suffered high casualties: 291 dead, 1262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing[130] whereas American casualties were 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing. It was hailed as a great victory across the U.S., making Jackson a national hero and eventually propelling him to the presidency.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

In early 1815 the British gave up on New Orleans but moved to attack Mobile for a second time. In one of the last military actions of the war 1,000 British troops, having previously failed in 1814, took the fort thus winning the Battle of Fort Bowyer on February 12, 1815. When news of peace arrived the next day, they abandoned Fort Bowyer and sailed home.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

The start of 1815 was to see an offensive in the south, with Royal Marine battalions to advance westward into Georgia, and to be joined by Nicolls and his forces from the Gulf Coast.[133] These plans were overtaken by events, as peace was declared. Consequentially, with the offensive cancelled, Nicolls and his men returned to Prospect Bluff.[134] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

The British post at Prospect Bluff was handed over to the Seminoles. In April 1815 the locally recruited companies of the Corps of Colonial Marines were disbanded.[135] The greater part of the Royal Marine garrison at Apalachicola were embarked aboard HMS Cydnus on 22 April 1815,[136][137] and Edward Nicolls embarked the brig HMS Forward at Amelia Island on 29 June 'for passage to England'.[138Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

] The legacy of the Negro Fort would subsequently lead to the first of the Seminole Wars.

In May 1815, a band of British-allied Sauk, unaware that the war had ended months before, attacked a small band of U.S. soldiers northwest of St. Louis.[139]Intermittent fighting, primarily with the Sauk, continued in the Missouri Territory well into 1817, although it is unknown if the Sauk were acting on their own or on behalf of British agents.[119] DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Several uncontacted isolated warships continued fighting well into 1815 and were the last American forces to take offensive action against the British.

By 1814, both sides had achieved their main war goals and were weary of a costly war that offered little but stalemate. They both sent delegations to a neutral site in Ghent, Belgium. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The negotiations began in early August and concluded on December 24, when a final agreement was signed; both sides had to ratify it before it could take effect. Meanwhile both sides planned new invasions.

In 1814 the British began blockading New England ports, reducing American foreign trade to a trickle, but hurting British interests in the West Indies and Canada that had depended on that trade. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

New England was considering secession.[140][141] But although American privateers found chances of success much reduced, with most British merchantmen now sailing in convoy, privateering continued to prove troublesome to the British, as shown by high insurance rates.[142] British landowners grew weary of high taxes, and colonial interests and merchants called on the government to reopen trade with the U.S. by ending the war. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

As the peace talks opened, the British demanded the creation of an Indian barrier state in the American Northwest Territory (the area from Ohio to Wisconsin), and they demanded that Americans not have any naval forces on the Great Lakes. The U.S. rejected the demands and there was an impasse.[144]

American public opinion was outraged when Madison published the demands; even the Federalists were now willing to fight on. DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The British had planned three invasions. One force burned Washington but failed to capture Baltimore, and sailed away when its commander was killed. In northern New York State, 10,000 British veterans were marching south until a decisive defeat at the Battle of Plattsburgh forced them back to Canada.[b] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Nothing was known of the fate of the third large invasion force aimed at capturing New Orleans and southwest. The Prime Minister wanted the Duke of Wellington to command in Canada and finally win the war; Wellington said that he would go to America but he believed he was needed in Europe.

I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America ... SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. You cannot on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cessation of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power ... HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any.

The Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, aware of growing opposition to wartime taxation and the demands of Liverpool and Bristol merchants to reopen trade with America, realized Britain had little to gain and much to lose from prolonged warfare.[147] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Britain dropped its demand for an independent Indian state, which was in any case hopeless after the defeat of the British and the death of Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames; this concession allowed negotiations to resume at the end of October. The details were then easy to resolve since the basic plan was to exchange all captured territory and leave the boundary as it was before the war.[148] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

On December 24, 1814 the diplomats had finished and signed the Treaty of Ghent. The treaty was ratified by the British three days later on December 27[149] and arrived in Washington on February 17 where it was quickly ratified and went into effect, thus finally ending the war. The terms called for all occupied territory to be returned, the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States to be restored, and the Americans were to gain fishing rights in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The treaty did not mention the grievances of 1812 that led to war. The Americans were satisfied that their honour as an independent nation had been upheld.[150]The Indians issue east of the Mississippi had been resolved; impressment, ship seizures and blockades had ended when Britain's war with France ended in 1814. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Mobile and parts of western Florida were not mentioned in the treaty but remained permanently in American possession, despite objections by Spain.

British losses in the war were about 1,600 killed in action and 3,679 wounded; 3,321 British died from disease. American losses were 2,260 killed in action and 4,505 wounded. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

While the number of Americans who died from disease is not known, it is estimated that about 15,000 died from all causes directly related to the war.[152] These figures do not include deaths among Canadian militia forces or losses among native tribes.

There have been no estimates of the cost of the American war to Britain, but it did add some £25 million to the national debt.[153]HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

In the U.S., the cost was $105 million, about the same as the cost to Britain. The national debt rose from $45 million in 1812 to $127 million by the end of 1815, although by selling bonds and treasury notes at deep discounts—and often for irredeemable paper money due to the suspension of specie payment in 1814—the government received only $34 million worth of specie.[154]HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

In addition, at least 3,000 American slaves escaped to the British because of their offer of freedom, the same as they had made in the American Revolution. Many other slaves simply escaped in the chaos of war and achieved their freedom on their own. The British settled some of the newly freed slaves in Nova Scotia.[155]Four hundred freedmen were settled in New Brunswick.[156]ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

 The Americans protested that Britain's failure to return the slaves violated the Treaty of Ghent. After arbitration by the Tsar of Russia the British paid $1,204,960 in damages to Washington,[157] which reimbursed the slaveowners.

During the 19th century the popular image of the war in the United States was of an American victory, and in Canada, of a Canadian victory. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Each young country saw its self-perceived victory as an important foundation of its growing nationhood. The British, on the other hand, who had been preoccupied by Napoleon's challenge in Europe, paid little attention to what was to them a peripheral and secondary dispute, a distraction from the principal task at hand. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

In British North America (which would become the Dominion of Canada in 1867), the War of 1812 was seen by Loyalists as a victory, as they had successfully defended their borders from an American takeover. The outcome gave Empire-oriented Canadians confidence and, together with the postwar "militia myth" that the civilian militia had been primarily responsible rather than the British regulars, ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

was used to stimulate a new sense of Canadian nationalism.[159] John Strachan, the first Anglican bishop of Toronto, created the myth, telling his flock that Upper Canada had been saved from the dangerous republicanism of the American invaders by the heroism of the local citizenry.[160] [161]

A long-term implication of the militia myth—which was false, ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

but remained popular in the Canadian public at least until the First World War—was that Canada did not need a regular professional army.[162] The U.S. Army had done poorly, on the whole, in several attempts to invade Canada, and the Canadians had shown that they would fight bravely to defend their country. But the British did not doubt that the thinly populated territory would be vulnerable in a third war. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

"We cannot keep Canada if the Americans declare war against us again", Admiral Sir David Milne wrote to a correspondent in 1817. [163]

By the 21st century it was a forgotten war in Britain,[164] although still remembered in Canada, especially Ontario. In a 2009 poll, 37% of Canadians said the war was a Canadian victory, 9% said the U.S. won, 15% called it a draw, and 39%—mainly younger Canadians—said they knew too little to comment.[165] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

A February 2012 poll found that in a list of items that could be used to define Canadians' identity, the fact that Canada successfully repelled an American invasion in the War of 1812 places second (25%), only behind the fact that Canada has universal health care (53%).[166] The survey states that 77% of Canadians believe that War of 1812 Bicentennial is an important commemoration.Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

Today, American popular memory includes the British capture and the burning of Washington in August 1814,[168] which necessitated its extensive renovation. Another memory is the successful American defence of Fort McHenry in September 1814, which inspired the lyrics of the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner".[169] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

The successful Captains of the U.S. Navy became popular heroes with plates with the likeness of Decatur, Steward, Hull, and others, becoming popular items. Ironically, many were made in England. The Navy became a cherished institution, lauded for the victories that it won against all odds.[170]

The war was somewhat revitalized in the American popular consciousness as a result of the 1959 song "The Battle of New Orleans".Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Historians have differing and more complex interpretations. Historians agree that ending the war with neither side gaining or losing territory allowed for the peaceful settlement of boundary disputes and for the opening of a permanent era of good will and friendly relations between the U.S. and Canada. The war established distinct national identities for Canada and the United States, with a "newly significant border".[171] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

In recent decades the view of the majority of historians has been that the war ended in stalemate, with the Treaty of Ghent closing a war that had become militarily inconclusive. Neither side wanted to continue fighting since the main causes had disappeared and since there were no large lost territories for one side or the other to reclaim by force. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Insofar as they see the war's untriumphant resolution as allowing two centuries of peaceful and mutually beneficial intercourse between the U.S., Britain and Canada, these historians often conclude that all three nations were the "real winners" of the War of 1812. These writers often add that the war could have been avoided in the first place by better diplomacy. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

It is seen as a mistake for everyone concerned because it was badly planned and marked by multiple fiascoes and failures on both sides, as shown especially by the repeated American failure to seize parts of Canada, and the failed British attack on New Orleans and upstate New York.

However, other scholars hold that the war constituted a British victory and an American defeat. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

They argue that the British achieved their military objectives in 1812 (by stopping the repeated American invasions of Canada) and that Canada retained her independence of the United States. By contrast, they say, the Americans suffered a defeat when their armies failed to achieve their war goal of seizing part or all of Canada. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Additionally, they argue the U.S. lost as it failed to stop impressment, which the British refused to repeal until the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and the U.S. actions had no effect on the orders in council, which were rescinded before the war started.[174]

A second minority view is that both the U.S. and Britain won the war—that is, both achieved their main objectives, while the Indians were the losing party.[175HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

] The British won by losing no territories and achieving their great war goal, the total defeat of Napoleon. U.S. won by (1) securing her honour and successfully resisting a powerful empire once again,[c] thus winning a "second war of independence";[176] (2) ending the threat of Indian raids and the British plan for a semi-independent Indian sanctuary—thereby opening an unimpeded path for the United States' Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

westward expansion—and (3) stopping the Royal Navy from restricting American trade and impressing American sailors.

Historians generally agree that the real losers of the War of 1812 were the Indians (called "First Nations" in Canada).[178HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

] American settlers into the Middle West had been repeatedly blocked and threatened by Indian raids before 1812, and that now came to an end. Throughout the war the British had played on terror of the tomahawks and scalping knives of their Indian allies; it worked especially at Hull's surrender at Detroit. By 1813 Americans had killed Tecumseh and broken his coalition of tribes. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

Jackson then defeated the enemy Indians in the Southwest. Historian John Sugden notes that in both theatres, the Indians' strength had been broken prior to the arrival of the major British forces in 1814.[179]

Notwithstanding the sympathy and support from commanders (such as Brock,[180] Cochrane and Nicolls), the policymakers in London reneged in assisting the Indians, as making peace was a higher priority for the politicians. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

At the peace conference the British demanded an independent Indian state in the Midwest, but by late 1814 the British-Indian alliance had been defeated militarily and the British had to abandon the demand. The withdrawal of British protection gave the Americans a free hand, which resulted in the removal of most of the tribes to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).[181Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

 In that sense according to historian Alan Taylor, the final victory at New Orleans had "enduring and massive consequences".[182] It gave the Americans "continental predominence" while it left the Indians dispossessed, powerless, and vulnerable.[183]

The Creek War came to and end, with the Treaty of Fort Jackson being imposed upon the Indians. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

About half of the Creek territory was ceded to the United States, with no payment made to the Creeks. This was, in theory, invalidated by Article 9 of the Treaty of Ghent, thereby restoring to the Indians “all the possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in 1811.”[184] The British failed to uphold this, and did not take up the Indian cause as an infringement of an international treaty. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Without this support, the Indians lack of power was apparent and the stage was set for further incursions of territory by the United States in subsequent decades.

Neither side lost territory in the war,[d] nor did the treaty that ended it address the original points of contention—and yet it changed much between the United States of America and Britain. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The Rush–Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817 that provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary and was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Great Britain in the period following the War of 1812. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

It remains in effect to this day.

The Treaty of Ghent established the status quo ante bellum; that is, there were no territorial losses by either side. The issue of impressment was made moot when the Royal Navy, no longer needing sailors, stopped impressment after the defeat of Napoleon.SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Except for occasional border disputes and the circumstances of the American Civil War, relations between the U.S. and Britain remained generally peaceful for the rest of the 19th century, and the two countries became close allies in the 20th century.

Border adjustments between the U.S. and British North America were made in the Treaty of 1818. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

A border dispute along the Maine–New Brunswick border was settled by the 1842 Webster–Ashburton Treaty after the bloodless Aroostook War, and the border in the Oregon Country was settled by splitting the disputed area in half by the 1846 Oregon Treaty. A further dispute about the line of the border through the island in the Strait of Juan de Fuca resulted in another almost bloodless standoff in the Pig War of 1859. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The line of the border was finally settled by an international arbitration commission in 1872.

The U.S. suppressed the native American resistance on its western and southern borders. The nation also gained a psychological sense of complete independence as people celebrated their "second war of independence".[186] Nationalism soared after the victory at the Battle of New Orleans. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The opposition Federalist Partycollapsed, and the Era of Good Feelings ensued.[187]

No longer questioning the need for a strong Navy, the U.S. built three new 74-gun ships of the line and two new 44-gun frigates shortly after the end of the war.[188] (Another frigate had been destroyed to prevent it being captured on the stocks.)[189] In 1816, the U.S. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Congress passed into law an "Act for the gradual increase of the Navy" at a cost of $1,000,000 a year for eight years, authorizing 9 ships of the line and 12 heavy frigates.[190] The Captains and Commodores of the U.S. Navy became the heroes of their generation in the U.S. Decorated plates and pitchers of Decatur, Hull, Bainbridge, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Lawrence, Perry, and Macdonough were made in Staffordshire, England, and found a ready market in the United States. Three of the war heroes used their celebrity to win national office: Andrew Jackson (elected President in 1828 and 1832), Richard Mentor Johnson (elected Vice President in 1836), and William Henry Harrison (elected President in 1840). HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

New England states became increasingly frustrated over how the war was being conducted and how the conflict was affecting them. They complained that the U.S. government was not investing enough in the states' defences militarily and financially, and that the states should have more control over their militia. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The increased taxes, the British blockade, and the occupation of some of New England by enemy forces also agitated public opinion in the states.[191] As a result, at the Hartford Convention (December 1814 – January 1815) Federalist delegates deprecated the war effort and sought more autonomy for the New England states. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

They did not call for secession but word of the angry anti-war resolutions appeared at the same time that peace was announced and the victory at New Orleans was known. The upshot was that the Federalists were permanently discredited and quickly disappeared as a major political force.[192]

This war enabled thousands of slaves to escape to British lines or ships for freedom, despite the difficulties. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The planters' complacency about slave contentment was shocked by their seeing slaves who would risk so much to be free.A strong hostility to republicanism and American influences permeated western Canada after the war and shaped its policies.Immigration from the U.S. was discouraged, and favour was shown to the Anglican church as opposed to the more AmericanizedMethodist church. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

The Battle of York showed the vulnerability of Upper and Lower Canada. In the 1820s, work began on La Citadelle at Quebec City as a defence against the United States. Additionally, work began on the Halifax citadel to defend the port against American attacks. From 1826 to 1832, the Rideau Canal was built to provide a secure waterway not at risk from American cannon fire.Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

To defend the western end of the canal, the British also built Fort Henry at Kingston.

The Native Americans allied to the British lost their cause. The British proposal to create a "neutral" Indian zone in the American West was rejected at the Ghent peace conference and never resurfaced. After 1814 the natives, who lost most of their fur gathering territory, HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

became an undesirable burden to British policymakers who now looked to the United States for markets and raw materials. British agents in the field continued to meet regularly with their former American Indian partners, but they did not supply arms or encouragement and there were no American Indian campaigns to stop U.S. expansionism in the Midwest. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, American Great Lakes-area Indians ultimately migrated or reached accommodations with the American authorities and settlers.[196]

In the Southeast, Indian resistance had been crushed by General Andrew Jackson during the Creek War; as President (1829–37), Jackson systematically expelled the major tribes to reservations west of the Mississippi.,[ Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

part of which was the forced expulsion of American-allied Cherokee in the trail of tears.

Bermuda had been largely left to the defences of its own militia and privateers prior to U.S. independence, but the Royal Navy had begun buying up land and operating from there in 1795, as its location was a useful substitute for the lost U.S. ports. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war saw it rise to a new prominence. As construction work progressed through the first half of the 19th century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty and serving as a base and dockyard. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the "Gibraltar of the West". Defence infrastructure would remain the central leg of Bermuda's economy until after World War II.

The massive ongoing conflict against the French Empire under Napoleon ensured that the War of 1812 was never seen as more than a sideshow to the main event by the British.[ HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Britain's blockade of French trade had been entirely successful and the Royal Navy was the world's dominant nautical power (and would remain so for another century). While the land campaigns had contributed to saving Canada, the Royal Navy had shut down American commerce, bottled up the U.S. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Navy in port and heavily suppressed privateering. British businesses, some affected by rising insurance costs, were demanding peace so that trade could resume.[199] The peace was generally welcomed by the British, though there was disquiet at the rapid growth of the U.S. However, the two nations quickly resumed trade after the end of the war and, over time, a growing friendship.Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

f their fur gathering territory, became an undesirable burden to British policymakers who now looked to the United States for markets and raw materials. British agents in the field continued to meet regularly with their former American Indian partners, but they did not supply arms or encouragement and there were no American Indian campaigns to stop U.S. expansionism in the Midwest. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

 Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, American Great Lakes-area Indians ultimately migrated or reached accommodations with the American authorities and settlers.[196]

 In the Southeast, Indian resistance had been crushed by General Andrew Jackson during the Creek War; as President (1829–37), Jackson systematically expelled the major tribes to reservations west of the Mississippi.,[19Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

7] part of which was the forced expulsion of American-allied Cherokee in the trail of tears.

Bermuda had been largely left to the defences of its own militia and privateers prior to U.S. independence, but the Royal Navy had begun buying up land and operating from there in 1795, as its location was a useful substitute for the lost U.S. ports. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

It originally was intended to be the winter headquarters of the North American Squadron, but the war saw it rise to a new prominence. As construction work progressed through the first half of the 19th century, Bermuda became the permanent naval headquarters in Western waters, housing the Admiralty and serving as a base and dockyard. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

The military garrison was built up to protect the naval establishment, heavily fortifying the archipelago that came to be described as the "Gibraltar of the West". Defence infrastructure would remain the central leg of Bermuda's economy until after World War II.

The massive ongoing conflict against the French Empire under Napoleon ensured that the War of 1812 was never seen as more than a sideshow to the main event by the British.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Britain's blockade of French trade had been entirely successful and the Royal Navy was the world's dominant nautical power (and would remain so for another century). While the land campaigns had contributed to saving Canada, the Royal Navy had shut down American commerce, bottled up the U.S. Navy in port and heavily suppressed privateering. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

British businesses, some affected by rising insurance costs, were demanding peace so that trade could resume.[199] The peace was generally welcomed by the British, though there was disquiet at the rapid growth of the U.S. However, the two nations quickly resumed trade after the end of the war and, over time, a growing friendship. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

that the 'disgusting Spaniards' lost 14,000 men at Medellín. By the time a thunderstorm ended to the carnage, at least 8,000 Spanish were dead and another 2,000 taken prisoner. Victor's soldiers carried off nine standards and twenty guns. Estimates of the French losses range between 300 and 2,000 men.[100]

 On 27 March, Spanish forces defeated the French at Vigo, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

and the French troops at Marín and Pontevedra were forced to retreat to Santiago de Compostela for fear of being outflanked. The Spanish force that besieged Vigo was based around a division of new troops called the División del Miño. Hall wrote:"On reaching the camp ... we found the patriot army exercising by divisions ... Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

When we approached a general halt was ordered, and those who had muskets presented them as well they might, while those who had none went through the motions well with their pikes or staves formed out of scythes and reaping hooks ... Under our auspices the peasantry continued to flock in from the adjacent country ...  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

we could supply a twentieth part of these patriots with arms ... And that small fraction not being supplied with officers, or disciplined, or organised in any way, it was like children playing at soldiers."[101]

Spanish forces took the initiative and most of the cities in the province of Pontevedra were recaptured. In February 1809, Reding led a reconstituted army against the French right wing and, HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

after vigorous marching and counter-marching, took a stand at the Battle of Valls and was ridden down and wounded by French cavalry.

