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The economy of the European Union generates a GDP of over €12.894 trillion (US$16.566 trillion in 2012)[1] according to Eurostat, which makes it the largest economy in the world. The European Union (EU) economy consists of an Internal Market and the EU is represented as a unified entity in the World Trade Organization (WTO). FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan

The official currency of the European Union is the euro used in all its documents and policies. The Stability and Growth Pact sets out the fiscal criteria to maintain for stability and (economic) convergence. The euro is also the most widely used currency in the EU, which is in use in 17 member states known as the Eurozone. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

All other member states, apart from Denmark and the United Kingdom, which have special opt-outs, have committed to changing over to the euro once they have fulfilled the requirements needed to do so. Also, Sweden can effectively opt out by choosing when or whether to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, which is the preliminary step towards joining. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

The remaining states are committed to join the Euro through their Treaties of Accession.

Below is a table showing, respectively, the GDP and the GDP (PPP) per capita for the European Union and for each of its member states, sorted by GDP (PPP). This can be used as a rough gauge to the relative standards of living among member states, with Luxembourg the highest and Bulgaria the lowest. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

Eurostat, based in Luxembourg, is the Official Statistical Office of the European Communities releasing yearly GDP figures for the member states as well as the EU as a whole, which are regularly updated, supporting this way a measure of wealth and a base for the European Union's budgetary and economic policies. Figures are stated in euro. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Economic performance varies from state to state. The Growth and Stability Pact governs fiscal policy with the European Union. It applies to all member states, with specific rules which apply to the eurozone members that stipulate that each state's deficit must not exceed 3% of GDP and its public debt must not exceed 60% of GDP. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan

However, many larger members have consistently run deficits substantially in excess of 3%, and the eurozone as a whole has a debt percentage exceeding 60% (see below).

The following table shows information relating to the member states of the European Union, ordered according to the 'Size' of their economies. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan

(NB: Were the table ordered according to 'GDP per capita' this would perhaps better reflect the strength of an individual economy. But this is not how such tables are commonly structured.) The colours denote how a member state is performing relative to the rest of the European Union, above average (green) or below average (red). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The smallest and greatest values in each column are emphasised.

The data for GDP and GDP per capita (PPP) are based on the World Economic Outlook, October 2013 (International Monetary Fund).

The EU's share of Gross world product (GWP) is stable at around one fifth.[15] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

The twelve new member states of the European Union have enjoyed a higher average percentage growth rate than their elder members of the EU. Slovakia has the highest GDP growth in the period 2005–2011 among all countries of the European Union (See Tatra Tiger). Notably the Baltic states have achieved massive GDP growth, with Latviatopping 11%, close to China, HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

the world leader at 9% on average for the past 25 years (though these gains have been in great part cancelled by the late-2000's recession).

Reasons for this massive growth include government commitments to stable monetary policy, export-oriented trade policies, low flat-tax rates and the utilisation of relatively cheap labour. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

For the last year (2011), Estoniahad the highest GDP growth from all the states in EU (7,6%). The current map of EU growth is one of huge regional variation, with the larger economies suffering from stagnant growth and the new nations enjoying sustained, robust economic growth. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Although EU27 GDP is on the increase, the percentage of Gross world product is decreasing due to the emergence of economic powers such as China, India and Brazil. In the medium to long term, the EU will be looking forward to increase GDP growth in Italy and the UK to stabilise growth in European Union states. This is to ensure sustained economic prosperity. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

The European Union has large coal, oil, and natural gas reserves. There are six oil producers in the European Union, primarily in North Sea oilfields. The United Kingdom by far is the largest producer, however Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania and the Netherlands all produce oil. If it is treated as a single unit, which is not conventional in the oil markets, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

the European Union is the seventh largest producer of oil in the world, producing 3,424,000 (2001)barrels a day.

It is also the world's second largest consumer of oil, consuming much more than it can produce, at 14,590,000 (2001) barrels a day. Much of the difference comes from Russia and the Caspian Sea basin. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

All countries in the EU have committed to the Kyoto Protocol, and the European Union is one of its biggest proponents. The European Commission published proposals for the first comprehensive EU energy policy on 10 January 2007.

The European Union is the largest exporter in the world[18] and as of 2008 the largest importer of goods and services.[19]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

Internal trade between the member states is aided by the removal of barriers to trade such as tariffs and border controls. In the eurozone, trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members.[20]

The European Union Association Agreement does something similar for a much larger range of countries, Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

partly as a so-called soft approach ('a carrot instead of a stick') to influence the politics in those countries. The European Union represents all its members at the World Trade Organization (WTO), and acts on behalf of member states in any disputes. When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in the European Union (EU27) in March 2009 was 8.3% compared to 6.7% in March 2008. The Eurozone (EA16) unemployment figure for January 2009 was 8.2% compared to 7.3% in January 2008.[23] The unemployment rate (EU25) had previously declined in prior years from 8.9% in March 2005 to 8.4% in March 2006 to 7.3% in March 2007.[24] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

The rate varies widely by member state. There has been a steep upturn in the unemployment rate since 2008 due to the worldwide credit crunch and following recession. The countries within the EU which were most affected were Spain, Ireland and the Baltic countries with the unemployment rate doubling or in case of the Baltic countries nearly tripling. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

By comparison in March 2009 the United States had an unemployment rate of 8.6% (2008: 5.1; 2007: 4.4; 2006: 4.7) which was higher than the EU-27's unemployment rate but lower than the EU-16 Eurozone rate of 8.9%. Japan's unemployment rate remained comparatively steady at 4.4% (2008: 3.9; 2007: 4.0; 2006: 4.1).[ HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The following tables show the current unemployment rate of all Member States for March 2009 with comparisons to March 2008, 2007, 2006 and 2005 and comparisons to the United States and Japan:

The agricultural sector is supported by subsidies from the European Union in the form of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

This currently represents 40–50% of the EU's total spending. It used to guarantee a minimum price for farmers in the EU. This is criticised as a form of protectionism, inhibiting trade, and damaging developing countries; one of the most vocal opponents is the UK, the third largest economy within the bloc, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

which has repeatedly refused to give up the annual UK rebateunless the CAP undergoes significant reform; France, the biggest beneficiary of the CAP and the bloc's second largest economy, is its most vocal proponent.

The European Union is a major tourist destination, attracting visitors from outside of the Union and citizens travelling inside it. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Internal tourism is made more convenient for the citizens of some EU member states by the Schengen treaty and the Euro. All citizens of the European Union are entitled to travel to any member state without the need of a visa.

France is the world's number one tourist destination for international visitors, followed by Spain, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Italy and the United Kingdom at 2nd, fifth and sixth spots respectively. It is worth noting however a significant proportion of international visitors to EU countries are from other member states.

London, the capital of the United Kingdom is also the world's most visited city and the highest in tourism receipts, before Paris. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

The European Union's member states are the birthplace of many of the world's largest leading multinational companies, and home to its global headquarters. Among these are distinguished companies ranked first in the world within their industry/sector, like Allianz, which is the largest financial service provider in the world by revenue; ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

WPP plc which is the world's largest advertising agency by revenue; Airbus, which is the world's largest aircraft manufacturer;[28]Air France-KLM, which is the largest airline company in the world in terms of total operating revenues; Amorim, which is the world's largest cork-processing and cork producer company; ArcelorMittal, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

which is the largest steel company in the world; Inditex which is the biggest fashion group in the world; Groupe Danone, which has the world leadership in the dairy products market.

Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest beer company in the world; L'Oréal Group, which is the world's largest cosmetics and beauty company; Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

LVMH, which is the world's largest luxury goods conglomerate; Nokia Corporation, which is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones; Royal Dutch Shell, which is one of the largest energy corporations in the world; and Stora Enso, which is the world's largest pulp and paper manufacturer in terms of production capacity, ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

in terms of banking and finance the EU has some of the worlds largest notably HSBC and Grupo Santander, the largest bank in Europe in terms of Market Capitalisation.

Many other European companies rank among the world's largest companies in terms of turnover, profit, market share, number of employees or other major indicators. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

A considerable number of EU-based companies are ranked among the worlds' top-ten within their sector of activity. Europe is also home to many prestigious car companies such as Audi, Mercedes, Jaguar Land Rover, Volkswagen, BMW group as well as volume manufacturers such as Fiat, PSA group and Renault. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

To date, one of the most commonly used measures of income inequality is the Gini index. The Gini coefficient measures income inequality on a scale from 0 to 1. On this scale 0 represents perfect equality with everyone having exactly the same income and 1 represents perfect inequality with one person having all income. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

According to the UN (UN), Gini index ratings for countries range from 0.247 in Denmark to 0.743 in Namibia. Most post-industrial nations had a Gini coefficient in the range 0.25 to 0.40. In 2005 the Gini index for the EU was estimated at 0.31[29] and as a comparison the USA had 0.463.

Comparing the richest areas of the EU can be a difficult task. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

This is because the NUTS 1 & 2 regions are not homogenous, some of them being very large regions, such as NUTS-1 Hesse (21,100 km²) or NUTS-1 Île-de-France (12,011 km²), whilst other NUTS regions are much smaller, for example NUTS-1 Hamburg(755 km²) or NUTS-1 Greater London (1,580 km²).HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

An extreme example is Finland, which is divided for historical reasons into mainland Finland with 5.3 million inhabitants and Åland, an autonomous archipelago with a population of 27,000, or about the population of a small Finnish city.

One problem with this data is that some areas, including Greater London, Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

are subject to a large number of commuters coming into the area, thereby artificially inflating the figures. It has the effect of raising GDP but not altering the number of people living in the area, inflating the GDP per capita figure. Similar problems can be produced by a large number of tourists visiting the area. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The data is used to define regions that are supported with financial aid in programs such as the European Regional Development Fund. The decision to delineate a Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) region is to a large extent arbitrary (i.e. not based on objective and uniform criteria across Europe), and is decided at European level (See also: Regions of the European Union). ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The 10 NUTS-1 and NUTS-2 regions with the highest GDP per capita are almost all, except two, in the first fifteen member states: Prague and Bratislava are the only ones in the 12 new member states that joined in May 2004 and January 2007.[31] The leading regions in the ranking of NUTS-2 regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 were Inner London in the United Kingdom (343% of the average), Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (279%) and Bruxelles/Brussels in Belgium (216%). Figures for these three regions, however, are artificially inflated by the commuters who do not reside in these regions ("Net commuter inflows in these regions push up production to a level that could not be achieved by the resident active population on its own. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

The result is that GDP per inhabitant appears to be overestimated in these regions and underestimated in regions with commuter outflows."[32]).

Another example of artificial inflation is Groningen. The calculated GDP per capita is very high due to the large natural gas reserves in this region. However, Groningen is in fact one of the poorest parts in the Netherlands. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Among the 40 NUTS-2 regions exceeding the 125% level, ten were in Germany, five in the Netherlands, four each in Austria and United Kingdom, three each in Spain and Italy, two each in Belgium and Finland, one each in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, France, Slovakia and Sweden, as well as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

The NUTS Regulation lays down a minimum population size of 3 million and a maximum size of 7 million for the average NUTS-1 region, whereas a minimum of 800,000 and a maximum of 3 million for NUTS-2 regions ¹ [23]. This definition, however, is not respected by Eurostat. E.g.: the région of Île-de-France, Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

with 11.6 million inhabitants, is treated as a NUTS-2 region, while thestate Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, with only 664,000 inhabitants, is treated as a NUTS-1 region.

The twenty lowest regions in the ranking in 2008 were all in Bulgaria, Romania, Poland and Hungary, with the lowest figures recorded in Severozapaden in Bulgaria (27% of the average), HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

followed by Nord-Est (29%) in Romania, Severen tsentralen in Bulgaria (29%) and Yuzhen tsentralen in Bulgaria (31%). Among the 64 regions below the 75% level, fifteen were in Poland, seven each in the Czech republic and Romania, six each in Bulgaria and Hungary, four each in Italy and Portugal, three each in Greece, SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

France (all overseas departments) and Slovakia, two in the United Kingdom, one in Spain, as well as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

The European Union has a budget to pay for policies carried out at European level (such as agriculture, assistance to poorer regions, trans-European networks, research, HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

some overseas development aid) and for its administration, including a parliament,executive branch, and judiciary that are distinct from those of the member states. These arms administer the application of treaties, laws and agreements between the member states and their expenditure on common policies throughout the Union. Some 5% of expenditure is on administration, 95% on policies. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

To pay for this, the EU had an agreed budget of €120.7 billion for the year 2007 and €864.3 billion for the period 2007–2013,[1]representing 1.10% and 1.05% of the EU-27's GNI forecast for the respective periods.

The three core European Union institutions that are officially designated with responsibility for setting a budget are: Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

the Council of the European Union, with ministers from each Member State; the European Commission, as the EU's day-to-day executive and administration; and the European Parliament directly elected by citizens. In practice, negotiations tend to be dominated by national interests, which is evident in the Council, where unanimous agreement of all member states is required. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

The annual budget is adopted by a procedure involving a proposal from the European Commission, which must be adopted (usually after amendment) by the European Parliament and the Council. It must remain within ceilings determined in advance by the Multiannual Financial Framework, laid down for a seven-year period by the Council (requiring the unanimous approval of every Member State) with the assent of the Parliament. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The budget for a year is determined in advance, but final calculations of payments required from each member state are not completed until after the budget year is over and information about revenue and expenditure is available. The UK rebate is one of the last elements of the budget to be calculated (though it is estimated in advance) as it depends upon the balance of all EU revenue to and from the UK. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

The European Court of Auditors is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU). It was established in 1975 in Luxembourg to audit the accounts of EU institutions.

Despite its name, the court has no judicial functions. It is rather a professional external investigatory audit agency. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The primary role of the court is to externally check if the budget of the European Union has been implemented correctly, in that EU funds have been spent legally and with sound management. In doing so, the court checks the paperwork of all persons handling any income or expenditure of the union and carries out spot checks. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The court is bound to report any problems in the court's reports for the attention of other states and institutions, these reports include its general annual report as well as specific and special reports on certain bodies and issues.[2] The court's decision is the basis for the European Commission decisions, for example: HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

when the court found problems in the management of EU funds in the regions of England, the commission suspended funds to those regions and prepared to fine those who did not come back up to acceptable standards.[3]

In this role the court has to remain independent yet remain in touch with the other institutions, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

for example a key role is the presentation of the court's annual report to the European Parliament. It is based on this report that the parliament makes its decision on whether or not to sign off the European Commission's handling of the budget for that year. The court, if satisfied, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

also sends assurances to the council and parliament that the taxpayers money is being properly used and the court must be consulted before the adoption of any legislation with financial implications but the opinion is never binding.

Traditional own resources[5] are taxes raised on behalf of the EU as a whole, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

principally import duties on goods brought into the EU. These are collected by the state where import occurs and passed on to the EU. States are allowed to keep a proportion of the revenue to cover administration (25%). The European Commission operates a system of inspectors to investigate the collection of these taxes in member states and ensure compliance with the rules. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

The effect of a state failing to collect these taxes is that other states will have to contribute more to the budget, so there is a potential conflict of interest on the part of the collecting authorities. Countries are liable to make good any loss of revenue due to their own administrative failure. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

VAT based own resources[5] are taxes on EU citizens derived as a proportion of VAT levied in each member country. VAT rates and exemptions vary in different countries, so a formula is used to create the 'harmonised tax base', upon which the EU charge is levied. The starting point for calculations is the total VAT raised in a country. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

This is then adjusted using a weighted average of VAT rates applying in that country, producing the intermediate tax base. Further adjustments are made where there is a derogation from the VAT directive allowing certain goods to be zero-rated. The tax base is capped, such that it may not be greater than 50% of a country's Gross national income (GNI). HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The EU applies a call-up rate to the tax base, generally of 0.33%, but this is varied for some countries. For 2007–2013 the rate proposed for Austria is 0.225%, and Germany 0.15%, the Netherlands and Sweden 0.1%. Countries are required to make an account of VAT revenues to the EU before July after the end of the budget year. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

The EU examines the submission for accuracy, including control visits by officials from the Directorate-General for Budget and Directorate-General for Taxation, and reports back to the country concerned.

The country may then respond to any issues raised in the report, and negotiations continue until both sides are satisfied, Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

or the matter may be referred to theEuropean Court of Justice for a final ruling. The Advisory committee on own resources, which has representatives from each member state, also receives and discusses the reports. In 2006, nine countries were inspected by controllers, including 5 new member states who were participating in the procedure for the first time. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

It is anticipated that 11 countries will be visited in 2007. The EU may be working on figures for three years at any one time.GNI based own resources[5] currently forms the largest contribution to EU funding. A simple multiplier is applied to the calculated GNI for the country concerned. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

This is the last recourse for raising funding for a budget year, so the actual figure is adjusted within predetermined limits to obtain the budget total required. Revenue is currently capped at 1.23% of Gross national income in the European Union as a whole.[6]

GNI for own resource purposes is calculated by national accountants according to Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

European law governing the sources and methods to compile GNI and the transmission of GNI data and related methodological information to the Commission (Eurostat). Basic information must be provided by the countries concerned toEurostat before 22 September following the budget year concerned. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

Eurostat carries out information visits to the National Statistical Institutes forming part of the European Statistical System. Based on assessment reports by Eurostat, the Directorate-General for Budget (DG BUDG) of the Commission may notify to the Permanent HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

Representative of the Member State concerned required corrections and improvements in the form of reservations on the country's GNI data. Payments are made monthly by member states to the commission. Own resources payments are made monthly as they are collected, but monthly instalments of VAT and GNI based returns are based upon the budget estimates made for that year, subject to later correction. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

Most of the EU budget is used for agricultural and regional support, while the administration only accounts for 6–7%.

In the 2006 budget, the largest single expenditure item was due to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), with its direct aid, export refunds, storage and rural development and support and subsidies, ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

which accounted for around 46.7% of the total budget. By 2013, the share of traditional CAP spending is projected to decrease significantly to 32%.

Next in 2006 came the EU's structural funds, which are used to support specific regions in the EU, as part of EU's regional policy, which aims to reduce regional disparities in terms of income, wealth and opportunities. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Europe's poorer regions receive most of the support, but all European regions are eligible for funding under the policy's various funds and programmes. In 2006 approximately 30.4% of the EU budget was used for such support. While the CAP spending is going down, the regional support is increasing, and is expected to reach almost 36% in 2013.[7] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Internal policies (training, youth, culture, audiovisual, media, information, energy, Euratom nuclear safeguards and environment, consumer protection, internal market, industry and Trans-European networks, research and technological development, other internal policies) took up around 8.5% in the 2006 budget. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Administration, i.e. the actual running of the EU institutions, including salaries and property costs, accounted for around 6.3% in 2006.

External actions, i.e. EU's international activities outside the EU (development aid, peace keeping and security work, election observers etc.) accounted for 4.9% in 2006. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Finally, the pre-accession strategy, compensations and reserves brought up the rear of the budget, with approximately 2.1%, 1% and 0.1% respectively in 2006.

Net receipts or contributions vary over time, and there are various ways of calculating net contributions to the EU budget, depending, for instance, on whether countries' administrative expenditure is included. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Also, one can use either absolute figures (which indicate that Germany is the largest contributor), the proportion of GDP (which show that Denmark is the largest contributor), or per capita amounts (which show that Denmark is the largest contributor). Different countries may tend to favour different methods, to present their country in a more favourable light. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

The table shows the traditional calculation (with own resources), based on research by Deutsche BankResearch (net contributors are shown in blue).[8]

As a proportion of GDP, net contributors pay from 0.09 percent (Ireland) to 0.53 percent (Denmark), and net recipients receive from 0.04 percent (Spain) to 5.33 percent (Lithuania). Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

On 29 June 2011, the European Commission presented the Communication 'A budget for Europe 2020' to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.[9]Due to the tough economic times, seven member states (Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

argued during the 26 March 2012 General Affairs Council meeting that the EC's proposed overall amount for the seven-year EU budget plan should be reduced by €100 billion, or in the case of Sweden, by more than €100 billion.[10]

On 8 February 2013, European Union leaders agreed to cut the budget by 3.3%; SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

the agreement on the proposed budget by the European Council has yet to be approved by the European Parliament, adopted unanimously by the Council of the European Union and ratified by the national parliaments of all member states; if adopted, it will be the first cut in its 56-year history.[11][12][13] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

The Budget was finally approved by the European Parliament Tuesday 19th November 2013 by overwhelming majority. MEPs voted 537 in favour, 126 against and with 19 abstentions.

Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court. The EU Treaty of Lisbon of 2007 legally includes solidarity in matters of energy supply and changes to the energy policy within the EU. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon, EU energy legislation has been based on the EU authority in the area of the common market and environment. However, in practice many policy competencies in relation to energy remain at national member state level, and progress in policy at European level requires voluntary cooperation by members states.[1] HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

In 2007, the EU was importing 82% of its oil and 57% of its gas, which then made it the world's leading importer of these fuels.[2]Only 3% of the uranium used in European nuclear reactors was mined in Europe. Russia, Canada, Australia, Niger and Kazakhstan were the five largest suppliers of nuclear materials to the EU, supplying more than 75% of the total needs in 2009. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The possible principles of Energy Policy for Europe were elaborated at the Commission's green paper A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy on 8 March 2006.[4] As a result of the decision to develop a common energy policy, the first proposals, Energy for a Changing World were published by theEuropean Commission, following a consultation process, on 10 January 2007. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

It is claimed that they will lead to a 'post-industrial revolution', or a low-carbon economy, in the European Union, as well as increased competition in the energy markets, improved security of supply, and improved employment prospects. The Commission's proposals have been approved at a meeting of the European Council on 8 and 9 March 2007. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

Underlying many of the proposals are to designed to limit global temperature changes to no more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,[7] of which 0.8 °C has already taken place and another 0.5–0.7 °C is already committed.[8] 2 °C is usually seen as the upper temperature limit to avoid 'dangerous global warming'.[9] HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Due to only minor efforts in global Climate change mitigation it is highly likely that the world will not be able to reach this particular target. The EU might then not only be forced to accept a less ambitious global target. Because the planned emissions reductions in the European energy sector (95% by 2050) are derived directly from the 2 °C target since 2007, the EU will have to revise its energy policy paradigm. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

The FP7 research program only reserved a moderate amount of funding for energy research, although energy has recently emerged as one of the key issues of the European Union. A large part of FP7 energy funding is also devoted to fusion research, a technology that will not be able to help meet European climate and energy objectives until beyond 2050.[11] IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

The European Commission tried to redress this shortfall with the SET plan.[12]

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28 novembre 2013 4 28 /11 /novembre /2013 03:05

In cases of triplets or more, it is a challenge for a mother to organize feeding around the appetites of all the babies. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce large quantities of milk; mothers have been able to breastfeed triplets successfully.

Tandem nursing occurs when a woman has a baby while breastfeeding an older child. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk will change to colostrum, and some older nurslings will continue to feed even with this change, while others may wean due to the change in taste or drop in supply. Breastfeeding a child while being pregnant with another can also be considered a form of tandem feeding for the nursing mother, as she also provides the nutrition for two. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

It used to be common worldwide, and still is in some developing nations such as those found in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child. Shared breastfeeding has now been found to be a risk factor for HIV infection in infants.[134] A woman who is engaged to breastfeed another's baby is known as a wet nurse. Shared breastfeeding can sometimes incur negative reactions in the Anglosphere;[135] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

American feminist activist Jennifer Baumgardner has written about her experiences in New York with this issue.

The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the baby's first 6 months of life, and continued breastfeeding complemented with appropriate foods up to two years old and beyond.[ Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

According to a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the results of which were published in the journal Pediatrics, as of 2013 in the United States reliance on out-dated recommendations and considerations of convenience and cost sometimes resulted in inappropriate earlier attempts to switch to solid food.[138] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In many Western countries, however, breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old is considered "extended breastfeeding".

These movements in the West towards earlier weaning, however, are recent. Breastfeeding beyond the age of 1 year old was at one time a very common practice worldwide.ASUS G2P CPU Fan

Dr. Martin Stein wrote in Parental Concerns about Extended Breastfeeding in a Toddler that "The discussion about extended nursing is similar to that of co-sleeping. They are both characteristics of child rearing that are closely linked to time and place. In most cultures before the 20th century, both practices were the norm. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

Changes in social, economic, and sexual expectations altered our views of the meaning of breastfeeding and bed sharing." Extended breastfeeding was encouraged in Ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Muslim cultures. The Koran, the Talmud, and the writings of Aristotle all recommend breastfeeding for 2 to 3 years.[140] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

In Breastfeeding Beyond 6 Months: Mothers' Perceptions of the Negative and Positive Consequences, Dr. S. B. Reamer states that "Over the past 100 years of American history, the acceptance of unrestricted nursing decreased and the age acceptable for weaning dropped dramatically, until the average weaning age was 3 months in the 1970s." HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

In reaction to the move in the West towards earlier weaning, several organizations have been founded in Western countries to support mothers who practice extended breastfeeding. These organizations include the International Childbirth Education Association and La Leche League International.[141] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

The US CDC recommends exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age. Their latest figures (2008) show that 76.9% of US women had ever breastfed but only 47.2% were still breastfeeding at six months and 25.5% at twelve months. Figures for exclusive breastfeeding at three months were 36% and at six months only 16.3%.Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Women who are breastfeeding need to be careful about what they eat and drink, since things can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should avoid fish that are high in mercury, and limit lower mercury fish intake.[143] If a woman ingests alcohol, a small amount can be passed to the baby through breast milk. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

Alcohol-containing breastmilk has been shown to have a detrimental effect on motor development.[144] Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) per day for breastfeeding women, as excess caffeine in breastmilk can cause irritability and restlessness in infants. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

When consumed in normal, everyday amounts, caffeine is considered to be compatible with breastfeeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[145] Nursing mothers concerned about the chemical bisphenol A, which has been shown to affect a childs health, should be aware that it can be passed to their baby though breast milk; SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

they may want to limit their dietary intake of certain foods and adjust their shopping habits to avoid as much exposure as possible.

The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 5–6 months. By one year, a typical breastfed baby will weigh about 2½ times its birth weight. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula fed babies, which is healthier, especially in the long-run. A general guide to the growth of breastfed babies is the following:Weight gain of 4–7 ounces (112–200 grams) a week during the first month,An average of 1–2 pounds (1/2 to 1 kilogram) per month for the first six months, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

An average of one pound (1/2 kilogram) per month from six months to one year,Babies usually grow in length by about an inch a month (2.5 cm) during the first six months, and around one-half inch a month from six months to one year.

Weaning is the process of introducing the infant to other food and reducing the supply of breast milk. The infant is fully weaned when it no longer receives any breast milk. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

Most mammals stop producing the enzyme lactase at the end of weaning, and become lactose intolerant. Figures vary, but worldwide, humans lose about 75 to 95 percent of birth lactase levels by early childhood, and there is a continuous decline in lactase during the course of a lifetime. However, the prevalence varies widely among ethnic backgrounds. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Estimates range from 2 to 5 percent in persons from Northern Europe to nearly 100 percent in adult Asians and American Indians. Blacks and Ashkenazi Jews have prevalences of 60 to 80 percent, and Latinos have a prevalence of 50 to 80 percent.

In humans, the psychological factors involved in the weaning process are crucial for both mother and infant as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent during this stage. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

In the past bromocriptine was in some countries frequently used to reduce the engorgement experienced by many women during weaning. This is now done only in exceptional cases as it causes frequent side effects, offers very little advantage over non-medical management and the possibility of serious side effects can not be ruled out.[ Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

Other medications such as cabergoline, lisuride or birth control pills may occasionally be used as lactation suppressants.

Elizabeth Baldwin says in Extended Breastfeeding and the Law, "Because our culture tends to view the breast as sexual, it can be hard for people to realize that breastfeeding is the natural way to nurture children."[153HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

In Western countries such asThe United States of America, Canada, and Great Britain, extended breastfeeding is a taboo act. It is difficult to obtain accurate information and statistics about extended breastfeeding in these countries because of the mother's embarrassment. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Mothers who nurse longer than the social norm sometimes hide their practices from all but very close family members and friends. This is called "closet nursing".[141] In a study published by the Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 24% of American and Canadian mothers nursing past 6 months felt social hostility towards them. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

This number grew to 42% when mothers were nursing after 1 year of age. Also, 10% of mothers claimed embarrassment when more mobile, verbal toddlers made known in public the fact that they were nursed.[141]

In the United States, breastfeeding beyond 1 year of age is considered 'extended breastfeedingHP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

and in contrast to WHO recommendations, the American Academy of Pediatrics stated in 1997 that, "Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child".[

In the United States overall, according to a 2010 CDC "report card", 43% of babies are breastfed until 6 months and 22.4% are breastfed until 12 months, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

though breastfeeding rates varied among the states.[154]

Breastfeeding rates in the U.S. at 6 months rose from 34.2% in 2000 to 43.5% in 2006 and the rates at 12 months rose from 15.7% in 2000 to 22.7% in 2006. The U.S. Healthy People 2010 goals were to have at least 60% of babies exclusively breastfed at 3 months and 25% of babies exclusively breastfed at 6 months so this goal has yet to be met.[155] Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

In the United States a study published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 75 percent of mothers began breastfeeding. However, by 6 months, the rate fell to 43% and was just 22% after a year. Breastfeeding rates vary across the country, from nearly 90 percent initiating breastfeeding in Utah to 52.5 percent in Mississippi. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

The health care law now requires large employers to provide breastfeeding mothers with breaks and a private space to feed their babies.There have been several cases in the United States where children have been taken away from their mother's care because American courts or government agencies found the mother's extended breastfeeding to be inappropriate. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In 1992, a New York State mother lost custody of her child for a year. She was still breastfeeding the child at age 3 and had reported experiences of sexual arousal while breastfeeding the child. The authorities took the child from the home in the fear that the mother might sexually abuse the child. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

Later, the social service agency that took over the case said that there was more to the case than could be released to the press due to confidentiality laws.[139] In 2000, an Illinois child was removed from the mother's care after a judge ruled that the child might suffer emotional damage because of not being weaned. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The child was later returned to the mother and the judge vacated the finding of neglect.[139] A social service agency in Colorado removed a 5-year-old child from the mother because she was still breastfeeding, but the court ordered the child returned to its family immediately.

In India, mothers commonly breastfed their children until 2 to 3 years of age. Cows milk is given in combination with breast milk though use of formula has been on the rise.[140] HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

As of November 2012,[158] the Ministry of Women and Child Development, with UNICEF as a technical partner, have kicked off a nationwide campaign to promote exclusive breastfeeding to infants up to the age of six months - one among a series of advisories it is issuing - as part of an awareness program targeted at eradicating malnutrition in the country. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Indian actor Aamir Khan serves as the brand ambassador, and has acted in numerous televised public service announcements.

In the Philippines, the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Milk Code require that breastfeeding be encouraged for babies up to the age of 2 years old or beyond. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Under the same code, it is prohibited to advertise infant formula or breastmilk substitutes intended for infants and young children 24 months old and below.[159] In practice, however, a 2008 WHO survey found that on average, mothers in the Philippines breastfed their babies until 14 months of age, with breastfeeding extending up to 17 months on average in rural areas.HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

Almost fifty-eight percent of mothers surveyed around the nation were still breastfeeding their babies when the babies were a year old, and 34.2% of mothers were still breastfeeding when their babies were 2 years old.In 2012, it was reported that legislation had been introduced which would narrow down the application of the Milk Code DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

(reducing the period recommending against artificial baby foods for babies from 0 to 36 months to 0 to six months only), would lift the restriction on donations of artificial milk products in emergency situations (encouraging mothers who suffer from disabilities to shift to milk substitutes instead of encouraging them to continue breastfeeding assisted by support persons), SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

would change the legally mandated lactation break period for breastfeeding mothers from paid to unpaid status, and would remove the prohibition against milk companies giving away free samples of artificial milk products in the health care system.

Priscilla Colletto stated in Beyond Toddlerhood: The Breastfeeding Relationship ContinuesHP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

"The adverse health effects of weaning a child before or during toddlerhood are well documented for Third World countries such as Guinea-Bissau, where children who were no longer breastfed at ages 12–35 months had a 3.5 times higher mortality rate than did their peers who continued to breastfeed."[ Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Dr. Laurence Grummer-Strawn, widely known in the breastfeeding research and advocacy communities,[164] observed that breastfeeding is protective against diarrheal diseases and other infections and that breastfed children aged 12 to 36 months in Indonesia have much greater mid-arm circumference than children who have been weaned at an early age. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

He also noted that the incidence of malnourishment in breastfed Indonesian children is 3–5% less common than generally encountered in early-weened children. In one study, artificially fed infants had 2 to 3 times as many episodes of significant illnesses (defined as "otitis media, lower respiratory disease, significant vomiting or diarrhea, and any illness requiring hospital admission").[Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

In traditional human societies, the lack of nutrients missing in breast milk such as iron, zinc, and vitamin b12 was supplemented through premastication and feeding of meat to the child.

In A Time to Wean, Katherine Dettwyler states that "Western, industrialized societies can compensate for some (but not all) of the immunological benefits of breastfeeding with antibiotics, Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

vaccines and improved sanitation. But the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of the young child persist."Many children who are breast-fed into their toddler years use the milk as a comforting, bonding moment with their mothers. In a 1974 survey of 152 mothers, ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

17% said that the security their toddlers obtained through extended breastfeeding helped them become more independent, 14% said that extended breastfeeding created a strong mother-child bond, and 14.6% said that extended breastfeeding strengthened their abilities as a mother. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Four mothers said that they felt their child was too dependent and one mother considered her child a poor eater.[141] Dr. Stein said "A mother in my practice who breastfed 2 children until 2 years of age explained that she would slow down and give her undivided attention to her child several times each day when breastfeeding. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

Her children knew that she always had time for those moments each day. This time was also important to the mother for relaxing and unwinding.... For many nursing toddlers, the breast comes to serve the same function as a favorite blanket or stuffed animal in providing comfort and a sense of security." SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

One issue with extended breastfeeding is the ability of the mother and the child to separate. Some say that the desire for extended breastfeeding comes from the mother's inability to let go of "her baby".[140] Baldwin refutes this statement, saying that the child is the one who chooses when they are weaned, as it is very difficult to force a child to breastfeed. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

International board certified lactation consultants (IBCLCs) are an excellent source of assistance for breastfeeding mothers. IBCLCs are health care professionals certified in lactation management. They work with mothers to solve breastfeeding problems and educate families and health care professionals about the benefits of breastfeeding. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Research shows that rates of exclusive breastfeeding and of any breastfeeding are higher among women who have had babies in hospitals with IBCLCs on staff.

