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Karl Marx

Karl Heinrich Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.Sony VGN-SR27TN/B Battery

His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement. He published various books during his lifetime, with the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867–1894); some of his works were co-written with his friend and fellow German revolutionary socialist, Friedrich Engels.[3] Sony VGN-SR28/B Battery

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Born into a wealthy middle class family in Trier, formerly in Prussian Rhineland now called Rhineland-Palatinate, Marx studied at both the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, Sony VGN-SR28/Q Battery

where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. In 1836, he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, marrying her in 1843. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, Sony VGN-SR290JTH Battery

and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. Moving to Paris in 1843, he began writing for other radical newspapers. He met Engels in Paris, and the two men worked together on a series of books. Sony VGN-SR290JTJ Battery

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Exiled to Brussels, he became a leading figure of the Communist League, before moving back to Cologne, where he founded his own newspaper. In 1849 he was exiled again and moved to London together with his wife and children. Sony VGN-SR290JVB/C Battery

In London, where the family was reduced to poverty, Marx continued writing and formulating his theories about the nature of society and how he believed it could be improved, and also campaigned for socialism—he became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association. Sony VGN-SR290JVH/C Battery

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Marx's theories about society, economics and politics—collectively known as Marxism—hold that all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle: Sony VGN-SR29VN/S Battery

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a conflict between an ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the labour for such goods. Heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, Sony VGN-SR31M/S Battery

capitalism, he called it the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit, and predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, it would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system, socialism.[4Sony VGN-SR33H/B Battery

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] He argued that under socialism society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers state" or "workers' democracy".[5][6] Sony VGN-SR33H/S Battery

He believed that socialism would, in its turn, eventually be replaced by a stateless, classless society called communism. Along with believing in the inevitability of socialism and communism, Sony VGN-SR33H Battery

Marx actively fought for the former's implementation, arguing that both social theorists and underprivileged people should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change.[7][8] Sony VGN-SR35G/B Battery

Revolutionary socialist governments espousing Marxist concepts took power in a variety of countries in the 20th century, leading to the formation of such socialist states as the Soviet Union in 1922 and the People's Republic of China in 1949. Sony VGN-SR35G/E1 Battery

Many labor unions and worker's parties worldwide were also influenced by Marxist ideas. Various theoretical variants, such as Leninism, Stalinism, Trotskyism and Maoism, were developed. Sony VGN-SR35G/P Battery

Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.[9] Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.[10][11] Sony VGN-SR35G/S Battery

Karl Heinrich Marx was born on 5 May 1818 at 664 Brückergasse in Trier, a town located in the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine.[12] His ancestry was Jewish, Sony VGN-SR35M/B Battery

with his paternal line having supplied the rabbis of Trier since 1723, a role that had been taken up by his own grandfather, Meier Halevi Marx; Meier's son and Karl's father would be the first in the line to receive a secular education.[13] His maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi.[14] Sony VGN-SR35T/B Battery

Karl's father, Herschel Marx, was middle-class and relatively wealthy: the family owned a number of Moselle vineyards; he converted from Judaism to the Protestant Christian denomination of Lutheranism prior to his son's birth, taking on the German forename of Heinrich over Herschel.[3] Sony VGN-SR35T/P Battery

In 1815, he began working as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family from a five-room rented apartment into a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra.[15] A man of the Enlightenment, Sony VGN-SR35T/S Battery

Heinrich Marx was interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Voltaire, and took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, which was then governed by an absolute monarchy.[16] Karl's mother, born Henrietta Pressburg, was a Dutch Jew who, unlike her husband, was only semi-literate. Sony VGN-SR36GNS Battery

She claimed to suffer from "excessive mother love", devoting much time to her family, and insisting on cleanliness within her home.[17] She was from a prosperous business family. Her family later founded the company Philips Electronics: Sony VGN-SR37TN/B Battery

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she was great-aunt to Anton and Gerard Philips, and great-great-aunt to Frits Philips. Her brother, Marx's uncle Benjamin Philips (1830-1900), was a wealthy banker and industrialist, who Karl and Jenny Marx would later often come rely upon for loans, while they were exiled in London.[18] Sony VGN-SR38/J Battery