Wellesley returned to Portugal in April 1809 to command the Anglo-Portuguese forces. He strengthened the British army with Portuguese regiments trained byGeneral Beresford and helped them adapt to the British campaign style. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

These new forces turned Soult out of Portugal at the Battle of Grijó (10–11 May) and theSecond Battle of Porto (12 May), and the other northern cities were recaptured by General Silveira. With Portugal in revolt, Soult seemed doomed, but he escaped without his heavy equipment by marching through the mountains to Orense.[99] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

On 7 June, the French army of Marshal Michel Ney was defeated at the Battle of Puente Sanpayo by Spanish forces under the command of Colonel Pablo Morillo, and Ney and his forces retreated to Lugo on 9 June while being harassed by Spanish guerrillas. In Lugo, Ney's troops joined up with those of Soult and these forces withdrew from Galicia in July 1809. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

This marked the final evacuation of Galicia by the French army and the creation of a new front.

With Portugal secured, Wellesley advanced into Spain to unite with General Cuesta's forces. The combined allied force prepared for an assault on Victor's I Corps at Talavera on 23 July. Cuesta was reluctant to agree, but was persuaded to advance on the following day.[102HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

] This delay gave the French time to withdraw. Cuesta sent his army after Victor, and was faced by the entire French army in New Castile, Victor having been reinforced by the Toledo and Madrid garrisons. The Spanish retreated, while two British divisions advanced to cover their retreat.[103]

On 27 July at the Battle of Talavera, the French advanced in three columns and were repulsed several times, but at a heavy cost to the British force. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Wellesley, ignoring Cuesta's urgings to proceed to a general attack, decided on a gradual retreat, leaving Talavera on 4 August. Wellesley was concerned about the imminent arrival of Soult with his army and was afraid of being cut off from his base in Portugal. He sent the Light Brigade to hold the bridge over the Tagus River at Almaraz and, on 8 August, Soult's army faced the Spanish army at Puente del Arzobispo. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

With communications and supply from Lisbon secured, Wellesley considered rejoining Cuesta, but considerable friction had developed between the British and the Spanish; after Talevera, the Spanish had abandoned the British wounded to the French. Also, actions taken by the Spanish forces resulted in Wellesley's strategic position being compromised. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

The Spanish had promised to provide supplies for the British if they advanced into Spain, but this was not done. The ensuing lack of supplies and the threat of French reinforcement in the spring led to the British decision to retreat into Portugal. By making this choice Wellesley was supported by the government perception about Talavera. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

About himself, London was all gratitude, and rewarded him with the peerage of Viscount Wellington. But considerations pointed to a careful course of action. The peace party accused the general of being outgeneraled, while insinuations were being made that Talavera was fought for no objective beyond getting an aristocratic title.[104] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

A string of embarrassments appeared about the excess of patronage where the principal exponents were the Duke of York and Lord Castlereagh. There was also much dissatisfaction with Wellington, as he was now known: considered an authoritarian, he also made himself more distrusted by writing about the conduct of theCabinet and what he perceived as not enough support from them.[105] HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

By the summer of 1809, the Spanish Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom was coming under harsh criticism over its handling of the war. The Spanish people demanded that the ancient Cortes be summoned and the Junta agreed. But it was difficult to restore the old assembly and bring it into session. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

The Cádiz Cortes would be set up, but until then the Junta exercised power. Anxious to justify its continued existence, the Junta came up with what it hoped would be a war-winning strategy.[106] Undeterred by Wellesley's refusal to contribute British soldiers, the Junta planned to launch a two-pronged offensive to recapture Madrid. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

They replaced Pedro Caro with Diego de Cañas y Portocarrero, Duke del Parque as commander of the troops in Galicia and Asturias. Del Parque soon massed 30,000 troops at Ciudad Rodrigo with more on the way. South of Madrid, Juan Carlos de Aréizaga assembled over 50,000 well-equipped men in the Army of La ManchaACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

The main efforts of Del Parque and Aréizaga would be aided by a third force that operated near Talavera de la Reina under José Miguel de la Cueva y de la Cerda, Duke of Albuquerque. The 10,000-man Talavera force was designed to hold French units in place while the main armies attacked Madrid.[107]

In the autumn of 1809, Del Parque's Army of the Left numbered 52,192 men in one cavalry and six infantry divisions. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Martin de la Carrera's Vanguard Division had 7,413 soldiers, Francisco Xavier Losada's 1st Division had 8,336, Conde de Belveder's 2nd Division had 6,759, Francisco Ballesteros's 3rd Division had 9,991, Nicolás de Mahy's 4th Division had 7,100, and Conde de Castrofuerte's 5th Division had 6,157. All infantry divisions included 14 battalions except the 3rd with 15 and the 5th with seven. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

The Prince of Anglona's Cavalry Division included 1,682 horsemen in six regiments. Ciudad Rodrigo was provided with a garrison of 3,817 troops and there was an unattached 937-man battalion.[108]

With Ney on leave, Jean Gabriel Marchand assumed command of the VI Corps, based at Salamanca. The corps had been forced out of Galicia earlier in 1809 and had been involved in the operations in the aftermath of the Battle of Talavera in July. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

After hard campaigning and a lack of reinforcements, VI Corps was in a poor condition to fight and Marchand's talents were not equal to those of Ney. Del Parque advanced from Ciudad Rodrigo in late September [109] with the divisions of La Carrera, Losada, Belveder, and Anglona. Marchand, overconfident and scornful of his Spanish adversaries, advanced on the village of Tamames, 56 kilometres (35 mi) southwest of Salamanca. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

In the Battle of Tamames on 18 October 1809, the French suffered an embarrassing defeat.[110] The French lost 1,400 killed and wounded out of 14,000 soldiers and 14 guns. Spanish casualties were 700 out of 21,500 men and 18 cannons. After the battle, Del Parque was joined by Ballesteros' division, giving him 30,000 troops. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

As the Spanish advanced, Marchand abandoned Salamanca and Del Parque's men occupied the city on 25 October.[111]

Marchand retreated north to Toro on the Duero River, where he was joined by François Étienne de Kellermann with 1,500 infantry in three battalions and a 3,000-trooper dragoon division. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Kellermann took command of the French force and marched upstream, crossing to the south bank at Tordesillas. Reinforced by General of Brigade Nicolas Godinot's force, Kellermann challenged Del Parque by marching on Salamanca. The Spaniard abandoned Salamanca and retreating to the south. In the meantime, the guerrillas in Province of León became very active. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

Kellermann left the VI Corps holding Salamanca and returned to León to stamp out the uprising.[112]

Albuquerque pinned down the French troops near Talavera as planned, but when he found that Aréizaga's army had been defeated at the Battle of Ocaña on 19 November, he withdrew out of reach of the French. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

Del Parque heard of the march of Godinot's and General of Brigade Pierre-Louis Binet de Marcognet's brigades toward Madrid. He had been instructed to join Albuquerque, he instead moved on Salamanca again, hustling one of the VI Corps brigades out of Alba de Tormes.[113] Del Parque occupied Salamanca on 20 November.[114] IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The French general withdrew behind the Duero and again rendezvoused with Kellermann. Hoping to get between Kellermann and Madrid, Del Parque advanced towards Medina del Campo. On 23 November at that town, Marcognet's brigade returned from Segovia while General of Brigade Mathieu Delabassée's brigade arrived from Tordesillas. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

At this moment, Del Parque's columns came into view and there was a skirmish at El Carpio. The French horsemen drove back the Spanish cavalry but were repulsed by Ballesteros' steady foot soldiers fighting in squares, prompting Marcognet and Delabassée to retreat.[115] On 24 November, Kellermann massed 16,000 French troops on the Duero near Valdestillas. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Outnumbered, the French prepared to defend themselves. But on this day the Army of the Left received news of the Ocaña disaster.[116] Understanding that the French could spare plenty of soldiers to track down his army, Del Parque fled south, intending to shelter in the mountains of central Spain.[117] On 25 November, Del Parque left so that Kellermann did not begin his pursuit until the next day. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

For two days, the French could not catch up with their adversaries but on the afternoon of 28 November, their light cavalry found the Army of the Left camped at Alba de Tormes.[116]

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After a 35-minute battle, Guerriere had been dis-masted and captured and was later burned. The Constitution earned the nickname "Old Ironsides" following this battle as many of the British cannonballs were seen to bounce off her hull. Hull returned to Boston with news of this significant victory. On October 25, the United States, commanded by Captain Decatur, captured the British frigate HMS Macedonian, which he then carried back to port.[ COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

At the close of the month, the Constitution sailed south, now under the command of Captain William Bainbridge. On December 29, off Bahia, Brazil, she met the British frigateHMS Java. After a battle lasting three hours, Java struck her colours and was burned after being judged unsalvageable. TheConstitution, however, was relatively undamaged in the battle.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

The successes gained by the three big American frigates forced Britain to construct five 40-gun, 24-pounder heavy frigates[78] and two "spar-decked" frigates (the 60-gun HMS Leander and HMS Newcastle[79]) and to razee three old 74-gun ships of the line to convert them to heavy frigates.[80] The Royal Navy acknowledged that there were factors other than greater size and heavier guns. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The United States Navy's sloops and brigs had also won several victories over Royal Navy vessels of approximately equal strength. While the American ships had experienced and well-drilled volunteer crews, the enormous size of the overstretched Royal Navy meant that many ships were shorthanded and the average quality of crews suffered. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The constant sea duties of those serving in North America interfered with their training and exercises.[81]

The capture of the three British frigates stimulated the British to greater exertions. More vessels were deployed on the American seaboard and the blockade tightened. On June 1, 1813, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

off Boston Harbor, the frigate Chesapeake, commanded by Captain James Lawrence, was captured by the British frigate HMS Shannonunder Captain Sir Philip Broke. Lawrence was mortally wounded and famously cried out, "Don't give up the ship! Hold on, men!"[81] The two frigates were of near-identical size. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Chesapeake 's crew was larger but most had not served or trained together. British citizens reacted with celebration and relief that the run of American victories had ended.[82] Notably, this action was by ratio one of the bloodiest contests recorded during this age of sail, with more dead and wounded than HMS Victory suffered in four hours of combat at Trafalgar.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Captain Lawrence was killed and Captain Broke was so badly wounded that he never again held a sea command.

In January 1813, the American frigate Essex, under the command of Captain David Porter, sailed into the Pacific to harass British shipping. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

Many British whaling ships carried letters of marque allowing them to prey on American whalers, and they nearly destroyed the industry. The Essex challenged this practice. She inflicted considerable damage on British interests before she and her tender, Essex Junior ( armed with twenty guns) were captured off Valparaiso, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

Chile by the British frigateHMS Phoebe and the sloop HMS Cherub on March 28, 1814.[84]

The British 6th-rate Cruizer-class brig-sloops did not fare well against the American ship-rigged sloops of war. The Hornetand Wasp constructed before the war were notably powerful vessels, and the Frolic class built during the war even more so (although Frolic was trapped and captured by a British frigate and a schooner). HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The British brig-rigged sloops tended to suffer fire to their rigging more frequently than the American ship-rigged sloops. In addition, the ship-rigged sloops could back their sails in action, giving them another advantage in manoeuvring.[85]

Following their earlier losses, the British Admiralty instituted a new policy that the three American heavy frigates should not be engaged except by a ship of the line or smaller vessels in squadron strength. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

An example of this was the capture of the President by a squadron of four British frigates in January 1815. But, a month later, the Constitution engaged and captured two smaller British warships, HMS Cyane and HMS Levant, sailing in company.[86]

Success in single ship battles raised American morale after the repeated failed invasion attempts in Upper and Lower Canada. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

However these single ship victories had no military effect on the war at sea as they did not alter the balance of naval power, impede British supplies and reinforcements, or even raise insurance rates for British trade.

The operations of American privateers proved a more significant threat to British trade than the U.S. Navy. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

They operated throughout the Atlantic and continued until the close of the war, most notably from ports such as Baltimore. American privateers reported taking 1300 British merchant vessels, compared to 254 taken by the U.S. Navy.although the insurer Lloyd's of London reported that only 1,175 British ships were taken, 373 of which were recaptured, for a total loss of 802.[91] SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

However the British were able to limit privateering losses by the strict enforcement of convoy by the Royal Navy and by capturing 278 American privateers. Due to the massive size of the British merchant fleet, American captures only affected 7.5% of the British merchant fleet, resulting no supply shortages or lack of reinforcements for British forces in North America.[92] IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

Due to the large size of their navy, the British did not rely as much on privateering. The majority of the 1,407 captured American merchant ships were taken by the Royal Navy. The war was the last time the British allowed privateering, since the practice was coming to be seen as politically inexpedient and of diminishing value in maintaining its naval supremacy. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

However privateering remained popular in British colonies. It was the last hurrah for privateers Bermudawho vigorously returned to the practice after experience in previous wars.[93] The nimble Bermuda sloops captured 298 American ships. Privateer schooners based in British North America, especially from Nova Scotia took 250 American ships and proved especially effective in crippling American coastal trade and capturing American ships closer to shore than the Royal Navy cruisers. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The small British North American squadron had difficulty at the beginning of the war in blockading the entire U.S. coast, faced by the need to convoy vessels against American privateers. However as additional ships were sent to North America in 1813, the Royal Navy was able to tighten the blockade and extend it, first to the coast south of Narragansett by November 1813 and to the entire American coast on May 31, 1814. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

The British government, having need of American foodstuffs for its army in Spain, benefited from the willingness of the New Englanders to trade with them, so no blockade of New England was at first attempted. The Delaware River and Chesapeake Baywere declared in a state of blockade on December 26, 1812. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Illicit trade was carried on by collusive captures arranged between American traders and British officers. American ships were fraudulently transferred to neutral flags. Eventually, the U.S. government was driven to issue orders to stop illicit trading; this put only a further strain on the commerce of the country. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

The overpowering strength of the British fleet enabled it to occupy the Chesapeake and to attack and destroy numerous docks and harbours.

The blockade of American ports later tightened to the extent that most American merchant ships and naval vessels were confined to port. The American frigates United States and Macedonian ended the war blockaded and hulked in New London, Connecticut.ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Some merchant ships were based in Europe or Asia and continued operations. Others, mainly from New England, were issued licences to trade by Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, commander in chief on the American station in 1813. This allowed Wellington's army in Spain to receive American goods and to maintain the New Englanders' opposition to the war. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

The blockade nevertheless resulted in American exports decreasing from $130 million in 1807 to $7 million in 1814. Most of these were food exports that ironically went to supply their enemies in Britain or British colonies.[95]

As the Royal Navy base that supervised the blockade, Halifax profited greatly during the war. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

From that base British privateers seized many French and American ships and sold their prizes in Halifax.

The blockading British fleet in Chesapeake Bay, based at Bermuda, received increasing numbers of enslaved black Americans during 1813. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

They were welcomed by Royal Navy officers holding anti-slavery sentiments and, by British government order, were treated as free persons when reaching British hands. In 1814, the British government changed from a policy of passively accepting refugees to actively encouraging slaves to emigrate. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

It was imperfectly implemented by Admiral Alexander Cochrane's proclamation of April 2, 1814, which offered freedom to slaves reaching British lines or ships. It was similar to the Crown's offers of freedom to slaves during the Revolutionary War.

Thousands of enslaved Americans went over to the British with their families during the two years from March 1813, a migration known as the Black Refugees. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

From May 1814, younger men among the volunteers were recruited into a new Corps of Colonial Marines, initially based on occupied Tangier Island in the Chesapeake. The Corps' companies joined several companies of Royal Marines in September 1814 to become part of the 3rd Battalion Royal and Colonial Marines. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Earning praise from commanders, the freedmen fought for Britain throughout the Atlantic campaign, including the Battle of Bladensburg and the attacks on Washington, D.C. andBaltimore. Following garrison service in the new Royal Naval Dockyard at Bermuda after the war, the men of the Corps were settled in Trinidad in August 1816. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

Seven hundred of these ex-marines were granted land and organized in villages according to their military companies, in the area since known as The Company Villages.[96] A small number of other freed Americans were recruited into the Second West India regiment  Of those men who did not enlist, the British settled most with their families in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

In 1815, the British resettled 200 black American slaves from the Gulf of Mexico area to Trinidad.

Maine, then part of Massachusetts, was a base for smuggling and illegal trade between the U.S. and the British. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

Until 1813 the region was generally quiet except for privateer actions near the coast. In September 1813, there was a notable naval action when the U.S. Navy's brig Enterprise fought and captured the Royal Navy brig Boxer off Pemaquid Point.[97] The first British assault came in July 1814, when Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy took Moose Island (Eastport, Maine) IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

without a shot, with the entire American garrison of Fort Sullivan surrendering.[98] Next, from his base in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in September 1814, Sir John Coape Sherbrooke led 3,000 British troops in the "Penobscot Expedition". In 26 days, he raided and looted Hampden, Bangor, and Machias, destroying or capturing 17 American ships. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

He won the Battle of Hampden (losing two killed while the Americans lost one killed). Retreating American forces were forced to destroy the frigate Adams. The British occupied the town of Castine and most of eastern Maine for the rest of the war. The Treaty of Ghent returned this territory to the United States. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The British left in April 1815, at which time they took ₤10,750 pounds obtained from tariff duties at Castine. This money, called the "Castine Fund", was used to establish Dalhousie University, in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The strategic location of the Chesapeake Bay near America's capital made it a prime target for the British. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Starting in March 1813, a squadron under Rear Admiral George Cockburn started a blockade of the bay and raided towns along the bay fromNorfolk to Havre de Grace.

On July 4, 1813, Commodore Joshua Barney, a Revolutionary War naval hero, convinced the Navy Department to build theChesapeake Bay Flotilla, a squadron of twenty barges to defend the Chesapeake Bay. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

Launched in April 1814, the squadron was quickly cornered in the Patuxent River, and while successful in harassing the Royal Navy, they were powerless to stop the British campaign that ultimately led to the "Burning of Washington". This expedition, led by Cockburn and General Robert Ross, IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

was carried out between August 19 and 29, 1814, as the result of the hardened British policy of 1814 (although British and American commissioners had convened peace negotiations at Ghent in June of that year). As part of this, Admiral Warren had been replaced as commander in chief by Admiral Alexander Cochrane, with reinforcements and orders to coerce the Americans into a favourable peace. ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Governor-in-chief of British North America Sir George Prevost had written to the Admirals in Bermuda, calling for retaliation for the American sacking of York (now Toronto). A force of 2,500 soldiers under General Ross had just arrived in Bermuda aboard HMS Royal Oak, three frigates, three sloops and ten other vessels. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Released from the Peninsular War by British victory, the British intended to use them for diversionary raids along the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. In response to Prevost's request, they decided to employ this force, together with the naval and military units already on the station, to strike at Washington, D.C. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

On August 24, U.S. Secretary of War John Armstrong insisted that the British would attack Baltimore rather than Washington, even when the British army was obviously on its way to the capital. The inexperienced American militia, which had congregated at Bladensburg, Maryland, to protect the capital, was routed in the Battle of Bladensburg, opening the route to Washington.APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

While Dolley Madison saved valuables from the Presidential Mansion, President James Madison was forced to flee to Virginia.[100]

The British commanders ate the supper that had been prepared for the President before they burned the Presidential Mansion; American morale was reduced to an all-time low. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

The British viewed their actions as retaliation for destructive American raids into Canada, most notably the Americans' burning of York (now Toronto) in 1813. Later that same evening, a furious storm swept into Washington, D.C., sending one or more tornadoes into the city that caused more damage but finally extinguished the fires with torrential rains.[ HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The naval yards were set afire at the direction of U.S. officials to prevent the capture of naval ships and supplies.[100] The British left Washington, D.C. as soon as the storm subsided. Having destroyed Washington's public buildings, including the President's Mansion and the Treasury, the British army next moved to capture Baltimore, a busy port and a key base for American privateers. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

The subsequent Battle of Baltimore began with the British landing at North Point, where they were met by American militia. An exchange of fire began, with casualties on both sides. General Ross was killed by an American sniper as he attempted to rally his troops. The sniper himself was killed moments later, and the British withdrew. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

The British also attempted to attack Baltimore by sea on September 13 but were unable to reduce Fort McHenry, at the entrance to Baltimore Harbor.