While breastfeeding is a natural human activity, difficulties and complications are not uncommon. Putting the baby to the breast as soon as possible after the birth helps to avoid many problems, including mastitis. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

The AAP breastfeeding policy says: "Delay weighing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and eye prophylaxis until after the first feeding is completed."[17] Many breastfeeding difficulties can be resolved with proper hospital procedures, properly trained midwives, doctors and hospital staff, and lactation consultants.[170] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

There are some situations in which breastfeeding may be harmful to the infant, including infection with HIV and acute poisoning by environmental contaminants such as lead.The Institute of Medicine has reported that breast surgery, including breast implants or breast reduction surgery, reduces the chances that a woman will have sufficient milk to breast feed. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

Research shows that women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies.

The majority of mothers intend to breastfeed when their baby is born. There are many things that happen that disrupt or intervene in this plan. Here are just a few of the barriers that women face when attempting to breastfeed. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Birth procedures – routine separation of the baby from the mother, delayed breastfeeding initiation, vigorous routine suctioning, medications and mode of delivery all interfere with breastfeeding. A "substantial" number of hospital and facilities implemented procedures and policies that were not evidenced based and that were known to interfere with lactation.[ COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Nursery policies – additional separation, rooming in policies, routine bottles and pacifiers can also prevent the baby from learning to latch and establishing a supply. About a quarter of all breastfeeding infants receive formula supplementation in the first two days of life.Ignorance

Personal – breastfeeding is the biologic norm but in absence of watching others nurse their babies, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

it is a lost art as well. Classes, books and personal counseling (professional or lay) can be beneficial. Some women do not want to breastfeed because they fear that breastfeeding will negatively impact the look of their breasts, although medical evidence attributes "drooping" or "sagging" of the breasts to pregnancy, aging, and smoking habits. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Jae Ireland reports “the idea that breastfeeding causes saggier, smaller breasts is a myth, as proven by a 2008 study published in the Aesthetic Surgery Journal. The study found that while breastfeeding had no effect on a woman's breasts, other factors did contribute to sagginess, such as a mother's advanced age, her number of pregnancies and whether or not she smoked. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

All three factors can result in altered breasts, but breastfeeding was not identified as a marker for a change in overall breast appearance.”Partner – Partners also lack basic breastfeeding knowledge and are typically unsure of their role in breastfeeding.Practitioner – Physicians and nurses have surprisingly little training in lactation and lactation support. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

One of the main action items in The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding is to help educate practitioners about breastfeeding and breastfeeding issues.

Workforce – Returning to work is the most common cited reason for discontinuing breastfeeding.Maternity leave in the US varies widely despite theFamily Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which provides most working mothers up to 12 weeks. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

Many mothers are forced to take unpaid time off from their job and the majority do not use FMLA for the full twelve weeks. Fathers are also allowed to use FMLA for the birth or adoption of the child. Maternity leave varies widely by state. Save the Children recently examined maternity leave laws, the right to nursing breaks at work, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

and several other indicators to create a ranking of 36 industrialized countries measuring which ones have the most – and the least – supportive policies for women who want to breastfeed. Norway topped the scorecard and the United States came in last.Poor latch - Pain caused from mis-positioning the baby on the breast or a tongue-tie in the infant can cause great pain in the mother and therefore discourage her from breastfeeding. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

These problems are generally easy to correct (by re-positioning or clipping the tongue-tie).

Researchers have found several social factors that correlate with differences in initiation, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding practices of mothers. Race, ethnic differences and socioeconomic status and other factors have been shown to affect a mother's choice whether or not to breastfeed, and how long she breastfeeds her child. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

A recent study found that on average women that breastfed their infants had higher levels of education, were older, and were more likely to be white.

The reasons for the persistently lower rates of breastfeeding among African American women are not well understood, but employment may play a role. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

African American women tend to return to work earlier after childbirth than white women, and they are more likely to work in environments that do not support breastfeeding. Although research has shown that returning to work is associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding, a supportive work environment may make a difference in whether mothers are able to continue breastfeeding.[ Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Deborah L. Dee's research found that women and children who qualify for WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were among those who were least likely to initiate breastfeeding. Income level can also contribute to women discontinuing breastfeeding early. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

More highly educated women are more likely to have access to information regarding difficulties with breastfeeding, allowing them to continue breastfeeding through difficulty rather than weaning early. Women in higher status jobs are more likely to have access to a lactation room and suffer less social stigma from having to breastfeed or express breastmilk at work. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

In addition, women who are unable to take an extended leave from work following the birth of their child are less likely to continue breastfeeding when they return to work. Low income women are more likely to have unintended pregnancies, and women whose pregnancies are unintended are less likely to breast feed their babies. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not addressed by law in others, and a granted legal right in public and the workplace in yet others. Where it is a legal right, some mothers may nevertheless be reluctant tobreastfeed, and some people may object to the practice. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

There have been incidents of owners of premises, or people present, objecting to or forbidding breastfeeding. In some cases the mothers have left; in others, where a law guaranteeing the right to breastfeed has been broken, there has been legal action. Sometimes a company has apologised after the fact. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

In 2006, the editors of US Babytalk magazine received many complaints from readers after the cover of the August issue depicted a baby nursing at a bare breast. Even though the model's nipple was not shown, readers—many of them mothers—wrote that the image was "gross". HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

In a follow-up poll, one-quarter of 4,000 readers who responded thought the cover was negative.Babytalk editor Susan Kane commented, "There's a huge puritanical streak in Americans." In a 2004 survey conducted by theAmerican Dietetic Association, only 43% of the 3,719 respondents believed women ought to have the right to breast-feed in public. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Negative perception of breastfeeding in social settings has led some women to feel discomfort when breastfeeding in public.[186] Even though many women are educated about the health benefits of breastfeeding, less than 25% choose to breastfeed their children. Western society tends to think of breasts in sexual terms instead of for their biological purpose, to bring nourishment to infants.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

The misuse of the purpose of breasts has led many to have an adverse reaction to breastfeeding because people do not like to associate feeding an infant with sexual pleasure. The consequences of Western culture’s sexualization of breasts has led women feeling embarrassed to breast feed in public. This fear immobilizes women and keeps them restricted to their homes. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

] Limitations on places in which women can breastfeed, as well as negative cultural connotations with breastfeeding may play a role in the amount of time a woman will breastfeed.[189] The end result is often that the woman may give up breastfeeding and switch to a bottle. When mothers lack support to breastfeed they are often destined to fail. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

Research has shown that maternal guilt and shame is often associated with how a mother feeds their infant. This guilt and shame is a result of the inability to achieve the idealized notion of what it means to be a good mother. Mothers of both bottle and breast fed babies often feel shame and/or guilt for different reasons. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

Mothers who bottle feed their infants may feel that they are failures at breastfeeding.[190] On the other hand, mothers who breastfeed may feel exposed when breastfeeding in public places because of sexual connotations associated with breasts. They may also fear ridicule from emotional responses to an exposed breast. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

Some may see breastfeeding as, ““indecent, disgusting, animalistic, sexual, and even possibly a perverse act.In response to scrutiny concerning public breastfeeding, advocates use nurse-ins to show others that there should be no shame in breastfeeding in public.However some advocates don’t fight the shame a woman can feel when she cannot breastfeed and must bottle-feed her baby. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

Shame should not be used as a tool to advocate breastfeeding, rather women should be able to individually define what a good mother is. Rather than focusing on the choice a woman has made on whether or not to breastfeed, it is suggested that there be a redirection with the emphasis of providing women with education on the benefits of breastfeeding as well as problem solving skills for women who may find it difficult. IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

The cultural context of Western society, does not always seem to advocate for breastfeeding in public.[186] According to one study published in the Journal of American Dietetic Association, over half the people who voted believed that women should not be allowed to breastfeed in public. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

This study confirms previous studies that indicate that Americans do not want to see breasts in public places. Thus the stigma associated with breastfeeding in public can guide parents to seek an alternative to breastfeeding, even though it may not be as healthy for the child.[191] There used to be only two options for feeding infants: Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

breastfeeding or formula. With the introduction of formula as a scientifically proven way of nourishing infants, many people chose to feed their child formula over breast milk. Formula was popular for the convenience it offered by opening care opportunities to others.When examining the invention of formula from a bio cultural perspective, Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

one might also see the invention of formula as a way in which western culture adapted to negative cultural perceptions of breastfeeding in public.In response to negativism against breastfeeding, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

the La Leche League began a breastfeeding advocacy movement that aimed to educate the public about the short and long term benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and child. With the introduction of the breast pump came a “third option,” that offered the benefits of mobility associated with formula feeding and the health benefits of breastfeeding. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

This allowed care relationships to extend across further distances without compromising the health benefits of breast milk.

Controversy has arisen over the marketing of breast milk vs. formula; particularly how it affects the education of mothers in third world countries and their comprehension (or lack thereof) of the health benefits of breastfeeding.Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

The most famous example, the Nestlé boycott, arose in the 1970s and continues to be supported by high-profile stars and international groups to this day.

In 1981, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted Resolution WHA34.22 which includes the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Subsequently, the Innocenti Declaration was made by WHO and UNICEF policy-makers in August 1990 to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.[196] According to the WHO report published ahead of World Breastfeeding Week, 2013, only 37 countries (19 per cent) of 199 countries, subscribing to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, have passed laws incorporating all of the Code’s recommendations. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

The central concern about breastfeeding with HIV is whether or not it places the child at risk of becoming infected. Varying factors, such as the viral load in the mother’s milk, contribute to the difficulty in creating breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers It is also possible for the infant to be infected with HIV throughout the duration of the pregnancy or during the birthing process (intrapartum). HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

Breastfeeding with HIV guidelines established by the WHO suggest that HIV-infected mothers (particularly those in resource-poor countries) practice exclusive breastfeeding only, rather than mixed breastfeeding practices that involve other dietary supplements or fluids. Many studies have revealed the high benefit of exclusive breastfeeding to both mother and child, HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

documenting that exclusive breastfeeding for a period of 6 months significantly reduces transmission, provides the infant with a greater chance of survival in the first year of life, and helps the mother to recover from the negative health effects of birth much more quickly.[ Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

However, a recent study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine suggests that women infected with HIV can, in fact, breastfeed without transmitting the virus to their children, because components in breast milk are understood as able to kill the virus.[ HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

High levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk (including eicosadienoic, arachidonic and gamma-linolenic acids) are associated with a reduced risk of child infection when nursed by HIV-positive mothers. Arachidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid may also reduce viral shedding of HIV in breast milk.[203] HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

Despite these positive indicators, other studies have determined that bottle-fed babies of HIV-infected mothers approximately has a 19 percent chance of becoming infected, in comparison to breastfed babies who had an approximate 49 percent chance of infection. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

Such a variance in findings makes it difficult to institute a proper set of guidelines for HIV-infected women in third-world or developing countries, where alternative forms of feeding are not always acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe (AFASS).Thus after much research, the benefits and/or consequences of breastfeeding with HIV are still currently under debate.SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

The practice of breastfeeding for HIV positive mothers is a highly contested and controversial global public health concern. Programs for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and other international guidelines offer preventative interventions to address mother to child transmission(MTCT) of HIV in Third World countries.[ Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

PMTCT programs provide HIV-positive women with recommendations and services including antiretroviral therapy (ART), modifications in infant feeding practices (i.e., exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive replacement feeding), and counseling.

Although prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been implemented across different regions,Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

their success in resource-constrained settings is still widely debated upon.[207] In 2008, the majority of sub-Saharan Africa as a whole had an estimate of 430,000 HIV infections among children under the age of 15. HIV-positive women’s lack of participation and adherence to PMTCT services and infant feeding guidelines has made the success of these policies difficult, HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

despite the knowledge and technology that has been dedicated to them.[207] Many women fear knowing their HIV status. Generally speaking, HIV-positive mothers lack support, especially from males, thus resulting in their stigmatization and exclusion by members of the community.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

It is because of this that most women end up losing contact with development programs, which end soon after the mother delivers.[207] The discontinuation of these programs makes a knowledge and understanding of different feeding options difficult for these mothers, because these programs are not there to present them with the necessary information. HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

Access to available resources for the prevention of MTCT of HIV varies across different cultural regions. “MTCT of HIV has been virtually eliminated in well-resourced settings such as the United States and Europe”.[150] Available medical and therapeutic resources in developed countries can include drugs for HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy and labour, Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

cesarean delivery to reduce the infant’s exposure to infection; and modifications in infant feeding practices.In third world settings, medical resources and technology can be very hard to find and can serve as a financial burden to HIV-positive mothers. HIV-infected mothers refer to counselors for expert knowledge and recommendations on infant feeding and health.DELL R859C CPU Fan

Treatment amenities in resource-constrained settings are also available to HIV-positive mothers in the form of antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is one resource that has contributed to the elimination of MTCT of HIV in first world countries. In order to have access to resources, HIV-positive mothers must be able maintain follow up appointments regularly, Toshiba Satellite A105-S2101 CPU Fan

however, this is problematic in resource-limited settings due to weak infrastructure in health care systems in countries such as India,Tanzania and Nigeria.This can also serve as a dilemma for HIV-positive mothers because although limited resources are available to them,financial constraint can prevent women from accessing available treatments.SONY Vaio VGN-FW140E CPU Fan

This can influence HIV-positive mother’s decision to rely solely on breastfeeding as a primary feeding option due to financial instability.Anthropological research demonstrates that in contexts where breastfeeding is essential to infant survival, such as in resource poor settings, PMTCT infant feeding guidelines challenge notions of motherhood and women’s decision making power over infant care, ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan

and colour HIV positive mothers’ infant feeding experiences. In eastern Africa, infant mortality is high and breastfeeding is vital for infant survival. Here, motherhood is defined as the responsibility for ensuring the child’s proper growth and health. Breastfeeding is also seen as a cultural practice that helps create a social bond between mother and child.[ SONY Vaio VPC-EB4S1E/WI CPU Fan

However, there is a disjuncture between PMTCT policy’s infant feeding guideline and what is considered to be good mothering behavior. The PMTCT policy promotes replacement feeding because it is believed to prevent the risk of transmission of HIV. However, adhering to such guidelines are difficult for mothers in resource-limited settings who believe that not breastfeeding one’s child would be harmful to their health and survival, HP Pavilion dv9580ed CPU Fan

as well as threaten the “development of close bodily and emotional bonds between mother and child”.As such, not breastfeeding, for HIV-positive women, is perceived as failing to be a good mother.Thus, PMTCT programs impact HIV-positive women’s agency and decision-making in infant care, as well as challenge their cultural conceptions of good motherhood. Toshiba Satellite L305D-S5934 CPU Fan

In an effort to further refine the United Nations guideline for optimal infant feeding options for HIV-infected mothers, the World Health Organization (WHO) held a three-day convention in Geneva in 2006 to review new evidence that had been established since they last established a guideline in 2000. SONY Vaio VGN-CR31S/P CPU Fan

Participants included UN agencies, representative from nongovernmental organizations, researchers, infant feeding experts, and WHO headquarters departments. The convention concluded with the following recommendations: If replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable and safe, HIV-infected mothers are recommended to use replacement feeding. HP Pavilion dv5-1210et CPU Fan

Otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended. At six months, if replacement feeding is still not available, HIV-infected mothers are encouraged to slowly introduce food while continuing breastfeeding. Those with HIV-infected infants are recommended to continue breastfeeding even after 6 months. SONY Vaio VGN-FW465J/B CPU Fan

In a 2010 update the WHO stated that significant programmatic experience and research evidence regarding HIV and infant feeding had accumulated since WHO's recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV were last revised in 2006. In particular, HP Envy 15 CPU Fan

evidence has been reported that antiretroviral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. This evidence has major implications for how women living with HIV might feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel these mothers. HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan

Together, breastfeeding and ARV intervention have the potential to significantly improve infants' chances of surviving while remaining HIV uninfected.

While the 2010 recommendations are generally consistent with the previous guidance, they recognize the important impact of ARVs during the breastfeeding period, Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

and recommend that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice, i.e. breastfeeding with an ARV intervention to reduce transmission or avoidance of all breastfeeding, should be promoted and supported by their Maternal and Child Health services.  IBM MCF-208AM05-1 CPU Fan

This differs from the previous recommendations in which health workers were expected to individually counsel all HIV-infected mothers about the various infant feeding options, and it was then for mothers to decide between them.

Where national authorities promote breastfeeding and ARVs, IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan

 HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan

mothers known to be HIV-infected are now recommended to breastfeed their infants until at least 12 months of age. The recommendation that replacement feeding should not be used unless it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe remains. HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan

In a review article published in the journal Pediatrics, data from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed to discern any safety issue for mothers taking prescription drugswhile breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises that mothers can take most prescription drugs but should avoid certain painkillers,psychiatric drugs and herbal supplements. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan

The health benefits of mother taking drugs and breastfeeding should be weighed against the risk of drug exposure to the infant. The report recommends consulting the NIH database 'LactMed' on the most up-to-date information on drugs and breastfeeding.HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan

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Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., vialactation) rather than using infant formula. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. Experts recommend that children be breastfed within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfed for the first six months, and then breastfed until age two with age-appropriate, nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods.[ DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends for the U.S. that after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, babies should continue to breastfeed "for a year and for as long as is mutually desired by the mother and baby".[6] Inadequate nutrition is an underlying cause of the deaths of more than 2.6 million children and over 100,000 mothers every year.[1] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Some working mothers express milk to be used while their child is being cared for by others.

Breastfeeding was the rule in ancient times up to recent human history, and babies were carried with the mother and fed as required. With 18th and 19th century industrialization in the Western world, mothers in many urban centers began dispensing with breastfeeding due to their work requirements. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Breastfeeding declined significantly from 1900 to 1960, due to increasingly negative social attitudes towards the practice and the development of infant formula.[7] Under modern health care, human breast milk is considered the healthiest form of milk for babies.[8] From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though some negative attitudes towards the practice still remain. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Breastfeeding promotes the health of both mother and infant and helps to prevent disease.[9][10][11] Longer breastfeeding has also been associated with better mental health through childhood and into adolescence.[12] Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial and have concerns about the effects of artificial formulas. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries.[13] There are, however, a few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs, has active untreated tuberculosis or is infected with human T-lymphotropic virus. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

TheWorld Health Organization recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted and supported by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV infection transmission from mother to child.

In the Egyptian, Greek and Roman empires, women usually fed only their own children. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

However, breastfeeding began to be seen as something too common to be done by royalty, and wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families. This extended over time, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

But lower class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, but these attempts were not successful. In the 18th century, flour or cereal mixed with broth were introduced as substitutes for breastfeeding, but this did not have a favorable outcome either.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

During the early 1900s breastfeeding started to be viewed negatively by Western societies, especially in Canada and the USA. These societies considered it a low class and uncultured practice, viewing it with a certain degree of disgust.[14] This coincided with the appearance of improved infant formulas in the mid 19th century and its increased use, which accelerated after World War II. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

From the 1960s onwards, breastfeeding experienced a revival which continues to the 2000s, though negative attitudes towards the practice were still intrenched up to 1990s.

The vast majority of mothers can and should breastfeed, just as the vast majority of infants can and should be breastfed. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

Only under exceptional circumstances can a mother’s milk be considered unsuitable for her infant. For those few health situations where infants cannot, or should not, be breastfed, the choice of the best alternative–expressed breast milk from an infant’s own mother, breast milk from a healthy wet-nurse or ahuman-milk bank, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

or a breast-milk substitute fed with a cup, which is a safer method than a feeding bottle and teat–depends on individual circumstances.Exclusive breastfeeding (giving your baby breast milk only) is recommended for around the first six months (26 weeks) of your baby's life. After that, giving your baby breast milk alongside other food will help them continue to grow and develop. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Any amount of breastfeeding has a positive effect. The longer you breastfeed, the longer the protection lasts and the greater the benefits.

Extensive research using improved epidemiologic methods and modern laboratory techniques documents diverse and compelling advantages for infants, mothers, families, and society from breastfeeding and use of human milk for infant feeding. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

These advantages include health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychologic, social, economic, and environmental benefits.[17]

The AAP recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life.[17] Furthermore, "breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child." HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

According to the CDC, "The success rate among mothers who want to breastfeed can be greatly improved through active support from their families, friends, communities, clinicians, health care leaders, employers, and policymakers. Given the importance of breastfeeding for the health and well-being of mothers and children, it is critical that we take action across the country to support breastfeeding." HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Not all the properties of breast milk are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively stable. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. Breast milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar, water, andprotein that is needed for a baby's growth and development.[19] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Because breastfeeding uses an average of 500 calories a day, it helps the mother lose weight after giving birth.[20] The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the age of the child.

The quality of a mother's breast milk may be compromised by smoking, alcoholic beverages, caffeinated drinks, marijuana,methamphetamine, heroin, and methadone.[21] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

However, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that "Tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding."[17] In addition, the AAP states that while breastfeeding mothers "should avoid the use of alcoholic beverages," an "occasional celebratory single, small alcoholic drink is acceptable, but breastfeeding should be avoided for 2 hours after the drink." HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

Scientific research, such as the studies summarized in a 2007 review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality(AHRQ)[22] and a 2007 review for the WHO,[23] have found numerous benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. According to theAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, research shows that breast feeding provides advantages with regard to general health, growth, and development. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Not breastfeeding significantly increases risk for a large number of acute and chronic diseases including lower respiratory infection, ear infections, bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis.They state that there are a number of studies that show a possible protective effect of breast milk feeding against sudden infant death syndrome, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis,lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases, and a possible enhancement of cognitive development.

During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25-0.5 grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via the milk.[25][26]This is one of the most important features of colostrum, Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

the breast milk created for newborns.[27] The main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine. There is some uptake of IgA to the rest of the body,[28] but this amount is relatively small.[29] Also, breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria). ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

Among the studies showing that non-breastfed infants have a higher risk of infection than breastfed infants are:

In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life.[32] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

A 1995 study of 87 infants found that breastfed babies had half the incidence of diarrheal illness, 19% fewer cases of any otitis media (middle ear) infections, and 80% fewer prolonged cases of middle ear infections than formula fed babies in the first twelve months of life.[33]

Breastfeeding appeared to reduce symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections in premature infants up to seven months after release from hospital in a 2002 study of 39 infants.[34] HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth.The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, non-specific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

In a review article published in the journal Pediatrics, data from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed to discern any safety issue for mothers being vaccinated while breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) concludes that it is safe for women to receive almost all vaccines while nursing their infants. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

The study further found that the protected immunity of the mother obtained by vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and influenza can pass on to the baby, and that breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization. Exceptions are smallpox and yellow fever vaccines which increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

In all other cases AAP recommends women continue breastfeeding after vaccination.

Formula fed babies have worse arousal from sleep at 2–3 months. This coincides with the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.A study conducted at the University of Münster found that formula feeding doubled the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in children up to the age of 1. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Infants exclusively breastfed have less chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 than those with a shorter duration of breastfeeding and an earlier exposure to cow milk and solid foods.Breastfeeding also appears to protect against diabetes mellitus type 2, at least in part due to its effects on the child's weight. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Breastfeeding for more than 6 months is an independent predictor of better mental health through childhood and adolescence according to a large 2009 study.[12]The more months children were breastfed the less likely they were to suffer from depression, delinquent behavior, attention issues and other psychological problems.[12] Breastfeeding also improves cognitive development according to a number of other studies. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The beneficial effects seem to stem in large part from the unique composition of human milk which, compared to formula milk, has been shown to lead to improved motor and cognitive development in pre-term babies as well.

Breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of extreme obesity in children. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies, and appears to increase with the duration of breastfeeding.

A study has also shown that infants who are bottle-fed in early infancy are more likely to empty the bottle or cup in late infancy than those who are breastfed. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

"Bottle-feeding, regardless of the type of milk, is distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' self-regulation of milk intake." According to the study, this may be due to one of three possible factors, including that when bottle feeding, parents may encourage an infant to finish the contents of the bottle whereas when breastfeeding, an infant naturally develops self-regulation of milk intake.[ HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

A study in Today's Pediatrics associates solid food given too early to Formula-fed babies before 4 months old will make them 6 times as likely to become obese by age 3. It does not happen if the babies were given solid foods with breast feeding.

In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through exclusive breastfeeding for four months, though these benefits may not be present after four months of age.[48] However, the key factor may be the age at which non-breastmilk is introduced rather than duration of breastfeeding.[ Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, can be reduced through exclusive breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks in individuals with a family history of atopy, but when breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks is combined with other foods incidents of eczema rise irrespective of family history. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute inflammatory disease in the intestines of infants. Necrosis or death of intestinal tissue may follow. It is mainly found in premature births. In one study of 926 preterm infants, NEC developed in 51 infants (5.5%). The death rate from necrotizing enterocolitis was 26%. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

NEC was found to be six to ten times more common in infants fed formula exclusively, and three times more common in infants fed a mixture of breast milk and formula, compared with exclusive breastfeeding. In infants born at more than 30 weeks, NEC was twenty times more common in infants fed exclusively on formula.[ HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

A 2007 meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials found "a marginally statistically significant association" between breastfeeding and a reduction in the risk of NEC.

Although one study showed no evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against allergies, another study showed a positive correlation between breastfeeding and a lower risk of asthma. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

This study also showed that breastfeeding protects against allergies, and respiratory and intestinal infections.A review of the association between breastfeeding and celiac disease (CD) concluded that breast feeding while introducing gluten to the diet reduced the risk of CD. The study was unable to determine if breastfeeding merely delayed symptoms or offered lifelong protection.[ Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

According to the findings of a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin, women who were breastfed as infants may have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than those who were not breastfed.Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in adult women who had been breastfed as infants. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Although a 2001 study suggested that adults who had been breastfed as infants had lower arterial distensibility than adults who had not been breastfed as infants,[56] the 2007 review for the WHO concluded that breastfed infants "experienced lower mean blood pressure" later in life.[ DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

A 2007 review for the AHRQ found that "there is an association between a history of breastfeeding during infancy and a small reduction in adult blood pressure, but the clinical or public health implication of this finding is unclear".[22] A 2006 study found that breastfed babies are better able to cope with stress later in life.[57] HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

In a paper selected by UNICEF as the “Breastfeeding Paper of the Month” it was suggested that breastfed babies have a better chance of good dental health than artificially fed infants because of the effects of breastfeeding on the development of the oral cavity and airway. It was thought that with fewer malocclusions, breastfed children may have a reduced need for orthodontic intervention. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The report also suggested that children with the proper development of a well rounded, "U-shaped" dental arch, which is found more commonly in breastfed children, may have fewer problems with snoring and sleep apnea in later life.

Studies have examined whether breastfeeding in infants is associated with higher intelligence later in life. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Possible association between breastfeeding and intelligence is not clear. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between breastfeeding in term infants and cognitive performance"[22] and in 2006, a prospective cohort study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis, concluded that "Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children."[5HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

The researchers found that "Most of the observed association between breast feeding and cognitive development is the result of confounding by maternal intelligence."[59]

However a 2007 review for the World Health Organization "suggests that breastfeeding is associated with increased cognitive development in childhood." HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The review also states that "The issue remains of whether the association is related to the properties of breastmilk itself, or whether breastfeeding enhances the bonding between mother and child, and thus contributes to intellectual development."A 2005 study using data on 2,734 sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health "provide[d] persuasive evidence of a causal connection between breastfeeding and intelligence."HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

In another study, cited as "the largest randomized trial ever conducted in the area of human lactation," between 1996 and 1997 maternity hospitals and polyclinics in Belarus were randomized to receive or not receive breastfeeding promotion modeled on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative.[61] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Of 13,889 infants born at these hospitals and polyclinics and followed up in 2002–2005, those who had been born in hospitals and polyclinics receiving breastfeeding promotion had IQs that were 2.9–7.5 points higher (which was significantly higher).[61] Since (among other reasons) a randomized trial should control for maternal IQ, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

the authors concluded in a 2008 paper that the data "provide strong evidence that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development."[61] Further research in 2013 has supported this theory.[62] One 2013 imaging study indicated that breastfed children experience 15-34% enhanced brain white matter development. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

In 2007, A. Caspi et al. published a study “Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism.” The authors noted that there is currently agreement in the scientific community that both genetic and environmental factors effect specific traits rather than one or another. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

This fact inspired them to try to find a gene that mediates the well-researched phenomenon that children who are breast-fed have higher IQ. In their study they found that babies with a specific version of the FADS2 gene demonstrated an IQ averaging 7 points higher if breastfed, compared with babies with a less common version of the gene who showed no improvement when breastfed.[HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

FADS2 affects the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in human breast milk, such asdocosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are known to be linked to early brain development.[64] The researchers said "Our findings support the idea that the nutritional content of breast milk accounts for the differences seen in human IQ. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

But it's not a simple all-or-none connection: it depends to some extent on the genetic makeup of each infant"[65] and, "further investigation to replicate and explain this specific gene–environment interaction is warranted."[64]

However, an attempt to replicate this study in 5934 eight-year-old children failed: Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

No relationship of the common C allele to negative effects of formula feeding was apparent, and contra to the original report, the rare GG homozygote children performed worse when formula fed than other children on formula milk. Another study of over 700 families also criticized the Caspi et al. study. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

The study reported no evidence for either main or moderating effects of the original SNP (rs174575), nor of two additional FADS2 polymorphisms (rs1535 and rs174583), nor any effect of maternal FADS2 status on offspring IQ.

Breastfeeding is a cost-effective way of feeding an infant, providing nourishment for a child at a small cost to the mother. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding usually delays the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, though breastfeeding is an imperfect means of birth control. During breastfeeding beneficial hormonesare released into the mother's body[26] and the maternal bond can be strengthened.[ Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

Breastfeeding is possible throughout pregnancy, but generally milk production will be reduced at some point.[69] Children who are not breastfed are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than children who receive at least some breastmilk.

According to some authorities, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that early skin-to-skin contact DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

(also called kangaroo care) of mother and baby stimulates breast feeding behavior in the baby.[71] Newborn infants who are immediately placed on their mother’s skin have a natural instinct to latch on to the breast and start nursing, typically within one hour of being born. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

It is thought that immediate skin-to-skin contact provides a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier. The World Health Organization reports that in addition to more successful breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby immediately after delivery also reduces crying, HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

improves mother to infant interaction, and keeps baby warm. According to studies quoted by UNICEF, babies have been observed to naturally follow a unique process which leads to a first breastfeed. After birth, babies who are placed skin to skin on their mothers chest will:

Initially babies cry briefly – a very distinctive birth cry. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

Then they will enter a stage of relaxation, recovering from the birth

Then the baby will start to wake up

Then begin to move, initially little movements, perhaps of the arms, shoulders and head

As these movements increase he will actually start to crawl towards the breast

Once he has found the breast and therefore his food source, he will tend to rest for a little while. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

Often this can be mistaken as the baby is not hungry or wanting to feed

However after his rest he will start to familiarise himself with the breast, perhaps by nuzzling, smelling and licking before he finally attaches

Once he has suckled for a period of time, he will come off the breast and fall asleep. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Providing that there are no interruptions, all babies are said to follow this process and it is suggested that trying to rush the process or interruptions such as removing the baby to weigh him/her is counter-productive and may lead to problems at subsequent breastfeeds.[72]

Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond.[19] Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates.[73] Support for a mother while breastfeeding can assist in familial bonds and help build a paternal bond between father and child.[74]

If the mother is away, an alternative caregiver may be able to feed the baby with breast milk expressed with a breast pump.Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby.[75] This hormone release can help to enable sleep even where a mother may otherwise be having difficulty sleeping. Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modelled on oxytocin. Syntocinon, another synthetic oxytocic, is commonly used in Australia and the UK rather than Pitocin.

As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight.[80] The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-pre-pregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear."Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Dramatic changes occur in a pregnant woman’s metabolism and body composition as she accommodates the demands of providing for the nutritional needs of the growing fetus, and metabolizing for two. In anticipation of lactation, the mother accumulates some stores of visceral fat, but most of it is stored as subcutaneous fat in the thighs, arms, buttocks, and breasts.[ HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

This shift in fat content leads to increased insulin production, insulin resistance, and circulating lipid levels in the mother. Studies have indicated that gestational weight gain (GWG) may contribute to complications during labor and delivery and it is the most reliable factor in predicting postpartum weight retention (PPWR).[82] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

In general, the more weight that women put on during pregnancy, the more weight that they retain afterward. Interventions to restrain GWG in the United States and elsewhere have had mixed results in reducing PPWR.[83] The recent recognition of PPWR’s influence on later chronic diseases has brought a surge in data analysis. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

In fact, the proportion of US women who gain weight excessively during pregnancy is growing. In 2005, 20.6% gained 18.2 kg (40 lb), the upper limit recommended by the Institute of Medicine.[84] Recommended weight gains during pregnancy vary according to maternal baseline characteristics.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The Institute of Medicine has established guidelines where women who are underweight (BMI less than 18.5) are encouraged to gain 13 to 18 kg; women who are at normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) are encouraged to gain 11–16 kg; those who are overweight (BMI 25-29.9) are suggested to gain 7–11 kg; HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

and those who are obese I (BMI 30-34.9) are recommended to gain 5–9 kg.[85] These recommendations are variable and are meant to inform an obstetrician in caring for a pregnant woman. Extreme gains in visceral fat can put women at higher risk of cardiovascular and glycemic disorders later in life. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

After birth, the fat stores created during pregnancy are primed to be metabolized through lactation. Several investigators have explored the relation between duration of lactation and postpartum weight change, and found a variety of outcomes. Overall, it has been observed that prolonged exclusivity of breastfeeding is associated HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

with increased weight loss when controlling for gestational weight gain and postpartum caloric intake and expenditure.[86] Dietary intake and energy expenditure affect how much weight women lose with lactation. When nutrition is readily available, women compensate for increased energy demands by increasing intake and decreasing energy expenditure, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

rather than mobilizing fat stores. Fat mobilization appears to increase after the first 3 months postpartum, reflecting changes in the hormonal effects of lactation on maternal appetite as frequency of infant feeds decreases.[87] Some findings suggest that formula-feeding mothers during the first two months postpartum consume 600 to 800 fewer calories than breast-feeding mothers and lost substantially more weight. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

From 3 to 6 months post-partum, however, weight loss among breast-feeding women increased substantially. These results suggest that in the early postpartum period, well-nourished women in developed nations tend to increase energy intake and/or decrease physical activity to meet the energy demands of lactation, whereas beyond 3 months, HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

lactating women are more likely to mobilize fat stores. Longitudinal studies using skinfold thickness and MRI scanning of adipose tissue during pregnancy and lactation consistently show fat accumulation in the thigh and buttocks regions during pregnancy, with mobilization from these areas postpartum. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

These studies have indicated that lactation is associated with reduction in subcutaneous fat levels and overall body weight.