The Battle of Fort McHenry was no battle at all. British guns had range on American cannon, and stood off out of U.S. range, bombarding the fort, which returned no fire. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Their plan was to coordinate with a land force, but from that distance coordination proved impossible, so the British called off the attack and left. All the lights were extinguished in Baltimore the night of the attack, and the fort was bombarded for 25 hours. The only light was given off by the exploding shells over Fort McHenry, illuminating the flag that was still flying over the fort. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

The defence of the fort inspired the American lawyer Francis Scott Key to write a poem that would eventually supply the lyrics to "The Star-Spangled Banner".

None of the actions of the Chesapeake campaign were deemed worthy of a British army medal clasp (Fort Detroit, Chateauguay, Chrysler's Farm being the three clasps for the war), but participants in the attack in Washington were paid prize money by the War Office.[ HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

In addition, prize-money arising from the booty captured by the expedition in the River Patuxent, at Fort Washington, and Alexandria, between August 22 and 29, 1814 was paid in November 1817. Three companies of Corps of Colonial Marines were among the recipients. A first-class share was worth ₤183 9s 1¾d; a sixth-class share, which was what probably an ordinary marine would receive, was worth ₤1 9s 3½d.[ HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

A second and final payment came in May 1819. A first-class share was worth ₤42 13s 10¾d; a sixth-class share was worth 9s 1¾d.

American leaders assumed that Canada could be easily overrun. Former President Jefferson optimistically referred to the conquest of Canada as "a matter of marching".[SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Many Loyalist Americans had migrated to Upper Canada after the Revolutionary War. There was also significant non-Loyalist American immigration to the area due to the offer of land grants to immigrants, and the U.S. assumed the latter would favour the American cause, but they did not. In prewar Upper Canada, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

General Prevost was in the unusual position of having to purchase many provisions for his troops from the American side. This peculiar trade persisted throughout the war in spite of an abortive attempt by the U.S. government to curtail it. In Lower Canada, which was much more populous, support for Britain came from the English elite with strong loyalty to the Empire, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

and from the Canadien elite, who feared American conquest would destroy the old order by introducing Protestantism, Anglicization, republican democracy, and commercial capitalism; and weakening the Catholic Church. The Canadien inhabitants feared the loss of a shrinking area of good lands to potential American immigrants.[105] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In 1812–13, British military experience prevailed over inexperienced American commanders. Geography dictated that operations would take place in the west: principally around Lake Erie, near the Niagara River between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and near theSaint Lawrence River area and Lake Champlain. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

This was the focus of the three-pronged attacks by the Americans in 1812. Although cutting the St. Lawrence River through the capture of Montreal and Quebec would have made Britain's hold in North America unsustainable, the United States began operations first in the western frontier because of the general popularity there of a war with the British, who had sold arms to the Native Americans opposing the settlers. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

The British scored an important early success when their detachment at St. Joseph Island, on Lake Huron, learned of the declaration of war before the nearby American garrison at the important trading post at Mackinac Island in Michigan. A scratch force landed on the island on July 17, 1812 and mounted a gun overlooking Fort Mackinac. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

After the British fired one shot from their gun, the Americans, taken by surprise, surrendered. This early victory encouraged the natives, and large numbers moved to help the British at Amherstburg.The island totally controlled access to the Old Northwest, giving the British nominal control of this area, and, more vitally,a monopoly on the fur trade. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

An American army under the command of William Hull invaded Canada on July 12, with his forces chiefly composed of untrained and ill-disciplined militiamen.[106] Once on Canadian soil, Hull issued a proclamation ordering all British subjects to surrender, or "the horrors, and calamities of war will stalk before you".[Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

He also threatened to kill any British prisoner caught fighting alongside a native. The proclamation helped stiffen resistance to the American attacks. Hull's army was too weak in artillery and badly supplied to achieve its objectives, and had to fight just to maintain its own lines of communication.[ Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

The senior British officer in Upper Canada, Major General Isaac Brock, felt that he should take bold measures to calm the settler population in Canada, and to convince the aboriginals who were needed to defend the region that Britain was strong.[106] He moved rapidly to Amherstburg near the western end of Lake Erie with reinforcements and immediately decided toattack Detroit.HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Hull, fearing that the British possessed superior numbers and that the Indians attached to Brock's force would commit massacres if fighting began, surrendered Detroit without a fight on August 16. Knowing of British-instigated indigenous attacks on other locations, Hull ordered the evacuation of the inhabitants of Fort Dearborn (Chicago) to Fort Wayne. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

After initially being granted safe passage, the inhabitants (soldiers and civilians) were attacked by Potowatomis on August 15 after travelling only 2 miles (3.2 km) in what is known as the Battle of Fort Dearborn.[107] The fort was subsequently burned.

Brock promptly transferred himself to the eastern end of Lake Erie, where American General Stephen Van Rensselaer was attempting a second invasion. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

An armistice (arranged by Prevost in the hope the British renunciation of the Orders in Council to which the United States objected might lead to peace) prevented Brock from invading American territory. When the armistice ended, the Americans attempted an attack across the Niagara River on October 13, but suffered a crushing defeat at Queenston Heights. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Brock was killed during the battle. While the professionalism of the American forces would improve by the war's end, British leadership suffered after Brock's death. A final attempt in 1812 by American General Henry Dearborn to advance north from Lake Champlain failed when his militia refused to advance beyond American territory. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

In contrast to the American militia, the Canadian militia performed well. French Canadians, who found the anti-Catholic stance of most of the United States troublesome, and United Empire Loyalists, who had fought for the Crown during the American Revolutionary War, strongly opposed the American invasion. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

However, many in Upper Canada were recent settlers from the United States who had no obvious loyalties to the Crown. Nevertheless, while there were some who sympathized with the invaders, the American forces found strong opposition from men loyal to the Empire.

After Hull's surrender of Detroit, General William Henry Harrison was given command of the U.S. Army of the Northwest. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

He set out to retake the city, which was now defended by Colonel Henry Procter in conjunction with Tecumseh. A detachment of Harrison's army was defeated at Frenchtown along the River Raisin on January 22, 1813. Procter left the prisoners with an inadequate guard, Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

who could not prevent some of his North American aboriginal allies from attacking and killing perhaps as many as sixty Americans, many of whom were Kentucky militiamen.[109] The incident became known as the River Raisin Massacre. The defeat ended Harrison's campaign against Detroit, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

and the phrase "Remember the River Raisin!" became a rallying cry for the Americans.

In May 1813, Procter and Tecumseh set siege to Fort Meigs in northern Ohio. American reinforcements arriving during the siege were defeated by the natives, but the fort held out. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

The Indians eventually began to disperse, forcing Procter and Tecumseh to return to Canada. A second offensive against Fort Meigs also failed in July. In an attempt to improve Indian morale, Procter and Tecumseh attempted to storm Fort Stephenson, a small American post on the Sandusky River, only to be repulsed with serious losses, marking the end of the Ohio campaign.Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

On Lake Erie, American commander Captain Oliver Hazard Perry fought the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813. His decisive victory ensured American control of the lake, improved American morale after a series of defeats, and compelled the British to fall back from Detroit. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

This paved the way for General Harrison to launch another invasion of Upper Canada, which culminated in the U.S. victory at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813, in which Tecumseh was killed. Tecumseh's death effectively ended the North American indigenous alliance with the British in the Detroit region. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

American control of Lake Erie meant the British could no longer provide essential military supplies to their aboriginal allies, who therefore dropped out of the war. The Americans controlled the area during the conflict.

Because of the difficulties of land communications, control of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River corridor was crucial. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

When the war began, the British already had a small squadron of warships on Lake Ontario and had the initial advantage. To redress the situation, the Americans established a Navy yard at Sackett's Harbor, New York. Commodore Isaac Chauncey took charge of the large number of sailors and shipwrights sent there from New York; Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

they completed the second warship built there in a mere 45 days. Ultimately, 3,000 men worked at the shipyard, building eleven warships and many smaller boats and transports. Having regained the advantage by their rapid building program, Chauncey and Dearborn attacked York, the capital of Upper Canada, on April 27, 1813. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

The Battle of Yorkwas an American victory, marred by looting and the burning of the Parliament buildings and a library. However, Kingston was strategically more valuable to British supply and communications along the St. Lawrence. Without control of Kingston, the U.S. navy could not effectively control Lake Ontario or sever the British supply line from Lower Canada.HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

On May 27, 1813, an American amphibious force from Lake Ontario assaulted Fort George on the northern end of the Niagara River and captured it without serious losses. The retreating British forces were not pursued, however, until they had largely escaped and organized a counteroffensive against the advancing Americans at the Battle of Stoney Creek on June 5. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

On June 24, with the help of advance warning by Laura Secord, another American force was forced to surrender by a much smaller British and native force at the Battle of Beaver Dams, marking the end of the American offensive into Upper Canada. Meanwhile, Commodore James Lucas Yeohad taken charge of the British ships on the lake and mounted a counterattack, which was nevertheless repulsed at the Battle of Sackett's Harbor. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

Thereafter, Chauncey and Yeo's squadrons fought two indecisive actions, neither commander seeking a fight to the finish.

Late in 1813, the Americans abandoned the Canadian territory they occupied around Fort George. They set fire to the village of Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) on December 15, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

1813, incensing the Canadians and politicians in control. Many of the inhabitants were left without shelter, freezing to death in the snow. This led to British retaliation following the Capture of Fort Niagara on December 18, 1813. Early the next morning on December 19, the British and their native allies stormed the neighbouring town of Lewiston, COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

New York, torching homes and buildings and killing about a dozen civilians. As the British were chasing the surviving residents out of town, a small force of Tuscarora natives intervened and stopped the pursuit, buying enough time for the locals to escape to safer ground. It is notable in that the Tuscaroras defended the Americans against their own Iroquois brothers, the Mohawks, who sided with the British.[ IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Later, the British attacked and burned Buffalo on December 30, 1813.

In 1814, the contest for Lake Ontario turned into a building race. Naval superiority shifted between the opposing fleets as each built new, bigger ships. However, neither was able to bring the other to battle when in a position of superiority. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

The Engagements on Lake Ontario were a draw.

The British were potentially most vulnerable over the stretch of the St. Lawrence where it formed the frontier between Upper Canada and the United States. During the early days of the war, there was illicit commerce across the river. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Over the winter of 1812 and 1813, the Americans launched a series of raids from Ogdensburg on the American side of the river, which hampered British supply traffic up the river. On February 21, Sir George Prevost passed through Prescott on the opposite bank of the river with reinforcements for Upper Canada. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

When he left the next day, the reinforcements and local militia attacked. At theBattle of Ogdensburg, the Americans were forced to retire.

For the rest of the year, Ogdensburg had no American garrison, and many residents of Ogdensburg resumed visits and trade with Prescott. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

This British victory removed the last American regular troops from the Upper St. Lawrence frontier and helped secure British communications with Montreal. Late in 1813, after much argument, the Americans made two thrusts against Montreal. The plan eventually agreed upon was for Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Major General Wade Hampton to march north from Lake Champlain and join a force under General James Wilkinson that would embark in boats and sail from Sackett's Harbor on Lake Ontario and descend the St. Lawrence. Hampton was delayed by bad roads and supply problems and also had an intense dislike of Wilkinson, Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

which limited his desire to support his plan. On October 25, his 4,000-strong force was defeated at the Chateauguay River byCharles de Salaberry's smaller force of -Canadian Voltigeurs and Mohawks. Wilkinson's force of 8,000 set out on October 17, but was also delayed by bad weather. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

After learning that Hampton had been checked, Wilkinson heard that a British force under Captain William Mulcaster and Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Wanton Morrison was pursuing him, and by November 10, he was forced to land near Morrisburg, about 150 kilometres (90 mi.) from Montreal. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

On November 11, Wilkinson's rear guard, numbering 2,500, attacked Morrison's force of 800 at Crysler's Farm and was repulsed with heavy losses. After learning that Hampton could not renew his advance, Wilkinson retreated to the U.S. and settled into winter quarters. He resigned his command after a failed attack on a British outpost at Lacolle Mills. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

By the middle of 1814, American generals, including Major Generals Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott, had drastically improved the fighting abilities and discipline of the army. Their renewed attack on the Niagara peninsula quickly captured Fort Erie. Winfield Scott then gained a victory over an inferior British force at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

An attempt to advance further ended with a hard-fought but inconclusive battle at Lundy's Lane on July 25.

The outnumbered Americans withdrew but withstood a prolonged Siege of Fort Erie. The British suffered heavy casualties in a failed assault and were weakened by exposure and shortage of supplies in their siege lines. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

Eventually the British raised the siege, but American Major General George Izard took over command on the Niagara front and followed up only halfheartedly. The Americans lacked provisions, and eventually destroyed the fort and retreated across the Niagara.

Meanwhile, following the abdication of Napoleon, 15,000 British troops were sent to North America under four of Wellington's ablest brigade commanders. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Fewer than half were veterans of the Peninsula and the rest came from garrisons. Prevost was ordered to neutralize American power on the lakes by burning Sackets Harbor, gain naval control of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the Upper Lakes, and defend Lower Canada from attack. He did defend Lower Canada but otherwise failed to achieve his objectives.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Given the late season he decided to invade New York State. His army outnumbered the American defenders of Plattsburgh, but he was worried about his flanks so he decided he needed naval control of Lake Champlain. On the lake, the British squadron under Captain George Downie and the Americans under Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough were more evenly matched. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

On reaching Plattsburgh, Prevost delayed the assault until the arrival of Downie in the hastily completed 36-gun frigate HMS Confiance. Prevost forced Downie into a premature attack, but then unaccountably failed to provide the promised military backing. Downie was killed and his naval force defeated at the naval Battle of Plattsburgh in Plattsburgh Bay on September 11, HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

1814. The Americans now had control of Lake Champlain; Theodore Roosevelt later termed it "the greatest naval battle of the war". The successful land defence was led by Alexander Macomb. To the astonishment of his senior officers, Prevost then turned back, saying it would be too hazardous to remain on enemy territory after the loss of naval supremacy. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Prevost was recalled and in London, a naval court-martial decided that defeat had been caused principally by Prevost's urging the squadron into premature action and then failing to afford the promised support from the land forces. Prevost died suddenly, just before his own court-martial was to convene. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

Prevost's reputation sank to a new low, as Canadians claimed that their militia under Brock did the job and he failed. Recently, however, historians have been more kindly, measuring him not against Wellington but against his American foes. They judge Prevost's preparations for defending the Canadas with limited means to be energetic, well-conceived, and comprehensive; HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

and against the odds, he had achieved the primary objective of preventing an American conquest.

The Mississippi River valley was the western frontier of the United States in 1812. The territory acquired in theLouisiana Purchase of 1803 contained almost no U.S. settlements west of the Mississippi except around Saint Louisand a few forts and trading posts. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Fort Bellefontaine, an old trading post converted to a U.S. Army post in 1804, served as regional headquarters. Fort Osage, built in 1808 along the Missouri was the western-most U.S. outpost, it was abandoned at the start of the war.[113] Fort Madison, built along the Mississippi in what is now Iowa, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

was also built in 1808, and had been repeatedly attacked by British-allied Sauk since its construction. In September 1813 Fort Madison was abandoned after it was attacked and besieged by natives, who had support from the British. This was one of the few battles fought west of the Mississippi. Black Hawk played a leadership role.[114] HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Little of note took place on Lake Huron in 1813, but the American victory on Lake Erie and the recapture of Detroit isolated the British there. During the ensuing winter, a Canadian party under Lieutenant Colonel Robert McDouall established a new supply line from York to Nottawasaga Bay on Georgian Bay. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

When he arrived at Fort Mackinac with supplies and reinforcements, he sent an expedition to recapture the trading post of Prairie du Chien in the far west. The Siege of Prairie du Chien ended in a British victory on July 20, 1814.

Earlier in July, the Americans sent a force of five vessels from Detroit to recapture Mackinac. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

A mixed force of regulars and volunteers from the militia landed on the island on August 4. They did not attempt to achieve surprise, and at the brief Battle of Mackinac Island, they were ambushed by natives and forced to re-embark. The Americans discovered the new base at Nottawasaga Bay, and on August 13, they destroyed its fortifications and a schooner that they found there. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

They then returned to Detroit, leaving two gunboats to blockade Mackinac. On September 4, these gunboats were taken unawares and captured by British boarding parties from canoes and small boats. This Engagement on Lake Huron left Mackinac under British control. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan,HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

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The War of 1812 was a 32-month military conflict between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies and its Indian allies. The outcome resolved many issues which remained from the American War of Independence, but involved no boundary changes. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indiantribes against American expansion, HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American interest in annexing British North American territory (part of modern-day Canada) which had been denied to them in the settlement ending the American Revolutionary War. [3]

The war was fought in three principal theatres. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

Firstly, at sea, warships and privateers of each side attacked the other's merchant ships, while the British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the United States and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war. Secondly, both land and naval battles were fought on the American–Canadian frontier, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

which ran along the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence River and the northern end ofLake Champlain. Thirdly, the American South and Gulf Coast also saw major land battles in which the American forces defeated Britain's Indian allies and a British invasion force at New Orleans. Some invasions or counter strikes were unsuccessful, while others successfully attacked enemy objectives and took possession of opposition territory. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

At the end of the war both sides signed the Treaty of Ghent, and all parties returned occupied land to its pre war owner.

With the majority of its army and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars until 1814, the British at first used a defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

The Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. In September 1814, a British force invaded and occupied eastern Maine. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

This territory, along with parts of Michigan and Wisconsin, were seized and held by the British and their Indian allies for the duration of the war. In thesouthwest, General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

The British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed them to capture and burn Washington, D.C, but they were repulsed in an attempt to take Baltimore. American victories in September 1814 repulsed the British invasion of New York, and the British suffered a major defeat at New Orleans in January 1815. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

In the United States, late victories over invading British armies at the battles of Plattsburg, Baltimore(inspiring their national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner"), and New Orleans produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain.[4] SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

Peace brought an "Era of Good Feelings" to the U.S. in which partisan animosity nearly vanished.

In Upper and Lower Canada, British and Provincial militia victories over invading American armies became iconic and promoted the development of a distinct Canadian identity which included strong loyalty to Britain. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

Today, particularly in loyalist-founded Ontario, memory of the war retains its significance because the defeat of the invasions ensured that the Canadas would remain part of the British Empire rather than be annexed by the United States. In Canada, numerous ceremonies took place in 2012 to commemorate the war, offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border.[5] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

The war is scarcely remembered in Britain today, as it regarded the conflict as a sideshow to the much larger Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe.