Recent data suggests that lactation is associated with a reduced risk in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and heart disease.[ IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

The long-term effects of lactation on body composition vary, and seem to be influenced by socioeconomic factors.[92] Studies have consistently indicated that lactation helps prepare the mother’s body for subsequent pregnancies and reduces complications in later periods of gestation and birth. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

Further research is needed to examine the long-term effects of lactation on maternal body composition and risk for chronic disease.

Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. A breastfeeding woman may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The period in which ovulation is absent differs for each woman. This lactational amenorrhea has been used as an imperfect form of natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed. It is possible for women to ovulate within two months after birth while fully breastfeeding and get pregnant again.HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

The American Academy of Pediatrics states that breast feeding also has economic health benefits because breastfeeding results in reduced health care costs. The significantly lower incidence of illness in the breastfed infant also allows the parents more time for attention to siblings and other family duties and reduces parental absence from work and lost income. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

Using figures for the year 1993, it was estimated that the cost of purchasing infant formula for the first year after birth was $855. During the first 6 weeks of lactation, maternal caloric intake is no greater for the breastfeeding mother than for the nonlactating mother. After that period, food and fluid intakes are greater, Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

but the cost of the increased caloric intake is about half the cost of purchasing formula, resulting in a saving of about $400.There are many books and videos to advise mothers about breastfeeding. Lactation consultants in hospitals or private practice, and volunteer organizations of breastfeeding mothers such as La Leche League International also provide advice and support. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

In the half hour after birth, the baby's suckling reflex is strongest, and the baby is more alert, so it is the ideal time to start breastfeeding.[105] Breastfeeding also releases hormones that contract the uterus to reduce post-partum bleeding.[106]Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems.[107] IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

A Cochrane review found that early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby (placing the baby at the mother's breast before dressing the baby) reduces crying, improves mother-baby interaction, keeps the baby warmer, and helps women breastfeed successfully and for a longer period of time. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Feeding a baby "on demand" (sometimes referred to as "on cue"), means feeding when the baby shows signs of hunger. Newborn babies usually express demand for feeding every 1 to 3 hours per 24 hours (resulting in 8-12 times in 24 hours) for the first two to four weeks.

"Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry. Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain."[110]

"Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

Pacifiers (dummies, soothers) are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea, avoidance of nipple confusion, and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success." ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

Most US states now have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby anywhere she is allowed to be. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and improves the ease of breastfeeding. Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring them to go to a special area. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk.The "rooting reflex" is the baby's natural tendency to turn towards the breast with the mouth open wide; mothers sometimes make use of this by gently stroking the baby's cheek or lips with their nipple to induce the baby to move into position for a breastfeeding session, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

then quickly moving the baby onto the breast while its mouth is wide open.To prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to get enough milk, a large part of the breast and areola need to enter the baby's mouth.Failure to latch on is one of the main reasons for ineffective feeding and can lead to infant health concerns. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

A 2006 study found that inadequate parental education, incorrect breastfeeding techniques, or both were associated with higher rates of preventable hospital re-admissions of newborns.

Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as "an infant's consumption of human milk with no supplementation of any type IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

(no water, no juice, no nonhuman milk, and no foods) except for vitamins, minerals, and medications."[17] National and international guidelines recommend that all infants be breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding may continue with the addition of appropriate foods, for two years or more. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Exclusive breastfeeding has dramatically reduced infant deaths in developing countries by reducing diarrhea and infectious diseases. It has also been shown to reduce HIV transmission from mother to child, compared to mixed feeding.

While it can be hard to measure how much food a breastfed baby consumes, babies normally feed to meet their own requirements.[ IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Babies that fail to eat enough may exhibit symptoms of failure to thrive.

The La Leche League says that their most often asked question is, "How can I tell if my baby is getting enough milk?" They advise that for the first few days while the baby is receiving mostly colostrum only one or two wet diapers per day is normal. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

Once the mother's milk comes in, usually on the third or fourth day, the baby should begin to have 6-8 wet cloth diapers (5-6 wet disposable diapers) per day. In addition, most young babies will have at least two to five bowel movements every 24 hours for the first several months. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

When direct breastfeeding is not possible, a mother can express (artificially remove and store) her milk. With manual massage or by using a breast pump, a woman can express her milk and store it. It can be stored in freezer storage bags and containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system, or a bottle ready for use. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours, refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for up to six to twelve months.[123] Research suggests that the antioxidant activity in expressed breast milk decreases over time but it still remains at higher levels than in infant formula.[124] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart. If a sick baby is unable to feed, expressed milk can be fed through a nasogastric tube.

Expressed milk can also be used when a mother is having trouble breastfeeding.

"Exclusively expressing", "exclusively pumping", ASUS A8H CPU Fan

and "EPing" are terms for a mother who feeds her baby exclusively her breastmilk while not physically breastfeeding. This may arise because her baby is unable or unwilling to latch on to the breast. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks when the milk supply is being established, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

it is possible to produce enough milk to feed the baby for as long as the mother wishes.

It is generally advised to delay using a bottle to feed expressed breast milk until the baby is 4–6 weeks old and is good at sucking directly from the breast.[125] As sucking from a bottle takes less effort, babies can lose their desire to suck from the breast. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

This is called nursing strike or nipple confusion. To avoid this when feeding expressed breast milk (EBM) before 4–6 weeks of age, it is recommended that breast milk be given by other means such as feeding spoons or feeding cups. Also, EBM should be given by someone other than the breastfeeding mother (or wet nurse), APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

so that the baby can learn to associate direct feeding with the mother (or wet nurse) and associate bottle feeding with other people.

With the improvements in breast pumps, many women are able to return to work while exclusively feeding their infants breast milk because of their ability to express milk at work. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

Women can also leave their infants in the care of others for vacation or other extended trips, while maintaining a supply of breast milk. This can be very convenient to the mother.[126]

Some women donate their expressed breast milk (EBM) to others, either directly or through a milk bank. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Though historically the use of wet nurses was common, some women dislike the idea of feeding their own child with another woman's milk; others appreciate being able to give their baby the benefits of breast milk. Feeding expressed breast milk—either from donors or the baby's own mother—is the feeding method of choice for premature babies. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

The transmission of someviral diseases through breastfeeding can be prevented by expressing breast milk and subjecting it to Holder pasteurisation.

Predominant or mixed breastfeeding means feeding breast milk along with infant formula, baby food and even water, depending on the age of the child. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out rather than sucking, and the nipple does not go as far into the mouth; with an artificial nipple, an infant must suck harder and the milk may come in more rapidly. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Therefore, mixing breastfeeding and bottle-feeding (or using a pacifier) before the baby is used to feeding from its mother can result in the infant preferring the bottle to the breast. Some mothers supplement feed with a small syringe or flexible cup to reduce the risk of artificial nipple preference. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Feeding two children at the same time who are not twins or multiples is called tandem nursing. As the appetite and feeding habits of each baby may not be the same, this could mean feeding each according to their own individual needs and can also include breastfeeding them together, one on each breast. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

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Because of its geographical isolation New Zealand is free of some pest and diseases that are problematic for agricultural production in other countries. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

With a high level of international trade and large numbers of inbound tourists biosecurity is of great concern since new any pest or diseases brought into the country could potentially have a huge effect on the economy of New Zealand.

There have been no outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in New Zealand. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

If an outbreak did occur there is potential for severe economic losses given that agricultural exports are a large segment of exports.[36] The main foot-and-mouth disease pathway is passenger arrivals and therefore there is an extensive biosecurity monitoring at ports and airports. There have been instances of suspected outbreaks of foot and mouth disease the most recent being on Waiheke Island, although this is thought to be a hoax. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

Many areas of the high country of the South Island were set up as large sheep and cattle stations in the late 19th century. Much of this land was leased fromThe Crown but after the passing of the Crown Pastoral Land Act 1998 the leases were reviewed. Environmentalists and academics raised concerns about the process saying that farmers were gaining an advantage and that conservation issues were not being resolved. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

A fixture in many rural towns is the annual Agricultural and Pastoral (A&P) shows[37] where competitions are held for the best livestock and farm produce. Carnivals, sideshows, equestrian events and craft competitions are also held as part of the A&P shows.The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is the government agency responsible for the agricultural sector. It has both policy and operational arms. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Federated Farmers is a large and influential lobby group that represents farmers interests. It has a voluntary membership which stands at over 26,000.The Soil & Health Association of New Zealand, established in 1941, promotes organic food and farming.The New Zealand Young Farmers is a national organisation formed in 1927 with regional clubs throughout the country. It runs the annual Young Farmer Contest. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Irrigation New Zealand is the national body representing farmers who use irrigation and the irrigation industry. It opposes Water conservation orders.

There are two main views on the immediate future of New Zealand agriculture. One is that, due to fast-rising consumer demand in India and China, the world is entering a golden age for commodities, and New Zealand is well placed to take advantage of this. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The other view is that New Zealand will only gain limited rewards from this boom because of increasing production competition from developing countries. For New Zealand to remain competitive, farmers will either have to intensify production to remain commodity producers (increasing stock and fertiliser per hectare) or, instead, become producers of higher value, more customised products. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

AgResearch Ltd (New Zealand's largest Crown Research Institute) believes that new technologies will allow New Zealand farmers to double their output by 2020, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and other detrimental environmental impacts associated with farming practices.

Transport in New Zealand, with its mountainous topography and a relatively small population mostly located near its long coastline, ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

has always faced many challenges. Before Europeans arrived, Māori either walked or used watercraft on rivers or along the coasts. Later on, European shipping and railways revolutionised the way of transporting goods and people, before being themselves overtaken by road and air, which are nowadays the dominant forms of transport. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

However, bulk freight still continues to be transported by coastal shipping and by rail transport, and there are attempts to (re)introduce public transport as a major transport mode in the larger population centres.

Historically very car-dependent, as of 2010, transport funding in New Zealand is still heavily dominated by money for road projects – the National government proposes to spend $21 billion on roading infrastructure after 2012, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

yet only $0.7 billion on other transport projects (public transport, walking and cycling). This has been criticised by opponents of the current government strategy as irresponsible, in light of increasing fuel prices and congestion.[1] Government has claimed that their priority on roads is in line with New Zealanders' favoured travel modes, and as being the most promising in terms of economic benefits. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The State Highway network is the principal road infrastructure connecting New Zealand urban centres. It is administered by the New Zealand Transport Agency. The majority of smaller or urban roads are managed by city or district councils, although some are fall under the control of other authorities, such as the New Zealand Department of Conservation or port and airport authorities. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

Before Europeans arrived, Māori either walked or used watercraft on rivers or along the coasts. The road network of New Zealand has its origins in these tracks and paths used by Māori and later by Europeans in their early travels through New Zealand. Several major Māori tracks were known, such as the western coastal track was used along the whole length of the North Island, and the track on the East Coast, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

which however left the coast near Castlepoint and rejoined it near Napier. In the South Island, another major track existed down the east coast with tributary tracks following streams up to the mountain passes to the West Coast.[2] Initial roads, such as the Great South Road southwards from Auckland, were often built by the British Army to move troops, and were constructed to a comparatively high standard.[2] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Early sheep farming required few high-standard roads, but the strong increase in dairy farming in the late 19th century created a strong demand for better links on which the more perishable goods could be transported to market or towards ports for export.[2] In many cases, later roads for motor vehicles follow paths used by bullock carts[3] which followed tracks made for humans.HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

These in turn in some cases became highways – with attendant problems all over New Zealand (but especially in the more mountainous regions), as the geography and contours of a slow-speed road laid out in the first half of the 20th century usually do not conform to safety and comfort criteria of modern motor vehicles.[4]

Early road construction was both hindered and helped by rail transport during the first half century of European settlement.DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

Authorities were reluctant to expend large amounts of capital on more difficult sections of a route where there was a hope that a railway might instead be built. However, where railways were constructed, roads often either preceded them for construction or quickly followed it when the newly accessible land started to be settled more closely.[2] HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

The New Zealand Highway system was extended massively after World War II. The first motorway was built in the environs of Wellington and opened in 1950, between Takapu Road and Johnsonville.[5] Following heavy investment in road construction from the 1950s onwards, public transport patronage fell nationwide. This has been described, in Auckland's case, as "one of the most spectacular declines in public transport patronage of any developed city in the world".IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

New Zealand has a State Highway network of 10,895 km (5,974 km in the North Island and 4,921 km in the South Island, as of August 2006) of which 170 km are motorways. These link to 82,000 km of local authority roads, both paved and unpaved. The state highways carry 50% of all New Zealand road traffic, with the motorways alone carrying 9% of all traffic (even though they represent only 3% of the whole State Highway network, and even less of the whole road network). ASUS A8H CPU Fan

The maximum speed limit on the open road is 100 km/h, with 50 km/h the common limit in residential areas. Speed limits of 60, 70, and 80 km/h are also used. Speeds are often reduced to 30 km/h beside roadworks.

The Land Transport Rule: Setting of Speed Limits (2003) allows road controlling authorities to set enforceable speed limits, including permanent speed limits, of less than 50 km/h on roads within their jurisdiction. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

However, there are still very few areas of the country's road network with permanent speed limits below 50 km/h.

Total road deaths in New Zealand are high by developed country standards. 2010 figures from the International Transport Forum placed New Zealand 25th out of 33 surveyed countries in terms of road deaths per capita, a rank that has changed little in 30 years.[9] HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

The fatality rate per capita is twice the level of Germany's, or that of the United Kingdom, Sweden or the Netherlands (2010 comparison).[10] This is variously blamed on aggressive driving, insufficient driver training, old and unsafe cars, inferior road design and construction, and a lack of appreciation of the skill and responsibility required to safely operate a motor vehicle.[9][11] APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

In 2010, 375 'road users' were killed in New Zealand, while 14,031 were injured, with 15–24 year olds the group at highest risk. The three most common vehicle movements resulting in death or injury were "head-on collisions (while not overtaking)", "loss of control (on straight)" and "loss of control (while cornering)".[12] In terms of deaths per 10,000 population, HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

the most dangerous areas were the Waitomo District (121 deaths) and the Mackenzie District (110). Larger cities were comparatively safe, with Auckland City (28), Wellington (22) and Christchurch (28), while Dunedin had a higher rate of 43.[13]

New Zealand has a large number of overseas drivers (tourists, business, students and new immigrants), as well as renting campervans/motorhomes/RV's during the New Zealand summer. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Overseas licensed drivers are significantly more likely to be found at fault in a collision in which they are involved (66.9%), compared to fully licenced New Zealand drivers (51.9%), and only slightly less likely to be found at fault than restricted (novice) New Zealand drivers (68.9%).[14]

Drunk driving is a major issue in New Zealand, especially among young drivers. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

New Zealand has relatively low penalties for drunk driving. In the late 2000s, reports indicated that the rate of drunk driving by under 20s in Auckland had risen 77% in three years, with similar increases in the rest of the country. Many drunk drivers already had convictions for previous drunk driving.[15]

The road toll has decreased over the 5 years from 421 in 2007 to 284 in 2011[16] SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

In the 'Safer Journeys' Strategy, intended to guide road safety developments between 2010 and 2020, the Ministry of Transport aims for a 'safe systems' approach, prioritised four areas, being "Increasing the safety of young drivers", "Reducing alcohol/drug impaired driving", "Safe roads and roadsides" and "Increasing the safety of motorcycling".HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Historically, most roads in New Zealand were funded by local road authorities (often road boards) who derived their income from local rates. As the need for new roads was often most urgent in those parts of the country where little rate income could yet be collected, the funding was at least partly dependent on national-level subsidies, for which much lobbying was undertaken.[2] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Many acts and ordinances were passed in the first decades of the colony, but lack of funds and parochialism (the desire to spend locally raised money locally, rather than use it to link different provinces) hindered the growth of the road network. This lack of larger-scale planning eventually led to increased public works powers given to the Central Government.[17] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

Today, all funding for state highways and around 50% of funding for local roads comes directly from road users through the National Land Transport Fund. Road user revenue directed to the fund includes all fuel excise duty on LPG and CNG, around 55% of revenue from fuel excise duty on petrol, all revenue from road user charges (a prepaid distance/weight licence that all vehicles over 3.5 tonnes, HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

and all non petrol/LPG/CNG vehicles are liable to pay) and most non-ACCrevenue from motor vehicle registration and licensing fees. In addition, in the last three years the government has increasing allocated additional funds to land transport, to the extent that today the total expenditure by the New Zealand Transport Agency on land transport projects exceeds road tax revenue collected.[when? SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

The remainder of funding for local city and district roads primarily comes from local authority property rates.

As of 2010, transport funding in New Zealand is still heavily biased towards road projects – the National government proposes to spend $21 billion on roading infrastructure after 2012, yet only $0.7 billion on other transport projects (public transport, walking and cycling). SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

This has been criticised by opponents of the current government strategy as irresponsible, in light of increasing fuel prices and congestion.[1] Government has claimed that their priority on roads is in line with New Zealanders' favoured travel modes, and as being the most promising in terms of economic benefits.

One of the earliest counts/estimates of motor vehicles in New Zealand had them at 82,000 in 1925. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

This soon increased to 170,000 on the eve of World War II in 1939, continuing to 425,000 in 1953 and increasing to 1,000,000 in 1971.[18] Today, the New Zealand vehicle fleet (as of December 2011) counts 3.24 million vehicles. Of the fleet, 2.60 million were light passenger vehicles, 0.38 million were light commercial vehicles, 0.11 million were trucks, .08 million were buses and .11 million were motorcycles and mopeds. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

The mean age of a New Zealand car (as of end of 2011) was 13.2 years, with trucks at 15.1 years.[19]

Just over half of the light passenger vehicles first registered in New Zealand are used imports. In 2011, 86,703 such vehicles were registered, compared to 84,593 brand new vehicles first registered in New Zealand.

Transport by bus services form the main component of public transport services in New Zealand cities, ASUS G2P CPU Fan

and the country also has a network of long-distance bus orcoach services, augmented by door-to-door inter-city shuttle vans, a type of shared taxi.

The first widespread motor vehicle services were shared taxi services termed service cars; a significant early provider was Aard, operating elongated Hudson Super-Six Coaches.[20] Aard was taken over by New Zealand Railways Road Services in 1928,[20]Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

The road fleet of New Zealand Railways Corporation was privatisedin 1991[with the long-distance business still existing as Intercity, having more recently incorporated Newmans Coachlines. Another former extensive coach business was Mount Cook Landlines, which closed in the 1990s. Internet-based nakedbus.com is building another nationwide network, partly as a reseller of several smaller bus operators' capacity. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

While relatively popular for sport and recreation, bicycle use is a very marginal commuting mode, with the percentage share hovering around 1% in many major cities, and around 2% nationwide (2000s figures). This is primarily due to safety fears. For instance Auckland Regional Transport Authority reports that “over half of Aucklanders believe it is usually unsafe, or always unsafe, to cycle”.[23] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

The high risk to bicycle users is due to a number of factors. Motorists tend to exhibit hostile attitudes towards bicycle riders.[24] Bicycles are classed as 'vehicles', a transport class legally obliged to use the road, forcing bicycle users to mingle with heavy and fast-moving motor vehicles; only postal workers are legally permitted to ride on footpaths.[25] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

Bicycle infrastructure and the standards underpinning bicycle infrastructure planning are poor and bicycles receive relatively very low levels of funding by both central and local government.[26] It has also been argued that the introduction of New Zealand's compulsory bicycle helmet law contributed to the decline in the popularity of cycling.

There is a total of 3,898 km of railway line in New Zealand, built to the narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Of this, 506 km is electrified. The national network is owned by state-owned enterprise New Zealand Railways Corporation divisionKiwiRail Network. The national network consists of three main trunk lines, seven secondary main lines and during its peak in the 1950s, around ninety branch lines. The majority of the latter are now closed. Most lines were constructed by government but a few were of private origin, later nationalised. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

In 1931, the Transport Licensing Act was passed, protecting the railways from competition for fifty years. The transport industry became fully deregulated in 1983.Between 1982 and 1993 the rail industry underwent a major overhaul involving corporatisation, restructuring, downsizing, line and station closures and privatisation. In 1993 the network was privatised, and until 2003 the national network was owned byTranz Rail, previously New Zealand Rail Limited. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

The Government agreed to take over control of the national rail network back when Toll Holdings purchased Tranz Rail in 2003. In May 2008 the Government agreed to buy Toll NZ's rail and ferry operations for $665 million,[27] and renamed the operating company KiwiRail.

Bulk freights dominate services, particularly coal, logs and wood products, milk and milk products, fertiliser, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

containers, steel and cars. Long distance passenger services are limited to three routes – the TranzAlpine (Christchurch – Greymouth), the TranzCoastal (Christchurch – Picton) and the Northern Explorer (Wellington – Auckland). Urban rail services operate in Wellington and Auckland, and interurban services run betweenPalmerston North and Wellington (the Capital Connection) and Masterton and Wellington (the Wairarapa Connection). Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

For most of its history, New Zealand's rail services were operated by the Railways Department. In 1982, the Department was corporatised as the New Zealand Railways Corporation. The Corporation was split in 1990 between a limited liability operating company, New Zealand Rail Limited, and the Corporation which retained a number of assets to be disposed. New Zealand Rail was privatised in 1993, and renamed Tranz Rail in 1995. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

In 2001, Tranz Rail's long-distance passenger operations, under the guise of Tranz Scenic, became a separate company; Tranz Rail chose not to bid for the contract to run Auckland's rail services, and the contract was won by Connex (now Veolia Transport Auckland). Proposals to sell Tranz Rail's Wellington passenger rail services, Tranz Metro, did not come to fruition, although the division became a separate company in July 2003. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

In 2003 Tranz Rail was purchased by Australian freight firm Toll Holdings, which renamed the company Toll NZ.

The only other significant non-heritage operator is the tourist oriented Taieri Gorge Railway in Otago, which runs regular passenger trains on part of the former Otago Central Railway and some on the Main South Line.

New Zealand has a long history of international and coastal shipping. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Both Maori and the New Zealand European settlers arrived from overseas, and during the early European settler years, coastal shipping was one of the main methods of transportation,[28] while it was hard to move goods to or from the hinterlands, thus limiting the locations of early settlement.[2]

The two main islands are separated by Cook Strait, 24 km wide at its narrowest point, but requiring a 70-km ferry trip to cross.Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

This is the only large-scale long-distance car / passenger shipping service left, with all others restricted to short ferry routes to islands like Stewart Island/Rakiura or Great Barrier Island.

New Zealand has 1,609 km of navigable inland waterways; however these are no longer significant transport routes.

Historically, international shipping to and from New Zealand started out with the first explorer-traders, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

with New Zealand waters soon becoming a favourite goal for whalers as well as merchants trading with the Maori and beginning European colonies.

In the 19th century, one of the most important changes for New Zealand shipping – and for New Zealand itself – came with the introduction of refrigerated ships, which allowed New Zealand to export meat to overseas, primarily to the United Kingdom. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

This led to a booming agricultural industry which was suddenly offered a way to ship their goods to markets around the world.Larger, deeper-draught ships from the middle of the 19th century made dredges a common sight in shipping channels around New Zealand, and tugboats were also often bought to assist them to the quays, where electric or hydraulic cranes were increasingly used for on- and off-loading. Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

However, manpower was still needed in large amounts, and waterfronts were the hotbeds of the industrial actions of the early 20th century.[29]In the 1970s, containerisation revolutionised shipping, eventually coming to New Zealand as well. The local harbour boards wrought massive changes on those ports selected (after much political wrangling) to handle the new giant vessels, such as Lyttelton and Auckland Port. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

Gantry cranes, straddle carriers and powerful tugboats were built or purchased, and shipping channels dredged deeper, while large areas of land were reclaimed to enable the new container terminals. The changes have been described as having been more radical than the changeover from sail to steam a century before.[30]

However, containerisation made many of the smaller ports suffer, this being only later recovered somewhat with newer, HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

smaller multi-purpose ships that could travel to smaller ports, and the loosening of the trade links with the United Kingdom, which diversified the trade routes. The time for river ports had gone however, and most of them disappeared, facing particular pressure from the new rail ferries,[29][30] In the 1980s, deregulation also involved and heavily changed the port industry, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

with harbour boards abolished, and replaced by more commercially-focussed companies. Many port jobs were lost, though shipping costs fell.

As noted above, coastal shipping has long played a significant role in New Zealand. It was very efficient for moving large amounts of goods, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

and relatively quick. In 1910, it was noted in a discussion with the Minister of Railways that a fruit grower at Port Albert (near Wellsford, less than 150 km from Auckland) had found it cheaper to ship his canned fruit to Lyttleton in the South Island by boat, and thence back to Auckland again, rather than pay rail freight rates from nearby Wellsford to Auckland.[31] HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

The industry however also faced a number of troubled times as well, such as during World War II when ship requisitioning caused shortages in the transport operation.[32] While many ports reopened after the war, they (and coastal shipping in general) faced huge pressure from rail[29] (presumably now offering improved freight rates compared to the 1910 era). HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

After cabotage was abolished in 1994, international shipping lines became able to undertake coastal shipping as opportune to them on their international routes to New Zealand. While reducing the cargo reshipment rates for New Zealand industry, this is seen by some as a heavy blow for local competitors, who, specialised in coastal shipping only, HP G60-230us CPU Fan

are less able to achieve the costs savings of large lines – these can generally operate profitably even without cargo on New Zealand-internal legs of their routes, and are thus able to underbid others. The law change has been accused of having turned the New Zealand business into a 'sunset industry' which will eventually die out.[33]

In the financial year 2003 / 2004 coastal cargo in New Zealand totalled around 8.6 million tonnes, of which 85% was still carried by local, and 15% by overseas shipping.[34] HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

In 2009, the National Party announced that funding for coastal shipping and supporting infrastructure, part of the "Sea Change" plan of the previous Labour government, would be cut to a substantial degree. The move was heavily criticised, amongst others, by the Green Party,[35] and the Maritime Union of New Zealand.

Regular roll-on roll-off ferry services link the North and South Islands between Wellington and Picton, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

since 1962.[18]Interisland Line, a division of KiwiRail, owns the main inter-island ferry service, the Interislander. Two of the three ferries used by the Interislander, Arahura and Aratere, are rail ferries with special rail decks. The largest and newest ferry, Kaitaki came into service in September 2005. A competitor service is operated by Strait Shipping Ltd, using the former French Santa Regina and the former Danish Straitsman, under the Bluebridge brand. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Depending on the vessel, usual transit time between the North and South Islands is between three hours and three hours twenty minutes. Faster catamaran ferries were used by Tranz Rail and its competitors. To reduce voyage times, Tranz Rail proposed to relocate the South Island terminal of its services to Clifford Bay in Marlborough, which would also avoid a steep section of railway. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

This proposal has been shelved since the takeover by Toll Holdings in 2003.

Smaller ferries operate in the Bay of Islands, Rawene (Northland), Auckland, Tauranga, Wellington, the Marlborough Sounds andLyttelton (Christchurch), and between Bluff and Halfmoon Bay (Stewart Island/Rakiura).

Passenger ferry service also operated for many years between Wellington and Lyttleton (the port closest to Christchurch). HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

This service was operated by the Union Steam Ship Company, and the passenger ferries typically operated an overnight service, although in later years the last of these vessels, the Rangatira, operated alternate nights in each direction plus a daylight sailing between Lyttleton up to Wellington on Saturdays (so as to get a balance of four sailings in each direction, each week). DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

One of these passenger ferries, the Wahine, was lost in a storm as it entered Wellington Harbour on 10 April 1968, with the loss of 51 passengers and crew. The final sailing of the Rangatira, which was custom built and entered service in 1972, was on 15 September 1976, after two money losing years (subsidised by the NZ government).

The economy of Oceania comprises more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

On a total scale the region has approximately 34,700,201[1] inhabitants who are spread among 30,000 islands] in the South Pacific bordered between Asia and the Americas. This region has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial market of Australia to the much less developed economies that belong to many of its island neighbours. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

New Zealand is the only other 1st world nation in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world.

The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS.

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States and South Korea. The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in mining, electrical and manufacturing sectors also.

Tourism has become a large source of income for many in the Pacific; tourists come from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the United Kingdom and the USA. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Fijicurrently draws almost half a million tourists each year; more than a quarter from Australia. This contributes $1 billion or more since 1995 to Fiji's economy but the Government of Fiji islands underestimate these figures due to invisible economy inside tourism industry.

Agriculture and natural resources constitutes only 5% to 10% of Oceania's total jobs, but contributes substantially to export performance. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

The most populous two nations, Australia and New Zealand, are also the most developed and have majority service industries. This dilutes the data from the less developed Pacific Island nations who have major agricultural economies. Most of the Pacific countries (excluding Australia and New Zealand) the primary industry is agriculture. Many nations are still quintessentially agricultural; ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

for example, 80% of the population of Vanuatu and 70% of the population of Fiji works in agriculture. The main produce from the pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of thePacific. Fishing provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia and the Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union.

\Oceania's most populous nations, Australia and New Zealand, are both highly developed nations and are large international aid donors. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

These two wealthy nations share the region with less developed nations which still rely on foreign aid for development. In the 2007/08 financial year Australia provided $3.155 billion worth of official development assistance, of which $2.731 billion will be managed by AusAID. Every week, each Australian puts in around $2.40 to pay for Australia's aid program, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

amounting to around 1% of the Australian Federal Government expenditure compared to the 42% spent on social security and welfare.New Zealand's electricity market is regulated by the Electricity Industry Participation Code administered by the Electricity Authority (NZ). The Authority was established in November 2010 to replace the Electricity Commission (NZ). HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Until 1987, New Zealand had a centrally run system of providers of generation, transmission, distribution, and retailing. Since then, a step-by-step process of industry reform has led to the separation of the monopoly elements from the contestable elements to create competitive markets in energy generation and electricity retailing, while imposing regulation on the natural monopolies of transmission and distribution.[1] HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Currently the market is split into the following areas: regulation, generation, administration and market clearing, transmission, distribution, metering and retailing.The wholesale market for electricity operates under the Electricity Industry Participation Code,[2] and is overseen by the market regulator, the Electricity Authority. Trade takes place at more than 200 pricing nodes across New Zealand.[3] HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

Generators can make offers to supply electricity at grid injection points, while retailers and some major industrial users make bids to withdraw "offtake" electricity at grid exit points. The market uses a locational marginal pricing auction which takes generators’ offers and retailers’ bids, and computes final prices and quantities at each node. The auction is held every half hour.Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The Authority contracts out the services required to run the electricity market. The Reconciliation Manager, who reconciles all metered quantities, Pricing Manager, who determines the final prices at each node, and Clearing and Settlement Manager, who pays generators for their generation at the market clearing price and invoices all retailers for their offtake, HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

are all contracted to New Zealand Exchange (the NZX), who acquired the previous service provider M-Co in June 2009.The owner of the national transmission grid is Transpower, a state-owned enterprise. Transpower is also the System Operator, responsible for ensuring real time electricity supply security and quality. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Transpower is the market scheduler, predicting likely demand to help generators make bids, and the dispatcher, in charge of matching demand and supply in real time.[4]

Distribution of electricity from the grid exit points to the end consumers' premises is the responsibility of 28 distributors who have monopoly control of the lines services on their networks. Ownership of distributors, COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

also known as lines companies, is through trust-owned companies and public companies. Some major industrial users are directly connected to the grid, such as New Zealand Steel and the Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter.

As of October 2011, there are five major generators in New Zealand: Meridian Energy, Genesis Power, Mighty River Power, Contact Energy, and TrustPower. These five together produce about 95% of New Zealand's electricity. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

The first two are state-owned enterprises; the others publicly traded companies. An important feature of the New Zealand market is that all the major generators also own retailing arms. The companies are thus commonly known as "gentailers". Retailers purchase electricity from the wholesale market, and on-sell it to consumers. Retailers currently active are: HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Bay of Plenty Electricity, Bosco Connect, Contact Energy, Energy Direct, Empower,Energy Online, Genesis Energy, Just Energy, King Country Energy, Mercury Energy, Meridian Energy, Nova Energy, Powershop,Simply Energy, Pulse Energy, Tiny Mighty Power and TrustPower.[5]

Most of the retailers are linked to generating companies or have common ownership. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

For example Empower is backed by Contact Energy, Powershop is owned by Meridian Energy, Bosco Connect is a brand owned by Mighty River Power, Energy Online is owned by Genesis Energy, Mercury Energy is owned by the generator Mighty River Power, and Nova Energy and Bay of Plenty Energy have common ownership.[6] Not all retailers supply to all locations, for instance Bosco Connect only supplies to Auckland inner-city apartments. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

Competition for retail customers varies across the country but since 1999, when full retail competition was introduced, customers have switched at a rate between 9% and 14% per annum.

Electricity is traded at a wholesale level in a spot market. The market operation is managed by several service providers under agreements with the Electricity Authority (NZ).[8] SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

The physical operation of the market is managed by Transpower in its role as System Operator.