As Risjord (1961) notes, an unstated but powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults (including the Chesapeake affair).[7] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [Andrew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war of independence held that view with special conviction. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but was it also about vindication of American identity".HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede American trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law.[10] Also, historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy".[11] FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

The American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U.S. cotton and 50% of other U.S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition.[12] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The United States' view was that Britain's restrictions violated its right to trade with others.

During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 175 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.[13] While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

it competed in wartime with merchant shipping and privateers for a small pool of experienced sailors and turned to impressmentwhen it could not operate ships with volunteers alone. Britain did not recognize the right of a British subject to relinquish his status as a British subject, emigrate and transfer his national allegiance as a naturalized citizen to any other country. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Thus while the United States recognized British-born sailors on American ships as Americans, Britain did not. It was estimated that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin stated that 9,000 were born in Britain.[14] The Royal Navy went after them by intercepting and searching U.S. merchant ships for deserters.Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Impressment actions such as theLeander Affair and the ChesapeakeLeopard Affair outraged Americans, because they infringed on national sovereignty and denied America's ability to naturalize foreigners.[15] Moreover, a great number of British sailors serving as naturalized Americans on U.S. ships were Irish. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

An investigation by Captain Isaac Chauncey in 1808 found that 58% of the sailors based in New York City were either naturalized citizens or recent immigrants, the majority of foreign sailors (134 of 150) being from Britain. Moreover, eighty of the 134 British sailors were Irish.[16] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become United States citizens. Britain did not recognize naturalized United States citizenship, so in addition to recovering deserters, it considered United States citizens born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the widespread use of forged identity or protection papers by sailors.Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

This made it difficult for the Royal Navy to distinguish Americans from non-Americans and led it to impress some Americans who had never been British. (Some gained freedom on appeal.)[17] American anger at impressment grew when British frigates were stationed just outside U.S. harbours in view of U.S. shores and searched ships for contraband and impressed men while in U.S. territorial waters.[18] HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

"Free trade and sailors' rights" was a rallying cry for the United States throughout the conflict.

The Northwest Territory, comprising the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, was the battleground for conflict between the Indian Nations and the United States.[19]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The British Empire had ceded the area to the United States in theTreaty of Paris in 1783, both sides ignoring the fact that the land was already inhabited by various Indian nations. These included the Miami, Winnebago, Shawnee, Fox, Sauk, Kickapoo, Delaware and Wyandot. Some warriors, who had left their nations of origin, Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

followed Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet and the brother of Tecumseh. Tenskwatawa had a vision of purifying his society by expelling the "children of the Evil Spirit": the American settlers.[20] Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh formed a confederation of numerous tribes to block American expansion. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

The British saw the Indian nations as valuable allies and a buffer to its Canadian colonies and provided arms. Attacks on American settlers in the Northwest further aggravated tensions between Britain and the United States.[21] The confederation's raids and existence hindered American expansion into rich farmlands in the Northwest Territory.[ HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Pratt writes:

"There is ample proof that the British authorities did all in their power to hold or win the allegiance of the Indians of the Northwest with the expectation of using them as allies in the event of war. Indian allegiance could be held only by gifts, and to an Indian no gift was as acceptable as a lethal weapon. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Guns and ammunition, tomahawks and scalping knives were dealt out with some liberality by British agents".[23]

Raiding grew more common in 1810 and 1811; Westerners in Congress found the raids intolerable and wanted them permanently ended.[24] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

However, according to the U.S Army Center of Military History, the "land-hungry frontiersmen", with "no doubt that their troubles with the Indians were the result of British intrigue", exacerbated the problem by "[ circulating stories] after every Indian raid of British Army muskets and equipment being found on the field". HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Thus, "the westerners were convinced that their problems could best be solved by forcing the British out of Canada".[25]

The British had the long-standing goal of creating a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover much of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

They made the demand as late as the fall of 1814 at the peace conference, but lost control of western Ontario in 1813 at key battles on and around Lake Erie. These battles destroyed the Indian confederacy which had been the main ally of the British and cut off communication with the proposed neutral zone, which remained largely under British and Indian control. At American insistence the British dropped the demands. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

American expansion into the Northwest Territory was being obstructed by indigenous leaders like Tecumseh, who were supplied and encouraged by the British. Americans on the western frontier demanded that interference be stopped.[27] There is dispute, however, over whether or not the American desire to annex Canada brought on the war. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Several historians believe that the capture of Canada was intended only as a means to secure a bargaining chip, which would then be used to force Britain to back down on the maritime issues. It would also cut off food supplies for Britain's West Indian colonies, and temporarily prevent the British from continuing to arm the Indians.[ HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

However, a significant minority of historians believes that a desire to annex Canada did bring on the war. They point out that annexation would achieve the long-standing goal of driving the British out of North America, permanently solve the Indian problem, and gain a significant amount of valuable land. This view was more prevalent before 1940, but continues to be held by a number of historians. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Upper Canada (modern southern Ontario) had mostly been settled by Revolution-era exiles from the United States (United Empire Loyalists) or postwar American immigrants. The Loyalists were hostile to union with the United States, while the immigrant settlers were generally uninterested in politics and remained neutral or supported the British during the war. The Canadian colonies were thinly populated and only lightly defended by the British Army. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

Americans then believed that many men in Upper Canada would rise up and greet an American invading army as liberators. That did not happen. One reason American forces retreated after one successful battle inside Canada was that they could not obtain supplies from the locals.[43] Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

But the Americans thought that the possibility of local support suggested an easy conquest, as former President Thomas Jefferson believed: "The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent".[ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Annexation was supported by American businessmen who wanted to gain control of Great Lakes trade.While the British government was largely oblivious to the deteriorating North-American situation because of its involvement in a continent-wide European War, the U.S. was in a period of significant political conflict between the Federalist Party(based mainly in the Northeast), ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

which favoured a strong central government and closer ties to Britain, and the Democratic-Republican Party (with its greatest power base in the South and West), which favoured a weak central government, preservation of slavery, expansion into Indian land, and a stronger break with Britain. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

By 1812, the Federalist Party had weakened considerably, and the Democratic-Republicans, with James Madison completing his first term of office and control of Congress, was in a very strong position to pursue its more aggressive agenda against Britain and attempt to further weaken its Federalist rivals.[46] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Throughout the war, support for the U.S. cause would be weak (or sometimes non-existent) in Federalist areas of the Northeast, though after the war, the self-destruction of the Federalists at the Hartford Conventionled to broader, retroactive support from all parts of the country. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan\

On June 1, 1812, President James Madison sent a message to Congress recounting American grievances against Great Britain, though not specifically calling for a declaration of war. After Madison's message, the House of Representatives deliberated for four days behind closed doors before voting 79 to 49 (61% in favor) the first declaration of war, and the Senate agreed by 19 to 13 (59% in favor). HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

The conflict began formally on June 18, 1812, when Madison signed the measure into law and proclaimed it the next day.[47] This was the first time that the United States had declared war on another nation, and the Congressional vote would prove to be the closest vote to formally declare war in American history. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

(The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991, while not a formal declaration of war, was a closer vote.) None of the 39 Federalists in Congress voted in favor of the war; critics of war subsequently referred to it as "Mr. Madison's War".[48]

Earlier in London on May 11, an assassin had killed Prime Minister Spencer Perceval, which resulted in Lord Liverpool coming to power. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Liverpool wanted a more practical relationship with the United States. On June 23, he issued a repeal of the Orders in Council, but the United States was unaware of this, as it took three weeks for the news to cross the Atlantic. [49]On June 28, 1812, HMS Colibri was despatched from Halifax under a flag of truce to New York. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

On July 9, she anchored offSandy Hook, and three days later sailed on her return with a copy of the declaration of war; the British ambassador, Mr. Foster; and consul, Colonel Barclay. She arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia eight days later. The news of the declaration took even longer to reach London. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

In response to the U.S. declaration of war, Isaac Brock issued a proclamation alerting the citizenry in Upper Canada of the state of war and urging all military personnel "to be vigilant in the discharge of their duty" to prevent communication with the enemy and to arrest anyone suspected of helping the Americans. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

Although the outbreak of the war had been preceded by years of angry diplomatic dispute, neither side was ready for war when it came. Britain was heavily engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, most of the British Army was deployed in the Peninsular War (in Portugal and Spain), and the Royal Navy was compelled to blockade most of the coast of Europe. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The number of British regular troops present in Canada in July 1812 was officially stated to be 6,034, supported by Canadian militia.[52] Throughout the war, the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was the Earl of Bathurst. For the first two years of the war, he could spare few troops to reinforce North America and urged the commander-in-chief in North America (Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost) to maintain a defensive strategy. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

The naturally cautious Prevost followed these instructions, concentrating on defendingLower Canada at the expense of Upper Canada (which was more vulnerable to American attacks) and allowing few offensive actions.

The United States was not prepared to prosecute a war, for Madison had assumed that the state militias would easily seize Canada and that negotiations would follow. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

In 1812, the regular army consisted of fewer than 12,000 men. Congress authorized the expansion of the army to 35,000 men, but the service was voluntary and unpopular; it offered poor pay, and there were few trained and experienced officers, at least initially.[53] The militia objected to serving outside their home states, were not open to discipline, and performed poorly against British forces when outside their home states. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

American prosecution of the war suffered from its unpopularity, especially in New England, where anti-war speakers were vocal. "Two of the Massachusetts members [of Congress], Seaver and Widgery, were publicly insulted and hissed on Change in Boston; while another, SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

Charles Turner, member for thePlymouth district, and Chief-Justice of the Court of Sessions for that county, was seized by a crowd on the evening of August 3, [1812] and kicked through the town".[54] The United States had great difficulty financing its war. It had disbanded its national bank, and private bankers in the Northeast were opposed to the war. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

The failure of New England to provide militia units or financial support was a serious blow.[55] Threats of secession by New England states were loud, as evidenced by the Hartford Convention. Britain exploited these divisions, blockading only southern ports for much of the war and encouraging smuggling.[56] Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

On July 12, 1812, General William Hull led an invading American force of about 1,000 untrained, poorly equipped militia across theDetroit River and occupied the Canadian town of Sandwich (now a neighbourhood of Windsor, Ontario).[57] By August, Hull and his troops (numbering 2,500 with the addition of 500 Canadians) Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

retreated to Detroit, where they surrendered to a significantly smaller force of British regulars, Canadian militia and Native Americans, led by British Major General Isaac Brock and Shawnee leader Tecumseh.[58] The surrender not only cost the United States the village of Detroit, but control over most of the Michigan Territory. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Several months later, the U.S. launched a second invasion of Canada, this time at the Niagara peninsula. On October 13, United States forces were again defeated at the Battle of Queenston Heights, where General Brock was killed.[59]

Military and civilian leadership remained a critical American weakness until 1814. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The early disasters brought about chiefly by American unpreparedness and lack of leadership drove United States Secretary of War William Eustis from office. His successor, John Armstrong, Jr., attempted a coordinated strategy late in 1813 (with 10,000 men) aimed at the capture of Montreal, but he was thwarted by logistical difficulties, uncooperative and quarrelsome commanders and ill-trained troops. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

After losing several battles to inferior forces, the Americans retreated in disarray in October 1813.A decisive use of naval power came on the Great Lakes and depended on a contest of building ships. The U.S. started a rapidly expanded program of building warships at Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontario, where 3,000 men were recruited, many from New York City, to build 11 warships early in the war. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

In 1813, the Americans won control of Lake Erie in the Battle of Lake Erie and cut off British and Native American forces in the west from their supply base; they were decisively defeated by General William Henry Harrison's forces on their retreat towards Niagara at the Battle of the Thames in October 1813.[61] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Tecumseh, the leader of the tribal confederation, was killed and his Indian coalition disintegrated.[62] While some natives continued to fight alongside British troops, they subsequently did so only as individual tribes or groups of warriors, and where they were directly supplied and armed by British agents. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The Americans controlled western Ontario, and permanently ended the threat of Indian raids supplied by the British in Canada into the American Midwest, thus achieving a basic war goal.[63] Control of Lake Ontario changed hands several times, with both sides unable and unwilling to take advantage of temporary superiority. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded much of the coastline, though it was allowing substantial exports from New England, which traded with Canada in defiance of American laws. The blockade devastated American agricultural exports, but it helped stimulate local factories that replaced goods previously imported. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The American strategy of using small gunboats to defend ports was a fiasco, as the British raided the coast at will. The most famous episode was a series of British raids on the shores of Chesapeake Bay, including an attack on Washington that resulted in the British burning of the White House, the Capitol, the Navy Yard, and other public buildings, in the "Burning of Washington".HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The British power at sea was enough to allow the Royal Navy to levy "contributions" on bayside towns in return for not burning them to the ground. The Americans were more successful in ship-to-ship actions. They sent out several hundred privateers to attack British merchant ships; in the first four months of war they captured 219 British merchant ships. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

British commercial interests were damaged, especially in the West Indies.

After Napoleon abdicated on April 6, 1814, the British could send veteran armies to the United States, but by then the Americans had learned how to mobilize and fight.[66] British General Prevost launched a major invasion of New York State with these veteran soldiers, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

but the American fleet under Thomas Macdonough gained control of Lake Champlain and the British lost the Battle of Plattsburgh in September 1814. Prevost, blamed for the defeat, sought a court-martial to clear his name, but he died in London awaiting it.[67] The British then launched a successful attack on Chesapeake Bay, ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

capturing and burning Washington, looting Alexandria, and unsuccessfully attacking Baltimore.The embarrassing Burning of Washington led to Armstrong's dismissal as U.S. Secretary of War. A British invasion of Louisiana (unknowingly launched after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war) was defeated with very heavy British losses by General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The victory made Jackson a national hero, restored the American sense of honour,[68] and ruined the Federalist party's efforts to condemn the war as a failure.[69] With the ratification of the peace treaty in February 1815, the war ended before the U.S. new Secretary of War James Monroe could put his new offensive strategy into effect, and before the British could launch renewed attacks. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Once Britain and The Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, France and Britain became allies. Britain ended the trade restrictions and the impressment of American sailors, thus removing two more causes of the war. After two years of warfare, the major causes of the war had disappeared. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Neither side had a reason to continue or a chance of gaining a decisive success that would compel their opponents to cede territory or advantageous peace terms.[70] As a result of thisstalemate, the two countries signed the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814. News of the peace treaty took two months to reach the U.S., during which fighting continued. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

The war fostered a spirit of national unity and an "Era of Good Feelings" in the U.S.,[71] as well as in Canada.[72] It opened a long era of peaceful relations between the United States and the British Empire.

In 1812, Britain's Royal Navy was the world's largest, with over 600 cruisers in commission and some smaller vessels. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Although most of these were involved in blockading the French navy and protecting British trade against (usually French) privateers, the Royal Navy still had 85 vessels in American waters, counting all British Navy vessels in North American and the Caribbean waters.[74] But, the Royal Navy's North American squadron based in Halifax, Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Nova Scotia, which bore the brunt of the war, numbered one small ship of the line, seven frigates, nine smaller sloops and brigs along with five schooners.[75]By contrast, the United States Navy comprised 8 frigates, 14 smaller sloops and brigs, and no ships of the line. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

The U.S. had embarked on a major shipbuilding program before the war at Sackets Harbor, New York and continued to produce new ships. Three of the existing American frigates were exceptionally large and powerful for their class, larger than any British frigate in North America. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Whereas the standard British frigate of the time was rated as a 38 gun ship, usually carrying up to 50 guns, with its main battery consisting of 18-pounder guns; the USS ConstitutionPresident, and United States, in comparison, were rated as 44-gun ships, carrying 56-60 guns with a main battery of 24-pounders. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

The British strategy was to protect their own merchant shipping to and from Halifax, Nova Scotia, and the West Indies, and to enforce a blockade of major American ports to restrict American trade. Because of their numerical inferiority, the American strategy was to cause disruption through hit-and-run tactics, such as the capture of prizes and engaging Royal Navy vessels only under favourable circumstances. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Days after the formal declaration of war, however, it put out two small squadrons, including the frigate President and the sloop Hornet under Commodore John Rodgers, and the frigates United States and Congress, with the brig Argus under Captain Stephen Decatur. These were initially concentrated as one unit under Rodgers, who intended to force the Royal Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Navy to concentrate its own ships to prevent isolated units being captured by his powerful force.

Large numbers of American merchant ships were returning to the United States with the outbreak of war, and if the Royal Navy was concentrated, it could not watch all the ports on the American seaboard. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Rodgers' strategy worked, in that the Royal Navy concentrated most of its frigates off New York Harbor under Captain Philip Broke, allowing many American ships to reach home. But, Rodgers' own cruise captured only five small merchant ships, and the Americans never subsequently concentrated more than two or three ships together as a unit. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Meanwhile, the Constitution, commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, sailed from Chesapeake Bay on July 12. On July 17, Broke's British squadron gave chase off New York, but the Constitution evaded her pursuers after two days. After briefly calling at Boston to replenish water, on August 19, the Constitution engaged the British frigate HMS GuerriereToshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

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In the Persian Gulf, Iran appears to many observers to be in the process of developing a nuclear weapon, which has greatly heightened fears of a nuclear conflict and arms races in the Middle East—either with Israel or with one or more Arab states (a "Shia-Sunni" conflict).

On March 7, 2013, North Korea threatened the United States with a preemptive nuclear strike.[44] Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

On April 9, North Korea urged foreigners to leave South Korea, stating that both countries were on the verge of nuclear war.[45] On April 12, North Korea stated that a nuclear war was unavoidable. The country declared Japan as its first target.

The above examples envisage nuclear warfare at a strategic level, i.e. total war. However, nuclear powers have the ability to undertake more limited engagements. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

"Sub-strategic use" includes the use of either "low-yield" tactical nuclear weapons, or of variable yield strategic nuclear weapons in a very limited role, as compared to battlefield exchanges of larger-yield strategic nuclear weapons. This was described by the UK Parliamentary Defence Select Committee as "the launch of one or a limited number of missiles against an adversary as a means of conveying a political message, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

warning or demonstration of resolve".[47] It is believed that all current nuclear weapons states possess tactical nuclear weapons, with the exception of the United Kingdom, which decommissioned its tactical warheads in 1998. However, the UK does possess scalable-yield strategic warheads, and this technology tends to blur the difference between "strategic", IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

"sub-strategic", and "tactical" use or weapons. American, French and British nuclear submarines are believed to carry at least some missiles with these types of high-tech warheads for this purpose - potentially allowing a strike as low as one kiloton (or less) against a single target. Only the People's Republic of Chinaand the Republic of India have declarative, unqualified, unconditional "no first use" nuclear weapons policies. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

Commodore Tim Hare, former Director of Nuclear Policy at the British Ministry of Defence, has described "sub-strategic use" as offering the Government "an extra option in the escalatory process before it goes for an all-out strategic strike which would deliver unacceptable damage".[48] However, this sub-strategic capacity has been criticized as potentially increasing the "acceptability" of using nuclear weapons. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

The related consideration of new generations of limited-yield nuclear weapons by the United States (i.e. "bunker busters") has also alarmed anti-nuclear groups, who believe it will make the use of nuclear weapons "more acceptable" or likely.

Also of note is that the United States adopted a policy in 1996 of allowing the targeting of its nuclear weapons at non-state actors ("terrorists") armed withweapons of mass destruction. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

Nuclear terrorism by non-state organizations or actors (even individuals) is a largely unknown and understudied factor in nuclear deterrence thinking, as states possessing nuclear weapons are susceptible to retaliation in kind, while sub- or trans-state actors may be less so. The collapse of the Soviet Union has given rise to the possibility that former Soviet nuclear weapons might become available on the black market (so-called 'loose nukes'). DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

While no warheads are known to have been mislaid, it has been alleged that at least some very small or suitcase-size bombs might be unaccounted for.