Generators submit offers (bids) through a Wholesale Information and Trading System (WITS). Each offer covers a future half-hour period (called a trading period) and is an offer to generate a specified quantity at that time in return for a nominated price. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

The System Operator (Transpower) uses a scheduling, pricing and dispatch (SPD) system to rank offers, submitted through WITS, in order of price, and selects the lowest-cost combination of offers (bids) to satisfy demand.The market pricing principle is known as bid-based security-constrained economic dispatch with nodal prices.The highest-priced bid offered by a generator required to meet demand for a given half-hour sets the spot price for that trading period. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Electricity spot prices can vary significantly across trading periods, reflecting factors such as changing demand (e.g. lower prices in summer when demand is subdued) and supply (e.g. higher prices when hydro lakes and inflows are below average). Spot prices can also vary significantly across locations, reflecting electrical losses and constraints on the transmission system (e.g. higher prices in locations further from generating stations). HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Trades take place at approximately 285 nodes (grid injection points and grid exit points) across New Zealand every half-hour. Generators make offers to supply electricity at 59 grid injection points (GIPs) at power stations, while retailers and major users make bids to buy electricity at 226 grid exit points (GXPs) on the national grid.

Final prices at each node, taking account of grid losses and constraints, are processed and confirmed the following day.[9] HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

All electricity generated is required to be traded through the central pool, with the exception of small generating stations of less than 10MW.[10] Bilateral and other hedge arrangements are possible, but function as separate financial contracts. Trading develops by bids (purchaser/demand) and offers (generator/supply) for 48 half hour periods for each pricing nodes on the national grid. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Bids and offers start 36 hours before the actual real-time consumption or ‘trading period’. Up to 4 hours (pre-dispatch) before the ‘trading period’ starts a new ‘forecast price’ is calculated to guide participants in the market. From four hours to the start of the trading period every half hour a ‘dispatch price’ is calculated and communicated. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Two hours before the start of the ‘trading period’ bids and offers can no longer be revised (with some exceptions) and the new prices reflect Transpower's adjustments in load forecasts and system availability.

During each half hour period Transpower publishes a new real-time price every five minutes, and a time-weighted 30-minute average price. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

The real-time prices are used by some large direct-connect consumers to adapt their demand. The above prices are however guidelines only as the ‘final prices’ are calculated ex-post (normally noon the following day, unless there are irregularities or disputes) using the offer prices as established two hours before the ‘trading period’ and volumes as established during the ‘trading period’. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Differences between forecast, dispatch, real-time and final prices can be significant.

Regulation of the electricity market started in a light-handed fashion but there has been an increasing trend towards more heavy-handed regulation. Light-handed regulation is based on the threat of regulation providing an incentive on companies with market power to exercise self-regulation. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The normal regulatory legislation such as the Companies Act, Electricity Act, Resource Management Act 1991, Commerce Act 1986, and Fair Trading Act 1986 provide the framework for regulating normal commercial and environmental transactions.

The government has increased the extent of intervention through the Electricity Industry Reform Act 1998, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

which forced power companies to divest either their energy or their lines business, and the Electricity Amendment Act 2001. The latter led to another round of industry reform concentrating on achieving bettergovernance of the electricity market and tighter control of monopoly functions. The "threat of regulation" was extended to the production of a set of regulations that would be brought into effect if the industry's self-regulation did not meet the Government's criteria. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

On 16 May 2003 the result of a referendum by industry participants and customer representatives on a proposed set of self-regulating rules was announced:Consumers voted 4.4% for the proposal Traders voted 66.2% for the proposal (traders = generating companies and retailers) Transporters voted 47.4% for the proposal (transporters = distributors and Transpower) HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

As there was not a substantial majority of all classes in favour of the proposal it was not implemented.

The result put paid to the prospect of a multilateral agreement on the governance and operational arrangements for the electricity market. The New Zealand government invoked the regulations already prepared to meet this contingency. The "threat of regulation" had been insufficient to stave off regulation. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

On 2 July 2003 a draft set of Electricity Governance Regulations and Rules was issued on behalf of the Minister of Energy by the Electricity Commission Establishment Unit (ECEU). This set was for consultation purposes and after submissions were received and reviewed, a set of regulations and rules was recommended to the Governor-General. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

In September 2003 a revised set of draft rules and regulations was issued by the ECEU for submissions by the end of October. The set did not include proposed transmission regulations, which were still being drafted. Also in September the Minister of Energy announced the chair and members of the Electricity Commission. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

Roy Hemmingway, whose most recent position was chairperson of the Oregon Public Utility Commission in the USA, took on the role as chairperson of the Commission.The final set of Electricity Governance Regulations and Rules (excluding rules for transmission) became effective on 1 March 2004. The final chapter of the Electricity Governance Rules, on transmission, was gazetted on 28 April to become effective on 28 May 2004. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

A Ministerial Review of Electricity Market Performance was initiated on 1 April 2009 and led by an independent Electricity Technical Advisory Group, appointed by the Minister for Energy and Resources, with assistance from officials from the Ministry of Economic Development.[11] There were 29 recommendations arising from the review. [12] HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

One of the key recommendations approved by Cabinet was the transfer of ownership and operation of some power stations between Genesis Energy and Meridian Energyin order to increase retailer competition in both islands and to give Genesis a South Island generating base. It was decided that Genesis would receive the Tekapo A and Tekapo B hydroelectric power stations from Meridian, ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

and Meridian would receive the Whirinaki Power Station from the government (although Meridian eventually declined to accept). The transfer of Tekapo A and B was completed on 1 June 2011. [13]

On 1 November 2010, the Electricity Authority commenced operations, taking over from the Electricity Commission.[14] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

In April 2013, the Labour Party and the Green Party said if they were to win the 2014 election, they would introduce a single buyer for electricity, in order to cut retail costs.[15] The Government responded by calling it "economic vandalism", comparing it to the Soviet Union,[16] but Greens co-leader Russel Norman said it would boost the economy and create jobs.[17] SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

By the following day, shares in privately owned power company Contact Energy had fallen by more than 10 percent. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

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New Zealand has a market economy that depends greatly on international trade, mainly with Australia, the European Union, the United States, China, South Korea and Japan. It has only small manufacturing and high-tech sectors, being strongly focused on tourism and primary industries such as agriculture. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Free-market reforms over recent decades have removed many barriers to foreign investment, and the World Bank in 2005 praised New Zealand as being the most business-friendly country in the world, before Singapore.

Traditionally, New Zealand's economy was built on a narrow range of primary products, such as wool, meat and dairy products. As an example, from approximately 1920 to the late 1930s, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

the dairy export quota was usually around 35% of the total exports, and in some years made up almost 45% of all New Zealand's exports.[15] Due to the high demand for these primary products – such as the New Zealand wool boom of 1951 – New Zealand enjoyed a high standard of living. However, commodity prices for these exports declined, and New Zealand lost its preferential trading positionwith the United Kingdom in 1973, HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

due to the latter joining the European Economic Community. Partly as a result, from 1970 to 1990, the relative New Zealand GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power declined from about 115% of the OECD average to 80%.[16]

New Zealand's economy has been based on a foundation of exports from its very efficient agricultural system. Leading agricultural exports include meat, dairy products, forest products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and wool. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

New Zealand was a direct beneficiary of many of the reforms achieved under the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations, with agriculture in general and the dairy sector in particular enjoying many new trade opportunities in the long term. The country has substantial hydroelectric power and sizeable reserves of natural gas, much of which is exploited due primarily to major Keynesian import substitution-oriented industrial projects (See Think Big). DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

Leading manufacturing sectors are food processing, metal fabrication, and wood and paper products. Some manufacturing industries, many of which had only been established in a climate of import substitution with high tariffs and subsidies, such as car assembly, have completely disappeared, and manufacturing's importance in the economy is in a general decline. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

Since 1984, the New Zealand government has undertaken major economic restructuring (known first as Rogernomics and then Ruthanasia), moving an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access toward a more industrialised, free-market economy that can compete globally. This growth has boosted real incomes, broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. Per-capita GDP has been moving up towards the levels of the big West European economies since the trough in 1990, but the gap remains significant. New Zealand's heavy dependence on trade leaves its growth prospects vulnerable to economic performance in Asia, Europe, and the United States. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

Between 1984 and 1999, a number of measures of New Zealand's economic and social capital showed a steady decline: the youth suicide rate grew sharply into one of the highest in the developed world;[17] the number of food banks increased dramatically;[18] marked increases in violent and other crime were observed;[19] the number of New Zealanders estimated to be living in poverty grew by at least 35% between 1989 and 1992;[20 DELL yy529 CPU Fan

] and health care was especially hard-hit, leading to a significant deterioration in health standards among working and middle-class people.Between 1985 and 1992, New Zealand's economy grew by 4.7% during the same period in which the average OECD nation grew by 28.2%.[22] From 1984 to 1993 inflation averaged 9% per year, New Zealand's credit rating dropped twice, and foreign debt quadrupled.[20] Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

Between 1986 and 1993, the unemployment rate rose from 3.6% to 11%.

The New Zealand economy has recently been perceived as successful. However, the generally positive outlook includes some challenges. New Zealand income levels, which used to be above much of Western Europe prior to the deep crisis of the 1970s, have never recovered in relative terms. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

For instance, the New Zealand nominal GDP per capita is about 80% that of the United States. Income inequality has increased greatly, implying that significant portions of the population have quite modest incomes. Further, New Zealand has a very large current account deficit of 8–9% of GDP. Despite this, its public debt stands at 33.7% (2011 est.)[24] of the total GDP, which is small compared to many developed nations. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

However, between 1984 and 2006, net foreign debt increased 11-fold, to NZ$182 billion, NZ$45,000 for each person.The combination of a modest public debt and a large net foreign debt reflects that most of the net foreign debt is held by the private sector. At 31 June 2012, gross foreign debt was NZ$256.4 billion, or 125.3% of GDP.[25] At 31 March 2012, net foreign debt was NZ$141.65 billion or 104.4% of GDP.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

New Zealand's persistent current-account deficits have two main causes. The first is that earnings from agricultural exports and tourism have failed to cover the imports of advanced manufactured goods and other imports (such as imported fuels) required to sustain the New Zealand economy. Secondly, there has been an investment income imbalance or net outflow for debt-servicing of external loans. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The proportion of the current account deficit that is attributable to the investment income imbalance (a net outflow to the Australian-owned banking sector) grew from one third in 1997 to roughly 70% in 2008.

Historically, New Zealand had a highly protected, regulated and subsidised economy. This stemmed at least partly from trends started in the first half of the 20th century, when the Liberal Government and later the First Labour Government introduced social security systems with, HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

for the time, very wide-ranging scope (from state pensions to unemployment benefits and free education and health care), while also regulating industry, mandating trade unionism and industrial arbitration. Imports were also heavily regulated. While called "welfare statism" by some,[who?] it was accepted that until at least the 1950s both main parties (Labour and National) generally supported this trend, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

even though critics pointed to negative effects on the general economy and argued that increasing emigration could be blamed to a large degree on these policies.[28]

By the 1960s, the New Zealand economy's terms of trade began to decline. This was largely due to the decline in export receipts from the United Kingdom, which in 1955 took 65.3 percent of New Zealand's exports. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

By the year ended June 1973, during which Britain formally entered the European Economic Community, this had fallen to 26.8 percent. By the year ended June 1990 its share had fallen to 7.2 percent and in the year ended June 2000 its share was 6.2 percent.[29]

To a substantial degree, the economic restrictions remained in place or were even sometimes extended in the early second half of the 20th century. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

However, reforms in the 1980s and early 1990s were then to turn this situation into its opposite.

Between 1984 and 1995, successive New Zealand governments enacted policies of economic deregulation informed by microeconomics. The policies aimed to liberalise the economy and were notable for their very comprehensive coverage and innovations. Specific polices included: HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

floating the exchange rate; establishing an independent reserve bank; performance contracts for senior civil servants; public sector finance reform based on accrual accounting; tax neutrality; subsidy-free agriculture; and industry-neutral competition regulation. Economic growth was resumed in 1991. New Zealand was changed from a somewhat closed and centrally controlled economy to one of the most open economies in the OECD.[ ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Since 1984, government subsidies including agricultural subsides were eliminated; import regulations were liberalised; the exchange rate was floated; and controls on interest rates, wages, and prices were removed; and marginal rates of taxation were reduced. Tight monetary policy and major efforts to reduce thegovernment budget deficit brought the inflation rate down from an annual rate of more than 18% in 1987. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

The deregulation of government-owned enterprises in the 1980s and 1990s reduced government's role in the economy and permitted the retirement of some public debt.Deregulation created a very business-friendly regulatory framework. A 2008 study and survey ranked it 99.9% in "Business freedom", and 80% overall in "Economic freedom", noting amongst other things that it only takes 12 days to establish a business in New Zealand on average, compared with a worldwide average of 43 days. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Other indicators measured were property rights, labour market conditions, government controls and corruption, the last being considered "next to non-existent" in the Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal study.[31]

According to the Heritage Foundation, New Zealand has the strongest private property rights in the world, scoring 95 on a scale of 100. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

In its 'Doing Business 2008' survey, the World Bank (which in that year rated New Zealand as the second-most business-friendly country worldwide), ranked New Zealand 13th out of 178 in the business-friendliness of its hiring laws.[32]

The 1990s liberalisations also have been blamed for a number of significant negative effects. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

One of them was the leaky homes crisis, where the liberalisation of building standards (in the expectation that market forces would assure quality) led to many thousands of severely deficient buildings (mostly residential homes and apartments) being constructed over a period of a decade. The costs of fixing the damage has been estimated at over NZ$11 billion. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Economic growth, which had slowed in 1997 and 1998 due to the negative effects of the Asian financial crisis and two successive years of drought, rebounded in 1999. A low New Zealand dollar, favourable weather, and high commodity prices boosted exports, and the economy is estimated to have grown by 2.5% in 2000. Growth resumed at a higher level from 2001 onwards due primarily to the lower value of the New Zealand dollar, which made exports more competitive. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

The return of substantial economic growth led the unemployment rate to drop from 7.8% in 1999 to 3.4% in late 2005, the lowest rate in nearly 20 years.

Although New Zealand enjoyed low unemployment rates in the years immediately prior to the financial crisis beginning in 2007, subsequent unemployment rose. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

New Zealand's large current account deficit, which stood at more than 6.5% of GDP in 2000, has been a constant source of concern for New Zealand policymakers and hit 9% as of March 2006. The rebound in the export sector is expected to help narrow the deficit to lower levels, especially due to decreases in the exchange rate of the New Zealand dollar during 2008. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

New Zealand's economy has been helped by strong economic relations with Australia. Australia and New Zealand are partners in "Closer Economic Relations" (CER), which allows for free trade in goods and most services. Since 1990, CER has created a single market of more than 25 million people, and this has provided new opportunities for New Zealand exporters. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Australia is now the destination of 19% of New Zealand's exports, compared to 14% in 1983. Both sides have also agreed to consider extending CER to product standardisation and taxation policy. New Zealand initiated a free trade agreement with Singapore in September 2000 which was extended in 2005 to include Chile and Brunei and is now known as the P4 agreement.TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

New Zealand is seeking other bilateral/regional trade agreements in the Pacific area. US goods and services have been competitive in New Zealand, though the then-strong US dollar created challenges for US exporters in 2001. The market-led economy offers many opportunities for US exporters and investors. Investment opportunities exist in chemicals, food preparation, finance, tourism, and forest products, as well as in franchising. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

The best sales prospects are for medical equipment, information technology, and consumer goods. On the agricultural side, the best prospects are for fresh fruit, snack foods, specialised grocery items (e.g. organic foods), and soybean meal. A number of US companies have subsidiary branches in New Zealand. Many operate through local agents, with some joint venture associations.Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

The United States Chamber of Commerce is active in New Zealand, with a main office in Auckland and a branch committee in Wellington.However, as of the 2010s, China is now New Zealand's second-largest trading partner, behind Australia.On 17 June 2010, Xi Jinping, China's vice-president, travelled to Auckland, New Zealand for a three-day visit, along with more than 100 senior business leaders. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

New Zealand welcomes and encourages foreign investment without discrimination. The Overseas Investment Commission (OIC) must, however, consent to foreign investments that would control 25% or more of businesses or property worth more than NZ$50 million. Restrictions and approval requirements also apply to certain investments in land and in the commercial fishing industry. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

In practice, OIC approval requirements have not hindered investment. OIC consent is based on a national interest determination, but no performance requirements are attached to foreign direct investment after consent is given. Full remittance of profits and capital is permitted through normal banking channels.

This free investment by foreign capital has also been criticised. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Groups like Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa (CAFCA) consider that New Zealand's economy is substantially overseas-owned, noting that direct ownership of New Zealand companies by foreign parties increased from $9.7 billion in 1989 to $83 billion in 2007 (an over 700% increase), while 41% of the New Zealand sharemarket valuation is now overseas-owned, compared to 19% in 1989. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Around 7% of all New Zealand agriculturally productive land is also foreign-owned. CAFCA considers that the effect of such takeovers has generally been negative in terms of jobs and wages.

Prior to the economic shocks which occurred upon Britain's joining the EEC in the 1970s and closing as a primary New Zealand export market, measured unemployment in New Zealand was very low. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

In 1959 and 1960, for example, the country was officially at full employment.[37] One Labour party representative recently joked in a speech that the Prime Minister of the day knew the name of every unemployed person.[38]

Between 1985 and 2012, New Zealand's unemployment rate averaged 6.29%. After the stock market crash of 1989, unemployment began to rise reaching an all-time high of 11.20% in September 1991.[39] SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

By 2007, it had dropped again and the rate stood at 3.5% (December 2007), its lowest level since the current method of surveying began in 1986. This gave the country the 5th-best ranking in the OECD (with an OECD average at the time of 5.5%). The low numbers correlated with a robust economy and a large backlog of job positions at all levels.[40] HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Unemployment numbers are not always directly comparable between OECD nations, as they do not all keep labour market statistics in the same way.

The percentage of the population employed also increased in recent years, to 68.8% of all inhabitants, with full-time jobs increasing slightly, and part-time occupations decreasing in turn. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

The increase in the working population percentage is attributed to increasing wages and higher costs of living moving more people into employment.[40] The low unemployment also had some disadvantages, with many companies unable to fill jobs.

From 2008, mainly as a result of the global financial crisis, unemployment numbers began to rise, with job losses especially high amongst women.[ Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

41] In the last quarter of 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 6.9% from a 13-year high. This now makes New Zealand the 14th lowest among developed nations, below Canada's 7.2% and above Israel's 6.7%.

As of 2010, New Zealand had the second-lowest personal tax burden in the OECD, once all compulsory effects (such as superannuation and other mandatory deductions) were included in the tax-take. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Only Mexico's citizens had a higher percentage-wise "take home" proportion of their salaries.[43]

There is an ongoing political debate between left- and right-leaning political parties as to whether further lowering taxes is appropriate. One of the most contentious questions is whether to adjust the relative tax burden of the highest-income earners.DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

New Zealand is the highest-ranked (i.e. least corrupt) country on the Transparency International corruption perceptions index (CPI) of 2011.[44] However, the validity of this index is disputed by those who investigate such matters. Adam Feeley, chief executive of the Serious Fraud Office says fraud is widespread in New Zealand and there are fundamental misconceptions about New Zealand's ranking as one of the world's least corrupt countries.[45HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

] International auditors, PricewaterhouseCooper (PwC), agree. In 2011 PwC conducted a survey on Global Economic Crime which found that 50% of New Zealand organisations (both public and private) had experienced an economic crime in the previous 12 months. This gave New Zealand the 4th highest level of fraud out of the 78 countries surveyed. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

Agriculture in New Zealand is the largest sector of the tradable economy, contributing about two-thirds of exported goods in 2006-7.[1] For the year ended March 2002, agricultural exports were valued at over $14.8 billion. The New Zealand agricultural sector is unique in being the only developed country to be totally exposed to the international markets since subsidies, tax concessions and price supports were removed in the 1980s.[2] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Pastoral farming is the major land use but there are increases in land area devoted to horticulture.New Zealand is a member of the Cairns Group which is seeking to have free trade in agricultural goods.The government offered a number of subsidies during the 1970s to assist farmers after the United Kingdom joined the European Economic Community[3] and by the early 1980s government support provided some farmers with 40 percent of their income.[4HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

] In 1984 the Labour government ended all farm subsidies,[5] and by 1990 the agricultural industry became the most deregulated sector in New Zealand.[6] To stay competitive in the heavily subsidised European and US markets New Zealand farmers had to increase the efficiency of their operations.[7][8] Animal farming is pasture based, cows and sheep are rarely housed or fed large quantities of grain, with most farmers using grass based supplements such as hay and silage during feed shortages. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Pigs are usually kept indoors, either in gestation crates, farrowing crates, fattening pens, or group housing.

In Northland, the major form of pastoral farming is beef cattle. In the Waikato and Taranaki areas, dairy cattle predominate. Through the rest of New Zealand, sheep farming is the major rural activity, with beef cattle farming in the hills and high country, and dairying increasing in Canterbury, Otago and Southland.[10] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

New Zealand is the world's eighth largest milk producer, with about 2.2% of world production.[11] Total production was 1.3 billion kg of milk solids, and NZD 8.38 billion of dairy products were exported in the year ending 30 September 2007.[12][13] There are approximately 4.2 million dairy milking cows in New Zealand, and 5.26 million dairy cattle in total at 30 June 2007, an increase from 3 million in 1982.[10] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

In mid-2005, there were 12,786 dairy farms, with a total area of 2.1 million hectares.[12] Traditional dairy production areas are the wetter areas of the country: Waikato, Taranaki, Southland, Northland, Horowhenua, Manawatu and Westland. Fonterra is the major processor of milk in New Zealand. It processes 94.8 percent of all milk solids from dairy farms.[12] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

Other large dairy companies are Tatua Co-operative Dairy Company,Westland Milk Products and Synlait.

Livestock is predominately grass-fed, but hay and silage is used in the winter months to make up for slower pasture growth.[10] There were 38.5 million sheep and 4.39 million beef cattle in New Zealand in June 2007. The number of sheep saw a substantial fall from the 70.3 million in 1982, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

while beef cattle numbers declined by about ten percent over the same period.[10] In June 2006. 573,000 tonnes of sheep meat was produced in 2006-7, and 164,000 tonnes of clean wool. NZD 2.08 billion of lamb, NZD 283 million of mutton, and NZD 938 million of raw wool and wool products was exported in the year ending 30 September 2007. Production of beef and veal in 2006-7 was 623,000 tonnes, with NZD 1.64 billion in exports. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

There were 13,254 beef farms, 13,905 sheep farms and 1,614 mixed beef/sheep farms in 2005, with areas of 1.5 million hectares, 8.1 million hectares, and 655,000 hectares respectively.[12][13][14]

Deer farming has increased dramatically from a herd of 150,000 in 1982 to 1.59 million in 2006, with 1,617 deer farms occupying 218,000 hectares of land in 2005.[12] NZD 252 million of venison was exported in the year ending 30 September 2007. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

New Zealand is the largest exporter of farmed venison in the world.[13] In the 1970s and 80s there was a huge industry carrying out live deer recovery from forested areas of New Zealand. The deer are a pest animal that has a negative impact on the biodiversity of New Zealand. The deer-farm stock was bred from the recovered wild animals.

In 2005, there were 264 pig farms with a total area of 12,831 hectares. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

There were also 855 mixed livestock farms and 633 other livestock farms, with areas of 178 and 18,000 hectares, respectively.[12] The 50,000 tonnes of pork produced in 2007 was supplemented by 40,000 tonnes of imported pork products to meet domestic demand.[15] 14.7 million chickens were raised for meat in 2007,[16] with 145 tonnes of chicken meat produced.Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

No other poultry is raised in significant numbers in New Zealand. Approximately 3.1 million laying hens are kept, producing 900 million eggs in 2006.[15] Goats are also farmed for meat, milk, and mohair, and to control weeds.

Milling of New Zealand's extensive native forests was one of the earliest industries in the settlement of the country. The long, straight hardwood from the kauri was ideal for ship masts and spars. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

As the new colony was established, timber was the most common building material, and vast areas of native forest were cleared. Rimu, tōtara, matai, and miro were the favoured timbers. The Monterrey Pine, Pinus radiata was introduced to New Zealand in the 1850s.[17] It thrived in the conditions, reaching maturity in 28 years, much faster than in its native California.Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

It was found to grow well in the infertile acidic soil of the volcanic plateau, where attempts at agriculture had failed. The Government initiated planting of exotic forests in 1899 at Whakarewarewa, near Rotorua. This was to address growing timber shortages as slow-growing native forests were exhausted.[18] In the 1930s, vast areas of land were planted in Pinus radiata by relief workers. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

The largest tract was the 188,000-hectare Kāingaroa forest, the largest plantation forest in the world. As the major forests matured, processing industries such as the Kinleith Mill at Tokoroa and the Tasman Mill at Kawerau were established.Plantation forests of various sizes can now be found in all regions of New Zealand except Central Otago and Fiordland. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

In 2006 their total area was 1.8 million hectares, with 89% in Pinus radiata and 5% in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)[19] Log harvesting in 2006 was 18.8 million m3, down from 22.5 million m3 in 2003. This is projected to rise as high as 30 million m3 as newer forests mature. The value of all forestry exports (logs, chips, sawn timber, panels and paper products) for the year ended 31 March 2006 was $NZ 3.62 billion. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

This is projected to rise to $4.65 billion by 2011. Australia accounts for just over 25% of export value, mostly paper products, followed by Japan, South Korea, China and the United States.[19] Within the New Zealand economy, forestry accounts for approximately 4% of national GDP. On the global stage, the New Zealand forestry industry is a relatively small contributor in terms of production, accounting for 1% of global wood supply for industrial purposes. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

There are about 400 growers of stone fruit who utilise 3000 hectares of land, mostly in the Hawke's Bay and Otago regions. Three quarters of the fruit produced is consumed domestically. Peaches, nectarines and plums are produced for domestic consumption, and apricots and cherries, almost all from Otago, are exported.[21] About 30 varieties of apples and pears are exported, ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

with over 16 million tray carton equivalents (18 kg) of apples and 300,000 tce's of pears exported in 2007. Most pipfruit is grown in the Hawke's Bay and Tasman regions, with about 10,000 hectares planted.[22] Kiwifruit is grown in many regions of the North Island and in the north of the South Island, but is most concentrated in the Bay of Plenty. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

There are 2,700 kiwifruit growers, with over 13,000 hectares planted. Over 80 million trays of kiwifruit were exported in 2006, about one-quarter of the world's production. Kiwifruit is New Zealand's largest horticultural export by value.[22] In 2007 there were over 29,0000 hectares planted in grapes (mostly in Marlborough, Hawke's Bay and Gisborne), 205,000 tonnes of grapes were produced, and there were 543 wineries.[22] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Citrus fruit is grown in Gisborne, Northland and Auckland. Blackcurrants and other berry fruits are grown in Tasman, Waikato, Canterbury and Auckland. Avocados and other subtropical fruits are grown in Northland and the Bay of Plenty.[22] Total exports of fresh fruit were worth NZD 1,200 million in 2007, and NZD 105 million of processed fruit was also exported. 76 million litres of wine, worth NZD 698 million, was exported. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

Almost all hay and silage is consumed on the same farm as it is produced. Most supplementary feed crops are grown in the South Island, where the colder climate forces additional feeding of stock during winter. Wheat is mostly grown in the Canterbury region and is used for domestic consumption in bread and biscuits. By-products are bran and pollard, which are used for stock feed. Barley is used for stock feed and for malt. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Some barley is exported, depending on international price fluctuations. Maize is grown in the Waikato and Manawatu-Wanganui regions as feed for chickens, pigs and cattle. Oats are grown in Canterbury and Southland for animal feed, and for rolled oats and oatmeal.[21]

Vegetable growing occupies more than 50,000 hectares of land and employs 25,000 people. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

More than 50 different vegetables are grown in New Zealand. Approximately 1,450 growers produce fresh vegetables with a value of over NZD 400 million in 2007. NZD 260 million of fresh vegetables, mainly onions and squash, were exported in 2007. 750 growers produce vegetables worth over NZD 100 million for processing, and NZD 297 of processed and frozen vegetables, mostly potatoes, sweetcorn and peas, were exported in 2007.[2HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

1] NZD 63 million worth of seeds and bulbs, and NZD 43 million of cut flowers and foliage, were exported in 2007.

Aquaculture started in New Zealand in the late 1960s and is dominated by mussels, oysters and salmon. In 2007, aquaculture generated about NZ$360 million in sales on an area of 7,700 hectares with a total of $240 million earned in exports. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

In 2006, the aquaculture industry in New Zealand developed a strategy aimed at achieving a sustainable annual billion NZ dollar business by 2025. In 2007, the government reacted by offering more support to the growing industry.

New Zealand had 2,602 beekeepers at the end of 2007, who owned 313,399 hives. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

Total honey production was 9700 tonnes. Pollen, beeswax, and propolis are also produced. Beekeepers provide pollination services to horticulturalists, which generates more income than the products of bee culture. Approximately 20–25,000 queen bees, and 20 tonnes of packaged bees (which include worker bees and a queen) are exported live each year. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Both the original Māori people and the European colonists made huge changes to New Zealand over a relatively short time. Māori burned forest to flush out gameand to encourage the growth of bracken fern, which was used as a food source, and practised agriculture using plants they brought from tropical Polynesia. The Europeans logged and burned off a third of the forest cover to convert land to pastoral farming. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

In 1993, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research summarised available data on the quality of water in rivers. They concluded that "lowland river reaches in agriculturally developed catchments are in poor condition" reflecting "agriculturally derived diffuse and point source waste inputs in isolation or in addition to urban or industrial waste inputs" DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The key contaminants identified in lowland rivers were dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved reactive phosphorus and faecal contamination. Small streams in dairy farming areas were identified as being in very poor condition.[25] New Zealand's rivers and lakes are becoming increasingly nutrient enriched and degraded by nitrogen, animal faecal matter, and eroded sediment.[26] HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

Many waterways are now unsafe for swimming. Fish and Game New Zealand launched a "dirty dairying" campaign to highlight the effect of intensive agriculture on waterways. Fonterra, the largest dairy company in New Zealand, in conjunction with government agencies responded with the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord. In 2009, HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

the Crafar Farms group of dairy farms in the North Island became known as the 'poster boys for dirty dairying' after a string of prosecutions in the Environment Court for unlawful discharges of dairy effluent.[27][28]

In 2004 the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment released a report on the environmental effects of farming in New Zealand.[29] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

It noted that the trend was towards an increasing pressure on New Zealand's natural capital. Between 1994 and 2002 the number of dairy cows increased by 34% and the land area used grew by just 12% resulting in a more intensive land use. In the same period synthetic fertiliser use across all sectors grew by 21% and urea use grew by 160%.

Almost half of the greenhouse gas emissions in New Zealand are due to the agricultural sector. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

A portion of this is due to methane from belching ruminants. Anagricultural emissions research levy was proposed, quickly becoming known as the "Fart Tax".[30] The proposed levy encountered opposition from the farming sector and the National Party, resulting in plans for the levy being abandoned. The Pastoral Greenhouse Gas Research Consortium was formed as an alternative to imposing the levy on farmers. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

The Common Brushtail Possum was introduced from Australia to establish a fur trade. It soon became one of New Zealand's most problematic invasive speciesbecause of the huge effect on the biodiversity of New Zealand as well affecting agricultural production since it is a vector for Bovine tuberculosis. The disease now endemic in possums across approximately 38 per cent of New Zealand (known as ‘vector risk areas’). HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

In these areas, nearly 70 per cent of new herd infections can be traced back to possums or ferrets. The Biosecurity Act 1993, which established a National Pest Management Strategy, is the legislation behind control of the disease in New Zealand. The Animal Health Board (AHB) operates a nationwide programme of cattle testing and possum control with the goal of eradicating M. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

bovis from wild vector species across 2.5 million hectares – or one quarter – of New Zealand’s at-risk areas by 2026 and, eventually, eradicating the disease entirely.[31]

Possums are controlled through a combination of trapping, ground-baiting and, where other methods are impractical, aerial treament with 1080 poison.[32] IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

From 1979–1984, possum control was stopped due to lack of funding. In spite of regular and frequent TB testing of cattle herds, the number of infected herds snowballed and continued to increase until 1994.[33] The area of New Zealand where there were TB wild animals expanded from about 10 to 40 per cent.

That possums are such effective transmitters of TB appears to be facilitated by their behaviour once they succumb to the disease.Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

Terminally ill TB possums will show increasingly erratic behaviour, such as venturing out during the daytime to get enough food to eat, and seeking out buildings in which to keep warm. As a consequence they may wander onto paddocks, where they naturally attract the attention of inquisitive cattle and deer. This behaviour has been captured on video.[34] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

The introduced Canada Geese became prolific and began to adversely affect pastures and crops. In 2011 restrictions on hunting them were dropped to allow them to be culled.

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Federation Square is a major meeting place in Melbourne. It is close to Flinders Street Station, the MCG and various other sporting and cultural venues. The square includes several buildings, housing the NGV Australia and the Australian Centre for the Moving Image, as well as exhibition spaces, auditoriums, restaurants, bars and shops. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Large crowds frequently watch concerts, cultural and various sporting events on the square's large electronic screen located in one of two public areas. Adjacent to the Square is Birrarung Marr, a park on the banks of the Yarra. The main Tourist Information Centre is located in the Square. It is possible to obtain a large range of tourist brochures here including guided walking tours of Melbourne. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The Melbourne Cricket Ground, known as "the MCG" or simply the "G" has the largest capacity of any Australian sporting stadium. The MCG was the centerpiece stadium of the 1956 Summer Olympic Games and was renovated in preparation for the 2006 Commonwealth Games, increasing the stadium's capacity to 103,000. From April to September, the stadium typically hosts one or two Australian rules football matches each week. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

It has also hosted two Bledisloe Cup rugby matches. During the summer, major cricket matches including the Boxing Day test match and several one-day international games are played there.

Eureka Skydeck, is the highest viewing platform in the southern hemisphere and is located in Eureka Tower. Eureka Tower is the tallest residential building in the world. The observation deck includes a glass cube ride that projects three meters from the side of the building. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

The Melbourne Observation Deck, located some 237 meters above the city streets on the 55th floor of the Rialto Towers, offers spectacular views of the central business district and beyond. The Rialto Towers is the second tallest building in Melbourne after Eureka Tower.