A number of other concerns have been expressed about the security of nuclear weapons in other, newer nuclear powers with relatively less stable governments, such as Pakistan, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

but in each case, the fears have been addressed to some extent by statements and evidence provided by those nations, as well as cooperative programs between nations. Worry remains, however, in many circles that a relative decrease in security of nuclear weapons has emerged in recent years, HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

and that terrorists or others may attempt to exert control over (or use) nuclear weapons, militarily applicable technology, or nuclear materials and fuel.

Another possible nuclear terrorism threat are devices designed to disperse radioactive materials over a large area using conventional explosives, called dirty bombs. The detonation of a "dirty bomb" would not cause a nuclear explosion, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

nor would it release enough radiation to kill or injure a lot of people. However, it could cause severe disruption and require potentially very costly decontamination procedures and increased spending on security measures.

The predictions of the effects of a major countervalue nuclear exchange include millions of city dweller deaths within a short period of time. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Some predictions argue that a full-scale nuclear war could eventually bring about the extinction of the human race; however such pessimistic predictions, assuming total war with nuclear arsenals at Cold war highs, have not been without considerable criticism.[5] Nonetheless, a number of Cold War publications advocate preparations that can allegedly be taken in order to allow the majority of civilians to survive even a total nuclear war. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Among the most famous of these is the aptly namedNuclear War Survival Skills.[51]

To avoid injury and death from a nuclear weapons heat flash and blast effects, the two most far ranging prompt effects of nuclear weapons, schoolchildren were taught to duck and cover by the early cold war film of the same name. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

Such advice is once again being given in case of nuclear terrorist attacks.[52]

Prussian blue, or "Radiogardase", is stockpiled in the US, along with potassium iodide and DPTA as pharmaceuticals useful in treating internal exposure to harmful radioisotopes in fallout.[53] DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Publications on adapting to a changing diet and supplying nutritional food sources following a nuclear war, with particular focus on agricultural radioecology, include Nutrition in the postattack environment by the RAND corporation.[54]

Many countries maintain plans for continuity of government following a nuclear attack or similar disasters. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

The Soviet government believed they could win, not only a strategic nuclear war, which they planned to absorb with their extensive Civil Defense schemes and infrastructure dispersal,but also win the conventional war that they predicted would follow after their strategic nuclear arsenal had been depleted.[58] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

A number of other countries around the world have taken significant efforts to maximize their survival prospects in the event of large calamities, both natural and manmade. For example, metro stations in Pyongyang, North Korea, were constructed 110 metres (360 ft) below ground, and were designed to serve as nuclear shelters in the event of war, with each station entrance built with thick steel blast doors.[59][60] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

While examples of privately funded fallout shelters are theArk Two Shelter in Ontario, Canada, one of the best known privately constructed autonomous shelters, with a focus on post-war networking and reconstruction.[61]In Switzerland, the majority of homes have an underground blast and fallout shelter. The country has an overcapacity of such shelters and can accommodate slightly more than the nation's population size. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive power derived from nuclear fission or combined fission and fusionreactions. Starting with scientific breakthroughs made during the 1930s, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada collaborated during World War II in what was called the Manhattan Project to counter the suspected Nazi German atomic bomb project. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

In August 1945 two fission bombs were dropped on Japan ending the Pacific War. The Soviet Unionstarted development shortly thereafter with their own atomic bomb project, and not long after that both countries developed even more powerful fusion weapons known as "hydrogen bombs."

In the first decades of the 20th century, physics was revolutionised with developments in the understanding of the nature ofatoms. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

In 1898, Pierre and Marie Curie discovered that pitchblende, an ore of uranium, contained a substance—which they namedradium—that emitted large amounts of radioactivity. Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy identified that atoms were breaking down and turning into different elements. Hopes were raised among scientists and laymen that the elements around us could contain tremendous amounts of unseen energy, waiting to be harnessed. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

H. G. Wells was inspired to write about atomic weapons in a 1914 novel, The World Set Free, which appeared shortly before the First World War. In a 1924 article, Winston Churchill speculated about the possible military implications: "Might not a bomb no bigger than an orange be found to possess a secret power to destroy a whole block of buildings—nay to concentrate the force of a thousand tons of cordite and blast a township at a stroke?"[1] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany and it quickly became unsafe for Jewish scientists to remain in the country. Leó Szilárd fled to London where he proposed, and in 1934 patented, the idea of a nuclear chain reaction vianeutrons. The patent also introduced the term critical mass to describe the minimum amount of material required to sustain the chain reaction and its potential to cause an explosion. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

(British patent 630,726.) He subsequently assigned the patent to theBritish Admiralty so that it could be covered by the Official Secrets Act.[2] In a very real sense, Szilárd was the father of the atomic bomb academically. Also in 1934, Irène and Frédéric Joliot-Curie discovered that artificial radioactivity could be induced in stable elements by bombarding them with alpha particles; SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Enrico Fermi reported similar results when bombarding uranium with neutrons.

In December 1938, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann sent a manuscript to Naturwissenschaften reporting that they had detected the element barium after bombarding uranium with neutrons.[3] HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Lise Meitner and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch correctly interpreted these results as being due to the splitting of the uranium atom. (Frisch confirmed this experimentally on January 13, 1939.[4]) They gave the process the name "fission" because of its similarity to the splitting of a cell into two new cells.[5] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Even before it was published, news of Meitner’s and Frisch’s interpretation crossed the Atlantic.[6] Scientists at Columbia University decided to replicate the experiment and on January 25, 1939, conducted the first nuclear fission experiment in the United States[7] in the basement of Pupin Hall.[8] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The following year, they identified the active component of uranium as being the rare isotope uranium-235.[9]

Uranium appears in nature primarily in two isotopes: uranium-238 and uranium-235. When the nucleus of uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, it undergoes nuclear fission, releasing energy and, on average, 2.5 neutrons. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

Because uranium-235 releases more neutrons than it absorbs, it can support a chain reaction and so is described as fissile. Uranium-238, on the other hand, is not fissile as it does not normally undergo fission when it absorbs a neutron.

By the time Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939, beginning World War II, many of Europe's top scientists had already fled the imminent conflict. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Physicists on both sides were well aware of the possibility of utilizing nuclear fission as a weapon, but no one was quite sure how it could be done. In August 1939, concerned that Germany might have its own project to develop fission-based weapons, Albert Einstein signed a letter to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt warning him of the threat.[10] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

Roosevelt responded by setting up the Uranium Committee under Lyman James Briggs but, with little initial funding ($6,000), progress was slow. It was not until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, that the U.S. decided to commit the necessary resources.[11]

Organized research first began in Britain as part of the Tube Alloys project. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

The Maud Committee was set up following the work of Frisch and Rudolf Peierls who calculated uranium-235's critical mass and found it to be much smaller than previously thought which meant that a deliverable bomb should be possible.[12] In the February 1940 Frisch–Peierls memorandum they stated that: Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

"The energy liberated in the explosion of such a super-bomb...will, for an instant, produce a temperature comparable to that of the interior of the sun. The blast from such an explosion would destroy life in a wide area. The size of this area is difficult to estimate, but it will probably cover the centre of a big city." ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Edgar Sengier, a director of Shinkolobwe Mine which produced by far the highest quality uranium ore in the world, had become aware of uranium's possible use in a bomb. In late 1940, fearful of its seizure by the Germans, he shipped the mine's entire stockpile of ore to a warehouse on Staten Island.[13] Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

For 18 months British research outpaced the American but by mid-1942, it became apparent that the industrial effort required was beyond Britain's already stretched wartime economy.[14]:204 In September 1942, General Leslie Groves was appointed to lead the U.S. project which became known as the Manhattan Project. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Two of his first acts were to obtain authorization to assign the highest priority AAA rating on necessary procurements, and to put in train the purchase of all 1,250 tons of the Shinkolobwe ore.[13][15] The Tube Alloys project was quickly overtaken by the U.S. effort[14] and after Roosevelt and Churchill signed theQuebec Agreement in 1943, it was relocated and amalgamated into the Manhattan Project. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

With a scientific team led by J. Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan project brought together some of the top scientific minds of the day, including many exiles from Europe, with the production power of American industry for the goal of producing fission-based explosive devices before Germany. Britain and the U.S. agreed to pool their resources and information for the project, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

but the other Allied power, the Soviet Union (USSR), was not informed. The U.S. made an unprecedented investment in the project which at the time was the largest industrial enterprise ever seen,[14] spread across more than 30 sites in the U.S. and Canada. Scientific development was centralized in a secret laboratory at Los Alamos. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

For a fission weapon to operate, there must be sufficient fissile material to support a chain reaction, a critical mass. To separate the fissile uranium-235 isotope from the non-fissile uranium-238, two methods were developed which took advantage of the fact that uranium-238 has a slightly greater atomic mass: electromagnetic separation and gaseous diffusion. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Another secret site was erected at rural Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the large-scale production and purification of the rare isotope, which required considerable investment. At the time, K-25, one of the Oak Ridge facilities, was the world's largest factory under one roof. The Oak Ridge site employed tens of thousands of people at its peak, most of whom had no idea what they were working on. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

Although uranium-238 cannot be used for the initial stage of an atomic bomb, when it absorbs a neutron, it becomes uranium-239 which decays into neptunium-239, and finally the relatively stable plutonium-239, an element that does not exist naturally on Earth, but is fissile like uranium-235. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

After Fermi achieved the world's first sustained and controlled nuclear chain reaction with the creation of the first atomic pile, massive reactors were secretly constructed at what is now known as Hanford Site to transform uranium-238 into plutonium for a bomb.

The simplest form of nuclear weapon is a gun-type fission weapon, where a sub-critical mass would be shot at another sub-critical mass. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

The result would be a super-critical mass and an uncontrolled chain reaction that would create the desired explosion. The weapons envisaged in 1942 were the two gun-type weapons, Little Boy (uranium) and Thin Man (plutonium), and the Fat Man plutonium implosion bomb.

In early 1943 Oppenheimer determined that two projects should proceed forwards: SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

the Thin Man project (plutonium gun) and the Fat Man project (plutonium implosion). The plutonium gun was to receive the bulk of the research effort, as it was the project with the most uncertainty involved. It was assumed that the uranium gun-type bomb could then be adapted from it.

In December 1943 the British mission of 19 scientists arrived in Los Alamos. Hans Bethebecame head of the Theoretical Division. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

In April 1944 it was found by Emilio Segrè that the plutonium-239 produced by the Hanford reactors had too high a level of background neutron radiation, and underwentspontaneous fission to a very small extent, due to the unexpected presence of plutonium-240 impurities. If such plutonium were used in a gun-type design, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

the chain reaction would start in the split second before the critical mass was fully assembled, blowing the weapon apart with a much lower yield than expected, in what is known as afizzle.

As a result, development of Fat Man was given high priority. Chemical explosives were used to implode a sub-critical sphere of plutonium, thus increasing its density and making it into a critical mass. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

The difficulties with implosion centered on the problem of making the chemical explosives deliver a perfectly uniform shock wave upon the plutonium sphere— if it were even slightly asymmetric, the weapon would fizzle. This problem was solved by the use of explosive lenses which would focus the blast waves inside the imploding sphere, akin to the way in which an optical lens focuses light rays.[16] Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

After D-Day, General Groves ordered a team of scientists to follow eastward-moving victorious Allied troops into Europe to assess the status of the German nuclear program (and to prevent the westward-moving Russians from gaining any materials or scientific manpower). They concluded that, while Germany had an atomic bomb program headed byWerner Heisenberg, HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

the government had not made a significant investment in the project, and it had been nowhere near success.

Historians claim to have found a rough schematic showing a Nazi nuclear bomb.[17] In March 1945, a German scientific team was directed by the physicist Kurt Diebner to develop a primitive nuclear device inOhrdruf, Thuringia.[17][18] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Last ditch research was conducted in an experimental nuclear reactor at Haigerloch.

On April 12, after Roosevelt's death, Vice-President Harry S. Truman assumed the presidency. At the time of the unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, the Manhattan Project was still months away from producing a working weapon. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

Because of the difficulties in making a working plutonium bomb, it was decided that there should be a test of the weapon. On July 16, 1945, in the desert north of Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first nuclear test took place, code-named "Trinity", using a device nicknamed "the gadget." The test, a plutonium implosion type device, released energy equivalent to 19 kilotons of TNT, HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

far more powerful than any weapon ever used before. The news of the test's success was rushed to Truman at the Potsdam Conference, where Churchill was briefed and Joseph Stalin was informed of the new weapon. On July 26, thePotsdam Declaration was issued containing an ultimatum for Japan: either surrender or suffer "complete and utter destruction", although nuclear weapons were not mentioned. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

After hearing arguments from scientists and military officers over the possible uses of the weapons against Japan (though some recommended using them as demonstrations in unpopulated areas, most recommended using them against built up targets, a euphemistic term for populated cities), Truman ordered the use of the weapons on Japanese cities, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

hoping it would send a strong message that would end in the capitulation of the Japanese leadership and avoid a lengthy invasion of the islands. On May 10–11, 1945, the Target Committee at Los Alamos, led by Oppenheimer, recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and the arsenal at Kokura as possible targets. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

Concerns about Kyoto's cultural heritage led to it being replaced by Nagasaki.

On August 6, 1945, a uranium-based weapon, Little Boy, was detonated above the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, a plutonium-based weapon, Fat Man, was detonated above the city of Nagasaki. The atomic bombs killed at least one hundred thousand Japanese outright, most of them civilians, with the heat, radiation, and blast effects. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Many tens of thousands would later die of radiation sickness and related cancers.[19][20] Truman promised a "rain of ruin" if Japan did not surrender immediately, threatening to systematically eliminate their ability to wage war.[21] On August 15, Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's surrender. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The Soviet Union was not invited to share in the new weapons developed by the United States and the other Allies. During the war, information had been pouring in from a number of volunteer spies involved with the Manhattan Project (known in Soviet cables under the code-name of Enormoz), HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

and the Soviet nuclear physicist Igor Kurchatov was carefully watching the Allied weapons development. It came as no surprise to Stalin when Truman had informed him at the Potsdam conference that he had a "powerful new weapon." Truman was shocked at Stalin's lack of interest.

The Soviet spies in the U.S. project were all volunteers and none were Russians. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

One of the most valuable, Klaus Fuchs, was a German émigré theoretical physicist who had been part of the early British nuclear efforts and the UK mission to Los Alamos. Fuchs had been intimately involved in the development of the implosion weapon, and passed on detailed cross-sections of the Trinity device to his Soviet contacts. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Other Los Alamos spies—none of whom knew each other—included Theodore Hall and David Greenglass. The information was kept but not acted upon, as Russia was still too busy fighting the war in Europe to devote resources to this new project.

In the years immediately after World War II, the issue of who should control atomic weapons became a major international point of contention. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Many of the Los Alamos scientists who had built the bomb began to call for "international control of atomic energy," often calling for either control by transnational organizations or the purposeful distribution of weapons information to all superpowers, but due to a deep distrust of the intentions of the Soviet Union, both in postwar Europe and in general, the policy-makers of the United States worked to attempt to secure an American nuclear monopoly. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

A half-hearted plan for international control was proposed at the newly formed United Nations by Bernard Baruch (The Baruch Plan), but it was clear both to American commentators—and to the Soviets—that it was an attempt primarily to stymie Russian nuclear efforts. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The Soviets vetoed the plan, effectively ending any immediate postwar negotiations on atomic energy, and made overtures towards banning the use of atomic weapons in general.

The Soviets had put their full industrial might and manpower into the development of their own atomic weapons. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The initial problem for the Soviets was primarily one of resources—they had not scouted out uranium resources in the Soviet Union and the U.S. had made deals to monopolise the largest known (and high purity) reserves in the Belgian Congo. The USSR used penal labour to mine the old deposits in Czechoslovakia—now an area under their control—and searched for other domestic deposits (which were eventually found). HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Two days after the bombing of Nagasaki, the U.S. government released an official technical history of the Manhattan Project, authored by Princeton physicistHenry DeWolf Smyth, known colloquially as the Smyth Report. The sanitized summary of the wartime effort focused primarily on the production facilities and scale of investment, written in part to justify the wartime expenditure to the American public. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

The Soviet program, under the suspicious watch of former NKVD chief Lavrenty Beria (a participant and victor in Stalin's Great Purge of the 1930s), would use the Report as a blueprint, seeking to duplicate as much as possible the American effort. The "secret cities" used for the Soviet equivalents of Hanford and Oak Ridge literally vanished from the maps for decades to come. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

At the Soviet equivalent of Los Alamos, Arzamas-16, physicist Yuli Khariton led the scientific effort to develop the weapon. Beria distrusted his scientists, however, and he distrusted the carefully collected espionage information. As such, Beria assigned multiple teams of scientists to the same task without informing each team of the other's existence. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

If they arrived at different conclusions, Beria would bring them together for the first time and have them debate with their newfound counterparts. Beria used the espionage information as a way to double-check the progress of his scientists, and in his effort for duplication of the American project even rejected more efficient bomb designs in favor of ones that more closely mimicked the tried-and-true Fat Man bomb used by the U.S. against Nagasaki. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Working under a stubborn and scientifically ignorant administrator, the Soviet scientists struggled on. On August 29, 1949, the effort brought its results, when the USSR tested its first fission bomb, dubbed "Joe-1" by the U.S., years ahead of American predictions. The news of the first Soviet bomb was announced to the world first by the United States, which had detected the nuclear fallout it generated from its test site in Kazakhstan. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

The loss of the American monopoly on nuclear weapons marked the first tit-for-tat of the nuclear arms race. The response in the U.S. was one of apprehension, fear, and scapegoating, which would lead eventually into the Red-baiting tactics of McCarthyism. Yet recent information from unclassified Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Venona intercepts and the opening of the KGB archives after the fall of the Soviet Union show that the USSR had useful spies that helped their program, although none were identified by McCarthy. Before this, though, President Truman announced a decision to begin a crash program that would develop a far more powerful weapon than those the U.S. used against Japan: the hydrogen bomb. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

The Soviet Union was not invited to share in the new weapons developed by the United States and the other Allies. During the war, information had been pouring in from a number of volunteer spies involved with the Manhattan Project (known in Soviet cables under the code-name of Enormoz), and the Soviet nuclear physicist Igor Kurchatov was carefully watching the Allied weapons development. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

It came as no surprise to Stalin when Truman had informed him at the Potsdam conference that he had a "powerful new weapon." Truman was shocked at Stalin's lack of interest.

The Soviet spies in the U.S. project were all volunteers and none were Russians. One of the most valuable, Klaus Fuchs, was a German émigré theoretical physicist who had been part of the early British nuclear efforts and the UK mission to Los Alamos. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Fuchs had been intimately involved in the development of the implosion weapon, and passed on detailed cross-sections of the Trinity device to his Soviet contacts. Other Los Alamos spies—none of whom knew each other—included Theodore Hall and David Greenglass. The information was kept but not acted upon, as Russia was still too busy fighting the war in Europe to devote resources to this new project. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

In the years immediately after World War II, the issue of who should control atomic weapons became a major international point of contention. Many of the Los Alamos scientists who had built the bomb began to call for "international control of atomic energy," often calling for either control by transnational organizations or the purposeful distribution of weapons information to all superpowers, HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

but due to a deep distrust of the intentions of the Soviet Union, both in postwar Europe and in general, the policy-makers of the United States worked to attempt to secure an American nuclear monopoly.

A half-hearted plan for international control was proposed at the newly formed United Nations by Bernard Baruch (The Baruch Plan), Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

but it was clear both to American commentators—and to the Soviets—that it was an attempt primarily to stymie Russian nuclear efforts. The Soviets vetoed the plan, effectively ending any immediate postwar negotiations on atomic energy, and made overtures towards banning the use of atomic weapons in general. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

The Soviets had put their full industrial might and manpower into the development of their own atomic weapons. The initial problem for the Soviets was primarily one of resources—they had not scouted out uranium resources in the Soviet Union and the U.S. had made deals to monopolise the largest known (and high purity) reserves in the Belgian Congo. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

The USSR used penal labour to mine the old deposits in Czechoslovakia—now an area under their control—and searched for other domestic deposits (which were eventually found).

Two days after the bombing of Nagasaki, the U.S. government released an official technical history of the Manhattan Project, authored by Princeton physicistHenry DeWolf Smyth, known colloquially as the Smyth Report. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

The sanitized summary of the wartime effort focused primarily on the production facilities and scale of investment, written in part to justify the wartime expenditure to the American public.

The Soviet program, under the suspicious watch of former NKVD chief Lavrenty Beria (a participant and victor in Stalin's Great Purge of the 1930s), would use the Report as a blueprint, seeking to duplicate as much as possible the American effort. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

The "secret cities" used for the Soviet equivalents of Hanford and Oak Ridge literally vanished from the maps for decades to come.

At the Soviet equivalent of Los Alamos, Arzamas-16, physicist Yuli Khariton led the scientific effort to develop the weapon. Beria distrusted his scientists, however, and he distrusted the carefully collected espionage information. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

As such, Beria assigned multiple teams of scientists to the same task without informing each team of the other's existence. If they arrived at different conclusions, Beria would bring them together for the first time and have them debate with their newfound counterparts. Beria used the espionage information as a way to double-check the progress of his scientists, HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

and in his effort for duplication of the American project even rejected more efficient bomb designs in favor of ones that more closely mimicked the tried-and-true Fat Man bomb used by the U.S. against Nagasaki.

Working under a stubborn and scientifically ignorant administrator, the Soviet scientists struggled on. On August 29, 1949, the effort brought its results, HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

when the USSR tested its first fission bomb, dubbed "Joe-1" by the U.S., years ahead of American predictions. The news of the first Soviet bomb was announced to the world first by the United States, which had detected the nuclear fallout it generated from its test site in Kazakhstan.

The loss of the American monopoly on nuclear weapons marked the first tit-for-tat of the nuclear arms race. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

The response in the U.S. was one of apprehension, fear, and scapegoating, which would lead eventually into the Red-baiting tactics of McCarthyism. Yet recent information from unclassified Venona intercepts and the opening of the KGB archives after the fall of the Soviet Union show that the USSR had useful spies that helped their program, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

although none were identified by McCarthy.[citation needed] Before this, though, President Truman announced a decision to begin a crash program that would develop a far more powerful weapon than those the U.S. used against Japan: the hydrogen bomb.

The notion of using a fission weapon to ignite a process of nuclear fusion can be dated back to 1942. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

At the first major theoretical conference on the development of an atomic bomb hosted by J. Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley, participant Edward Teller directed the majority of the discussion towards Enrico Fermi's idea of a "Super" bomb that would use the same reactions that powered the Sun itself. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

It was thought at the time that a fission weapon would be quite simple to develop and that perhaps work on a hydrogen bomb (thermonuclear weapon) would be possible to complete before the end of the Second World War. However, in reality the problem of a regular atomic bomb was large enough to preoccupy the scientists for the next few years, HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

much less the more speculative "Super" bomb. Only Teller continued working on the project—against the will of project leaders Oppenheimer and Hans Bethe.

After the atomic bombings of Japan, many scientists at Los Alamos rebelled against the notion of creating a weapon thousands of times more powerful than the first atomic bombs. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

For the scientists the question was in part technical—the weapon design was still quite uncertain and unworkable—and in part moral: such a weapon, they argued, could only be used against large civilian populations, and could thus only be used as a weapon of genocide.

Many scientists, such as Bethe, urged that the United States should not develop such weapons and set an example towards the Soviet Union. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Promoters of the weapon, including Teller, Ernest Lawrence, and Luis Alvarez, argued that such a development was inevitable, and to deny such protection to the people of the United States—especially when the Soviet Union was likely to create such a weapon themselves—was itself an immoral and unwise act. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

Oppenheimer, who was now head of the General Advisory Committee of the successor to the Manhattan Project, the Atomic Energy Commission, presided over a recommendation against the development of the weapon. The reasons were in part because the success of the technology seemed limited at the time (and not worth the investment of resources to confirm whether this was so), HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

and because Oppenheimer believed that the atomic forces of the United States would be more effective if they consisted of many large fission weapons (of which multiple bombs could be dropped on the same targets) rather than the large and unwieldy super bombs, for which there was a relatively limited number of targets of sufficient size to warrant such a development. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Furthermore, were such weapons developed by both the U.S. and the USSR, they would be more effectively used against the U.S. than by it, as the U.S. had far more regions of dense industrial and civilian activity as targets for large weapons than the Soviet Union.

In the end, President Truman made the final decision, looking for a proper response to the first Soviet atomic bomb test in 1949. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

On January 31, 1950, Truman announced a crash program to develop the hydrogen (fusion) bomb. At this point, however, the exact mechanism was still not known: the classical hydrogen bomb, whereby the heat of the fission bomb would be used to ignite the fusion material, seemed highly unworkable. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

However, an insight by Los Alamos mathematician Stanislaw Ulam showed that the fission bomb and the fusion fuel could be in separate parts of the bomb, and thatradiation of the fission bomb could first work in a way to compress the fusion material before igniting it.

Teller pushed the notion further, and used the results of the boosted-fission "George" test HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

(a boosted-fission device using a small amount of fusion fuel to boost the yield of a fission bomb) to confirm the fusion of heavy hydrogen elements before preparing for their first true multi-stage, Teller-Ulam hydrogen bomb test. Many scientists initially against the weapon, such as Oppenheimer and Bethe, changed their previous opinions, seeing the development as being unstoppable. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

The first fusion bomb was tested by the United States in Operation Ivy on November 1, 1952, on Elugelab Island in the Enewetak (or Eniwetok) Atoll of the Marshall Islands, code-named "Mike." Mike used liquid deuterium as its fusion fuel and a large fission weapon as its trigger. The device was a prototype design and not a deliverable weapon: HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

standing over 20 ft (6 m) high and weighing at least 140,000 lb (64 t) (its refrigeration equipment added an additional 24,000 lb (11,000 kg) as well), it could not have been dropped from even the largest planes.

Its explosion yielded energy equivalent to 10.4 megatons of TNT—over 450 times the power of the bomb dropped onto Nagasaki— and obliterated Elugelab, SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

leaving an underwater crater 6240 ft (1.9 km) wide and 164 ft (50 m) deep where the island had once been. Truman had initially tried to create a media blackout about the test—hoping it would not become an issue in the upcoming presidential election—but on January 7, 1953, Truman announced the development of the hydrogen bomb to the world as hints and speculations of it were already beginning to emerge in the press. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

Not to be outdone, the Soviet Union exploded its first thermonuclear device, designed by the physicist Andrei Sakharov, on August 12, 1953, labeled "Joe-4" by the West. This created concern within the U.S. government and military, because, unlike Mike, the Soviet device was a deliverable weapon, which the U.S. did not yet have. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

This first device though was arguably not a true hydrogen bomb, and could only reach explosive yields in the hundreds of kilotons (never reaching the megaton range of a staged weapon). Still, it was a powerful propaganda tool for the Soviet Union, and the technical differences were fairly oblique to the American public and politicians. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

Following the Mike blast by less than a year, Joe-4 seemed to validate claims that the bombs were inevitable and vindicate those who had supported the development of the fusion program. Coming during the height of McCarthyism, the effect was pronounced on the security hearings in early 1954, IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

which revoked former Los Alamos director Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance on the grounds that he was unreliable, had not supported the American hydrogen bomb program, and had made long-standing left-wing ties in the 1930s. Edward Teller participated in the hearing as the only major scientist to testify against Oppenheimer, resulting in his virtual expulsion from the physics community. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

On March 1, 1954, the U.S. detonated its first practical thermonuclear weapon (which used isotopes of lithium as its fusion fuel), known as the "Shrimp" device of the Castle Bravo test, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. The device yielded 15 megatons, more than twice its expected yield, and became the worstradiological disaster in U.S. history. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

The combination of the unexpectedly large blast and poor weather conditions caused a cloud of radioactive nuclear fallout to contaminate over 7,000 square miles (18,000 km2). 239 Marshall Island natives and 28 Americans were exposed to significant amounts of radiation, resulting in elevated levels of cancer and birth defects in the years to come.[25] Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

The crew of the Japanese tuna-fishing boat Lucky Dragon 5, who had been fishing just outside the exclusion zone, returned to port suffering from radiation sickness and skin burns. Efforts were made to recover the contaminated fish but at least two large tuna were probably sold and eaten. HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

A further 75 tons of tuna caught between March and December were found to be unfit for human consumption. When a crew member died and the full results of the contamination were made public by the U.S., Japanese concerns were reignited about the hazards of radiation.

The hydrogen bomb age had a profound effect on the thoughts of nuclear war in the popular and military mind. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

With only fission bombs, nuclear war was something that possibly could be limited. Dropped by planes and only able to destroy the most built up areas of major cities, it was possible for many to look at fission bombs as a technological extension of large-scale conventional bombing—such as the extensive firebombing against Japan and Germany during World War II). Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

Proponents brushed aside as grave exaggeration claims that such weapons could lead to worldwide death or harm.

Even in the decades before fission weapons, there had been speculation about the possibility for human beings to end all life on the planet, either by accident or purposeful maliciousness—but technology had not provided the capacity for such action. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The great power of hydrogen bombs made world-wide annihilation possible.

The Castle Bravo incident itself raised a number of questions about the survivability of a nuclear war. Government scientists in both the U.S. and the USSR had insisted that fusion weapons, unlike fission weapons, were cleaner, as fusion reactions did not produce the dangerously radioactive by-products of fission reactions. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

While technically true, this hid a more gruesome point: the last stage of a multi-staged hydrogen bomb often used the neutrons produced by the fusion reactions to induce fissioning in a jacket of natural uranium, and provided around half of the yield of the device itself.

This fission stage made fusion weapons considerably more dirty than they were made out to be. HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

This was evident in the towering cloud of deadly fallout that followed the Bravo test. When the Soviet Union tested its first megaton device in 1955, the possibility of a limited nuclear war seemed even more remote in the public and political mind. Even cities and countries that were not direct targets would suffer fallout contamination. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

Extremely harmful fission products would disperse via normal weather patterns and embed in soil and water around the planet.

Speculation began to run towards what fallout and dust from a full-scale nuclear exchange would do to the world as a whole, rather than just cities and countries directly involved. In this way, the fate of the world was now tied to the fate of the bomb-wielding superpowers.HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan,HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

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Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on an opponent. Compared to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare can be vastly more destructive in range and extent of damage, and in a much shorter time frame. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan

A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects, primarily from the fallout released, and could also lead to a "nuclear winter" that could last for decades, centuries, or even millennia after the initial attack.[1][2] Some analysts claim that with this potential nuclear winter side-effect of a nuclear war almost every human on Earth could starve to death,[3][4] HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

While other analysts, that dismiss the nuclear winter hypothesis, calculate that with nuclear weapon stockpiles at Cold Warhighs, in a surprise countervalue global nuclear war, megadeaths to billions of casualties would have resulted but billions of people would nevertheless have survived the global thermonuclear war.[5][6][7][8] HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan

Only two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the United States near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, a uranium gun-type device (code name "Little Boy") was detonated over the Japanese city ofHiroshima. Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type device (code name "Fat Man") was detonated overNagasaki, Japan. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan

These two bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 people from acute injuries sustained in the detonations.[9]After World War II, nuclear weapons were also developed by the Soviet Union (1949), the United Kingdom (1952), France(1960), and the People's Republic of China (1964), which contributed to the state of conflict and extreme tension that became known as the Cold War. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan

In 1974, India, and in 1998, Pakistan, two countries that were openly hostile toward each other, developed nuclear weapons. Israel (1960s) and North Korea (2006) are also thought to have developed stocks of nuclear weapons, but their governments have never admitted to having nuclear weapons. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

South Africa also manufactured several complete nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but subsequently became the first country to voluntarily destroy their domestically made weapons stocks and abandon further production (1990s).[10]

Nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for testing purposes and demonstrations.[11] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a major nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers was generally thought to have declined. Since then, concern over nuclear weapons has shifted to the prevention of localized nuclear conflicts resulting from nuclear proliferation, and the threat of nuclear terrorism. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The possibility of using nuclear weapons in war is usually divided into two subgroups, each with different effects and potentially fought with different types of nuclear armaments.

The first, a limited nuclear war (sometimes attack or exchange), refers to a small-scale use of nuclear weapons by two (or more) belligerents. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

A "limited nuclear war" could include targeting military facilities - either as an attempt to pre-emptively cripple the enemy's ability to attack as a defensive measure, or as a prelude to an invasion by conventional forces, as an offensive measure. This term could apply to any small-scale use of nuclear weapons that may involve military or civilian targets (or both).[ HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

The second, a full-scale nuclear war, could consist of large numbers of nuclear weapons used in an attack aimed at an entire country, including military, economic, and civilian targets. Such an attack would almost certainly destroy the entire economic, social, and military infrastructure of the target nation, and would probably have a devastating effect on Earth's biosphere. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Some Cold War strategists such as Henry Kissinger[12] argued that a limited nuclear war could be possible between two heavily armed superpowers (such as the United States and the Soviet Union). Some predict, however, that a limited war could potentially "escalate" into a full-scale nuclear war. Others[who? HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

] have called limited nuclear war "global nuclear holocaust in slow motion" - arguing that once such a war took place, others would be sure to follow over a period of decades, effectively rendering the planet uninhabitable in the same way that a "full-scale nuclear war" between superpowers would, only taking a much longer (and arguably more agonizing) path to the same result. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

Even the most optimistic predictions[by whom?] of the effects of a major nuclear exchange foresee the death of many millions of victims within a very short period of time. More pessimistic predictions argue that a full-scale nuclear war could potentially bring about the extinction of the human race, or at least its near extinction, FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

with only a relatively small number of survivors (mainly in remote areas) and a reduced quality of life and life expectancy for centuries afterward. However such exaggerated pessimistic predictions, assuming total war with nuclear arsenals at Cold war highs, have not been without considerable criticism.[5] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Such a horrific catastrophe as global nuclear warfare would almost certainly cause permanent damage to most complex life on the planet, its ecosystems, and the global climate - particularly if predictions about the production of a nuclear winter are accurate, it would also change the balance of global power, with countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

China, Argentina and Brazil predicted to become world superpowers if the Cold war ever turned hot.[6]

A study presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in December 2006 asserted that even a small-scale regional nuclear war could produce as many direct fatalities as all of World War II and disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

In a regional nuclear conflict scenario in which two opposing nations in the subtropics each used 50 Hiroshima-sized nuclear weapons (c. 15 kiloton each) on major population centers, the researchers predicted fatalities ranging from 2.6 million to 16.7 million per country. Also, they estimated that as much as five million tons of soot could be released, producing a cooling of several degrees over large areas of North America and Eurasia (including most of the grain-growing regions). Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The cooling would last for years and could be "catastrophic", according to the researchers.[13]

Either a limited or full-scale nuclear exchange could occur during an accidental nuclear war, in which the use of nuclear weapons is triggered unintentionally. Postulated triggers for this scenario have included malfunctioning early warning devices and/or targeting computers, DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

deliberate malfeasance by rogue military commanders, consequences of an accidental straying of warplanes into enemy airspace, reactions to unannounced missile tests during tense diplomatic periods, reactions to military exercises, mistranslated or misscommunicated messages, and others. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

A number of these scenarios actually occurred during the Cold War, though none resulted in the use of nuclear weapons.[14] Many such scenarios have been depicted in popular culture, such as in the 1962 novel Fail-Safe (released as a film in 1964), and the film Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, also released in 1964. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.[15]

For six months before the atomic bombings, the United States intensely firebombed 67 Japanese cities. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

Together with the United Kingdom and the Republic of China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of Japan in the Potsdam Declaration issued July 26, 1945. The Japanese government ignored this ultimatum. By executive order of President Harry S. Truman, the U.S. employed the uranium-type nuclear weapon code named "Little Boy" on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945,[16][17]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

followed three days later by the detonation of the plutonium-type weapon code named "Fat Man" over the city of Nagasaki on August 9.

Within the first two to four months after the bombings, acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki,[18] with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring in the first 24 hours. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The Hiroshima prefectural health department estimates that - of the people who died on the day of the detonation - 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from falling or flying debris, and 10% from other causes. During the following months, large numbers died from the chronic effects of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illnesses. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU

HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

In a U.S. estimate of the total immediate and short-term causes of death, 15–20% died from radiation sickness, 20–30% from flash burns, and 50–60% from other injuries, compounded by illnesses.[19] In both cities, most of the dead were civilians.[20][21][22]

Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, 1945, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, 1945, officially ending the Pacific War and, therefore, World War II, as Germanyhad already signed its Instrument of Surrender on May 7, 1945, ending the war in Europe. The two atomic bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan's adopting of the Three Non-Nuclear Principles, which forbade the nation from developing nuclear armaments.[23] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The role of the bombings in the surrender of Japan, the ethical justification of the US for using them, as well as their strategic importance, is still hotly debated.

Immediately after the atomic bombings of Japan, the status of atomic weapons in international and military relations was unclear. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Presumably, the United States hoped atomic weapons could offset the Soviet Union's larger conventional ground forces in Eastern Europe, and possibly be used to pressure Soviet leader Joseph Stalin into making concessions. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union pursued its own atomic capabilities through a combination of scientific research and espionagedirected against the American program. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

The Soviets believed that the Americans, with their limited nuclear arsenal, were unlikely to engage in any new world wars, while the Americans were not confident they could prevent a Soviet takeover of Europe, despite their atomic advantage.

Within the United States the authority to produce and develop nuclear weapons was removed from military control and put instead under the civilian control of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

This decision reflected an understanding that nuclear weapons had unique risks and benefits that were separate from other military technology known at the time.

For several years after World War II, the United States developed and maintained a strategic force based on the Convair B-36bomber that would be able to attack any potential enemy from bomber bases in the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

It deployed atomic bombs around the world for potential use in conflicts. Over a period of a few years, many in the American defense community became increasingly convinced of the invincibility of the United States to a nuclear attack. Indeed, it became generally believed that the threat of nuclear war would deter any strike against the United States. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Many proposals were suggested to put all American nuclear weapons under international control (by the newly formed United Nations, for example) as an effort to deter both their usage and an arms race. However, no terms could be arrived at that would be agreed upon by both the United States and the Soviet Union. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

On August 29, 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan (see also Soviet atomic bomb project). Scientists in the United States from the Manhattan Project had warned that, in time, the Soviet Union would certainly develop nuclear capabilities of its own. Nevertheless, the effect upon military thinking and planning in the United States was dramatic, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

primarily because American military strategists had not anticipated the Soviets would "catch up" so soon. However, at this time, they had not discovered that the Soviets had conducted significant nuclear espionage of the project from spies at Los Alamos, the most significant of which was done by the theoretical physicist Klaus Fuchs. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

The first Soviet bomb was more or less a deliberate copy of the Fat Man plutonium device.

With the monopoly over nuclear technology broken, worldwide nuclear proliferation accelerated. The United Kingdom tested its first independent atomic bomb in 1952, followed by France in 1960 and then China in 1964. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

While much smaller than the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union, Western Europe's nuclear reserves were nevertheless a significant factor in strategic planning during the Cold War. A top-secret White Paper, compiled by the Royal Air Force and produced for the British Government in 1959, ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

estimated that British atomic bombers were capable of destroying key cities and military targets in the Soviet Union, with an estimated 16 million deaths in the Soviet Union (half of whom were estimated to be killed on impact and the rest fatally injured) before bomber aircraft from the U.S. Strategic Air Command reached their targets. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

After the successful Trinity (test) July 16, 1945, which was the very first nuclear detonation, the manhattan project lead manager J. Robert Oppenheimerrecalled:

We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture the Bhagavad GitaHP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Vishnu is trying to persuade the prince that he should do his duty and to impress him takes on his multiarmed form and says, "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." I suppose we all thought that one way or another."