Melbourne Park is the home of the Australian Open tennis tournament. Held every January, it is one of the four Grand Slamtournaments. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

The Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre is located in Southbank and was built in the 1990s as a replacement for the Royal Exhibition Building. It has hosted conventions and exhibitions since its opening.

The Melbourne Museum is located on the north-eastern fringe of the CBD, next to the Royal Exhibition Building. To many Melburnians, the most significant exhibit is the preserved body of Phar Lap, a famous racehorse of the Depression era. ASUS F80S CPU Fan

The Forest Gallery is a living internal facsimile replicating the forests of the nearby Dandenong Ranges. CSIRAC, the fifth electronic computer built and the only one of its generation to survive intact is also on display. The museum complex is also home to Melbourne's IMAX cinema.

The Royal Exhibition Building located in the Carlton Gardens was built in the 1880s for the World's Fair and is only one of a few such buildings that still exist. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The building and gardens were granted World Heritage listing on 2 July 2004. It is the first building in Australia to be granted this status. The building also held the first sitting of the Australian Parliament on 9 May 1901. Subsequent federal parliamentary sittings were then moved to the Victorian Parliament buildinglocated in Spring Street and the Victorian government moved to the Exhibition Building. IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

The State Library of Victoria is on Swanston Street, with its large Domed Reading Room and statue-filled front lawn.

The National Gallery of Victoria possesses the largest art collection in Australia. The gallery operates from two sites: one housing the Australian collection at the Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia at Federation Square (notably featuring key works from the Heidelberg School); and the NGV International collection housed in the main St Kilda Road building. IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

The Victorian Arts Centre at Southgate is a Melbourne landmark with its enormous skyward spire. It hosts Opera Australia's Melbourne season, the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra, the Melbourne Theatre Company, the Australian Ballet Company, Chunky Move (one of Australia's best-known contemporary dance companies), and other touring productions. IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

The centre consists of two separate buildings: the State Theatre; and Hamer Hall (this was recently renamed in honour of the late former premierSir Rupert Hamer. The acoustics of the Centre are often favourably compared with those of its interstate rival, the opera theatre in the Sydney Opera House.

Crown Casino on the Yarra River is the largest gambling centre in the southern hemisphere. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

The Crown Entertainment Complex also encompasses one of Melbourne’s best hotels the Crown Towers, restaurants, boutiques and cinemas. Crown also has the Palladium Ballroom which hosts some of Melbourne's biggest events, such as the Logies and the Brownlow Medal AFL award.

The Melbourne Aquarium contains a variety of exhibits showcasing marine wildlife found in the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

The Shrine of Remembrance on St Kilda Road is one of Australia's largest war memorials. It is the site of annual observances of ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day.

Docklands is Melbourne's newest precinct and largest infrastructure development to date, and is also becoming a major tourist attraction. HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

The Docklands area opens up the waterfront to the CBD, and is projected to attract millions of visitors every year. Telstra Dome, the Melbourne Star Ferris wheel, GlowGolf, public art displays and several dining precincts can be found in Docklands.

Luna Park Melbourne is an amusement park located on the foreshore of Port Phillip Bay in St Kilda, an inner suburb of Melbourne. It has been operating since 1912. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

Melbourne is also noted for the number, variety and quality of its restaurants. Major restaurant strips are found throughout the city and the suburbs, including:

Chinatown, on Little Bourke Street and now spreading out onto Russell Street in the CBD, offers numerous restaurants, mainly but not exclusively offering Cantonese cuisine, ASUS A8H CPU Fan

at the lower end offering Hong Kong-style noodle restaurants up to the Flower Drum, renowned for its Peking Duck and is generally regarded as one of Melbourne's best restaurants.

Lygon Street, in the inner-northern suburb of Carlton, offers a selection of mainly Italian-influenced food.

Brunswick Street in inner-suburban Fitzroy used to be a bohemian community of students, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

artists, and poets, and it still retains some remnants its bohemian past with the presence of several live music venues, all manner of eclectic stores, accompanied by restaurants and cafes, many of which serve varied and contemporary menus.

Chapel Street, south of the city is a popular destination for fashionable clothes shopping, eating and entertainment. The long street contains commercial areas providing goods and services for local residents. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

Chapel Street intersects with Toorak Road, itself offering entertainment, food and shops.

Glenferrie Road, east of the city in inner suburban Malvern has a wide mix of different cuisines including Indian, Malaysian, Thai and Japanese. The street intersects with High Street in Armadale which also has a mix of antique shops, cafes and restaurants.APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

Glen Huntly Road, south east of the city in inner suburban Elsternwick is a busy strip that offers a wide range of different restaurant cuisines including Chinese, Malaysian Indian, Thai, and some Middle Eastern cuisines.

Nelson Place faces the water in Williamstown, and is especially popular for lazy weekend breakfasts and lunches. There are restaurants and cafes featuring the usual range of cuisines, and footpath tables outside many of the establishments. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

Melbourne contains all manner of pubs, bars, and nightclubs. The CBD contains a wide variety of venues, from the ubiquitous faux-Irish pubs and more traditional Australian hotels, through some very upmarket wine bars, serious jazz venues on Bennetts Lane, fashionable nightclubs and dance venues (where the Melbourne Shuffle was born), are often hidden away down dark alleyways. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The restaurant strips, particularly Brunswick Street have their own bars, some of which are the best rock venues in Melbourne. King Street, on the southern side of the CBD, was traditionally a nightclub strip and still hosts several, but many are now exotic dancing venues. Chapel Street, Prahran, is perhaps the trendiest, most upmarket nightlife strip. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

BaysideSt Kilda is the home of several huge music venues including the famous Esplanade Hotel (known as 'the Espy'), the Prince of Wales, and The Palace.

The recent influx of city-dwellers has given rise to the numerous underground bars and sidewalk cafes in the alleys betweenFlinders Street - Flinders Lane and Bourke Street - Lonsdale Street. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Notable alleys include Block Arcade/Block Place,Degraves Street, and Hardware Lane.

The Culture of Melbourne (the capital city of Victoria, Australia) reflects its diverse, multi-layered culture and society, and the city has gained a reputation as the "cultural and sporting capital" of Australia.

Melbourne's culture draws on a variety of international cultures, including that of Australia; HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

however, a number of local traditions and strong Melburnian themes are predominant features in the city's cultural landscape. An emphasis upon the arts (particularly the performing arts, culinary arts and visual arts), as well as sport, sporting traditions and recreation is central to this landscape. Melbourne is also a major centre of political activism, including the Australian trade union movement. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

Melbourne has thrice shared top position in a survey by The Economist of the World's Most Livable Cities on the basis of—its cultural attributes; climate; cost of living; and social conditions such as crime rates and health care, in 2002,[1] 2004 and 2005.Melbourne hosts and supports many cultural institutions, such as museums, galleries, events, festivals, public/street art, popular music, live music, film,independent music, independent film and fashion. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

The city celebrates a wide variety of major annual cultural events, including local, national and international events. A number of cultural hubs also exist in the city, including the Victorian Arts Precinct, with its distinctive spire, and Federation Square, one of the city's main cultural hubs and tourist centres that celebrated its ten-year anniversary in 2012. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

Federation Square's distinctive architecture, large digital screen and public space attracts congregations, rallies and public audiences for sporting events.

Several national traditions originated in Melbourne: The Melbourne Cup has been a Melbourne tradition since 1861 and then became a national tradition, subsequently referred to as "the race that stops the nation"; SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

Carols by Candlelight, first held in 1938, is a Christmas Eve tradition; the Myer Christmas windows are a very popular annual attraction; and the AFL Grand Final attracts thousands of spectators, both live and via broadcast media, every year.

There are a number of cultural festivals that celebrate foreign cultures from within the context of the city's culture. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

Melbourne is regarded as the home of the trade union movement in Australia,[with the headquarters of the Australian Council of Trade Unions located in the city;[9]Melbourne is also the birthplace of the Australian "eight-hour day", when the change was introduced into the building industry.[10] Melbourne also has a particularly significant history of strike action. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

Melbourne's buildings and structures feature a wide variety of architectural designs, and the city is home to the Royal Exhibition Building, the first Australian building to be listed on the World Heritage Register.[11]

Australia's second oldest architectural firm, and one of the world's oldest, Bates Smart, is based in Melbourne.[12]

Some of Australia's most prolific architects have originated from Melbourne, including Joseph Reed, Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

William Wardell, John James Clark, Charles D'Ebro, Charles Webb, William Pitt, Nahum Barnet, Harry Norris, Sir Roy Grounds and Robin Boyd. In recent years, Melbourne has produced internationally-recognised architectural firms, including Denton Corker Marshall, Fender Katsalidis, Daryl Jackson and Peddle Thorp, as well as local award winning trendsetters, Edmund & Corrigan, Ashton Raggatt McDougall and Wood Marsh. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

The Australian Ballet Company is based in Melbourne and the National Theatre in St Kilda is the oldest ballet school in Australia. Ballet is a regular feature at the Victorian Arts Centre and National Theatre venues. Melbourne is the second home of Opera Australia after it merged with Victoria State Opera in 1996. The Victorian Opera held its inaugural season in 2006 and operates in various Melbourne venues.[14] Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

The Royal Melbourne Philharmonic was formed in 1853, making it Australia's oldest musical organisation and the only orchestra in Australia to be bestowed "royal" status. The Victoria Orchestra, based in Melbourne, was Australia's first professional orchestra and performed during the period from 1888 to 1891. The Melbourne Symphony Orchestra, first assembled in 1906, is now the city's premier orchestra and tours internationally. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

There are more theatres and performance venues in Melbourne than any other city in Australia.[ The most notable include the Melbourne Recital Centre, David Marriner's Princess Theatre, Regent Theatre, Forum Theatre, and the Comedy Theatre; the Athenaeum, Her Majesty's Theatre, State Theatre, Capitol Theatre, Palais Theatre and the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

Several professional theatre companies operate in Melbourne, of which the Melbourne Theatre Company, the oldest professional theatre company in Australia, has the most institutional support of any in Australia. There is also a range of smaller professional theatre companies in Melbourne, including the Malthouse, La Mama in Carlton, Cariad Productions, the Red Stitch Actors Theatre and Theatreworks in St Kilda. Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

An array of amateur companies also exist, such as OXAGEN Productions, the Malvern Theatre Company, CLOC, Catchment Players of Darebin, Altona City Theatre, Windmill Theatre Companyand Dandenong Theatre Company.

Melbourne hosts a large number of buskers (also known as 'street performers'), from both Australia and other countries, that perform in the central business district (CBD) and surrounding areas. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

Melbourne's musical buskers cater to a wide variety of tastes, from rock to world music, to indigenous Australiantraditions. However, not all buskers are musicians, as living statues, street artists and jugglers also perform on a regular basis.

Melbourne is known throughout both Australia and the world as a centre of comedy, HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

with the Melbourne International Comedy Festival listed as one of the three largest stand-up comedy festivals in the world.[15] The city has also produced many of Australia's top-rating comedy television and radio shows,[16] and many of the country's leading comedians either come from the city or have relocated to Melbourne.[17][18][19]

Melbourne-born satirist Barry Humphries created his main character, "Dame Edna Everage", ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

as a comic version of a suburban homemaker. Through Everage, Humphries has written and performed cutting odes to Melbourne mores and the middle class suburbs of Moonee Ponds and Highett, among others. The character was retired in mid-20112 during the Eat Pray Laugh farewell tour.

Melbourne also hosted the 2008 World Latin American Dance Championships.[21] SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

The competition was held in the Vodafone Arena and immediately following the Australian Dancesport Championships. The Australian Dancesport championships will commence on 10 December 2008 and the World Latin Championships will be held on 14 December 2008.

In the 1880s, a group of Melbourne artists formed the first distinctive Australian school of painting.[22] Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Named theHeidelberg School, and latterly described as Australian Impressionism, the movement's four prinicple artists were Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Charles Conder and Frederick McCubbin. Together they painted en plein air at artists' camps set up around Melbourne's rural suburbs, including Box Hill and Heidelberg, allowing them to capture the unique light, colour and atmosphere of the Australian bush. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

Many of the group's most famous works from this period are large-scale sunlit landscapes and pastoral figure subjects, however they also explored Melbourne's urban scenery, local history (including pioneer andbushranger themes), beaches (often along Port Phillip Bay at Mentone, Sandringham and Beaumaris), and did portraits of wealthy Melburnians from their inner-city studios. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

In 1889 they staged the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition opposite theMelbourne Town Hall. It is regarded as a landmark event in Australian art history.[23]Modernist John Brack captured the idiosyncrasies of daily life in Melbourne. His most iconic painting, Collins Street., 5 pm(1955), shows grim-faced pedestrians moving in unison down Collins Street. It was voted by patrons in 2011 as the National Gallery of Victoria's most popular work. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

There are more than 100 galleries in Melbourne.[25] In the city, NGV International, the Ian Potter Centre and Ian Potter Museum of Art, the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art, Flinders Lane Gallery, Anna Schwartz Gallery, McCulloch Gallery, and the Australian Centre for the Moving Image — an organisation dedicated to the moving image in all its forms, from film and animation, to video games and television — have been established.[26] Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

The Gertrude Contemporary Art Spaces and theCentre for Contemporary Photography, both based in Fitzroy, are examples of galleries in the inner-city. Suburban venues also exist, such as Heidelberg's Heide Museum of Modern Art, located in the north-eastern region of the city. The Art Almanacwebsite, promoting itself as "Australia's Monthly Briefing on Art",Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

publishes a monthly list of activities for Melbourne's galleries and art services, in addition to the other Australian states, covering more than 550 art galleries throughout the entire nation; the organisation also publishes a hard copy almanac each month.[27][28]

Melbourne is home to a large array of public artworks, statues and sculptures. SHP 535441-001 CPU Fan

culptors such as Deborah Halpern have played a large part in enhancing many of the city's public spaces with their iconic and larger-than-life works. In more modern times, the city has become well known for stencil graffiti,[29] public artthat appears in the city's numerous laneways.[30]

The city has major film festivals including the Melbourne International Film Festival, Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

Melbourne Queer Film Festival, Melbourne Underground Film Festival andMelbourne International Animation Festival, featuring several of the city's major cinemas. The Central City Studios in Melbourne Docklands, constructed in 2005, has seen the production of several big budget films.[

Melbourne is also known for fashion. The city, once a leader in the textile industry,[ retains a small manufacturing base, but has diversified into the more creative areas of the fashion industry.[31] HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

The Melbourne Fashion Festival is one of the city's annual events, while the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival, the Logies and the Brownlow Medal dinner are three of the biggest annual red carpet events in the country.[

Street Art in Melbourne is internationally recognised,[32] and the city hosted the world's first street art festival. International artists, such as Banksy, have painted work in Melbourne. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

There is a greater number of bookshops per capita in Melbourne than any other Australian city.[34] In August 2008, Melbourne was designated as a City of Literature in UNESCO's Creative Cities Network program, recognising the role literature plays in the cultural life of Melbourne through its festivals, libraries, bookshops, publishing and other literary events and activities.[35] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

The Melbourne Writers Festival plays a significant role in establishing Melbourne's credence as a city which promotes and respects literature.The Wheeler Centre a literary and publishing centre housed in the southern wing of the State Library of Victoria opened in February 2010.[36]

Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab (1886), set in boom time Melbourne, remains a classic of crime fiction. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

Hume gathered material for the novel during sojourns in Melbourne's slums and Little Bourke Street.[37]

Despite Melbourne's strong literary tradition, there are no Melbourne suburbs named after writers. There was a campaign in 2009 to name a new suburb after John Shaw Neilson.

Melbourne has one of the most highly regarded live music scenes in the world. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

In terms of the quality and number of venues, arguably, it is comparable with cities such as Austin. Hundreds of venues throughout Melbourne host live music, some of which host live music every night of the week.

Operatic soprano Dame Nellie Melba, one of the late Victorian Era's most famous singers, took her name from her native Melbourne. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

In 1934 Clement Williams recorded Let’s Take a Trip to Melbourne, written by Jack O'Hagan.[39] Singer Paul Kelly has written several well-known songs about aspects of the city close to the heart of many Melburnians, notably "Leaps And Bounds" and "From St Kilda to King's Cross", while Skyhooks also wrote some more tongue-in-cheek songs about Melbourne. HP G60-230us CPU Fan

"Balwyn Calling", "Carlton (Lygon Street Limbo)" and "Toorak Cowboy" are examples. Melbourne-originated indie-rock band The Living End wrote the song "West End Riot" about differences between eastern and western suburbs in Melbourne's inner city.

Melbourne's independent music scene flourished in the late 1970s with strong support from local venues, street press, community radio (such as PBS, 3RRR, 3CR) and an abundance of independent record labels. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The city's inner suburbs were home to several distinctpost-punk scenes that each shared a DIY ethic and passion for experimentation.[40] Led by the Primitive Calculators and Ollie Olsen's Whirlywirld, the Fitzroy-based Little Band scene gave rise to Hunters & Collectors, and Lisa Gerrard of Dead Can Dance. InClifton Hill, an underground arts space known as "The Organ Factory" facilitated collaborations between conceptual composers, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

such as David Chesworth and Philip Brophy, and experimental punk outfits, namely Tsk Tsk Tsk, Essendon Airport, and the funk-tinged I'm Talking, which launched the career of singer Kate Ceberano. St. Kilda's Crystal Ballroom became the stomping ground for Melbourne's darker "proto-gothic" groups including The Moodists (fronted by Dave Graney), COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

Crime and the City Solution, and Nick Cave's The Birthday Party, one of the 1980s' most influential bands.[41] In 1983, Cave and Melbourne-born industrial pioneer Clint Ruin (akaFoetus) formed the "No Wave supergroup" The Immaculate Consumptive. That same year, Cave and Birthday Party bandmate Mick Harveyfounded one of Australia's most popular and enduring rock bands, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, whose evolving multinational lineup has included Melbourne musicians Hugo Race, Anita Lane, and Dirty Three violinist Warren Ellis.

Many independent artists from Melbourne have become internationally notable and regularly tour abroad, including: The Temper Trap,Cut Copy, Architecture in Helsinki, The Drones, Grinderman, Augie March, New Buffalo, HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

The Cat Empire, Dirty Three, Muscles, The Lucksmiths, Ned Collette, The Crayon Fields, Love of Diagrams, Midnight Juggernauts, Gotye and The Avalanches amongst others.

Melbourne's lively rock and pop music scene has fostered many internationally renowned artists and musicians. The 1960s gave rise to many performers including Olivia Newton-John, John Farnham, DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Graeme Bell, and folk group The Seekers. The 1970s and 1980s saw many acts getting their first big breaks on Melbourne's Countdown, including the Little River Band and Crowded House who later wrote a song about the city of Melbourne called Four Seasons In One Day. Successful Melbourne artists include Flea (of the Red Hot Chili Peppers), Weddings Parties Anything, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

TISM, Snog, Jet and Something for Kate. Melbourne is also the home of rock "guru" journalist Ian "Molly" Meldrum.

More recent notable Melbourne acts include Rogue Traders, Taxiride, Missy Higgins, Madison Avenue, Anthony Callea and The Living End. Melbourne-based television shows Young Talent Timeand Neighbours gave many singers a launching pad to international success. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Local talents to come from these shows include Kylie Minogue, Dannii Minogue, Tina Arena, Jamie Redfern and Jason Donovan. Another Music TV show that began in Melbourne was Turn It Up!It was first shown on Melbourne's Channel 31 and then relayed via satellite and rebroadcast terrestrially to major TV networks in over 22 countries. Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

The show had the second largest viewing audience around the world, beaten only by the audience of American Bandstand. In one episode, the show presented Melbournes annual festival Moomba to a world audience.

Melbourne has two major daily newspapers, Rupert Murdoch's Herald Sun and the Fairfax owned The Age, as well as the free afternoon tabloid mX which is published by Murdoch. A national Australian newspaper has a Victorian issue and is also published by Murdoch. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

Several weekly magazines are published by Murdochs' News Corp. As News Corp holds over 50 million shares in Fairfax,[42] there is no daily newspaper in Melbourne free of Rupert Murdoch's media empire. There are three commercial television networks: Seven, Nine and Ten; and three public: the ABC, SBS and a community television channel, C31. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Leader Newspapers is Australia's largest publisher of community newspapers, distributing 33 local papers across Melbourne suburbs.[ More community newspapers are published by Fairfax Community Newspapers, and the Star News Group.

Melbourne's commercial radio industry is dominated by the DMG Radio Australia, Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

Austereo and Southern Cross Broadcastingnetworks – all Melbourne-based. DMG Radio Australia stations include Nova 100 and Classic Rock, Austereo stations includeFOX FM and Triple M. 3AW is consistently the city's highest-rating commercial radio station.[ Melbourne also boasts a number of community radio stations, of which the best known are 3RRR, 3PBS, 3CR, SYN, and JOY, the first Australian full-time gay and lesbian radio station. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

Public broadcasters include the multilingual SBS, and the ABC's Radio National,NewsRadio, and 774 ABC Melbourne.

In a country that is often labelled 'sports mad', Melbourne has a reputation among Australians for being the national sporting capital.[43] In 2010, the city was named "World's Ultimate Sports City" for the third time in a row by SportAccordand SportBusiness.[44] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Criteria for the award include "the number of annual sports events held, major events held or hosting rights secured between 2006 and 2014, numbers of federations hosted, facilities/venues, transport, accommodation, government support, security, legacy, public sports interest and quality of life."[45] A similar study conducted in 2006 by the London-based research and consulting firm ArkSports found Melbourne to be the world's top city for sports events.[46] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

The city hosts many major sporting events including the Melbourne Spring Racing Carnival (featuring "the race that stops the nation", the Melbourne Cup); the Australian Formula One Grand Prix; the Australian round of the MotoGP; the Australian Opentennis tournament, the first of the four annual Grand Slam events; the AFL Grand Final and the Boxing Day Test Match. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

In1956, Melbourne became the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to host the Olympic Games, and played host to the 2006 Commonwealth Games.

Melbourne is where Australian rules football originated in the 1850s—the world's first codified game of football[47] and the most popular sport in Australia by attendance and viewership.[48] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

The city is home to nine of the eighteen teams that constitute the Australian Football League (AFL), whose five Melbourne games per week attract an average of 40,000 people per game.[49] The AFL Grand Final, one of the biggest sporting events in Australia, is played on the last Saturday of September at the sport's "spiritual home", the 100,000 capacity Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG).[50] HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Another significant Melbourne-based event on the AFL calendar is the Anzac Day clash between rival clubs Collingwood and Essendon. The city is also home to nine out of thirteen teams competing in the semi-professional Victorian Football League. Since 1999, the city has been the biennial host of the International Rules series involving the Australian national team and the Irish national team. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

TheAustralian Football International Cup is staged every three years in Melbourne.

During the summer months cricket takes preference amongst Melburnians. In 1877, the world's first Test cricket match was contested by Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, and The Ashes urn—symbol of the cricket rivalry between Australia and England—originated in Melbourne.[51] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The annual Boxing Day Test, also held at the MCG, is a prominent feature of the Melbourne summer, attracting the largest attendance of any Test match in the world. The Melbourne-based Victorian Bushrangers represent the state of Victoria in the Sheffield Shield and One-Day Cup. The Melbourne Stars and Melbourne Renegades compete in the Twenty20 Big Bash League.HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

Melbourne has two A-League (association football) teams: Melbourne Victory and Melbourne Heart. In rugby there is Melbourne Storm (NRL), and Melbourne Rebels(Super Rugby). The Melbourne Tigers compete in the NBL (basketball). For netball, two Melbourne teams compete for the Commonwealth Bank Trophy: Melbourne Phoenix and Melbourne Kestrels. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Bledisloe Cup Test matches between the Australian and New Zealand national rugby union teams were staged at the MCG in 1997 and 2007. Melbourne also hosted 7 of 48 matches during the 2003 Rugby World Cup. One-off rugby league matches have been held at Etihad Stadium including the Rugby League State of Origin (most recently in 2012), and a 2006 Tri-Nations Test. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

Melbourne is home to 29 stadiums with a capacity of over 10,000 people. Some venues, such as the Albert Park Formula One track and the Calder Raceway, have large capacities but only temporary structures, while there are numerous suburban horse racing tracks and Australian rules football playing fields. In 2000 construction was completed on the Docklands Stadium, capable of seating up to 56,000 people. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

The stadium was the first in the world to host cricket and Australian football matches under a roof.

The city also has large State Cycling, Hockey, Baseball/Softball and Netball centres, and an Ice centre (National Ice Sports Centre, hosting the Australian Olympic Winter Institute) is being constructed in Melbourne Docklands.[52] HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Melbourne hosted the 2002 World Masters Games; broke new ground as the first city outside the United States to host the World Police and Fire Games in 1995, and the Presidents Cup golf tournament in 1999; and was the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to host the World Polo Championship in 2001. The city has hostedFIFA World Cup qualifiers in both 1997 and 2001.HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

The Rod Laver Arena was converted into a pool for the 2007 World Aquatics Championships.

Melbourne's skateboarding culture has a lengthy history, with brands such as Globe originating in the city. In 1988, the Australian 60 Minutes program produced a segment that focused solely on Victorian skateboarding. The segment featured Melbourne skateboarding and conducted interviews with notable figures such as the Hill brothers (Stephen, HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

Matt and Mike) and Borgy.[53] X-E-N is a Melbourne skateboard company that was established in 1999 and was co-founded by Andrew and Anthony Mapstone—two figures who, as of August 2012, remain influential in Australian skateboarding.Melburnians participate in a wide range of recreational and leisure activities.Australian rules football, Association Football, cricket and netball are the most popular participation team sports in Melbourne[.SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

Cycling in Melbourne is a popular pastime, as one can tell from the bevy of cyclists and paths that lie all throughout the city, as well as a spectator sport. Melbourne's flat terrain and extensive off-road paths in green wedges are conducive to riding. Beach Road combines with the Nepean Highway to form a 90-kilometre stretch from Port Melbourne toSorrento, incorporating the Bayside Trail. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

It is the city's most popular training route and attracts cyclists from around the world. Thousands of commuters cycle the roads, bike lanes and bike paths daily. Bicycle Victoria's annual events, Around the Bay in a Day and Ride to Work Day, attract tens of thousands of Melburnians. Other events such as the Herald Sun Tour begin and end in the Melbourne area and there are many local cycling events of varying grades all year round. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Triathlon dominates the Beach Road area during summer, when hundreds of amateurs and professionals dive into Port Phillip Bay on Sundays.

Watersports are a big recreational activity in Melbourne. Rowing on the Yarra River is also popular with universities and schools, and there are many boat-sheds along the river. the Yarra is home to the Head of the River, first raced in 1868 and Australia's oldest. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

The Oarsome Foursome are also from Melbourne. On Port Phillip Bay, boating is popular[, as is jetskiing, kitesurfing and windsurfing on St Kilda Beach.

Melbourne is noted for its parks and gardens, with a ring of parks providing a green lung for the city centre. Perhaps the most notable is the Royal Botanic Gardens. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

Other notable gardens have been established on outskirts of Melbourne. In particular the Dandenong Ranges has the National Rhododendron Gardens, and several other public gardens. Residential gardening is a popular pastime in Melbourne, and Australia's Open Garden Scheme started in the city.In Melbourne there are approximately 5000 cafes and restaurants - per capita Melbourne has the most cafes/restaurants in the world.[cToshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

Shopping or "retail therapy" has been a big part of Melbourne's way of life since the late 19th century, when "doing the Block" was a sign of prestige.[ Today, the city is home to some of Australia's best shopping strips, such as the famous Chapel Street which stretches many blocks through South Yarra and Prahran, while heritage arcades such as the Block and the Royal Arcade and the CBD's myriad lanes. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Chadstone Shopping Centre, currently claimed to be the largest shopping centre in the southern hemisphere, markets itself as the "Fashion Capital". Strip shopping localities includeToorak Village, known for its exclusiveness, and Bridge Road in Richmond, known for its extensive factory outlets. Also there are major shopping centres throughout metropolitan Melbourne such as Westfield Airport West, Westfield Southland, Westfield Doncaster, andWestfield Knox. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

Melbourne is also home to the Queen Victoria Market. This market contains both indoor and outdoor sections.

Also, Melbourne has more clubs/pubs per capita than anywhere else in the world[.Restaurants are numerous and present a diverse range of cuisines. The city has a reputation as a culinary capital,[54]celebrated by the annual Melbourne Food and Wine Festival. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

As well as the famous "Little Italy" of Lygon Street in Carlton, other favourite inner city dining locations for Melburnians include Fitzroy Street St Kilda, Brunswick Street Fitzroy, Victoria St Collingwood, the CBD, and the Docklands and Southbank precincts. In 2006, Jamie Oliver selected Melbourne as the location for "Fifteen Melbourne", the Australian restaurant for his reality television show Jamie's Kitchen Australia. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Dance music is a thriving part of the Melbourne scene. The largest nightclubs are the Melbourne Metro Nightclub (2,500 capacity) and QBH (2,100 capacity). Melbourne is the birthplace of the Melbourne Shuffle, a style of dance that has been exported to South East Asia and continues to evolve to date.

Melbourne has been the setting for many novels, television dramas, and films. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

Fergus Hume's international best-seller Mystery of a Hansom Cab was set in Gold Rush era Melbourne. Frank Hardy's Power Without Glory tells the story of Melbourne businessman John West (based on the real-life John Wren) and is set in a thinly disguised Collingwood, then a working-class suburb of Melbourne. Perhaps the best-known novel internationally is Nevil Shute's novel On the BeachHP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

In 1959, it was made into a film directed by Stanley Kramer and starring Gregory Peck, Ava Gardner and Anthony Perkins. The film depicted the denizens of Melbourne quietly slipping off into eternity as the last victims of a global nuclear holocaust. It was filmed on location in and around Melbourne. Similar filming was undertaken when a 2000 television movie remake was produced. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

The world's first feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, was filmed in Melbourne in 1906.[55] Some of the more famous Australian films include Mad Max andThe Castle. Melbourne has also produced many talented film and television actors including Cate Blanchett, Guy Pearce, Eric Bana and is home to Geoffrey Rush. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

Australian audiences saw Melbourne portrayed in the 1960s–70s Crawford Productions police television drama series Homicide and Division 4. Contemporary series include: soap opera NeighboursStingers (an undercover police drama), The Secret Life of UsKath and KimPrisoner (known as Prisoner: Cell Block H for US and UK broadcasts), Halifax f.p., and MDAHP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

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Tourism is an important industry for the Australian economy. In the financial year 2010/11, the tourism industry represented 2.5% of Australia's GDP at a value of approximately A$35 billion to the national economy. This is equivalent to tourism contributing $94.8 million a day to the Australian economy.[2] Domestic tourism is a significant part of the tourism industry, and was responsible for 73% of the total direct tourism GDP.[2] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

The 2010-11 financial year saw a record number of overseas arrivals in the financial year, with 5.9 million short-term visitor arrivals to Australia (or 588 extra visitors a day extra).[3] Tourism employed 513,700 people in Australia in 2010-11, or which 43.7% of total tourism employed persons were part-time. Tourism also contributed 8.0% of Australia's total export earnings in 2010-11.[2] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan

Popular Australian destinations include the coastal cities of Sydney and Melbourne, as well as other high profile destinations including regional Queensland, the Gold Coast and the Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest reef. Uluru and the Australian outback are other popular locations, as is Tasmanian wilderness. The unique Australian wildlife is also another significant point of interest in the country's tourism. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan

Despite a year of global economic challenges and natural disasters in 2010-2011, Australia's tourism growth was supported by increased consumption (up 4.4% over the previous year, largely due to an increase in the number of visitors from overseas). On the back of a strong Australian dollar, 2010-11 also saw a record 7.4 million short-term resident departures from Australia, an increase of 9.9% from 2009-10. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

Domestic tourism consumption grew at less than half the pace of international consumption in 2010-11 (up 2.1% compared to 4.4%).[4]

The Australian Government released the 2020 Tourism Industry Potential on 15 November 2010, and estimates the Australian tourism industry to be worth up to $140 billion in overnight expenditure. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

This growth will largely be due to key emerging markets, including the China market, which is estimated to be the largest economic contributor to the Australian tourism industry by 2020.[5] The number of Chinese visitors has more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 reaching a peak of 626,400 in 2012 and surpassing for the first time the number of arrivals from the UK.[6] In 2013, China was Australia's fastest growing tourist market.[7] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan

According to Tourism Australia Managing Director Andrew McEvoy Chinese are the highest spending visitors to the country.

All visitors to Australia, apart from New Zealanders, require advance permission to enter the country. For most countries, a full visa is required. Holders of passports of all European Union countries as well as all Schengen Area countries andEuropean microstates only need to apply online for an eVisitor authorisation. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan

Citizens of some OECD and some East Asiancountries are able to apply for the similar Electronic Travel Authority authorisation.

Australia's international tourism campaigns have focused on Australia's laid back style, such as an 1980s advertising campaign featuring actor Paul Hogan telling American tourists "I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you",HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

or its cheeky side, as in its controversial 2006 campaign in the United Kingdom using the Australian colloquialism slogan "So where the bloody hell are you?".[

Tourism Australia’s “No Leave No Life” campaign was launched in March 2009 by the Federal Minister for Tourism, the Hon. Martin Ferguson AM MP. This campaign was designed to remind employees of the personal and professional benefits of taking annual leave, and of taking that leave in Australia.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

At 30 June 2009 there were 126 million days of stockpiled annual leave in the Australian economy.[10] At the end of the June 2010 quarter, this number had decreased to 117 million days, following falls in the preceding three quarters.

Tourism Australia’s latest consumer campaign “There’s Nothing Like Australia” invites Australians to share their favourite Australian place or experience with the world. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The campaign is based on research conducted by Tourism Australia that showed Australians were eager to get involved in promoting their country. It was developed to involve Australians because they are the experts on what makes Australia unlike anywhere else. The core message, that ‘There’s Nothing Like Australia’ was designed for longevity through different mediums, audiences and activities. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

New Zealand tourists make up a distinctive part of the Australian tourism market, usually taking short package tours which concentrate heavily on the iconic sights (typically Sydney, Uluru, Gold Coastand Cairns),[ and viewing Australian native animals (particularly the koala).