Although the Soviet Union had nuclear weapon capabilities in the beginning of the Cold War, the United States still had an advantage in terms of bombers and weapons. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

In any exchange of hostilities, the United States would have been capable of bombing the Soviet Union, whereas the Soviet Union would have more difficulty carrying out the reverse mission.

The widespread introduction of jet-powered interceptor aircraft upset this imbalance somewhat by reducing the effectiveness of the American bomber fleet. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

In 1949 Curtis LeMay was placed in command of the Strategic Air Command and instituted a program to update the bomber fleet to one that was all-jet. During the early 1950s the B-47 and B-52 were introduced, providing the ability to bomb the Soviet Union more easily. Before the development of a capable strategic missile force in the Soviet Union, Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

much of the war-fighting doctrine held by western nations revolved around using a large number of smaller nuclear weapons used in a tactical role. It is debatable whether such use could be considered "limited" however, because it was believed that the United States would use their own strategic weapons (mainly bombers at the time) should the Soviet Union deploy any kind of nuclear weapon against civilian targets. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Douglas MacArthur, an American general, was fired by President Harry Truman, partially because he persistently requested permission to use his own discretion in deciding whether to use atomic weapons on the People's Republic of China in 1951 during the Korean War.Mao Zedong, China's communist leader, gave the impression that he would welcome a nuclear war with the capitalists because it would annihilate what he viewed as their "imperialist" system. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. There are 2.7 billion people in the world, and a third could be lost. If it is a little higher it could be half ... I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies, there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU FanAfter a few years there would be 2.7 billion people again.

Several scares about the increasing ability of the Soviet Union's strategic bomber forces surfaced during the 1950s. The defensive response by the United States was to deploy a fairly strong "layered defense" consisting of interceptor aircraftand anti-aircraft missiles, HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

like the Nike, and guns, like the Skysweeper, near larger cities. However, this was a small response compared to the construction of a huge fleet of nuclear bombers. The principal nuclear strategy was to massively penetrate the Soviet Union. Because such a large area could not be defended against this overwhelming attack in any credible way, the Soviet Union would lose any exchange. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

This logic became ingrained in American nuclear doctrine and persisted for much of the duration of the Cold War. As long as the strategic American nuclear forces could overwhelm their Soviet counterparts, a Soviet preemptive strike could be averted. Moreover, the Soviet Union could not afford to build any reasonable counterforce, as the economic output of the United States was far larger than that of the Soviets, and they would be unable to achieve "nuclear parity".HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Soviet nuclear doctrine, however, did not match American nuclear doctrine.[30][31] Soviet military planners assumed they can win the nuclear war.[30][32][33] Therefore, they expected a large-scale nuclear exchange, followed by a "conventional war" which itself would involve heavy use of tactical nuclear weapons. American doctrine rather assumed that Soviet doctrine was similar, Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

with the mutual in Mutually Assured Destruction necessarily requiring that the other side see things in much the same way, rather than believing - as the Soviets did - that they could fight a large-scale, "combined nuclear and conventional" war.

In accordance with their doctrine, the Soviet Union conducted large-scale military exercises to explore the possibility of defensive and offensive warfareduring a nuclear war. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

The exercise, under the code name of "Snowball", involved the detonation of a nuclear bomb about twice as powerful as that which fell onNagasaki and an army of approximately 45,000 soldiers on maneuvers through the hypocenter immediately after the blast.[34] The exercise was conducted on September 14, 1954, under command of Marshal Georgy Zhukov to the north of Totskoye village in Orenburg Oblast, Russia. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

A revolution in nuclear strategic thought occurred with the introduction of the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), which the Soviet Union first successfully tested in August 1957. In order to deliver a warhead to a target, a missile was much faster and more cost-effective than a bomber, and enjoyed a higher survivability due to the enormous difficulty of interception of the ICBMs (due to their high altitude and extreme speed). HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

The Soviet Union could now afford to achieve nuclear parity with the United States in terms of raw numbers, although for a time, they appeared to have chosen not to.

Photos of Soviet missile sites set off a wave of panic in the U.S. military, something the launch of Sputnik would do for the American public a few months later. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

Politicians, notably then-U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy suggested that a "missile gap" existed between the Soviet Union and the United States. The US military gave missile development programs the highest national priority, and several spy aircraft and reconnaissance satellites were designed and deployed to observe Soviet progress. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Early ICBMs and bombers were relatively inaccurate, which led to the concept of countervalue strikes — attacks directly on the enemy population, which would theoretically lead to a collapse of the enemy's will to fight. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union invested in extensive protected civilian infrastructure, such as large "nuclear-proof" bunkers and non-perishable food stores. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

By comparison, smaller scale civil defense programs were instituted in the United States starting in the 1950s, where schools and other public buildings had basements stocked with non-perishable food supplies, canned water, first aid, and dosimeterand Geiger counter radiation-measuring devices. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Many of the locations were given "Fallout Shelter" designation signs. Also, CONELRAD Radio information systems were adopted, whereby the commercial radio sector would broadcast on two AM frequencies in the event of a Civil Defense (CD) emergency. These two frequencies-640 and 1240 marked with small CD triangles on the tuning dial can still be seen on 1950s-vintage radios on online auction sites and museums. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

Also, the occasional backyard fallout shelter was built by private individuals.

An extensive, complicated, and worrisome situation developed in 1962, in what is called the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviet Union placed medium-range ballistic missiles 90 miles (140 km) from the United States - a move considered by many[who?SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

as a direct response to American Jupiter missiles placed in Turkey. After intense negotiations, the Soviets ended up removing the missiles from Cuba and decided to institute a massive weapons-building program of their own. In exchange, the United States dismantled its launch sites in Turkey, although this was done secretly and not publicly revealed for over two Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

decades.Khrushchev did not even reveal this part of the agreement when he came under fire by political opponents for mishandling the crisis.

By the late 1960s, the number of ICBMs and warheads was so high on both sides that it was believed that both the United States and the Soviet Union were capable of completely destroying the infrastructure and a large proportion of the population of the other country. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

Thus, by some western game theorists, a balance of power system known as mutually assured destruction (or MAD) came into being. It was thought that any full-scale exchange between the powers would not result in an outright winner, with at best one side emerging the pyrrhic victor, and thus both sides were deterred from risking the initiation of a direct confrontation, instead being forced to engage in lower intensity proxy wars. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

During this decade the Peoples Republic of China began to build subterranean infrastructure such as the Underground Project 131 following the Sino-Soviet split.

One drawback of the MAD doctrine was the possibility of a nuclear war occurring without either side intentionally striking first. Warning system\Early Warning Systems (EWS) were notoriously error-prone. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

For example, on 78 occasions in 1979 alone, a "missile display conference" was called to evaluate detections that were "potentially threatening to the North American continent". Some of these were trivial errors and were spotted quickly, but several went to more serious levels. On September 26, 1983, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Stanislav Petrov received convincing indications of an American first strike launch against the Soviet Union, but positively identified the warning as a false alarm. Though it is unclear what role Petrov's actions played in preventing a nuclear war during this incident, he has been honored by the United Nations for his actions. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Similar incidents happened many times in the United States, due to failed computer chips,[35] misidentifications of large flights of geese, test programs, and bureaucratic failures to notify early warning military personnel of legitimate launches of test or weather missiles. For many years, the U.S. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Air Force's strategic bombers were kept airborne on a daily rotating basis "around the clock" (see Operation Chrome Dome), until the number and severity of accidents, the1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash in particular, persuaded policymakers it was not worthwhile.

By the late 1970s, people in both the United States and the Soviet Union, along with the rest of the world, ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

had been living with the concept of mutual assured destruction (MAD) for about a decade, and it became deeply ingrained into the psyche and popular culture of those countries. Such an exchange would have killed many millions of individuals directly, and possibly induced a nuclear winter if enough soot from firestorms reached the stratosphere, HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

which was believed to have the potential to decrease post war agriculture yields, and with that lead to the death of a large portion of humanity and - potentially - the collapse of global civilization.

On May 18, 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test in the Pokhran test range. The name of the operation was Smiling Buddha, and India termed the test as a "peaceful nuclear explosion".Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

According to the 1980 United Nations report General and Complete Disarmament: Comprehensive Study on Nuclear Weapons: Report of the Secretary-General, it was estimated that there were a total of about 40,000 nuclear warheads in existence at that time, with a potential combined explosive yield of approximately 13,000megatons. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

By comparison, when the volcano Mount Tambora erupted in 1815 - turning 1816 into the Year Without A Summer due to the levels of global dimmingsulfate aerosols and ash expelled - it exploded with a force of roughly 1,000 megatons, however it must be noted that comparisons with supervolcanos are more misleading than helpful due to the different aerosols released, HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

the likely air burst fuzing height of nuclear weapons and the globally scattered location of these potential nuclear detonations all being in contrast to the singular and subterranean nature of a supervolcanic eruption.[7] Nonetheless, many people believe that a full-scale nuclear war would result in the extinction of the human species, though not all analysts agree on the assumptions required for these models.[5] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The idea that any nuclear conflict would eventually escalate was a challenge for military strategists. This challenge was particularly severe for the United States and its NATO allies because it was believed (until the 1970s) that a Soviet tank invasion of Western Europe would quickly overwhelm NATO conventional forces, leading to the necessity of the West escalating to the use of tactical nuclear weapons, one of which was the W-70. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

This strategy had one major (and possibly critical) flaw, which was soon realised by military analysts but highly underplayed by the U.S. military: conventionalNATO forces in the European theatre of war were far outnumbered by similar Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces, and it was assumed that in case of a major Soviet attack DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

(commonly envisioned as the "Red tanks rolling towards the North Sea" scenario) that NATO - in the face of quick conventional defeat - would soon have no other choice but to resort to tactical nuclear strikes against these forces. Most analysts agreed that once the first nuclear exchange had occurred, escalation to global nuclear war would likely become inevitable. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

In the late 1970s and, particularly, during the early 1980s under U.S. President Ronald Reagan, the United States renewed its commitment to a more powerful military, which required a large increase in spending on U.S. military programs. These programs, which were originally part of the defense budget of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, included spending on conventional and nuclear weapons systems. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Under Reagan, defensive systems like the Strategic Defense Initiative became emphasized as well.

Another major shift in nuclear doctrine was the development and the improvement of the submarine-launched, nuclear-armed, ballistic missile, or SLBM. It was hailed by many military theorists as a weapon that would make nuclear war less likely. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

SLBMs - which can move with "stealth" (greatly lessened detectibility) virtually anywhere in the world - give a nation a "second strike" capability (i.e. after absorbing a "first strike"). Before the advent of the SLBM, thinkers feared that a nation might be tempted to initiate a first strike if it felt confident that such a strike would incapacitate the nuclear arsenal of its enemy, making retaliation impossible. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

With the advent of SLBMs, no nation could be certain that a first strike would incapacitate its enemy's entire nuclear arsenal. To the contrary, it would have to fear a (near certain) retaliatory second strike from SLBMs. Thus, a first strike was a much less of feasible (or desirable) option, and a (deliberately initiated) nuclear war was thought to be less likely to start. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

However, it was soon realized that submarines could "sneak up" close to enemy coastlines and decrease the "warning time" (the time between detection of the missile launch and the impact of the missile) from as much as half an hour to possibly under three minutes. This effect was especially significant to the United States, Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Britain and China, whose capitals all lay within 100 miles (160 km) of their coasts. Moscow was much more secure from this type of threat, due to its considerable distance from the sea. This greatly increased the credibility of a "surprise first strike" by one faction and (theoretically) made it possible to knock out or disrupt the chain of command of a target nation before any counterstrike could be ordered (known as a "decapitation strike").Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

It strengthened the notion that a nuclear war could possibly be "won" - resulting not only in greatly increased tensions and increasing calls for fail-deadly control systems, but also in a dramatic increase in military spending. The submarines and their missile systems were very expensive, COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

and one fully equipped nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed missile submarine could cost more than the entire GNP of adeveloping country.[37] It was also calculated, however, that the greatest cost came in the development of both sea- and land-based anti-submarine defenses and in improving and strengthening the "chain of command", and as a result, military spending skyrocketed. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

South Africa developed a nuclear weapon capability during the 1970s and early 1980s. It was operational for a brief period before being dismantled in the early 1990s.

On Sept. 1, 1983, Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down by Soviet jet fighters. On the 26th, a Soviet early warning station under the command of Stanislav Petrov falsely detected 5 inbound intercontinental ballistic missiles from the US. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Petrov correctly assessed the situation as a false alarm, and hence did not report his finding to his superiors. It is quite possible that his actions prevented "World War III", as the Soviet policy at that time was immediate nuclear response upon discovering inbound ballistic missiles.

The world came unusually close to nuclear war - although perhaps not as close as during the Cuban Missile Crisis - when the Soviet Union thought that the NATO military exercise Able Archer 83 was a ruse or "cover up" to begin a nuclear first strike. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

The Soviets responded by raising readiness and preparing their nuclear arsenal for immediate use. Soviet fears of an attack ceased once the exercise concluded without incident.

Although the dissolution of the Soviet Union ended the Cold War and greatly reduced tensions between the United States and the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union's formal successor state, SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

both countries remained in a "nuclear stand-off" due to the continuing presence of a very large number of deliverable nuclear warheads on both sides. Additionally, the end of the Cold War led the United States to become increasingly concerned with the development of nuclear technology by other nations outside of the former Soviet Union. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

In 1995, a branch of the U.S. Strategic Command produced an outline of forward-thinking strategies in the document "Essentials of Post–Cold War Deterrence".

As an effect of the 9/11 attacks on the USA, American forces immediately increased their readiness to the highest level in 28 years, closing the blast doors of the NORAD's Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center for the first time due to a non-exercise event.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

But unlike similar increases during the Cold War, Russia immediately decided to stand down a large military exercise in the Arctic region, in order to minimize the risk of incidents, rather than following suit.[38]The former chair of the United Nations disarmament committee stated that there are more than 16,000 strategic and tactical nuclear weapons ready for deployment and another 14,000 in storage, HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

with the U.S. having nearly 7,000 ready for use and 3,000 in storage, and Russia having about 8,500 ready for use and 11,000 in storage. In addition, China is thought to possess about 400 nuclear weapons, Britain about 200, France about 350, India about 80-100, and Pakistan 100-110. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

North Korea is confirmed as having nuclear weapons, though it is not known how many, with most estimates between 1 and 10. Israel is also widely believed topossess usable nuclear weapons. NATO has stationed about 480 American nuclear weapons in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and Turkey, and several other nations are thought to be in pursuit of an arsenal of their own.[39] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

A key development in nuclear warfare throughout the 2000s and early 2010s is the proliferation of nuclear weapons to the developing world, with India andPakistan both publicly testing several nuclear devices, and North Korea conducting an underground nuclear test on October 9, 2006. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

The U.S. Geological Survey measured a 4.2 magnitude earthquake in the area where the North Korean test is said to have occurred. A further test was announced by the North Korean government on May 25, 2009.[40] Iran, meanwhile, has embarked on a nuclear program which - while officially for civilian purposes - has come under close scrutiny by the United Nations and many individual states. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

Recent studies undertaken by the CIA cite the enduring India-Pakistan conflict as the one "flash point" most likely to escalate into a nuclear war. During theKargil War in 1999, Pakistan came close to using its nuclear weapons in case the conventional military situation underwent further deterioration.[41] HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Pakistan's foreign minister had even warned that it would "use any weapon in our arsenal", hinting at a nuclear strike against India.[42] The statement was condemned by the international community, with Pakistan denying it later on. This conflict remains the only war (of any sort) between two declared nuclear powers. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

The 2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff again stoked fears of nuclear war between the two countries. Despite these very serious and relatively recent threats, relations between India and Pakistan have been improving somewhat over the last few years. A bus line directly linking Indian- and Pakistani-administered Kashmir has recently been established. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

However, with the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, India currently will not rule out war with Pakistan.

Another potential geopolitical issue which is considered particularly worrisome by military analysts is a possible conflict between the United States and thePeople's Republic of China over Taiwan. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

Although economic forces are thought to have decreased somewhat the possibility of a military conflict, there remains worry about the increasing military buildup of China (China is rapidly increasing their naval capacity), and that any move toward Taiwan independence could potentially spin out of control. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

Israel is thought to possess somewhere between one hundred and four hundred nuclear warheads. It has been asserted that the submarines which Israel received from Germany have been adapted to carry missiles with nuclear warheads, so as to give Israel a second strike capability.[43] Israel has been involved in wars with its neighbors in the Middle East HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

(and with other "non-state actors") on numerous prior occasions, and its small geographic size and population could mean that, in the event of future wars, the Israeli military might have very little time to react to an invasion or other major threat. Such a situation could escalate to nuclear warfare very quickly in some scenarios. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

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Turf wars between rival societies occasionally led to hundreds of deaths and attempts to suppress them had limited success.[20]

The situation created deep concern in the European population of the island. In 1854 the Singapore Free Press complained that Singapore was a "small island" full of the "very dregs of the population of south eastern Asia".SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

As Singapore continued to grow, the deficiencies in the Straits Settlements administration became serious and Singapore's merchant community began agitating against British Indian rule. The British government agreed to establish the Straits Settlements as a separate Crown Colony on 1 April 1867. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

This new colony was ruled by a governor under the supervision of theColonial Office in London. An executive council and a legislative council assisted the governor.[22] Although members of the councils were not elected, more representatives for the local population were gradually included over the years. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

The colonial government embarked on several measures to address the serious social problems facing Singapore. A Chinese Protectorate under Pickering was established in 1877 to address the needs of the Chinese community, especially in controlling the worst abuses of the coolie trade and protecting Chinese women from forced prostitution.[22] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

In 1889 Governor Sir Cecil Clementi Smith banned secret societies, driving them underground.[22] Nevertheless, many social problems persisted up through the post-war era, including an acute housing shortage and poor health and living standards. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

In 1906, the Tongmenghui, a revolutionary Chinese organisation dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and led by Sun Yat-sen, founded its Nanyangbranch in Singapore, which served as the organisation's headquarters in Southeast Asia.[22] The members of the branch included Dr. Wong Hong-Kui (黃康衢),[23] HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Mr. Chan Cho-Nam (陳楚楠, 1884-1971, originally a rubber manufacturer) [24] and Mr. Cheung Wing-Fook (張永福, originally a rubber shoe manufacturer).[25] Chan Cho-Nam, Cheung Wing-Fook and Chan Po-Yin (陳步賢, 1883-1965) started the revolution-related Chong Shing Chinese Daily Newspaper (中興日報, 中興 meaning China revival),[26] Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

with the inaugural issue on 20 August 1907 and a daily distribution of 1000 copies. The newspaper ended in 1910, presumably due to the revolution in 1911. Working with other Cantonese people, Chan, Cheung and Chan opened the revolution-related Kai Ming Bookstore (開明書報社, 開明 meaning open wisdom) [27] in Singapore. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

For the revolution, Chan Po-Yin raised over 30,000 yuan for the purchase and shipment (from Singapore to China) of military equipment and for the support of the expenses of people travelling from Singapore to China for revolutionary work.[28][29] The immigrant Chinese population in Singapore donated generously to Tongmenghui, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

which organised the 1911Xinhai Revolution that led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

World War I (1914–1918) did not deeply affect Singapore: the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant local military event during the war was a 1915 mutiny by the British Muslim Indian sepoys garrisoned in Singapore.[30] IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

After hearing rumors of plans to send them to fight the Ottoman Empire, the soldiers revolted, killing their officers and several British civilians before troops arriving from Johor and Burma suppressed the unrest.[31]

After the war, the British government devoted significant resources into building a naval base in Singapore, IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

as a deterrent to the increasingly ambitious Japanese Empire. Completed in 1939 at a staggering cost of $500 million, the naval base boasted what was then the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months. It was defended by heavy 15-inch naval guns and by IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

Royal Air Force squadrons stationed at Tengah Air Base. Winston Churchill touted it as the "Gibraltar of the East." Unfortunately, it was a base without a fleet. TheBritish Home Fleet was stationed in Europe and the plan was for it to sail quickly to Singapore when needed. However, after World War II broke out in 1939, the Fleet was fully occupied with defending Britain. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and the Pacific War began in earnest. One of Japan's objectives was to capture Southeast Asia and secure the rich supply of natural resources to feed its military and industry needs. Singapore, the main Allied base in the region, was an obvious military target because of its flourishing trade and wealth. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The British military commanders in Singapore had believed that the Japanese attack would come by sea from the south, since the dense Malayan jungle in the north would serve as a natural barrier against invasion. Although they had drawn up a plan for dealing with an attack on northern Malaya, preparations were never completed. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The military was confident that "Fortress Singapore" would withstand any Japanese attack and this confidence was further reinforced by the arrival of Force Z, a squadron of British warships dispatched to the defense of Singapore, including the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, and cruiserHMS RepulseHP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The squadron was to have been accompanied by a third capital ship, the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable, but it ran aground en route, leaving the squadron without air cover.