Another major source of tourists to Australia include backpackers, mostly young people from Western European countries (particularly the United Kingdom) and North America. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Spending more time in Australia, these travelers tend to explore considerably more of the country. Many backpackers participate in working holidays enabling them to stay longer in the country. Working holiday visas for Australia are available for those aged 18 to 30 for most Western European citizens, and also citizens of Canada and some developed East Asian nations such as Hong Kong,Taiwan, Japan and South Korea. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The domestic tourism market is estimated to valued at $63 billion.[15] In 2009, the Australian domestic market experienced a 10% slump in the number of visitor nights.[16] Domestic tourism in general and in particular free caravan and camping sites for overnight accommodation experienced strong demand in 2012.[17] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Australians are big domestic travellers, with a profusion of seaside resort towns in every state (many located on or near good surfing beaches), mountain retreats, plentiful national parks, rivers, fishing locations, wine growing regions, as well as domestic visitation of the major tourist spots.[Domestic tourism peaks during the Australian school holidays. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

In 2011, a leading Australian travel agent warned that low-cost carriers such as AirAsia and Jetstar who offered cheap packages to Asia threatened the domestic tourism market.

The Great Barrier Reef attracts up to two million visitors every year.[19] Careful management, which includes permits for camping and all commercial marine tourism within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, has so far ensured that tourists have a very minimal impact on the reef.[19] HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Uluru, Kakadu National Park and Fraser Island are major natural attractions. Uluru won the 2013 Qantas Australian Tourism Awards and was named Australia’s best major tourist attraction.[20]

Another attraction that appeals to many tourists is the Opera House in Sydney. Shopping and casinos are a major drawcard for wealthy Chinese visitors.[21] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Wine, indigenous culture and nature tourism also generate travel in Australia.

Major events attract a large number of tourists. The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras is an annual event that attractions thousands of international tourists.[22]

The 2000 Sydney Olympics resulted in significant inbound and domestic tourism to Sydney. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

During the games, Sydney hosted 362,000 domestic and 110,000 international visitors. In addition, up to 4 billion people watched the games worldwide.[23] The 2003 Rugby World Cup attracted 65,000 international visitors to Australia.[23] Schoolies Week is an annual celebration of Year 12 school leavers in late November, many of whom travel to theGold Coast, where in 2011 they were expected to boost the economy by $60 million. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

A foreign national wishing to enter Australia must obtain a visa unless he or she is

  • a citizen of one of the 36 eVisitor or 9 Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) eligible countries,
  • a citizen of New Zealand, under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, or

eligible for visa-free travel under other laws such as Special purpose visa. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

In addition to the citizens of 45 eVisitor and ETA eligible countries and the citizens of New Zealand who may need to apply for a Visitor visa, the citizens of further 27 eligible countries may apply for the Visitor visa online.

Citizens of 34 countries are officially considered low risk.

Whilst citizens of all Member States of the European Union and Schengen associated countries are entitled to use the eVisitor system since 27 October 2008, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

theEuropean Commission is still assessing whether the eVisitor visa fully satisfies reciprocity requirements. In its Seventh report on certain third countries' maintenance of visa requirements in breach of the principle of reciprocity from 2012, the European Commission found that in principle, the eVisitor provides equal treatment of the citizens of all Member States and Schengen associated countries. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

However, while the average autogrant rate was high (86,36 %), the quarterly reports on eVisitor application statistics showed that applications by citizens of some Member States are mainly processed manually. Autogrant rates for Bulgaria and Romania were at just 18% and 23%, as the majority of applications were sent for additional examination. The Commission therefore engaged to continue to closely monitor the processing of eVisitor applications. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

The Commission would submit its assessment of whether eVisitor is equivalent to the Schengen visa application process in a separate document in parallel with the assessment of the Final Rule on ESTA.[2] Currently the Schengen Area does not have visa requirements in place for short-term stays of Australian nationals.[3][4] The United Kingdom and Ireland are exempt from this particular EU policy, but still do not impose any short-term visa requirements on Australians.[5][6] HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Some countries regard the ETA as being equivalent to visa-free travel when deciding whether to grant the same to Australians wishing to enter their territory. The United States, for example, offers their Visa Waiver Program to Australian passport-holders,[7] and one of the conditions for joining this scheme is that "Governments provide reciprocal visa-free travel for U.S. citizens for 90 days for tourism or business purposes".[8] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

However, United States require from January 2009 similar ETA from citizens of Australia and some more countries. This system is not called visa, but Electronic System for Travel Authorization, therefore the USA still allows visa-free travel for Australians. As of December 1998, Japan has also granted visa-free access to Australians.[9] Other ETA eligible countries and territories Canada,[10] Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

Hong Kong,[11] Malaysia,[12] Singapore[13] and South Korea (90 days)[14] and Taiwan (30 days)[15] also grant visa-free access to Australians while Brunei grants Australians a 30 day visa on arrival.

eVisitor and Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) are authorisations for entry to Australia available to holders of certain passports.HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Established in 1996 to remove the need for some people to apply for full visas, they can be applied for online, or in certain ETA cases through travel agents, airlines, specialist service providers or Australian visa offices. Electronic tourist visas (class 600) are processed by Australian visa offices and consulates outside Australia but the citizens of certain countries can apply online and their applications, Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

if a requested period of stay is three months or less, and no further information or checking is required, may be granted in a matter of minutes. In other cases, the application will be manually processed by a case officer.

The eVisitor was introduced on 27 October 2008, replacing an older eVisa system in order to deliver on the commitment between the Australian Government and the European Commission to introduce reciprocal short stay travel arrangements for their nationals, TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

while still maintaining the universal visa system. On 23 March 2013 the business and tourist purposes eVisitors were merged into a single application.[18][19] The eVisitor is available to citizens of all[20] 28 European Unionmember states and 8 other European countries that are affiliated with the Schengen Area. The eVisitor visa is issued free of charge and allows a stay of up to 3 months at a time in a 12 month period for tourism or business purposes. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

At the time of travel to, and entry into, Australia, all holders of an eVisitor must be free from tuberculosis and must not have any criminal convictions for which the sentence or sentences (whether served or not) total 12 months or more.

Development of the ETA system commenced in January 1996. It was first implemented in Singapore on a trial basis on 11 September 1996, for Singapore and US passport holders travelling on Qantas and Singapore Airlines. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

Implementation of online applications began in June 2001.[17][22] The current Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) (subclass 601) came into effect on 23 March 2013 replacing older ETAs (subclass 976, 977 and 956) and offering a single authorization for both tourists and business people.[23] The ETA allows a stay of up to 3 months at a time in a 12 month period for tourism or business purposes. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

There is no visa application charge but a service charge of AUD20 applies. At the time of travel to, and entry into, Australia, all holders of an ETA must be free from tuberculosis and must not have any criminal convictions for which the sentence or sentences (whether served or not) total 12 months or more.

From 23 March 2013, a new Visitor (Subclass 600) visa has been introduced to replace the previous Tourist (Subclass 676) visa.[27] Eligible travellers can apply for this visa online (e600 Visa).[28] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Visa labels in passport are no longer (as of November 2012) required by the Australian authorities but can be issued at a request for an AUD70 Visa Evidence Charge fee.

Citizens of New Zealand can enter Australia, live and work indefinitely if they present a valid New Zealand passport, and met the following conditions; no criminal convictions, no untreated tuberculosis and have not been deported, excluded or removed from any country. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Qualifying New Zealand citizens are issued with a Special Category Visa on arrival at any Australian port, unless they already hold another type of Australian visa.

A special purpose visa is a visa given by operation of law to certain non-citizens in Australia to whom standard visa and immigration clearance arrangements do not apply. It effectively exempts certain persons from the normal processes for entry into Australia. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

These include members of the Royal Family and the members of the Royal party, guests of Government, SOFA forces members including civilian component members, Asia‑Pacific forces members, Commonwealth forces members, foreign armed forces dependants, foreign naval forces members, airline positioning crew members and airline crew members, eligible transit passengers, HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

persons visiting Macquarie Island, eligible children born in Australia and Indonesian traditional fishermen visiting the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands.

Some travellers do not need a transit visa if they depart Australia by air within 8 hours of the scheduled time of their arrival, hold confirmed onward booking and documentation necessary to enter the country of their destination and remain in the transit lounge at an airport (i.e. they do not need to personally re-check their luggage). SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

Tourism Australia is the Government of Australia agency responsible for promoting Australia to the world as a destination for business and leisure travel.

Tourism Australia’s purpose is to increase the economic benefits to Australia of tourism, supporting the industry’s Tourism 2020 strategy, which aims to grow the overnight annual expenditure generated by tourism to as much as $140 billion by 2020. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

The organisation is active in around 30 key markets, including Australia, where it aims to grow demand for the destination’s tourism experiences by promoting the unique attributes which will entice people to visit.

Tourism Australia’s activities include advertising, public relations and media programs, trade shows and programs for the tourism industry, consumer promotions, online communications and consumer research. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

The organisation caused controversy in 2006 when its advertising campaign "So where the bloody hell are you?" gained media attention following a ban in the UK.

In January 2010 Tourism Australia displayed a caged kangaroo on a street in Hollywood. The kangaroo was filmed by a concerned member of the public who was reported as saying, "The kangaroo was there in a pen, like a 10 by 12 (foot) pen, straight on the concrete and it was really, really disturbing. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

It was just disturbing. There were kids who were really upset because this kangaroo was just rocking back and forth and back and forth and back and forth."[1]Australian macropod expert Tim Faulkner, after viewing the video of the kangaroo, said that it was clear the animal was not acting normally, "The animal is obviously distressed, there is no question about it. The sort of stress I see here suggests that it has endured long-term problems."[2] HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

In 2010, Tourism Australia launched its There's nothing like Australia campaign, sourcing its stories and photographs from the Australian public through a competition with strict licensing conditions.[3] The terms and conditions of the competition require the authors to assign all rights including moral rights to Tourism Australia and indemnify Tourism Australia against any legal action as a result them re-using the works, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

which the Australian Copyright Council says are extreme conditions "particularly disturbing given that Tourism Australia is a Government body".

Since 2004, Australia Week has brought Australian food and wine, travel, film, arts, culture, fashion and business to a US audience. With over 15,000 participants in 2008, it was the largest annual foreign country promotion in the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

The event is produced by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Qantas Airways, Tourism Australia and Austrade. The ten-day promotion is held annually during the month of January in Los Angeles and New York. The objective of Australia Week is to demonstrate Australia as an innovative, high growth, sophisticated economy, with leading edge research and technology in products, goods and services. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

The program highlights Australia’s economic credentials as a desirable place in which to do business and invest, source goods and services.

G'Day USA: Australia Week presents Australia as a modern, sophisticated society, while setting an accurate perception of Australia in the United States.

Pioneered in 2004 as G’Day LA, by the Australian Consul General in Los Angeles, the Hon. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

John Olsen AO, G'DAY USA: Australia Week has quickly expanded to become a bi-coastal celebration with top Australian celebrities, filmmakers, chefs and politicians taking part. Australia Week is now arguably the largest single foreign country promotion held annually in the United States, showcasing all things Australian.[2]

In 2006, Olsen was reassigned to the post of Consul General in New York. It was then Olsen re-branded the event from G'DAY LA to a larger umbrella of G'DAY USA. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

Since its inception, G’DAY USA: Australia Week has raised the profile of Australia, its policy perspectives and the capabilities of its key industries in the US market, particularly entertainment and culture, tourism and sport, food and beverages, energy, manufacturing and education. It has been an important instrument for promoting Australia as a destination for productive investment from the United States. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

In addition, the event set a benchmark for the international promotion of Australia and Australian interests.[3]

To appeal to the New York audience of high-powered investors and research and development (R&D) executives, the Australia Week Steering Committee added Innovation and Financial Services days to the program in 2007.

The Australia Week promotion has resulted in excess of $22.5 million in trade and investment across sectors as diverse as art, food, wine, fashion, tourism and business services. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Fashion has become a key component in the program, allowing Australian designers to gain a foothold in the highly complex US market. Since the Australia Week Fashion Showroom was instituted in 2007, several designers have recorded significant export sales to high end fashion department/specialty stores.

Food and Beverage: Australia Week has vastly improved access of Australian products to the U.S. market. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

During the first week of the supermarket promotion in New York, high demand forced Citarella stores to re-order several Australian products.

The 2008 Bristol Farms promotion saw Australian product lines expand from 32 item in 2007 to 46 items. Citarella’s second Australia Week promotion in 2008 featured 53 Australian product lines, an increase of 20 products from the previous year. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

The 2008 Winter Fancy Food Show attracted over 16,000 buyers from food, wine, gift & department stores, supermarkets & restaurants from around the world, with 32,000 visitors and attendees. With trade outcomes from 2008 still being collected, exhibitors predict even bigger results than 2007’s 31 export deals, totaling more than $3.7 million. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The Innovation Day has provided Australian companies visibility, new deals and partnerships with members of the American venture capital and R&D industries. Tasmanian company Autech Software & Design, producers of colour visualisation software, won the inaugural Innovation Shootout in 2007;[4] being selected as Australia’s most innovative company by a panel of judges including the Wall Street Journal and CEO’s of some of America’s leading venture capital firms. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

The company received widespread media coverage both in Australia and overseas, including articles in the New York Post and Wall Street Journal, and the company CEO being interviewed on Chinese television. Fermiscan, the winner of the 2008 Innovation competition, also received extensive media coverage including Fox Business Network, BusinessWeek Magazine, ABC News NY and CW 11 New York. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The Innovation Day and Financial Services events focus on brokering business connections within the finance and R&D communities, exposing US executives to Australian innovators and financial services leaders. The marquee session of the Innovation Day includes the 'Innovation Shootout' whereby six Australian states compete to have their product/innovation funded and launched in the US marketplace. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

Australia Week 2008 media coverage generated 445 million global audience impressions—an equivalent advertising buy of approximately $7.5 million.

The Black Tie Galas in Los Angeles and New York serve as the publicity anchors of G’DAY USA: Australia Week. The dinners honor high profile individuals for significant contributions in their industries and for excellence in promoting Australia in the United States. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Previous honorees include: Cate Blanchett, Anthony LaPaglia, Mel Gibson, Nicole Kidman, Keith Urban, Olivia Newton-John, Naomi Watts, Russell Crowe, INXS, Kylie Minogue, Phillip Noyce and Colette Dinnigan.[

In 2011, The Black Tie Gala signature event honoured Legendary Australian Singer Barry Gibb, Tennis Champion Roy Emerson and acclaimed Actress Abbie Cornish.Olivia Newton-John presented to Barry Gibb, HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

Andre Agassi presented to Roy Emerson and Director Zach Snyder presented to Abbie Cornish. The evening featured Australian food prepared by celebrity chefs Curtis Stone and Wolfgang Puck. Entertainment included performances by Guy Sebastian, The Qantas Choir and a fashion show presented by Myer.

Sky News, Today Show, Network Ten News, Seven Network News, Nine Network News, Australian Broadcasting Corporation TV News and Radio, Austereo Network, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Radio 2GB and Fairfax Radio Network (including 2UE, 6PR, 3AW), Australian Associated Press, The Australian, The Age, The Sydney Morning Herald, Who, Woman’s Day, News Limited Newspapers (including Sun Herald, The Courier-Mail, Adelaide Advertiser, The Daily Telegraph), Queensland Business Review, Ragtrader and Encore Magazine and MX. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

In addition to the media coverage, a partnership with BusinessWeek delivered a special supplement about Australia. More than 4.8 million readers received the supplement, including over 620,000 C-level executives.

Tourism in Sydney, Australia forms an important part of the city's economy. The city received 7 million domestic visitors and 2.7 million international visitors in year ending December 2010, making it the 42nd most visited city in the world.[1][2DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

] The most well known attractions include the Sydney Opera House, and the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Other attractions include the Sydney Mardi Gras, Royal Botanical Gardens, Luna Park, the beaches and Sydney Tower.

Port Jackson is the natural harbour of Sydney. It is known for its spectacular natural beauty, and in particular as the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

The area around the harbour foreshore contains pockets of bushland which was once common around Sydney, containing a surprising range of native animals.

The Sydney Opera House is one of the most distinctive and famous 20th century buildings, and one of the most famous performing arts venues in the world. Situated on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour, HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

with parkland to its south and close to the equally famous Sydney Harbour Bridge, the building and its surroundings form an iconic Australian image. It was included in the Olympic Torch route in 2000 to the Olympic stadium. It was the backdrop of some events for the Sydney 2000 Olympics, including the triathlon—which began at the Opera House—and the yachting events on Sydney Harbour. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

The dramatic exteriors have not been matched with technically superior interiors, and the Opera House's reputation as a music venue has suffered as a result.

The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the main crossing of Sydney Harbour carrying rail, vehicular, and pedestrian traffic between theSydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

The dramatic water vista of the bridge together with the nearbySydney Opera House is an iconic image of both Sydney and Australia. The South-east pylon for many years operated as lookout and tourist attraction, containing a number of telescopes and antiquated arcade games which operated on pennies, long after that currency had gone out of operation. The pylon has recently been renovated and returned to its tourist function. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Since 1998, BridgeClimb[5] has made it possible for tourists to climb the southern half of the bridge. Tours run throughout the day, from dawn to dusk and are only cancelled for electrical storms or high wind. Night climbs are also available. Groups of climbers are provided with protective clothing appropriate to the prevailing weather conditions and are given an orientation before climbing. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

During the climb, attendees are secured to the bridge by a wire lifeline. Each climb begins on the eastern side of the bridge and ascends to the top. At the summit, the group crosses to the western side of the arch for the descent. Each climb is a three-and-a-half-hour experience.

The shores of Sydney Harbour are home to a number of historic batteries, bunkers and forts, many of which are now heritage listed. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

Some of these forts date back to 1871 and were part of Sydney Harbours defence system that was designed to withstand a seaborn attack. There are four historical fortifications located between Bradleys Head and Middle Head on the north side of the harbour; the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

The forts were constructed from mostly large sandstone blocks and consist of many tunnels, catacombs and underground rooms.

Watsons Bay sits on the end of the South Head peninsula and takes its name from the sheltered bay and anchorage on its western side, in Port Jackson. It provides some of the best views across the harbour to the city of Sydney and the Harbour Bridge. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

The Gap is an ocean cliff on the eastern side with views to Manly, North Head, and the Pacific Ocean.

Watsons Bay is a mostly residential area with some recreational areas and beaches, including one legal nude beach. Some restaurants, cafes and the Watsons Bay Hotel are located here, with Doyles on the Beach, one of the Sydney's most famous seafood restaurants, located on the foreshore of Watsons Bay.[ Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

The naval base HMAS Watson is located nearby at South Head.

The Rocks is an inner-city suburb, tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney. It is located on the southern shore ofSydney Harbour adjacent to the city centre, close to where Sydney was first settled in 1788. The close proximity to Circular Quay and the views of the iconic Harbour Bridge, as well as the historic nature of many of the buildings, mean that the Rocks is very popular with tourists. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

It features a variety of souvenir and craft shops, and many themed and historic pubs. The Rocks Market operates each weekend, with around 100 stalls. There are numerous historic walks through the area, visiting historical buildings such as Cadman's Cottage, Sydney Observatory, and the Dawes Point Battery, which was the first fortified position in New South Wales. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

Sydney Tower is Sydney's tallest free-standing structure, and the second tallest in Australia, the Q1 building on the Gold Coast being the tallest. It is also the second tallest observation tower in the Southern Hemisphere after Auckland, New Zealand's Sky Tower[; though Sydney Tower's main observation deck is almost 50 metres higher than that of the Sky Tower.Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

The Sydney Tower is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers. It is known by locals as the Centrepoint Tower, after the shopping centre building the tower sprouts from.

Sydney Tower Skywalk, or just Skywalk, is an open-air, glass-floored platform circling Sydney Tower at a height of 260m above ground level.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

The moving viewing platform extends out over the edge of the main structure of Sydney Tower. This attraction is more than twice as high as the popular BridgeClimb walk to the top of Sydney Harbour Bridge. From the platform the seaward horizon is 58 kilometres away, although inland features such as the Blue Mountains can be seen at further distances. SeeSydney Attractions Group. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

The Kings Cross area is infamous in Australia as being a red light district, similar to Kings Cross, London with numerous strip clubs and "girlie" bars along Darlinghurst Road, although the demographics have changed in recent years and gentrification of the area has led to clashes between new and established elements.[ Kings Cross is also known for its Neon signs and advertising posters, the most famous being the iconic Coca-Cola sign. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

It is often affectionately referred to by Sydneysiders by the colloquialism "the Cross".

The Kings Cross district was the City of Sydney's bohemian heartland from the early decades of the 20th Century, but due its proximity to the naval docking area at Garden Island it also came to serve as the city's main tourist accommodation and entertainment centre, as well as its red-light district. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

The drugs and crime associated with this trade led to Kings Cross achieving a high level of notoriety.

Sydney is home to a number of established museums. The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, and is particularly renowned in the fields of natural history and anthropology. The Museum of Sydney is located in Australia's first Government House, and its permanent and temporary exhibitions highlight the history of the city. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

The Powerhouse Museumspecialises in science and technology, and its exhibits include the oldest steam engine in the world with a rotating action that is still in operation. The Australian National Maritime Museum focuses on Australia's maritime history. The Museum of Contemporary Art, located at Circular Quay, recently underwent a $58 million expansion. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

Hyde Park contains well-kept gardens and approximately 580 trees; a mixture of Moreton Bay Figs, Palms and other varieties. It is famed for its magnificent fig tree lined avenues, a peaceful haven in the business heart of the city. At the park's southern end is the ANZAC War Memorial and a monument consisting of a 104-millimetre gun from the German light cruiserSMS EmdenHP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

The Royal Botanic Gardens are the largest of three major botanical gardens open to the public in Sydney. Admission is free and it is open to the public every day of the year.

Taronga is the city zoo of Sydney, officially opened on 7 October 1916. It is located on the shores of Sydney Harbour inMosman. Taronga is linked to Dubbo's Western Plains Zoo in terms of breeding programs. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

Taronga Zoo is home to over 2,600 animals on 28.7 hectares, making it one of the largest of its kind, and it divided into eight zoogeographic regions with numerous indoor pavilions and outdoor exhibits. Taronga Zoo has about 340 different species of animal, and are housed in a large variety of exhibits.

Sydney Wildlife World is a zoo in the Sydney CBD. It officially opened in September 2006. It is located on the shores of Darling Harbour and is attached to Sydney Aquarium. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

Sydney Wildlife World is unusual for a zoo in that it is entirely enclosed and air-conditioned. The indoor zoo features a one-kilometre walkway which snakes through 7000 square metres of enclosures. The enclosure features around 6000 native animals.

Sydney's coastline is part of the annual group 5 Humpback migration path from Antarctica to the Coral sea. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

From mid May to Early December they can be seen in the waters of the coast and on rare occasions swimming into Sydney Harbour itself. Whale Watching can be done from any of the clifftop walks or lookouts, however there are volunteer locations at North Head and Cape Solander at Botany Bay and a number of boat based whale watching tours departing from the Sydney CBD.SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

Sydney's most famous beach attracts large numbers of tourists to Bondi throughout the year with many Irish and British tourists spending Christmas Day there. Bondi Beach features many popular cafes, restaurants and hotels, some with spectacular views of the beach and surrounding headlands. The beach itself is approximately one kilometre long. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

Sydney Olympic Park is a 640-hectare site located adjacent to the suburb of Homebush Bay, New South Wales, Australia. It was built for the 2000 Olympics and continues to be used for sporting and cultural events, including the Sydney Royal Easter Show, Sydney Festival, Big Day Out and a number of world class sporting fixtures. It is served by the Olympic Park railway station. HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

There are also regular services to the nearby wharf which operate from various points around Sydney Harbour.

The Blue Mountains National Park is one of the most popular parks in Australia. The majority of tourists to the Blue Mountains see the National Park from one of the many lookouts between Wentworth Falls and Blackheath, and many of these never actually set foot in the park. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan
Despite this, there are many activities for the visitor. Short walks to impressive lookouts above cliff and waterfalls abound. Overnight and longer walks allow access to some of the more remote areas of the park. Other popular activities include canyoning and mountain biking.

Tourism in Melbourne deals with attractions, events and facilities in Melbourne, Australia of special interest to tourists.ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Melbourne is a major Australian tourist destination as well as the country's second most populous city. In 2009, the city was visited by approximately 15.9 million domestic and 1.4 million international tourists.[1][2]

Melbourne has a wide variety of attractions, facilities, activities, such as sporting events and cultural and fashion events which are popular with tourists. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

In 2008, Melbourne exceeded Sydney for the first time in terms of money spent by domestic tourists on a per capita basis. However, in overall tourist revenue, Melbourne earned considerably less.

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However, fertiliser and byproducts from sugar cane harvesting methods form a component of surface runoff into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.[12][13] Principal agricultural activity is sugar cane farming in the wet tropics and cattle grazing in the dry tropics regions. Both are considered significant factors affecting water quality.[13] ASUS A8H CPU Fan

Copper, a common industrial pollutant in the waters of the Great Barrier Reef, has been shown to interfere with the development of coral polyps.[14] Flood plumes are flooding events associated with higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus.[15] In February 2007, due to a monsoonal climate system, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

plumes of sediment runoff have been observed reaching to the outmost regions of the reef.[16]

Runoff is especially concerning in the region south of Cairns, as it receives over 3000 mm of rain per year and the reefs are less than 30 kilometres (19 mi) away from the coastline.[17] Farm run off is polluted as a result of overgrazing and excessive fertiliser and pesticide use. HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

Mud pollution has increased by 800% and inorganic nitrogen pollution by 3,000% since the introduction of European farming practices on the Australian landscape. This pollution has been linked to a range of very significant risks to the reef system, including intensified outbreaks of the coral-eating Crown of Thorns Starfish which contributed to a loss of 66% of live coral cover on sampled reefs in 2000.[18] APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

It is thought that the mechanism behind excess nutrients affecting the reefs is due to increased light and oxygen competition from algae,[9] but unless herbivory is unusually low, this will not create a phase shift from the Great Barrier Reef being primarily made up of coral to being primarily made up of algae.[19] HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

It has been suggested that poor water quality due to excess nutrients encourages the spread of infectious diseases among corals.[20] In general, the Great Barrier Reef is considered to have low incidences of coral diseases.[21] Skeletal Eroding Band, a disease of bony corals caused by the protozoan Halofolliculina corallasiaHP G56-126NR CPU Fan

affects 31 species of corals from six families on the reef.[22] The long-term monitoring program has found an increase in incidences of coral disease in the period 1999-2002, although they dispute the claim that on the Great Barrier Reef, coral diseases are caused by anthropogenic pollution.[23] Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

Elevated nutrient concentrations result in a range of impacts on coral communities and under extreme conditions can result in a collapse. It also affects coral by promoting phytoplankton growth which increases the number of filter feeding organisms that compete for space. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

Excessive inputs of sediment from land to coral can lead to reef destruction through burial, disruption of recruitment success or deleterious community shifts. Sediments affect coral by smothering them when particles settle out, reducing light availability and potentially reducing photosynthesis and growth. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Coral reefs exist in seawater salinities from 25 to 42%. Salinity impacts to corals are increased by other flood-related stresses.[9]

The Australian and Queensland Governments have committed to act to protect the reef,[24] and water quality monitoring programmes are in place.[6] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

However, theWorld Wildlife Fund has criticised that progress against these commitments has been slow, saying that as many as 700 reefs are at risk from sediment runoff.

Most people believe that the most significant threat to the status of the Great Barrier Reef and of the planet's other tropical reef ecosystems is climate change, consisting chiefly of global warming and the El Niño effect.[ HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

and turn colourless, revealing their white calcium carbonate skeletons, under the stress of waters that remain too warm for too long. At this stage the coral is still alive, and if the water cools, the coral can regain its zooxanthellae.[27] If the water does not cool within about a month, the coral will die of starvation. Australia experienced its warmest year on record in 2005. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

Abnormally high sea temperatures during the summer of 2005-2006 have caused massive coral bleaching in the Keppel Islandgroup.

Most scientists studying the issue believe that climate change poses a massive threat to the future of the Great Barrier Reef. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

A draft report by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the world's preeminent gathering of climate scientists, states that the Great Barrier Reef is at grave risk and will be "functionally extinct" by 2030, warning that coral bleaching will likely become an annual occurrence.[28] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

However, a few scientists hold that coral bleaching may in some cases be less of a problem than the mainstream believes. Professor Ridd, from James Cook University in Townsville was quoted in The Australian (a conservative newspaper) as saying; "They are saying bleaching is the end of the world, but when you look into it, that is a highly dubious proposition".Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

Research by scientist Ray Berkelmans "... has documented astonishing levels of recovery on the Keppel outcrops devastated by bleaching in 2006." [29] A related article in The Australian newspaper goes on to explain that; "Those that expel their zooxanthellae have a narrow opening to recolonise with new, temperature-resistant algae before succumbing. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

In the Keppels in 2006, Berkelmans and his team noticed that the dominant strain of zooxanthellae changed from light and heat-sensitive type C2, to more robust types D and C1." [30]

Nevertheless, most coral reef researchers anticipate severely negative effects from climate change already occurring, and potentially disastrous effects as climate change worsens. ASUS G2P CPU Fan

The future of the Reef may well depend on how much the planet's climate changes, and thus, on how high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration levels are allowed to rise. On 2 September 2009, a report by the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authorityrevealed that if carbon dioxide levels reached 450 parts per million corals and reef habitats will be highly vulnerable.Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

If carbon dioxide levels are managed at or below 380 parts per million they will be only moderately vulnerable and the reefs will remain coral-dominated.[31]

Global warming may have triggered the collapse of reef ecosystems throughout the tropics. Increased global temperatures are thought by some to bring more violent tropical storms, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

but reef systems are naturally resilient and recover from storm battering. Most people agree that an upward trend in temperature will cause much more coral bleaching;[25][32] others suggest that while reefs may die in certain areas, other areas will become habitable for corals, and new reefs will form.[33] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

However, the rate at which the mass bleaching events occur is estimated to be much faster than reefs can recover from, or adjust to.[27]

However, Kleypas et al. in their 2006 report suggest that the trend towards ocean acidification indicates that as the sea's pH decreases, corals will become less able to secrete calcium carbonate.[34] Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

In 2009, a study showed that Porites corals, the most robust on the Great Barrier Reef, have slowed down their growth by 14.2% since 1990. It suggested that the cause was heat stress and a lower availability of dissolved calcium to the corals.[35]

Climate change and global warming are one of the greatest threats to the reef.[25] Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

A temperature rise of between two and three degrees Celsius would result in 97% of the Great Barrier Reef being bleached every year.[36] Reef scientist Terry Done has predicted that a one-degree rise in global temperature would result in 82% of the reef bleached, two degrees resulting in 97% and three degrees resulting in "total devastation".[37HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

] A predictive model based on the 1998 and 2002 bleaching events has concurred that a temperature rise of three degrees would result in total coral mortality.[38]

Climate change has implications for other forms of life on the Great Barrier Reef as well - some fish's preferred temperature range lead them to seek new areas to live, ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

thus causing chick mortality in seabirds that prey on the fish. Also, in sea turtles, higher temperatures mean that the sex ratio of their populations will change, as the sex of sea turtles is determined by temperature. The habitat of sea turtles will also shrink.

The Crown-of-Thorns Starfish is a coral reef predator which preys on coral polyps by climbing onto them, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

extruding its stomach over them, and releasing digestive enzymes to absorb the liquified tissue. An individual adult of this species can eat up to six square metres of living reef in a single year.[39] Geological evidence suggests that the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish has been part of the Great Barrier Reef's ecology for "at least several thousand years", Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

but there is no geological evidence for Crown-of-Thorns outbreaks.[40] Large outbreaks of these starfish can devastate reefs. In 2000, an outbreak contributed to a loss of 66% of live coral cover on sampled reefs in a study by the CRC Reefs Research Centre.[18] Although large outbreaks of these starfish are believed to occur in natural cycles, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

human activity in and around the Great Barrier Reef can worsen the effects. Reduction of water quality associated with agriculture can cause the crown-of-thorns starfish larvae to thrive. Overfishing of its natural predators, such as the Giant Triton, is also considered to contribute to an increase in the number of crown-of-thorns starfish.[41] SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

The CRC Reef Research Centre defines an outbreak as when there are more than 30 adult starfish in an area of one hectare.

The unsustainable overfishing of keystone species, such as the Giant Triton and sharks, can cause disruption to food chains vital to life on the reef. Fishing also impacts the reef through increased pollution from boats, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

by-catch of unwanted species (such as dolphins and turtles) and reef habitat destruction fromtrawling, anchors and nets.[43] Overfishing of herbivore populations can cause algal growths on reefs. The Batfish Platax pinnatus has been observed to significantly reduce algal growths in studies simulating overfishing.[44] Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

Sharks are fished for their meat, and when they are part of bycatch, it is common to kill the shark and throw it overboard, as there is a belief that they interfere with fishing.[45] As of 1 July 2004, approximately one-third of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is protected from species removal of any kind, including fishing, without written permission.[46] However, illegal poaching is not unknown in these no-take zones. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

Shipping accidents continue to be perceived as a threat, as several commercial shipping routes pass through the Great Barrier Reef. The GBRMPA estimates that about 6000 vessels greater than 50 metres (164 ft) in length use the Great Barrier Reef as a route.[47] From 1985 to 2001, 11 collisions and 20 groundings occurred along the Great Barrier Reef shipping route, HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

with human error identified as the leading cause of shipping accidents.[48]

Reef pilots have stated that they consider the reef route safer than outside the reef in the event of mechanical failure, since a ship can sit safely while being repaired.[49] The inner route is used by 75% of all ships that travel over the Great Barrier Reef.[47] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

As of 2007, over 1,600 known shipwrecks have occurred in the Great Barrier Reef region.[50]

Waste and foreign species discharged from ships in ballast water (when purging procedures are not followed) are a biological hazard to the Great Barrier Reef.[51] Tributyltin (TBT) compounds found in some antifouling paint on ship hulls leaches into seawater and is toxic to marine organisms and humans; as of 2002, efforts are underway to restrict its use.[52] HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

In April 2010, the bulk coal carrier Shen Neng 1 ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef, causing the largest grounding scar to date. The spill caused damage to a 400,000sqm section of the Great Barrier Reef and the use of oil dispersant resulted in oil spreading to reef islands 25 km away. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

It was suspected that the Great Barrier Reef is the cap to an oil trap, after a 1923 paper suggested that it had the right rock formation to support "oilfields of great magnitude". After the Commonwealth Petroleum Search Subsidies Act of 1957, exploration activities increased in Queensland, including a well drilled atWreck Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef in 1959.[54] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

In the 1960s, drilling for oil and gas was investigated throughout the Great Barrier Reef,[55][56] by seismic and magnetic methods in the Torres Strait, along "the eastern seaboard of Cape York to Princess Charlotte Bay" and along the coast from Cooktown toFraser Island. Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

In the late 1960s, more exploratory wells were drilled near Wreck Island in the Capricorn Channel, and near Darnley Island in the Torres Strait, but "all results were dry".[54]

In 1970, responding to concern about oil spills such as the Torrey Canyon, two Royal Commissions were ordered "into exploratory and production drilling for petroleum in the area of the Great Barrier Reef".HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

After the Royal Commissions, the federal and state governments ceased allowing petroleum drilling on the Great Barrier Reef.[4][57] A study in 1990 concluded that the reef is too young to contain oil reserves.[58] Oil drilling remains prohibited on the Great Barrier Reef, yet oil spills due to shipping routes are still a threat to the reef system, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

with a total of 282 oil spills between 1987-2002.

Tropical cyclones are a cause of ecological disturbance to the Great Barrier Reef. The types of damage caused by tropical cyclones to the Great Barrier Reef is varied, including fragmentation, sediment plumes, and decreasing salinity following heavy rains (Tropical Cyclone Joy). HP G60-230us CPU Fan

The patterns of reef damage are similarly 'patchy'. From 1910–1999, 170 cyclones' paths came near or through the Great Barrier Reef. Most cyclones pass through the Great Barrier Reef within a day.[59] In general, compact corals such as Porites fare better than branching corals under cyclone conditions. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The major damage caused by Tropical Cyclone Larry was to underlying reef structures, and breakage and displacement of corals, which is overall consistent with previous tropical cyclone events.[60] Severe tropical cyclones hit the Queensland coast every 200 to 300 years;[21] however, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

during the period 1969–1999 most cyclones in the region were very weak – category one or two on the Australian Bureau of Meteorology scale.[59]

On 2 February 2011, Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi struck northern Queensland and caused severe damage to a stretch of hundreds of kilometres within the Great Barrier Reef. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

The corals could take a decade to recover fully. Cyclone Yasi had wind speeds of 290 kilometers per hour. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

On the second day of the 2013 round of the biennial training exercise 'Talisman Saber', in which 28,000 US and Australian military personnel conduct joint activities over a three-week period,four unarmed bombs were dropped into the Great Barrier Reef by two US AV-8B Harrier jets that were unable to land with the weight of the weapons. IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

To minimize potential harm to the reef, the four bombs, weighing a total 1.8 metric tons (4,000 pounds), were dropped into more than 50 meters (164 ft) of water away from the reef's coral structures. The bomb drop was originally planned to occur at the Townshend Island bombing range, DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

but after controllers reported that the area was not clear of hazards, the emergency jettison occurred. Australian senator Larissa Waters responded to the news by asking, "Have we gone completely mad? Is this how we look after our World Heritage area now? Letting a foreign power drop bombs on it?" SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

Human impact on coral reefs is significant. Coral reefs are dying around the world.[1] In particular, coral mining, pollution (organic and non-organic), overfishing, blast fishing and the digging of canals and access into islands and bays are serious threats to these ecosystems. HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Coral reefs also face high dangers from pollution, diseases, destructive fishing practices and warming oceans.[2] In order to find answers for these problems, researchers study the various factors that impact reefs. The list of factors is long, including the ocean's role as a carbon dioxide sink, Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light, ocean acidification, biological virus, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far flung reefs, pollutants, algal blooms and others. Reefs are threatened well beyond coastal areas.

In 2008 estimates assembled from coral reef specialists from around the world indicated that 19% of the existing area of coral reefs has been already been lost, Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

and that a further 15% are likely to be lost over the subsequent 10–20 years.[3] Only 46% of the world’s reefs could be currently regarded as in good health.[3] About 60% of the world's reefs may be at risk due to destructive, human-related activities. The threat to the health of reefs is particularly strong in Southeast Asia, Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

where 80% of reefs are endangered. By the 2030s, 90% of reefs are expected to be at risk from both human activities and climate change; by 2050, all coral reefs will be in danger.

In the Caribbean Sea and tropical Pacific, direct contact between coral and 40–70% of common seaweeds cause bleaching and death of coral tissue viaallelopathic competition. Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

The lipid-soluble extracts of seaweeds that harmed coral tissues also produced rapid bleaching. At these sites bleaching and mortality was limited to areas of direct contact with seaweeds or their extracts. The seaweed ten expanded to occupy the dead coral's habitat.[6] However, as of 2009, only 4% of coral reefs worldwide had more than 50% algal coverage. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

Further, there is no recent global trend towards algal dominance.[2]

Competitive seaweed and other algae thrive in nutrient-rich waters in the absence of sufficient herbivorous predators. Herbivores include fish such asparrotfish, surgeonfish, tangs and unicornfish.

Over fishing, particularly selective over fishing, can unbalance coToshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

ral ecosystems by encouraging the excessive growth of coral predators. Predators that eat living coral, such as the crown-of-thorns starfish, are called corallivores. Coral reefs are built from stony coral, which evolved with large amounts of the waxcetyl palmitate in their tissues. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

Most predators find this wax indigestible.[7] The crown-of-thorns starfish is a large (up to one meter) starfish protected by long, venomous spines. Its enzyme system dissolves the wax in stony corals, and allows the starfish to feed on the living animal. Starfish face predators of their own, such as the giant triton sea snail. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

However, the giant triton is valued for its shell and has been over fished. As a result, crown-of-thorns starfish populations can periodically grow unchecked, devastating reefs.

Although some aquarium fish species can reproduce in aquaria (such as Pomacentridae), most (95%) are collected from coral reefs.[ HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Intense harvesting, especially in South-East Asia (including Indonesia and the Philippines), damages the reefs. This is aggravated by destructive fishing practices, such as cyanide and blast fishing. Most (80–90%) aquarium fish from the Philippines are captured with sodium cyanide. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

This toxic chemical is dissolved in sea water and released into areas where fish shelter. It narcotizes the fish, which are then easily captured. However, most fish collected with cyanide die a few months later from liver damage.[ Moreover, many non-marketable specimens die in the process.HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

It is estimated that 4,000 or more Filipino fish collectors have used over 1,000,000 kilograms (2,200,000 lb) of cyanide on Philippine reefs alone, about 150,000 kg per year.[12] A major catalyst of cyanide fishing is poverty within fishing communities. In countries like the Philippines that regularly employ cyanide, more than thirty percent of the population lives below the poverty line.[13] Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

Dynamite fishing is another destructive method for gathering fish. Sticks of dynamite, grenades, or home-made explosives are detonated in the water. This method of fishing kills the fish within the main blast area, along with many unwanted reef animals. The blast also kills the corals in the area, eliminating the reef's structure, HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

destroying habitat for the remaining fish and other animals important for reef health.[12] Muroami is the destructive practice of covering reefs with nets and dropping large stones onto the reef to produce a flight response among the fish. The stones break and kill the coral. Muroami was generally outlawed in the 1980s.[12] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

Fishing gear damages reefs via direct physical contact with the reef structure and substrate. Gill nets, fish traps, and anchors break branching coral and cause coral death through entanglement. When fishermen drop lines by coral reefs, the lines entangle the coral. The fisher cuts the line and abandons it, leaving it attached to the reef. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

The discarded lines abrade coral polyps and upper tissue layers. Corals are able to recover from small lesions, but larger and recurrent damage complicates recovery.

Bottom dragging gear such as beach seines can damage corals by abrasion and fracturing. A beach seine is a long net about 150 meters (490 ft) with a mesh size of 3 centimeters (1.2 in) Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

and a weighted line to hold the net down while it is dragged across the substrate and is one of the most destructive types of fishing gear on Kenya’s reefs.[12]

Bottom trawling in deep oceans destroys cold–water and deep–sea corals. Historically, industrial fishers avoided coral because their nets would get caught on the reefs. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

In the 1980s, "rock–hopper" trawls attached large tires and rollers to allow the nets to roll over rough surfaces. Fifty-five percent of Alaskan cold–water coral that was damaged by one pass from a bottom trawl had not recovered a year later. Northeast Atlantic reefs bear scars up to 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) long. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

In Southern Australia, 90 percent of the surfaces on coral seamounts are now bare rock. Even in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, seafloor trawling for prawns and scallops is causing localized extinction of some coral species.

Reefs in close proximity to human populations are subject to poor water quality from land- and marine-based sources. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

In 2006 studies suggested that approximately 80 percent of ocean pollution originates from activities on land.[15] Pollution arrives from land via runoff, the wind and "injection" (deliberate introduction, e.g., drainpipes). Runoff brings with it sediment from erosion and land-clearing, SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

nutrients and pesticides from agriculture, wastewater, industrial effluentand miscellaneous material such as petroleum residue and trash that storms wash away. Some pollutants consume oxygen and lead to eutrophication, killing coral and other reef inhabitants.[16]

An increasing fraction of the global population lives in coastal areas. HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

Without appropriate precautions, development (e.g., buildings and paved roads) increases the fraction of rainfall and other water sources that enter the ocean as runoff by decreasing the land's ability to absorb it.[16]

Pollution can introduce pathogens. HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

For example, Aspergillus sydowii has been associated with a disease in sea fans, andSerratia marcescens, has been linked to the coral disease white pox.[16]

Reefs in close proximity to human populations can be faced with local stresses, including poor water quality from land-based sources of pollution.[16] HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

Copper, a common industrial pollutant has been shown to interfere with the life historyand development of coral polyps.

In addition to runoff, wind blows material into the ocean. This material may be local or from other regions. For example, dust from the Sahara moves to the Caribbean and Florida. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

Dust also blows from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts across Korea, Japan, and the Northern Pacificto the Hawaiian Islands.[18] Since 1970, dust deposits have grown due to drought periods in Africa. Dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida varies from year to year[19] with greater flux during positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation.[20] Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

The USGS links dust events to reduced health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s.[21] Dust from the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in Indonesiaappeared in the annular bands of the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis from the Florida Reeftract.[22]

Sediment smothers corals and interferes with their ability to feed and reproduce. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Pesticides can interfere with coral reproduction and growth.

Excess nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus can cause eutrophication, upsetting the balance of the reef by enhancing algal growth and crowding out corals.This nutrient–rich water can enable blooms of fleshy algae and phytoplankton to thrive off coasts. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

These blooms can create hypoxic conditions by using all available oxygen. Biologically available nitrogen (nitrate plus ammonia) needs to be below 1.0 micromole per liter (less than 0.014 parts per million of nitrogen), and biologically available phosphorus (orthophosphate plus dissolved organic phosphorus) HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

 

needs to be below 0.1 micromole per liter (less than 0.003 parts per million of phosphorus). In addition concentrations of chlorophyll (in the microscopic plants called phytoplankton) needs to be below 0.5 parts per billion.[23] Both plants also obscure sunlight, killing both fish and coral. High nitrate levels are specifically toxic to corals, while phosphates slow down skeletal growth. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

Excess nutrients can intensify existing disease, including potentially doubling the spread of Aspergillosis, a fungal infection that kills soft corals such as sea fans, and increasing yellow band disease, a bacterial infection that kills reef-building hard corals by fifty percent.

A study released in April 2013 has shown that air pollution can also stunt the growth of coral reefs; HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

researchers from Australia, Panama and the UK used coral records (between 1880 and 2000) from the western Caribbean to show the threat of factors such as coal-burning coal and volcanic eruptions. The researchers state that the study signifies the first time that the relationship between air pollution and coral reefs has been elucidated, HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

while former chair of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Ian McPhail referred to the report as "fascinating" upon the public release of its findings.

Marine debris is any solid object that enters coastal and ocean waters. Debris may arrive directly from a ship or indirectly when washed out to sea via rivers, streams, and storm drains. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

Human-made items tend to be the most harmful such as plastics (from bags to balloons, hard hats to fishing line), glass, metal, rubber (millions of tires!), and even entire vessels.[16]

Plastic debris kills several reef species. Derelict (abandoned) fishing nets and other gear—often called "ghost nets" because they still catch fish and other marine life despite being abandoned—can entangle and kill reef organisms and break or damage reefs. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan

Even remote reef systems suffer the effects of marine debris. Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are particularly prone to the accumulation of marine debris because of their central location in the North Pacific Gyre. From 2000 to 2006, NOAA and partners removed over 500 tons of marine debris there. HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan

Rising sea levels due to climate change requires coral to grow to stay close enough to the surface to continuephotosynthesis. Also, water temperature changes can induce coral bleaching as happened during the 1998 and 2004 El Niñoyears, in which sea surface temperatures rose well above normal, bleaching or killing many reefs. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan

High sea surface temperature (SST) coupled with high irradiance (light intensity), triggers the loss of zooxanthellae, a symbiotic algae, and its dinoflagellate pigmentation in corals, turning coral white. Zooxanthellae provide up to 90% of their hosts' energy supply. Healthy reefs can often recover from bleaching if water temperatures cool. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan

However, recovery may not be possible ifCO
2 levels rise to 500 ppm because concentrations of carbonate ions may then be too low.[26][27]

Warming seawater may also encourage an emerging problem: coral disease. Weakened by warm water, coral is much more prone to diseases including black band disease, white band disease and skeletal eroding band. HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan

If global temperatures increase by 2 °C during the twenty-first century, coral may not be able to adapt quickly enough.[28]

Warming seawater is also expected to cause migrations in fish populations to compensate for the change. ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan

This puts coral reefs and their associated species at risk of invasion and may cause their extinction if they are unable to compete with the invading populations.[29]

A 2010 report by the Institute of Physics predicts that unless the national targets set by the Copenhagen Accord are amended to eliminate loopholes, then by 2100 global temperatures could rise by 4.2°C and result in an end to coral reefs. IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan

Ocean acidification results from increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Oceans absorb around one–third of the increase.[5]The dissolved gas reacts with the water to form carbonic acid, and thus acidifies the ocean. This decreasing pH is another issue for coral reefs.[5]

Ocean surface pH is estimated to have decreased from about 8.25 to 8.14 since the beginning of the industrial era,[32] and a further drop of 0.3–0.4 units is expected.[33SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan

] Before the industrial age the conditions for calcium carbonate production were typically stable in surface waters since the carbonate ion is at supersaturated concentrations. However, as the ionic concentration falls, carbonate becomes under-saturated, making calcium carbonate structures vulnerable to dissolution. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan

Corals experience reduced calcification or enhanced dissolution when exposed to elevated CO
2.[34]

Bamboo coral is a deep water coral which produces growth rings similar to trees. The growth rings illustrate growth rate changes as deep sea conditions change, including changes due to ocean acidification. Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan

Specimens as old as 4,000 years have given scientists "4,000 years worth of information about what has been going on in the deep ocean interior".

Rising carbon dioxide levels could confuse brain signaling in fish. In 2012, researchers reported on their results after studying the behaviour of baby clown and damselfishes for several years in water with elevated levels of dissolved carbon dioxide, HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan

in line with what may exist by the end of the century. They found that the higher carbon dioxide disrupted a key brain receptor in the fish, interfering with neurotransmitter functions. The damaged central nervous systems affected fish behaviour and diminishing their sensory capacity to a point "likely to impair their chances of survival".Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan

The fishes were less able to locate reefs by smell or "detect the warning smell of a predator fish". Nor could they hear the sounds made by other reef fish, compromising their ability to locate safe reefs and avoid dangerous ones. They also lost their usual tendencies to turn to the left or right, damaging their ability to school with other fish. Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan

Within the last 20 years, once prolific seagrass meadows and mangrove forests, which absorb massive amounts of nutrients andsediment, have been destroyed. Both the loss of wetlands, mangrove habitats and seagrass meadows affect the water quality of inshore reefs.[39] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

Coral mining is another threat. Both small scale harvesting by villagers and industrial scale mining by companies are serious threats. Mining is usually done to produce construction material which is valued as much as 50% cheaper than other rocks, such as from quarries.[40] The rocks are ground and mixed with other materials, like cement to make concrete. Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan

Ancient coral used for construction is known as coral rag. Building directly on the reef also takes its toll, altering water circulation and the tides which bring the nutrients to the reef. The pressing reason for building on reefs is simply lack of space.

Boats and ships require access points into bays and islands to load and unload cargo and people. HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan

For this, parts of reefs are often chopped away to clear a path. Negative consequences can include altered water circulation and altered tidal patterns which can disrupt the reef's nutrient supply; sometimes destroying a great part of the reef. Fishing vessels and other large boats occasionally run aground on a reef. Two types of damage can result. HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan

Collision damage occurs when a coral reef is crushed and split by a vessel's hull into multiple fragments. Scarring occurs when boat propellers tear off the live coral and expose the skeleton. The physical damage can be noticed as striations. Mooring causes damage which can be reduced by using mooring buoys. Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan

Buoys can attach to the seafloor using concrete blocks as weights or by penetrating the seafloor, which further reduces damage.[42]Coral in Taiwan is being threatened by the influx of human population growth. Since 2007, several local environmental groups conducted research and found that much of the coral populations are being affected by untreated sewage, an influx of tourists taking corals for souvenirs, HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan

without fully understanding the destructive impact on the coral's ecological system. Researchers reported to the Taiwanese government that many coral populations have turned black in the southeast coast of Taiwan. Potentially, this could lead to loss of food supply, medicinal sources and tourism due to the breakdown of the food chain. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan

The global standard for recording threatened marine species is the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[44] This list is the foundation for marine conservation priorities worldwide. A species is listed in the threatened category if it is considered to be critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable. Other categories are near threatened and data deficient. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan

By 2008, the IUCN had assessed all 845 known reef-building corals species, marking 27% as Threatened 20% asnear threatened and 17% as data deficient.[45]

The coral triangle (Indo-Malay-Philippine archipelago) region has the highest number of reef-building coral species in threatened category as well as the highest coral species diversity. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan

The loss of coral reef ecosystems will have devastating effects on many marine species, as well as on people that depend on reef resources for their livelihoods.

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system. The reef is located in the Coral Sea. A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan

Particular environmental pressures include runoff, salinity fluctuations, climate change, cyclic crown-of-thorns outbreaks, overfishing, and spills or improper ballast discharge.

Southeast Asian coral reefs are at risk from damaging fishing practices (such as cyanide and blast fishing), overfishing, sedimentation, pollution and bleaching. Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan

Activities including education, regulation and the establishment of marine protected areas help protect these reefs.

Indonesia is home to one-third of the world's coral reefs, with coral that covers nearly 85,000 square kilometres (33,000 sq mi) and is home to one-quarter of its fish species. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan

Indonesia's coral reefs are located in the heart of the Coral Triangle and have fallen victim to destructive fishing, tourism and bleaching. Data from LIPI in 1998 found that only 7 percent is in excellent condition, 24 percent is in good condition and approximately 69 percent is in poor-to-fair condition. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

According to one source, Indonesia will lose 70 percent of its coral reef by 2050 if restoration action does not occur.

In 2007, Reef Check, the world's largest reef conservation organization, stated that only 5% of Philippines 27,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) of coral reef are in "excellent condition": HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan

Tubbataha Reef, Marine Park in Palawan, Apo Island inNegros Oriental, Apo Reef in Puerto Galera, Mindoro, and Verde Island Passage off Batangas. Philippine coral reefs is Asia's second largest.

Coral reefs in Taiwan are being threatened by human population growth. Dell MF60100V1-Q000-G99 CPU Fan

Many corals are affected by untreated sewage and souvenir-hunting tourists, not knowing that this practice destroys habitat and causes disease. Many corals have turned black from disease off Taiwan's southeast coast. HP Envy 15 CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv7-1190er CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite A105-S4074 CPU Fan

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The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi).[4][5] The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. HP 3MLX8TATP40 CPU Fan 

The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms.[6] This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps.[7] It supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.[1][2] CNN labeled it one of theseven natural wonders of the world.[8] The Queensland National Trust named it a state icon of Queensland.[9] HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which helps to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism. Other environmental pressures on the reef and its ecosystem include runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, and cyclic population outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

According to a study published in October 2012 by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the reef has lost more than half its coral cover since 1985.[10]

The Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and used by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islanderpeoples, and is an important part of local groups' cultures and spirituality. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

The reef is a very popular destination for tourists, especially in the Whitsunday Islands and Cairns regions. Tourism is an important economic activity for the region, generating over $3 billion per year.

The Great Barrier Reef is a distinct feature of the East Australian Cordillera division. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

It includes the smaller Murray Islands.[12] It reaches from Torres Strait (between Bramble Cay, its northernmost island, and the south coast of Papua New Guinea) in the north to the unnamed passage between Lady Elliot Island (its southernmost island) and Fraser Island in the south. Lady Elliot Island is located 1,915 km (1,190 mi) southeast of Bramble Cay as the crow flies.[13] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan

Australia has moved northwards at a rate of 7 cm (2.8 in) per year, starting during the Cenozoic.[14] Eastern Australia experienced a period of tectonic uplift, which moved the drainage divide in Queensland 400 km (250 mi) inland. Also during this time, Queensland experienced volcanic eruptions leading to central and shield volcanoes and basalt flows.[15] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Some of these granitic outcrops have become high islands.[16] After the Coral Sea Basin formed, coral reefs began to grow in the Basin, but until about 25 million years ago, northern Queensland was still in temperate waters south of the tropics—too cool to support coral growth.[17] The Great Barrier Reef's development history is complex; HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

after Queensland drifted into tropical waters, it was largely influenced by reef growth and decline as sea level changed.[18]

Reefs can increase in diameter by 1 to 3 centimetres (0.39 to 1.2 in) per year, and grow vertically anywhere from 1 to 25 cm (0.39 to 9.8 in) per year; HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan

however, they grow only above a depth of 150 metres (490 ft) due to their need for sunlight, and cannot grow above sea level.[19] When Queensland edged into tropical waters 24 million years ago, some coral grew,[20] but a sedimentation regime quickly developed with erosion of the Great Dividing Range; creating river deltas,oozes and turbidites, unsuitable conditions for coral growth. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

10 million years ago, the sea level significantly lowered, which further enabled sedimentation. The reef's substrate may have needed to build up from the sediment until its edge was too far away for suspended sediments to inhibit coral growth. In addition, approximately 400,000 years ago there was a particularly warm interglacial periodwith higher sea levels and a 4 °C (7 °F) water temperature change. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

The land that formed the substrate of the current Great Barrier Reef was a coastal plain formed from the eroded sediments of theGreat Dividing Range with some larger hills (some of which were themselves remnants of older reefs[22] or volcanoes[16]).[14] The Reef Research Centre, HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan

a Cooperative Research Centre, has found coral 'skeleton' deposits that date back half a million years.[23] The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) considers the earliest evidence of complete reef structures to have been 600,000 years ago.[24] According to the GBRMPA, HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

the current, living reef structure is believed to have begun growing on the older platform about 20,000 years ago.[24] The Australian Institute of Marine Science agrees, placing the beginning of the growth of the current reef at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum. At around that time, sea level was 120 metres (390 ft) lower than it is today.[22] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

From 20,000 years ago until 6,000 years ago, sea level rose steadily. As it rose, the corals could then grow higher on the hills of the coastal plain. By around 13,000 years ago the sea level was only 60 metres (200 ft) lower than the present day, and corals began to grow around the hills of the coastal plain, which were, by then, continental islands. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan

As the sea level rose further still, most of the continental islands were submerged. The corals could then overgrow the hills, to form the presentcays and reefs. Sea level here has not risen significantly in the last 6,000 years.[22] The CRC Reef Research Centre estimates the age of the present, living reef structure at 6,000 to 8,000 years old.[23] Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

The remains of an ancient barrier reef similar to the Great Barrier Reef can be found in The Kimberley, Western Australia.[25]

The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area has been divided into 70 bioregions,[26] of which 30 are reef bioregions. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan

In the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef, ribbon reefs and deltaic reefs have formed; these structures are not found in the rest of the reef system.[23] There are no atolls in the system,[29] and reefs attached to the mainland are rare.[14]

Fringing reefs are distributed widely, but are most common towards the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef, attached to high islands, for example, the Whitsunday Islands. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan

Lagoonal reefs are found in the southern Great Barrier Reef, and further north, off the coast of Princess Charlotte Bay. Cresentic reefs are the most common shape of reef in the middle of the system, for example the reefs surrounding Lizard Island. Cresentic reefs are also found in the far north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, and in the Swain Reefs (20–22 degrees south). HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

Planar reefs are found in the northern and southern parts, near Cape York Peninsula, Princess Charlotte Bay, and Cairns. Most of the islands on the reef are found on planar reefs.

The Great Barrier Reef supports a diversity of life, including many vulnerable or endangered species, some of which may beendemic to the reef system. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan

Thirty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises have been recorded in the Great Barrier Reef, including the dwarf minke whale, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, and the humpback whale. Large populations of dugongs live there. More than 1,500 fish species live on the reef, including the clownfish, red bass, red-throat emperor, and several species of snapper and coral trout.[Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan

Forty-nine species mass spawn, while eighty-four other species spawn elsewhere in their range.[35] Seventeen species of sea snake live on the Great Barrier Reef in warm waters up to 50 metres (160 ft) deep and are more common in the southern than in the northern section. None found in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area are endemic, nor are any endangered.[36] HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

Six species of sea turtles come to the reef to breed – the green sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, flatback turtle, and the olive ridley. The green sea turtles on the Great Barrier Reef have two genetically distinct populations, one in the northern part of the reef and the other in the southern part.[37] Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan

Fifteen species of seagrass in beds attract the dugongs and turtles,[33] and provide fish habitat.[38] The most common genera of seagrasses are Halophila and Halodule.[39]

Saltwater crocodiles live in mangrove and salt marshes on the coast near the reef.[40] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

Nesting has not been reported, and the salt water crocodile population in the GBRWHA is wide-ranging but low density.[36] Around 125 species of shark, stingray,skates or chimaera live on the reef.[41][42] Close to 5,000 species of mollusc have been recorded on the reef, including thegiant clam and various nudibranchs and cone snails.[33] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

Forty-nine species of pipefish and nine species of seahorse have been recorded.[36] At least seven species of frog inhabit the islands.[43]

215 species of birds (including 22 species of seabirds and 32 species of shorebirds) visit the reef or nest or roost on the islands,[44] including the white-bellied sea eagle and roseate tern.[33] Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan

Most nesting sites are on islands in the northern and southern regions of the Great Barrier Reef, with 1.4 to 1.7 million birds using the sites to breed.[45][46] The islands of the Great Barrier Reef also support 2,195 known plant species; three of these are endemic. The northern islands have 300–350 plant species which tend to be woody, HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

whereas the southern islands have 200 which tend to be herbaceous; the Whitsunday region is the most diverse, supporting 1,141 species. The plants are propagated by birds.

There are at least 330 species of ascidians on the reef system with the diameter of 1–10 cm (0.4–4 in). Between 300–500 species of bryozoans live on the reef.[42] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

Four hundred coral species, both hard corals and soft corals inhabit the reef.[33]The majority of these spawn gametes, breeding in mass spawning events that are triggered by the rising sea temperatures of spring and summer, the lunar cycle, and the diurnal cycle. Reefs in the inner Great Barrier Reef spawn during the week after the full moon in October, HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

while the outer reefs spawn in November and December.[47] Its common soft corals belong to 36 genera.[48] Five hundred species of marine algae or seaweed live on the reef,[33] including thirteen species of genusHalimeda, which deposit calcareous mounds up to 100 metres (110 yd) wide, creating mini-ecosystems on their surface which have been compared to rainforest cover. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan

Climate change, pollution, crown-of-thorns starfish and fishing are the primary threats to the health of this reef system. Other threats include shipping accidents, oil spills, and tropical cyclones.[50] Skeletal Eroding Band, a disease of bony corals caused by the protozoan Halofolliculina corallasia, affects 31 coral species.[51] HP G56-114SA CPU Fan

According to a 2012 study by theNational Academy of Science, since 1985, the Great Barrier Reef has lost more than half of its corals with two-thirds of the lost occurring from 1998 due to the factors listed before.The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority considers the greatest threat to the Great Barrier Reef to be climate change, causing ocean warming which increases coral bleaching.[ SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

Mass coral bleaching events due to elevated ocean temperatures occurred in the summers of 1998, 2002 and 2006,[56] and coral bleaching is expected to become an annual occurrence.[57] As global warming continues due to anthropogenic causes, corals will not be able to keep up with increasing ocean temperatures. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan

Coral bleaching events lead to increased disease susceptibility, which causes detrimental ecological effects for reef communities.[58] Climate change has implications for other forms of reef life—some fish's preferred temperature range leads them to seek new habitat, thus increasing chick mortality in predatory seabirds. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan

Climate change will also affect the population and sea turtle's available habitat.[59]

Bleaching events in benthic coral communities (deeper than 20 metres or 66 feet) in the Great Barrier reef are not as well documented as those at shallower depths, but recent research has shown that benthic communities are just as negatively impacted in the face of rising ocean temperatures. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan

Five Great Barrier Reef species of large benthic corals were found bleached under elevated temperatures, affirming that benthic corals are vulnerable to thermal stress.

Another key threat faced by the Great Barrier Reef is pollution and declining water quality. The rivers of north eastern Australia pollute the Reef during tropical flood events. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan

Over 90% of this pollution comes from farm runoff.[61] Farm run-off is caused by overgrazing, excessive fertiliser use, and pesticide use.

The runoff problem is exacerbated by the loss of coastal wetlands which act as a natural filter for toxins and help deposit sediment. It is thought that the poor water quality is due to increased light and oxygen competition from algae. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

The crown-of-thorns starfish preys on coral polyps. Large outbreaks of these starfish can devastate reefs. In 2000, an outbreak contributed to a loss of 66% of live coral cover on sampled reefs in a study by the RRC (Reefs Research Centre.)[66] Outbreaks are believed to occur in natural cycles, worsened by poor water quality and overfishing of the starfish's predators. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

The unsustainable overfishing of keystone species, such as the Giant Triton, can disrupt food chains vital to reef life. Fishing also impacts the reef through increased water pollution from boats, by-catch of unwanted species (such as dolphins and turtles) and habitat destruction from trawling, anchors and nets.[68] SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

As of the middle of 2004, approximately one-third of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is protected from species removal of any kind, including fishing, without written permission.

Shipping accidents are a pressing concern, as several commercial shipping routes pass through the Great Barrier Reef.[70]Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

Although the route through the Great Barrier Reef is not easy, reef pilots consider it safer than outside the reef in the event of mechanical failure, since a ship can sit safely while being repaired.[71] There have been over 1,600 known shipwrecks in the Great Barrier Reef region.[72] HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan

On 3 April 2010, bulk coal carrier Shen Neng 1 ran aground on Douglas Shoals,[73] spilling up to four tonnes of oil into the water and causing extensive damage to the reef.

The Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and used by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander peoples. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Aboriginal Australians have been living in the area for at least 40,000 years,[75] and Torres Strait Islanders since about 10,000 years ago.[76] For these 70 or so clan groups, the reef is also an important cultural feature.[77]

In 1768 Louis de Bougainville found the reef during an exploratory mission, but did not claim the area for the French.[78] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

On 11 June 1770, the HM Bark Endeavour, captained by explorer James Cook, ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef, sustaining considerable damage. Lightening the ship and re-floating it during an incoming tide eventually saved it.[79] One of the most famous wrecks was the HMS Pandora, which sank on 29 August 1791, killing 35 men. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The Queensland Museum has led archaeological digs to the Pandora since 1983.[80] Because the reef had no atolls, it was largely unstudied in the 19th century.[29] During this time, some of the reef's islands were mined for deposits of guano, and lighthouses were built as beacons throughout the system.[81] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan

as in Raine Island, the earliest example.[82] In 1922, the Great Barrier Reef Committee began carrying out much of the early research on the reef.

Royal Commissions disallowed oil drilling in the Great Barrier Reef, in 1975 the Government of Australia created the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and prohibited various activities.[84] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park does not include the entire Great Barrier Reef Province.[13] The park is managed, in partnership with the Government of Queensland, through the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority to ensure that it is used in a sustainable manner. A combination of zoning, management plans, ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

permits, education and incentives (such as eco-tourism certification) are employed in the effort to conserve the reef.In 1999, the Australian Parliament passed the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, which improved the operation of national environmental law by providing guidance about regional biodiversity conservation priorities. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan

The marine bioregional planning process came from the implementation of this law. This process conserves marine biodiversity by considering the whole ecosystem a species is in and how different species interact in the marine environment.

There are two steps to this process. The first step is to identify regional conservation priorities in the five (currently) different marine regions. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan

The second step is to identify marine reserves (protected areas or marine parks) to be added to Australia’s National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. Like protected areas on land, marine reserves are created to protect biodiversity for generations to come. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

Marine reserves are identified based on criteria written in a document created by Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council called "Guidelines for establishing the national representative system of marine protected areas", also known as just “the Guidelines”. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan

These guidelines are nationally recognised and implemented at the local level based on the Australian policy for implementation outlined in the “Goals and Principles for the Establishment of the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas in Commonwealth Waters”. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

These policies are in place to make sure that a marine reserve is only added to the NRSMPA after careful evaluation of different data.

The priorities for each region are created based on human and environmental threats and the Marine Bioregional Plans are drafted to address these priorities. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

To assess different region’s priorities, three steps are taken, first, a bioregional profile is created, second, a bioregional plan is drafted, and third, the plan is finalised. After the plan is finalized, activity in different bioregions may become limited based on particular threats an activity may pose. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan

In 2001, the GBRMPA released a report about the declining water quality in the Great Barrier Reef and detailed the importance of this issue. In repose to this report a joint initiative between the governments of Australia and Queensland to improve the water quality of the Great Barrier Reef. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan

In 2003, the Australian and Queensland governments launched a joint initiative to improve the quality of water entering the Great Barrier Reef. The decline in the quality of water over the past 150 years (due to development) has contributed to coral bleaching, algal blooms, and pesticide pollution. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan

These forms of pollution have made the reef less resilient to climate change.