On 8 December 1941, Japanese forces landed at Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Just two days after the start of the invasion of Malaya, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk 50 miles off the coast of Kuantan in Pahang, by a force of Japanese bombers and torpedo bomber aircraft, in the worst British naval defeat of World War II. Allied air support did not arrive in time to protect the two capital ships.[33] After this incident, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Singapore and Malaya suffered daily air raids, including those targeting civilian structures such as hospitals or shophouses with casualties ranging from the tens to the hundreds each time.

The Japanese army advanced swiftly southward through the Malay Peninsula, crushing or bypassing Allied resistance.[34] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

The Allied forces did not have tanks, which they considered unsuitable in the tropical rainforest, and their infantry proved powerless against the Japanese light tanks. As their resistance failed against the Japanese advance, the Allied forces were forced to retreat southwards towards Singapore. By 31 January 1942, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

a mere 55 days after the start of the invasion, the Japanese had conquered the entire Malay Peninsula and were poised to attack Singapore.

The causeway linking Johor and Singapore was blown up by the Allied forces in an effort to stop the Japanese army. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

However, the Japanese managed to cross the Straits of Johor in inflatable boats days after. Several fights by the Allied forces and volunteers of Singapore's population against the advancing Japanese, such as the Battle of Pasir Panjang, took place during this period.[36] However, with most of the defenses shattered and supplies exhausted, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

Lieutenant-General Arthur Percivalsurrendered the Allied forces in Singapore to General Tomoyuki Yamashita of the Imperial Japanese Army on Chinese New Year, 15 February 1942. About 130,000 Indian, Australian and British troops became prisoners of war, many of whom would later be transported to Burma, IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Japan, Korea, or Manchuria for use as slave labour via prisoner transports known as "hell ships." The fall of Singapore was the largest surrender of British-led forces in history.[37] Japanese newspapers triumphantly declared the victory as deciding the general situation of the war.[38] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Singapore, renamed Syonan-to (昭南島 Shōnan-tō, "Light of the South Island" in Japanese), was occupied by the Japanese from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese army imposed harsh measures against the local population, with troops, especially the Kempeitai or Japanese military police, particularly ruthless in dealing with the Chinese population.[39] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

The most notable atrocity was theSook Ching massacre of Chinese civilians, undertaken in retaliation against support of the war effort in China. The mass executions claimed between 25,000 and 50,000 lives in Malaya and Singapore. The rest of the population suffered severe hardship throughout the three and a half years of Japanese occupation.[40] HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

The Malay and Indians were forced to build the "Death Railway", a railway between Thailand and Burma (Myanmar). Most of them died while building the railway. The Eurasians were also caught as POWs (Prisoners of War).

After the Japanese surrender to the Allies on 15 August 1945, Singapore fell into a brief state of anomie; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

British troops led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander for Southeast Asia Command, returned to Singapore to receive formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General Itagaki Seishiro on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi on 12 September 1945, and a British Military Administration was formed to govern the island until March 1946. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

Much of the infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including electricity and water supply systems, telephone services, as well as the harbor facilities at the Port of Singapore. There was also a shortage of food leading to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

High food prices, unemployment, and workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels.[41]  cCompaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

The failure of Britain to defend Singapore had destroyed its credibility as infallible ruler in the eyes of Singaporeans. The decades after the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise ofanti-colonial and nationalist sentiments, epitomized by the slogan Merdeka, or "independence" in the Malay language. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

The British, on their part, were prepared to gradually increase self-governance for Singapore and Malaya.[41] On 1 April 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved and Singapore became a separate Crown Colony with a civil administration headed by a Governor. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled in the following year.

The first Singaporean elections, held in March 1948, were limited as only six of the twenty-five seats on theLegislative Council were to be elected. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Only British subjects had the rights to vote, and only 23,000 or about 10% of those eligible registered to vote. Other members of the Council were chosen either by the Governor or by the chambers of commerce.[41] Three of the elected seats were won by a newly formed Singapore Progressive Party(SPP), HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

a conservative party whose leaders were businessmen and professionals and were disinclined to press for immediate self-rule. The other three seats were won by independents.

Three months after the elections, an armed insurgency by communist groups in Malaya – the Malayan Emergency – broke out. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

The British imposed tough measures to control left-wing groups in both Singapore and Malaya and introduced the controversial Internal Security Act, which allowed indefinite detention without trial for persons suspected of being "threats to security". Since the left-wing groups were the strongest critics of the colonial system, progress on self-government was stalled for several years. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

A second Legislative Council election was held in 1951 with the number of elected seats increased to nine. This election was again dominated by the SPP which won six seats. While this contributed to the formation of a distinct local government of Singapore, the colonial administration was still dominant. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

In 1953, with the communists in Malaya suppressed and the worst of the Emergency over, a British Commission, headed by Sir George Rendel, proposed a limited form of self-government for Singapore. A new Legislative Assembly with twenty-five out of thirty-two seats chosen by popular election would replace the Legislative Council, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

from which a Chief Minister as head of government and Council of Ministers as a cabinet would be picked under a parliamentary system. The British would retain control over areas such as internal security and foreign affairs, as well as veto power over legislation.

The election for the Legislative Assembly held on 2 April 1955 was a lively and closely fought affair, Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

with several new political parties joining the fray. Unlike previous elections, voters were automatically registered, expanding the electorate to around 300,000. The SPP was soundly defeated in the election, winning only four seats. The newly formed, left-leaning Labour Front was the biggest winner with ten seats and it formed a coalition government with the UMNO-MCA Alliance, which won three seats.[41] ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Another new party, the leftist People's Action Party (PAP), won three seats.

David Marshall, leader of the Labour Front, became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. He presided over a shaky government, receiving little cooperation from either the colonial government or the other local parties. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

 

Social unrest was on the rise, and in May 1955, the Hock Lee bus riots broke out, killing four people and seriously discrediting Marshall's government.[43] In 1956, the Chinese middle school riotsbroke out among students in The Chinese High School and other schools, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

further increasing the tension between the local government and the Chinese students and unionists who were regarded of having communist sympathies.

In April 1956, Marshall led a delegation to London to negotiate for complete self-rule in the Merdeka Talks, but the talks failed when the British were reluctant to give up control over Singapore's internal security. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

The British were concerned about communist influence and labour strikes which were undermining Singapore's economic stability, and felt that the local government was ineffective in handling earlier riots. Marshall resigned following the failure of the talk.

The new Chief Minister, Lim Yew Hock, launched a crackdown on communist and leftist groups, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

imprisoning many trade union leaders and several pro-communist members of the PAP under the Internal Security Act.[44] The British government approved of Lim's tough stance against communist agitators, and when a new round of talks was held beginning in March 1957, they agreed to grant complete internal self-government. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

A State of Singapore would be created, with its own citizenship. The Legislative Assembly would be expanded to fifty-one members, entirely chosen by popular election, and the Prime Minister and cabinet would control all aspects of government except defense and foreign affairs. The governorship was replaced by a Yang di-Pertuan Negara or head of state. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

In August 1958, the State of Singapore Act was passed in the United Kingdom Parliament providing for the establishment of the State of Singapore.

Elections for the new Legislative Assembly were held in May 1959. The People's Action Party (PAP) won the polls in a landslide victory, winning forty-three of the fifty-one seats. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

They accomplished this by courting the Chinese-speaking majority, particularly those in the labour unions and radical student organizations. Its leader Lee Kuan Yew, a young Cambridge-educated lawyer, became the first Prime Minister of Singapore.

The PAP's victory was viewed with dismay by foreign and local business leaders because some party's members were pro-communists. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

Many businesses promptly shifted their headquarters from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur.[44] Despite these ill omens, the PAP government embarked on a vigorous program to address Singapore's various economic and social problems. Economic development was overseen by the new Minister of Finance Goh Keng Swee, Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

whose strategy was to encourage foreign and local investment with measures ranging from tax incentives to the establishment of a large industrial estate in Jurong.[44] The education system was revamped to train a skilled workforce and the English language was promoted over the Chinese language as the language of instruction. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

To eliminate labour unrest, existing labour unions were consolidated, sometimes forcibly, into a single umbrella organisation, called the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) with strong oversight from the government. On the social front, an aggressive and well-funded public housing program was launched to solve the long-standing housing problem. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

More than 25,000 high-rise, low-cost apartments were constructed during the first two years of the program.

Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders, including Lee, Goh, believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya. They felt that the historical and economic ties between Singapore and Malaya were too strong for them to continue as separate nations, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

and they campaigned vigorously for a merger. On the other hand, the sizable pro-communist wing of the PAP were strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence as the ruling party of Malaya, United Malays National Organisation, was staunchly anti-communist and would support the non-communist faction of PAP against them. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

The UMNO leaders were also skeptical of the merger idea due to their distrust of the PAP government and concerns that the large Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance on which their political power base depended. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

The issue came to a head in 1961 when pro-communist PAP minister Ong Eng Guan defected from the party and beat a PAP candidate in a subsequent by-election, a move that threatened to bring down Lee's government. Faced with the prospect of a takeover by the pro-communists, UMNO did an about-face on the merger. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

On 27 May, Malaya's Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, mooted the idea of a Federation of Malaysia, comprising existing Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Brunei and the British Borneo territories of Sabah and Sarawak. The UMNO leaders believed that the additional Malay population in the Borneo territories would offset Singapore's Chinese population.[44] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

On 9 July 1963, the leaders of Singapore, Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak signed the Malaysia Agreement to establish the Federation of Malaysia.

On 16 September 1963, Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak were formally merged and Malaysia was formed.[44] The PAP Government felt that Singapore's survival as a nation would be difficult. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

They lacked natural resources and faced a declining entrepot trade and a growing population which required jobs. Therefore, Singapore felt that the merger was thought to benefit the economy by creating a common free market, eliminating trade tariffs, solving unemployment woes and to support new industries. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

The British government were reluctant to grant full independence to Singapore because they believed it would provide a haven for communism.

The union was rocky from the start. During the 1963 Singapore state elections, a local branch of UMNO took part in the election despite an earlier UMNO's agreement with the PAP not to participate in the state's politics during Malaysia's formative years. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Although UMNO lost all its bids, relations between PAP and UMNO worsened. The PAP, in a tit-for-tat, challenged UMNO candidates in the 1964 federal election as part of the Malaysian Solidarity Convention, winning one seat in Malaysian Parliament.

Racial tensions increased as the Chinese in Singapore disdained being discriminated against by the federal policies of affirmative action, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

which granted special privileges to the Malays guaranteed under Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. There were also other financial and economic benefits that were preferentially given to Malays. Lee Kuan Yew and other political leaders began advocating for the fair and equal treatment of all races in Malaysia, with a rallying cry of "Malaysian Malaysia!"HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

Meanwhile, the Malays in Singapore were being increasingly incited by the federal government's accusations that the PAP was mistreating the Malays. The external political situation was also tense; Indonesian President Sukarno declared a state of Konfrontasi (Confrontation) against Malaysia and initiated military and other actions against the new nation, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

including the bombing of MacDonald House in Singapore 10 March 1965 by Indonesian commandos, killing three people.[45]Indonesia also conducted sedition activities to provoke the Malays against the Chinese.[44] Numerous racial riots resulted and curfews were frequently imposed to restore order. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The most notorious riots were the 1964 Race Riots that first took place on Prophet Muhammad's birthday on 21 July with twenty three people killed and hundreds injured. During the unrest, the price of food skyrocketed when transport system was disrupted, causing further hardship for the people. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The state and federal governments also had conflicts on the economic front. UMNO leaders feared that the economic dominance of Singapore would inevitably shift political power away from Kuala Lumpur. Despite earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

In retaliation, Singapore refused to provide Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans previously agreed to for the economic development of the two eastern states. The Bank of China branch of Singapore was closed by the Central Government in Kuala Lumpur as it was suspected of funding communists. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

The situation escalated to such an extent that talks between UMNO and the PAP broke down, and abusive speeches and writings became rife on both sides. UMNO extremists called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew.

Seeing no other alternative to avoid further bloodshed, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

the Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to expel Singapore from the federation. Goh Keng Swee, who had become skeptical of merger's economic benefits for Singapore, convinced Lee Kuan Yew that the separation had to take place. UMNO and PAP representatives worked out the terms of separation in extreme secrecy in order to present the British government, in particular, with a fait accompliHP G62-110SO CPU Fan

On the morning of 9 August 1965, the Parliament of Malaysia voted 126–0 in favor of a constitutional amendment expelling Singapore from the federation; hours later, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Republic of Singapore Independence Act, establishing the island as an independent and sovereign republic. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

A tearful Lee Kuan Yew announced in a televised press conference that Singapore had become a sovereign, independent nation. In a widely remembered quote, he stated: "For me, it is a moment of anguish. All my life, my whole adult life, I have believed in merger and unity of the two territories."[46][47] SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The new state became the Republic of Singapore, with Yusof bin Ishak appointed as its first President.

After gaining independence abruptly, Singapore faced a future filled with uncertainties. The Konfrontasi was on-going and the conservative UMNO faction strongly opposed the separation; HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Singapore faced the dangers of attack by the Indonesian military and forcible re-integration into the Malaysia Federation on unfavorable terms. Much of the international media was skeptical of prospects for Singapore's survival. Besides the issue of sovereignty, the pressing problems were unemployment, housing, education, and the lack of natural resources and land.[49] Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Unemployment was ranging between 10–12%, threatening to trigger civil unrest.

Singapore immediately sought international recognition of its sovereignty. The new state joined the United Nations on 21 September 1965, becoming the 117th member; and joined the Commonwealth in October that year. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Foreign minister Sinnathamby Rajaratnam headed a new foreign service that helped assert Singapore's independence and establishing diplomatic relations with other countries.[50] On 22 December 1965, the Constitution Amendment Act was passed under which the Head of State became the President and the State of Singapore became the Republic of Singapore. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Singapore later co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations on 8 August 1967 and was admitted into the Non-Aligned Movement in 1970.[51]

The Economic Development Board had been set up in 1961 to formulate and implement national economic strategies, focusing on promoting Singapore's manufacturing sector.[52] Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Industrial estates were set up, especially in Jurong, and foreign investment was attracted to the country with tax incentives. The industrialization transformed the manufacturing sector to one that produced higher value-added goods and achieved greater revenue. Theservice industry also grew at this time, driven by demand for services by ships calling at the port and increasing commerce. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

This progress helped to alleviate the unemployment crisis. Singapore also attracted big oil companies like Shell and Esso to establish oil refineries in Singapore which, by the mid-1970s, became the third largest oil-refining centre in the world.[49] The government invested heavily in an education system that adopted English as the language of instruction and emphasised practical training to develop a competent workforce well suited for the industry. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

The lack of good public housing, poor sanitation, and high unemployment led to social problems from crime to health issues. The proliferation of squattersettlements resulted in safety hazards and caused the Bukit Ho Swee Squatter Fire in 1961 that killed four people and left 16,000 others homeless.[53] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

TheHousing Development Board set up before independence continued to be largely successful and huge building projects sprung up to provide affordable public housing to resettle the squatters. Within a decade, the majority of the population had been housed in these apartments. The Central Provident Fund (CPF) Housing Scheme, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

introduced in 1968, allows residents to use their compulsory savings account to purchase HDB flats and gradually increases home ownership in Singapore.[54]

British troops had remained in Singapore following its independence, but in 1968, London announced its decision to withdraw the forces by 1971.[55] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

With the secret aid of military advisers from Israel, Singapore rapidly established the Singapore Armed Forces, with the help of a national service program introduced in 1967.[56] Since independence, Singaporean defense spending has been approximately five percent of GDP. Today, the Singapore Armed Forces is among the best-equipped in Asia. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Further economic success continued through the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technology industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

Singapore Changi Airport was opened in 1981 and Singapore Airlines was developed to become a major airline.[57] The Port of Singapore became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period. Singapore emerged as an important transportation hub and a major tourist destination. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The Housing Development Board continued to promote public housing with new towns, such as Ang Mo Kio, being designed and built. These new residential estates have larger and higher-standard apartments and are served with better amenities. Today, 80–90% of the population lives in HDB apartments. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

In 1987, the first Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line began operation, connecting most of these housing estates and the city centre.[58]

The political situation in Singapore continued to be dominated by the People's Action Party. The PAP won all the parliamentary seats in every election between 1966 and 1981.[59] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

The PAP rule is termed authoritarian by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights.[60] The conviction of opposition politician Chee Soon Juan for illegal protests and the defamation lawsuits against J. B. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Jeyaretnam have been cited by the opposition parties as examples of such authoritarianism.[61] The lack of separation of powers between the court system and the government led to further accusations by the opposition parties of miscarriage of justice.

The government of Singapore underwent several significant changes. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

Non-Constituency Members of Parliament were introduced in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs) was introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament.[62] HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Nominated Members of Parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs.[63] The Constitution was amended in 1991 to provide for an Elected President who has veto power in the use of national reserves and appointments to public office.[64] HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

The opposition parties have complained that the GRC system has made it difficult for them to gain a foothold in parliamentary elections in Singapore, and the plurality voting system tends to exclude minority parties.[65]

In 1990, Lee Kuan Yew passed the reins of leadership to Goh Chok Tong, who became the second prime minister of Singapore. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

Goh presented a more open and consultative style of leadership as the country continued to modernise. In 1997, Singapore experienced the effect of the Asian financial crisis and tough measures, such as cuts in the CPF contribution, were implemented.

In the early 2000s, Singapore went through some post-independence crises, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

including the SARS outbreak in 2003 and the threat of terrorism. In December 2001, a plot to bomb embassies and other infrastructure in Singapore was uncovered[66] and as many as 36 members of the Jemaah Islamiyah group were arrested under the Internal Security Act.[67] Major counter-terrorism measures were put in place to detect and prevent potential terrorism acts and to minimise damages should they occur.[68HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

] More emphasis was placed on promoting social integration and trust between the different communities.[69]

In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the third prime minister of Singapore. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

He introduced several policy changes, including the reduction of national service duration from two and a half years to two years, and the legalisation of casino gambling.[70] Other efforts to raise the city's global profile included the reestablishment of the Singapore Grand Prix in 2008, and the hosting of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

The general election of 2006 was a landmark election because of the prominent use of the internet and blogging to cover and comment on the election, circumventing the official media.[71] The PAP returned to power, winning 82 of the 84 parliamentary seats and 66% of the votes.[72] In 2005, Wee Kim Wee and Devan Nair, two former Presidents, died. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

The general election of 2011 was yet another watershed election due to the first time a GRC was lost by the ruling party PAP, to the opposition party WP. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan,Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan,HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

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