When the plan was introduced in October in 2003, it originally contained 65 actions built on previous legislation. Their immediate goal was to halt and reverse the decline in water quality entering the reef by 2013. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan

By 2020, they hope that the quality of the water entering in the reef improves enough so that it doesn't have a detrimental impact on the health of the Great Barrier Reef. To achieve these goals they decided to reduce pollutants in the water entering the reef and to rehabilitate and conserve areas of the reef that naturally help reduce water pollutants. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan

In order to achieve the objectives described above, this plan focuses on non-point sources of pollution, which cannot be traced to a single source such as a waste outlet.

The plan specifically targets nutrients, pesticides and sediment that make their way into the reef as a result of agricultural activities. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan

Other non-point sources of pollution that are attributed to urban areas are covered under different legislation. In 2009, the plan was updated. The updated version states that to date, none of the efforts undertaken to improve the quality of water entering the reef has been successful. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan

The new plan attempts to address this issue by "targeting priority outcomes, integrating industry and community initiatives and incorporating new policy and regulatory frameworks (Reef Plan 5)". This updated version has improved the clarity of the previous plan and targets set by that plan, have improved accountability and further improved monitoring and assessment.Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan

The 2009 report found that 41 out of the 65 actions met their original goals, however, 18 were not progressing well according to evaluation criteria as well as 6 were rated as having unsatisfactory levels of progress.

Some key achievements made since the plan's initial passing in 2003 were the establishment of the Reef Quality Partnership to set targets, COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan

report findings and monitor progress towards targets, improved land condition by landowners was rewarded with extended leases, Water Quality Improvement Plans were created to identify regional targets and identified management changes that needed to be made to reach those targets, HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan

Nutrient Management Zones have been created to combatsediment loss in particular areas, education programs have been started to help gather support for sustainable agriculture, changes to land management practices have taken place through the implementation of the Farm Management Systems and codes of practice, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

the creation of the Queensland Wetland program and other achievements were made to help improve the water quality flowing into the coral reefs.

A taskforce of scientists was also created to assess the impact of different parts of the plan on the quality of water flowing into the coral reefs. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan

They found that many of the goals have yet to be reached but found more evidence that states that improving the water quality of the Great Barrier Reef will improve its resilience to climate change. The Reefocus summit in 2008, which is also detailed in the report, came to similar conclusions. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan

After this, a stakeholder working group was formed that worked between several groups as well as the Australian and Queensland governments to update reef goals and objectives. The updated version of the plan focuses on strategic priority areas and actions to achieve 2013 goals. Also quantitative targets have been made in order to critically assess whether targets are being met.Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan

Some examples of the water quality goals outlined by this plan are that by 2013, there will be a 50% reduction in nitrogen and phosphorus loads at the end of catchments and that by 2020, there will be a reduction in sediment load by 20%. The plan also outlines a number of steps that must be taken by landholders to help improve grazing,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

soil, nutrient, and chemical management practices. There are also a number of supporting initiatives to take place outlined in the plan to help create a framework to improve land use practices which will in turn improve water quality.

Through these means the governments of Australia and Queensland hope to improve water quality by 2013. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan

The 2013 outlook report and revised water quality plan will assess what needs to be done in the future to improve water quality and the livelihoods of the wildlife that resides there.[87]

In July 2004, a new zoning plan took effect for the entire Marine Park, and has been widely acclaimed as a new global benchmark for marine ecosystemconservation.[88] HP G62-369TX CPU Fan

The rezoning was based on the application of systematic conservation planning techniques, using MARXAN software.[89] While protection across the Marine Park was improved, the highly protected zones increased from 4.5% to over 33.3%.[90] At the time, it was the largest marine protected area in the world, HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan

although in 2006, the new Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument became the largest.In 2006, a review of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act of 1975 recommended are that there should be no further zoning plan changes until 2013, and that every five years, a peer-reviewed outlook report should be published, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan

examining the reef's health, management, and environmental pressures.[5][92] In each outlook report, several assessments are required. Each assessment has a set of assessment criteria that allows for better presentation of available evidence. Each assessment is judged by these criteria and given a grade. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan

Every outlook report follows the same judging and grading process so that information can be tracked over time. No new research is done to produce the report. Only readily available information goes into the report so little of what is known about the Reef is actually featured in each outlook report. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan

Due to its vast biodiversity, warm clear waters and accessibility from the tourist boats called "live aboards", the reef is a very popular destination, especially for scuba divers. Tourism on the Great Barrier Reef is concentrated in the Whitsundays and Cairns due to their accessibility. These areas make up 7% of the Park's area.[50] SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan

The Whitsundays and Cairns have their own Plans of Management.[94] Many cities along the Queensland coast offer daily boat trips. Several continental and coral cay islands are now resorts, including the pristine Lady Elliot Island. As of 1996, 27 islands on the Great Barrier Reef supported resorts. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan

Domestic tourism made up most of the tourism in the region as of 1996, and the most popular visiting times were in the Australian winter. It was estimated that tourists to the Great Barrier Reef contributed A$776 million per annum at this time.[95]

As the largest commercial activity in the region, it was estimated in 2003 that tourism in the Great Barrier Reef generates over A$4 billion annually.[96] Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan

(A 2005 estimate puts the figure at A$5.1 billion.[94]) Approximately two million people visit the Great Barrier Reef each year.[97] Although most of these visits are managed in partnership with the marine tourism industry, there is a concern amongst the general public that tourism is harmful to the Great Barrier Reef.[50] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan

A variety of boat tours and cruises are offered, from single day trips, to longer voyages. Boat sizes range from dinghies tosuperyachts.[98] Glass-bottomed boats and underwater observatories are also popular, as are helicopter flights.[99][100] By far, the most popular tourist activities on the Great Barrier Reef are snorkelling and diving, for which pontoons are often used, HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan

and the area is often enclosed by nets. The outer part of the Great Barrier Reef is favoured for such activities, due to water quality.

Management of tourism in the Great Barrier Reef is geared towards making tourism ecologically sustainable. A daily fee is levied that goes towards research of the Great Barrier Reef.[94] HP G42-367TU CPU Fan

This fee ends up being 20% of the GBRMPA's income.[101]Policies on cruise ships, bareboat charters, and anchorages limit the traffic on the Great Barrier Reef.[94]

The problems that surround ecotourism in the Great Barrier Reef revolve around permanent tourism platforms. Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan

Platforms are large, ship-like vessels that act as a base for tourists while scuba diving and snorkeling in the Great Barrier Reef. Seabirds will land on the platforms and defecate which will eventually be washed into the sea. The feces carry nitrogen, phosphorus and often DDT and mercury, which cause aspergillosis, yellow-band disease, and black band disease.ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan

Areas without tourism platforms have 14 out of 9,468 (1.1%) diseased corals versus areas with tourism platforms that have 172 out of 7,043 (12%) diseased corals.[102] Tourism is a major economic activity for the region. Thus, while non-permanent platforms could be possible in some areas, overall, permanent platforms are likely a necessity. IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

Solutions have been suggested to siphon bird waste into gutters connecting to tanks helping lower runoff that causes coral disease.[103]

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority has also placed many permanent anchorage points around the general use areas.IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

These act to reduce damage to the reef due to anchoring destroying soft coral, chipping hard coral, and disturbing sediment as it is dragged across the bottom. Tourism operators also must comply with speed limits when traveling to or from tourist destinations, in order to prevent excessive wake from the boats disturbing the reef ecosystem. IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

The fishing industry in the Great Barrier Reef, controlled by the Queensland Government, is worth A$1 billion annually.[11] It employs approximately 2000 people, and fishing in the Great Barrier Reef is pursued commercially, for recreation, and as a traditional means for feeding one's family. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities that inhabit the reef have hunted dugongs well before European settlement. The dugong meat was often used in marriage and tombstone unveiling ceremonies, and the skull was used in the coming-of-age rites. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

As part of the Indigenous Management practices, the Marine Park Authority has allowed the hunting to continue around several Pacific Islander communities. However, the rapid increase in dugong deaths has led to a controversy regarding the practices, as outboard motors are being used to kill up to a thousand dugongs a year, over ten times the sustainable level. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Refrigeration of the meat now allows multiple carcasses to be kept ready for extended periods. This has led to debate between the Marine Park Authority and the scientific community regarding the merits of indigenous practices in the reef.

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands that stretch for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) and cover an area of approximately 344,400 km².[3][4] The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in northeast Australia. A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

The Great Barrier Reef's environmental pressures include lowered water quality from runoff including suspended sediment, excess nutrients, pesticides, and fluctuations in salinity. The effects of climate change, including increased temperatures, storms and coral bleaching. Cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

overfishing which disrupts food chains, and shipping routes which can result in oil spills or improper ballast discharge also cause damage to the reef.

Water quality was first identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef in 1989.[5] Thirty "major rivers" and hundreds of small streams comprise the Great Barrier Reef catchment area, which covers 423,000 square kilometres (163,000 sq mi) of land.[6] IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Queensland has several major urban centres on the coast including Cairns, Townsville, Mackay, Rockhampton and the industrial city of Gladstone. Dredging in the Port of Gladstone is raising concern after dead and diseased fish where found in the harbour. Cairns and Townsville are the largest of the coastal cities, with populations of approximately 150,000 each.[7] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

There are many major water quality variables affecting coral reef health including water temperature, salinity, nutrients,suspended sediment concentrations,[8] and pesticides.[6] The species in the Great Barrier Reef area are adapted to tolerable variations in water quality however when critical thresholds are exceeded they may be adversely impacted. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

River discharges are the single biggest source of nutrients,[9] providing significant pollution of the Reef during tropical flood events with over 90% of this pollution being sourced from farms.[8]

Due to the range of human uses made of the water catchment area adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef, DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

some 700 of the 3000 reefs[10] are within a risk zone where water quality has declined owing to the naturally acidic sediment and chemical runofffrom farming, and to coastal development and the loss of coastal wetlands which are a natural filter.[11] Industries in the water catchment area are cotton growing, comprising approximately 262 km²; HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

340 dairy farms with an average area of 2 km² each, 158 km² cattle grazing, 288 km² horticulture including banana growing, sugarcane farming, and cropping of approximately 8,000 km² wheat, 1,200 km² barley, and 6,000 to 7000 km² sorghum and maize.[12] Fertiliser use in the cotton, dairy, beef, horticulture and sugar industries is essential to ensure productivity and profitability. IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

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The koala instinctively seeks refuge in the higher branches, where it is vulnerable to intense heat and flames. Bushfires also fragment the animal's habitat, which restricts their movement and leads to population decline and loss of genetic diversity.[94] Dehydration and overheating can also prove fatal.[95] Consequently, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan

the koala is vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Models of climate change in Australia predict warmer and drier climates, suggesting that the koala's range will shrink in the east and south to more mesic habitats.[96] Droughts also affect the koala's well-being. For example, a severe drought in 1980 caused many Eucalyptus trees to lose their leaves. IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan

Subsequently, 63% of the population in southwestern Queensland died, especially young animals that were excluded from prime feeding sites by older, dominant koalas, and recovery of the population was slow.[39] Later, this population declined from an estimated mean population of 59,000 in 1995 to 11,600 in 2009, IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan

a reduction attributed largely to hotter and drier conditions resulting from droughts in most years between 2002 and 2007.[97] Another predicted negative outcome of climate change is the effect of elevations in atmospheric CO2 levels on the koala's food supply: increases in CO2 cause Eucalyptus trees to reduce protein and increase tannin concentrations in their leaves, reducing the quality of the food source. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan

 

The first written reference of the koala was recorded by John Price, servant of John Hunter, the Governor of New South Wales. Price encountered the "cullawine" on 26 January 1798, during an expedition to the Blue Mountains,[99] although his account was not published until nearly a century later in Historical Records of Australia.[100] ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan

In 1802, French-born explorer Francis Louis Barrallier encountered the animal when his two Aboriginal guides, returning from a hunt, brought back two koala feet they were intending to eat. Barrallier preserved the appendages and sent them and his notes to Hunter's successor, Philip Gidley King, who forwarded them to Joseph Banks. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

Similar to Price, Barrallier's notes did not get published until 1897.[101] Reports of the "Koolah" appeared in the Sydney Gazette in late 1803, and helped provide the impetus for King to commission the artist John Lewin to paint watercolours of the animal. Lewin painted three pictures, ASUS F80S CPU Fan

one of which was subsequently made into a print that was reproduced inGeorge Culver's The Animal Kingdom (first published in 1827) and several European works on natural history.[102]

Botanist Robert Brown was the first to write a detailed scientific description of the koala in 1814, HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan

based on a female specimen captured near what is now Mount Kembla in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Austrian botanical illustrator Ferdinand Bauerdrew the animal's skull, throat, feet and paws. Brown's work remained unpublished and largely unnoticed, however, as his field books and notes remained in his possession until his death, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan

when they were bequeathed to the British Museum of Natural History. They were not identified until 1994, while Bauer's koala watercolours were not published until 1989.[103] British surgeon Everard Home included details of the koala based on eyewitness accounts of William Paterson, who had befriended Brown and Bauer during their stay in New South Wales.[104] IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan

Home, who in 1808 published his report in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,[105] gave the animal the scientific name Didelphis coola.[106]

The first published image of the koala appeared in George Perry's (1810) natural history work Arcana.[107] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan

Perry called it the "New Holland Sloth" on account of its perceived similarities to the Central and South American tree-living mammals of genus Bradypus. His disdain for the koala, evident in his description of the animal, was typical of the prevailing early 19th-century British attitude about the primitiveness and oddity of Australian fauna: HP 535438-001 CPU Fan

the eye is placed like that of the Sloth, very close to the mouth and nose, which gives it a clumsy awkward appearance, and void of elegance in the combination ... they have little either in their character or appearance to interest the Naturalist or Philosopher. As Nature however provides nothing in vain, DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan

we may suppose that even these torpid, senseless creatures are wisely intended to fill up one of the great links of the chain of animated nature ...".

Naturalist and popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala in his three-volume work The Mammals of Australia(1845–63) and introduced the species, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan

as well as other members of Australia's little-known faunal community, to the general British public.[110] Comparative anatomist Richard Owen, in a series of publications on the physiology and anatomy of Australian mammals, presented a paper on the anatomy of the koala to the Zoological Society of London.[111] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan

In this widely cited publication he provided the first careful description of its internal anatomy, and noted its general structural similarity to the wombat.[112] English naturalist George Robert Waterhouse, curator of the Zoological Society of London, was the first to correctly classify the koala as a marsupial in the 1840s. ASUS A8H CPU Fan

He identified similarities between it and its fossil relatives Diprotodon and Nototherium, which had been discovered just a few years before.[113] Similarly, Gerard Krefft, curator of the Australian Museum, noted evolutionary mechanisms at work when comparing the koala to its ancestral relatives in his 1871 The Mammals of Australia.[114] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan

 

The first living koala in Britain arrived in 1881, purchased by the Zoological Society of London. As related by prosecutor to the society, William Alexander Forbes, the animal suffered an accidental demise when the heavy lid of a washstand fell on it and it was unable to free itself. Forbes used the opportunity to dissect the fresh female specimen, HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan

and thus was able to provide explicit anatomical details on the female reproductive system, the brain, and the liver—parts not previously described by Owen, who had access only to preserved specimens.[115] Scottish embryologist William Caldwell—well known in scientific circles for determining the reproductive mechanism of the platypus—described the uterine development of the koala in 1884,[ APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan

and used the new information to convincingly place the koala and the monotremes into an evolutionary time frame.[117]

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, visited the Koala Park Sanctuary in Sydney in 1934[118] and was "intensely interested in the bears". HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan

His photograph, with Noel Burnet, the founder of the park, and a koala, appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald. After World War II, when tourism to Australia increased and the animals were exported to zoos overseas, the koala's international popularity rose. Several political leaders and members of royal families had their pictures taken with koalas, HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

including Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Harry, Crown Prince Naruhito, Crown Princess Masako, Pope John Paul II, US President Bill Clinton, Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev and South African President Nelson Mandela.

The koala is well known worldwide and is a major draw for Australian zoos and wildlife parks. Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan

It has been featured in advertisements, games, cartoons and as soft toys.[120] It benefited the Australian tourism industry by over an estimated billion dollars in 1998, a figure that has since grown.[121] In 1997, half of visitors to Australia, especially those from Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, sought out zoos and wildlife parks; SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan

about 75 percent of European and Japanese tourists placed the koala at the top of their list of animals to see.[122] According to biologist Stephen Jackson: "If you were to take a straw poll of the animal most closely associated with Australia, it's a fair bet that the koala would come out marginally in front of the kangaroo".[120] HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan

Factors that contribute to the koala's enduring popularity include its childlike body proportions and teddy bear-like face.[123] Such affection for the species is reflected in a stand-up routine by comedian Mitch Hedberg, who stated, "My apartment is infested with koala bears. It's the cutest infestation ever. Way better than cockroaches".[124] SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan

 

The koala is featured in the Dreamtime stories and mythology of indigenous Australians. The Tharawal people believed that the animal helped row the boat that brought them to the continent.[125] Another myth tells of how a tribe killed a koala and used its long intestines to create a bridge for people from other parts of the world. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan

This narrative highlights the koala's status as a game animal and the length of its intestines.[126] Several stories tell of how the koala lost its tail. In one, a kangaroo cuts it off to punish the koala for being lazy and greedy.[127] Tribes in both Queensland and Victoria regarded the koala as a wise animal and sought its advice. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan

Bidjara-speaking people credited the koala for turning barren lands into lush forests.[128] The animal is also depicted in rock carvings, though not as much as some other species.[129]

Early European settlers in Australia considered the koala to be a prowling sloth-like animal with a "fierce and menacing look".[130SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan

] At the beginning of the 20th century, the koala's reputation took a more positive turn, largely due to its growing popularity and depiction in several widely circulated children's stories.[131] It is featured in Ethel Pedley's 1899 book Dot and the Kangaroo, in which it is portrayed as the "funny native bear".[130] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan

Artist Norman Lindsaydepicted a more anthropomorphic koala in The Bulletin cartoons, starting in 1904. This character also appeared as Bunyip Bluegum in Lindsay's 1918 book The Magic Pudding.[132] Perhaps the most famous fictional koala is Blinky Bill. Created by Dorothy Wall in 1933, the character appeared in several books and has been the subject of films, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan

TV series, merchandise and a 1986 environmental song by John Williamson.[133] The first Australian stamp featuring a koala was issued by the Commonwealth in 1930.[134] A television ad campaign for Australia's national airline Qantas, starting in 1967 and running for several decades, featured a live koala (voiced by Howard Morris), who complained that too many tourists were coming to Australia and concluded "I hate Qantas".[135] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan

The series has been ranked among the greatest commercials of all time.[136]

The song "Ode to a Koala Bear" appears on the B-side of the 1983 Paul McCartney/Michael Jackson duet album Say Say Say.[133] A koala is the main character inHanna-Barbera's The Kwicky Koala Show and Nippon Animation's NoozlesASUS G2P CPU Fan

both of which were animated cartoons of the early 1980s. Food products shaped like the koala include the Caramello Koala chocolate bar and the bite-sized cookie snack Koala's March. Dadswells Bridge in Victoria features a tourist complex shaped like a giant koala,[119] and the Queensland Reds rugby team has a koala as its mascot.[137] The Platinum Koala coin features the animal on the reverse and Elizabeth II on the obverse. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan

 

In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature listed the koala under Least Concern for the following reasons: "Its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category."[1] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan

Australian policy makers declined a 2009 proposal to include the koala in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.[19] In 2012, the Australian Government listed koala populations in Queensland and New South Wales as Vulnerable, because of a 40% population decline in the former and a 33% decline in the latter. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan

Populations in Victoria and South Australia appear to be abundant; however, the Australian Koala Foundation argues that the exclusion of Victorian populations from protective measures is based on a misconception that the total koala population is 200,000, whereas they believe it is probably less than 100,000. Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan

 

Koalas were hunted for food by Aboriginals. A common technique used to capture the animals was to attach a loop of ropey bark to the end of a long, thin pole, so as to form a noose. This would be used to snare an animal high in a tree, beyond the reach of a climbing hunter; Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan

an animal brought down this way would then be killed with a stone hand axe or hunting stick (waddy).[140] According to the customs of some tribes, it was considered taboo to skin the animal, while other tribes thought the animal's head had a special status, and saved them for burial.[141]

The koala was heavily hunted by European settlers in the early 20th century,[142] HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan

largely for its thick, soft fur. More than two million pelts are estimated to have left Australia by 1924. Pelts were in demand for use in rugs, coat linings, muffs, and as trimming on women's garments.[143] Extensive cullings occurred in Queensland in 1915, 1917, and again in 1919, when over one million koalas were killed with guns, poisons and nooses. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan

The public outcry over these cullings was probably the first wide-scale environmental issue that rallied Australians. Novelist and social critic Vance Palmer, writing in a letter to the The Courier-Mail, expressed the popular sentiment:

"The shooting of our harmless and lovable native bear is nothing less than barbarous ... SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan

No one has ever accused him of spoiling the farmer's wheat, eating the squatter's grass, or even the spreading of the prickly pear. There is no social vice that can be put down to his account ... He affords no sport to the gun-man ... And he has been almost blotted out already from some areas." Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan

Despite the growing movement to protect native species, the poverty brought about by the drought of 1926–28 led to the killing of another 600,000 koalas during a one-month open season in August 1927.[145] In 1934, Frederick Lewis, the Chief Inspector of Game in Victoria, said that the once abundant animal had been brought to near extinction in that state, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan

suggesting that only 500–1000 remained. The first successful efforts at conserving the species were initiated by the establishment of Brisbane's Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary and Sydney's Koala Park Sanctuary in the 1920s and 1930s. The owner of the latter park, Noel Burnet, SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan

became the first to successfully breed koalas and earned a reputation as the foremost contemporary authority on the marsupial.[148] In 1934, David Fleay, curator of Australian mammals at the Melbourne Zoo, established the first Australian faunal enclosure at an Australian zoo, and featured the koala. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan

This arrangement allowed him to undertake a detailed study of its diet in captivity. Fleay later continued his conservation efforts at Healesville Sanctuary and theDavid Fleay Wildlife Park.

Since 1870, koalas have been introduced to several coastal and offshore islands, including Kangaroo Island and French Island. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan

Their numbers have significantly increased,[150] and since the islands are not large enough to sustain such high koala numbers,overbrowsing has become a problem.[151] In the 1920s, Lewis initiated a program of large-scale relocation and rehabilitation programs to transfer koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced to new regions, Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan

with the intent of eventually returning them to their former range. For example, in 1930–31, 165 koalas were translocated to Quail Island. After a period of population growth, and subsequent overbrowsing of gum trees on the island, about 1300 animals were released into mainland areas in 1944. The practice of translocating koalas became commonplace; HP 535441-001 CPU Fan

Victorian State manager Peter Menkorst estimated that from 1923 to 2006, about 25,000 animals were translocated to more than 250 release sites across Victoria.[152] Since the 1990s, government agencies have tried to control their numbers by culling, but public and international outcry has forced the use of translocation andsterilisation instead.[153] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan

 

One of the biggest anthropogenic threats to the koala is habitat destruction and fragmentation. In coastal areas, the main cause of this is urbanisation, while in rural areas habitat is cleared for agriculture. Native forest trees are also taken down to be made into wood products.[154] Since Europeans arrived, localised deforestation of eucalypts in Australia ranges from 33 to 93%. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan

In addition, Acacia habitats, which can also support koala populations, declined by 80% overall. In 2000, Australia ranked fifth in the world by deforestation rates, having cleared 564,800 hectares (1,396,000 acres).[155] The geographical range of the koala has shrunk by more than 50% since European arrival, largely due to fragmentation of habitat in Queensland.[46] HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan

The koala's "vulnerable" status in Queensland and New South Wales means that developers in these states must consider the impacts on this species when making building applications.[139] In addition, koalas live in many protected areas.[1]

While urbanisation can pose a threat to koala populations, the animals can survive in urban areas provided there are enough trees.[156] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

Urban populations have distinct vulnerabilities: collisions with vehicles and attacks by domestic dogs kill about 4000 animals every year.[98] Injured koalas are often taken to wildlife hospitals and rehabilitation centres.[156] In a 30-year retrospective study performed at a New South Wales koala rehabilitation centre, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

it was found that trauma (usually resulting from a motor vehicle accident or dog attack) was the most frequent cause of admission, followed by symptoms of chlamydia infection.[157] Wildlife caretakers are issued with special permits but have to release the animals back into the wild when they are either well enough or, in the case of joeys, old enough. HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan

As with most native animals, the koala cannot legally be kept as a pet in Australia or anywhere else.

Megaladapis, informally known as koala lemur,[1][2] is an extinct genus belonging to the family Megaladapidae, consisting of three extinct species of lemurs that once inhabited the island of Madagascar. The largest measured between 1.3 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) in length. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan

 

Megaladapis was quite different from any living lemur. Its body was squat and built like that of the modern koala. Its long arms, fingers, feet, and toes were specialized for grasping trees, and its legs were splayed for vertical climbing. The hands and feet were curved and the ankles and wrists did not have the usual stability needed to travel on the ground that most other Lemurids have.[3] HP G60-230us CPU Fan

Its head was unlike any other primates, most strikingly, its eyes were on the sides of its skull, instead of forward on the skull like all other primates. Its long canine teeth and a cow-like jaw formed a tapering snout. Its jaw muscles were powerful for chewing the tough native vegetation. Its body weight reached 50 kilograms (110 lb). HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan

The shape of its skull was unique among all known primates, with a nasal region which showed similarities to those of rhinoceros, what was probably a feature combined with an enlarged upper lip for grasping leaves. An endocast of the skull was taken and it was found that the brain capacity was about 250cc. This is about 3 to 4 times the size of a common cat's.[4] HP 535439-001 CPU Fan

 

Megaladapis evolved because the island's topography was always changing. Along with the other lemurs, Megaladapis specialized within its own niche. The general expectations of tree climbers such as Megaladapis is that with an increase in size, the body's forelimbs will also increase proportionally. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan

It is often believed that Malagasy legends of the tretretretre or tratratratra, an extinct animal, refer to Megaladapis, but the details of these tales, notably the "human-like" face of the animal, match the related Palaeopropithecus much better.

When humans arrived, between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan

the archaeological record shows that they cleared large areas of the island using "slash-and-burn" techniques. Unable to adapt to the environmental changes and the presence of humans,Megaladapis became extinct approximately 500 years ago.

Megaladapis has been found around the marsh of Ambolisatra on the southwestern HP G62-110SO CPU Fan

side of Madagascar and was one of multipleMegafauna that went extinct on Madagascar during this time period. They were also slow-moving creatures that were active during the day. This might have made them more susceptible to predators, forest fires, habitat destruction, and possibly introduced pathogens. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

 

Sam (died 6 August 2009), also known as Sam the Koala, was a female koala from the forests of Mirboo North, Victoria,Australia. She became publicly known when a video and photographs of her being rescued by a firefighter were distributed on the internet and through the media during the aftermath of the Black Saturday bushfires. SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

 

A mobile phone video of the event,[1] which attracted just under 1,200,000 hits on YouTube,[2] shows firefighter David Tree approaching Sam who initially attempts to flee but then stops—Tree later speculated that the koala had been thinking "I can't run, I'm weak and sore, put me out of my misery"—and Tree calls for water.[1] HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan

Sam is then shown drinking from a bottle he is holding for her.[3] She is also seen allowing herself to be patted, and holding her paw on his hand. Sam became a symbol of hope.[4] It was initially thought that Sam had been rescued by Tree following theFebruary 2009 Victorian bushfires; Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan

however, the event actually occurred in the week before the worst of the fires, duringbackburning operations initiated by firefighters.[5] Tree and his crew came across Sam when they were blacking out[6][7]after the fires had gone through. The video was recorded by Tree and other firefighters; it had been intended for Tree's daughter. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan

 

Sam was subsequently taken to the Southern Ash Wildlife Centre in Rawson[8] where she was found to be suffering fromsecond-degree burns to her paws and given painkillers.[1][9] Caretakers at the shelter expected that it would take her about eight months to recover.[1][10] Based on the condition of her teeth, the shelter manager estimated her to be between two and four years old.[1] Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

She was placed with a male koala named Bob,[10] who had been rescued from another of the bushfire areas two days earlier and was suffering from third-degree burns.

Sam's story was featured in media outlets worldwide, including The New York Times and CNN.[11] Gossip site TMZ.com mocked the rescue, calling Sam "pampered";[12Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan

]this drew significant reader backlash and attention. TMZ later apologised to Sam.[13]

Sam was euthanised on 6 August 2009. The decision was made after exploratory surgery on her urinary bladder and uterus to evaluate the possible removal of cystscaused by urogenital chlamydiosis. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan

As her condition was inoperable the veterinarian stated that the decision was made to euthanise to prevent her suffering.[14]Sam's remains were moved to Melbourne Museum where they were preserved as a symbol of the bushfires.

An image of Sam with David Tree was used as cover art on a fundraising CD, Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan

Bushfire Aid, to which 35 national and international artists donated songs. All proceeds were donated to the Salvation Army Bushfire Appeal.[17] A total of A$300,000 was also raised for the Country Fire Authority and other charities through selling photographs of Sam's rescue.[18] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan

 

In February 2009, an application was made to register the words "Sam the Koala" as a trademark for chocolates[19] and in August 2009 media reported a dispute.

On 20 February 2009 and 13 March 2009, an application was made to register the words "Sam the Koala" as a trademark in Class 30 (for chocolates) and as a trademark in Class 16 (for colouring-in books). SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan

The applications were approved for Acceptance of Registration of a Trademark on 25 June 2009 and 16 July 2009 respectively. An opposition notice was lodged by DSE in September 2009 and that opposition outcome is still pending a final decision by IPAustralia. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan

Media published the trademark applications which led to a dispute called an 'Opposition Notice'- IPAustralia History page [21]

On 27 July 2010 the DSE applied for a new trademark TM1374402, Sam The Koala, in Class32 (beverages), Class33 (alcoholic beverages), HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan

Class41 (education, training and cultural activities), Class43 (services for providing food and drink), and Class44 (veterinary services and hygienic and beauty care for animals),[22] however DSE Application TM1374402 was issued an "Adverse Report1" [23] on 27 August 2010. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan

 

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a retrovirus that is present in many populations of koalas. It has been implicated as the agent of Koala Immune Deficiency Syndrome (KIDS), an AIDS-like immunodeficiency that leaves infected koalas more susceptible to infectious disease and cancers. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan

The virus is thought to be a recently introduced exogenous virus that is also integrating into the koala genome (becoming endogenous). Thus the virus can transmit both horizontally (from animal to animal in the classic sense) andvertically (from parent to offspring as a gene). The horizontal modes of transmission are not well defined but are thought to require close contact. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan

 

Koala retrovirus was initially described as a novel endogenous retrovirus found within the koala genome and in tissues as freevirions. Viral DNA sequence analysis showed intact open reading frames and pathogenic DNA motifs strongly suggesting that KoRV is an active replicating endogenous virus that can also produce infectious virions. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan

The analysis also showed that KoRV was closely related to the highly pathogenic Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus (GALV).[2] The epidemiology of how koalas and gibbons came to share such similar viruses remains unclear.

The virus has been attributed to 80% of deaths in captive koalas in Queensland from leukaemia, COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan

lymphoma, malignant tumours and immune deficiency disorders. In 2008, lead researcher Jon Hanger, said the virus was a threat that could lead to extinction of koalas in Queensland within 15 years, claiming 100% infection rates in studied populations that suggest an epidemic.[3]

Research has also shown that some populations of koalas, Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan

particularly an isolated colony on Kangaroo Island do not appear to have the endogenous form of the retrovirus. This suggests that the virus gene sequence is a new acquisition for the koala genome. Prevalence of KoRV (and KIDS) in Australian koala populations suggests a trend spreading from the north down to the south of Australia. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan

Northern populations are completely infected, while some southern populations (including Kangaroo Island) are free.[4] Prior to this 'koala retrovirus' was used to refer to an unidentified oncovirus detected in cancer-affected koalas.[5]

It is thought that further studying KoRV will allow valuable insight into how endogenous retrovirus develop and incorporate themselves into mammalian genomes. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan

 

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as amegadiverse country. The fungi typify that diversity; the total number that occur in Australia, including those not yet discovered, has been estimated at around 250,000 species, HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan

of which roughly 5% have been described.[174] Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. Approximately 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[175] SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan

Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.

Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions, wattlesreplace them in drier regions and deserts as the most dominant species.[177] Among well-known Australian animals are themonotremes (the platypus and echidna); HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan

a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, and birds such as theemu and the kookaburra.[177] Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world.[178] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[179] HP 580696-001 CPU Fan

Many animal and plant species became extinct soon after first human settlement,[180] including the Australian megafauna; others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine.

Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introducedanimal, HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

chromistan, fungal and plant species.[183] The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999is the legal framework for the protection of threatened species.[184] Numerous protected areas have been created under theNational Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems;[ HP G42-380LA CPU Fan

65 wetlands are listed under the Ramsar Convention,[187] and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.[188] Australia was ranked 51st of 163 countries in the world on the 2010 Environmental Performance Index.[189]

Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent years, and protection of the environment is a major political issue.[ Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan

In 2007, the First Rudd Government signed the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world, lower than those of only a few other industrialised nations.[192] Rainfall in Australia has slightly increased over the past century, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

both nationwide and for two quadrants of the nation,[193] According to the Bureau of Meteorology's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had lower than average temperatures in 2011 as a consequence of a La Niña weather pattern, however, "the country's 10-year average continues to demonstrate the rising trend in temperatures, Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan

with 2002–2011 likely to rank in the top two warmest 10-year periods on record for Australia, at 0.52 °C above the long-term average".[194] Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.[ HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 after the 2000s Australian drought. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan,HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan

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