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Heinrich Marx converted to Lutheran Protestantism in 1816 or 1817 in order to continue practicing law after the Prussian edict denying Jews to the bar. Karl was born in 1818 and baptized in 1824, but his mother, Sony VGN-SR38 Battery

Henriette, did not convert until 1825, when Karl was 7. There is no evidence that the Marx family actually embraced Lutheranism, although there is no evidence they were practicing Jews. Marx identified himself as an atheist.[19][20][21] Sony VGN-SR390NAB Battery

Little is known about Karl Marx's childhood.[22] He was privately educated until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster Hugo Wyttenbach was a friend of his father. Wyttenbach had employed many liberal humanists as teachers; Sony VGN-SR390NAH Battery

this angered the government so that the police raided the school in 1832, discovering what they labelled seditious literature espousing political liberalism being distributed amongst the students.[23] Sony VGN-SR39D/J Battery

In 1835, Karl, then aged seventeen, began attending the University of Bonn, where he wished to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field of study.[24] Sony VGN-SR39D/Q Battery

He was able to avoid military service when he turned eighteen because he suffered from a weak chest.[25] Being fond of alcoholic beverages, at Bonn he joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society (Landsmannschaft der Treveraner) and at one point served as its co-president.[26] Sony VGN-SR39D Battery

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Marx was more interested in drinking and socialising than studying law, and because of his poor grades, his father forced him to transfer to the far more serious and academically oriented University of Berlin,[27] Sony VGN-SR39XN/S Battery

where his legal studies became less significant than excursions into philosophy and history.[28] Sony VGN-SR3CW/B Battery

Hegelianism and early activism: 1836–1843

In 1836, Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, a beautiful baroness of the Prussian ruling class—"the most desirable young woman in Trier"[29] —who broke off her engagement with a young aristocratic second lieutenant to be with him.[30] Sony VGN-SR3S1 Battery

Their eventual marriage was controversial for breaking three social taboos of the period; it was a marriage between a daughter of a noble background and a man of Jewish origin as well as being between individuals who belonged to the middle and upper class (aristocracy), Sony VGN-SR41M/P Battery

respectively, and between a man and an older woman.[citation needed] Such issues were lessened by Marx's friendship with Jenny's father, Baron Ludwig von Westphalen, a liberal thinking aristocrat. Sony VGN-SR41M/S Battery

Marx dedicated his doctoral thesis to him.[31] The couple married seven years later, on 19 June 1843, at the Pauluskirche in Bad Kreuznach.[32] Sony VGN-SR41M/W Battery

Marx became interested in, but critical of, the work of the German philosopher G.W.F Hegel (1770–1831), whose ideas were widely debated amongst European philosophical circles at the time.[33] Sony VGN-SR45H/B Battery

Marx wrote about falling ill "from intense vexation at having to make an idol of a view I detested."[34] He became involved with a group of radical thinkers known as the Young Hegelians, who gathered around Ludwig Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer.[28] Sony VGN-SR45H/N Battery

Like Marx, the Young Hegelians were critical of Hegel's metaphysical assumptions, but still adopted his dialectical method in order to criticise established society, politics and religion. Sony VGN-SR45H/P Battery

Marx befriended Bauer, and in July 1841 the two scandalised their class in Bonn by getting drunk, laughing in church, and galloping through the streets on donkeys.[35] During that period, Marx concentrated on his criticism of Hegel and certain other Young Hegelians.[3] Sony VGN-SR45H Battery

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Marx also wrote for his own enjoyment, writing both non-fiction and fiction. In 1837, he completed a short novel, Scorpion and Felix; a drama, Oulanemand some poems, none of which were published.[36] Sony VGN-SR45T/P Battery

In 1971, Marx's one act play Oulanem was made available in English by author Robert Payne. According to Payne, the title Oulanem is an anagram for "Manuelo" which is a variant of "Emmanuel" meaning "God is with us".[37] Sony VGN-SR45T/W Battery

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He soon gave up writing fiction for other pursuits, including learning English and Italian.[38]

He was deeply engaged in writing his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature, which he finished in 1841. Sony VGN-SR46GDB Battery

The essay has been described as "a daring and original piece of work in which he set out to show that theology must yield to the superior wisdom of philosophy",[39] Sony VGN-SR46MD/B Battery

and as such was controversial, particularly among the conservative professors at the University of Berlin. Marx decided to submit it instead to the more liberal University of Jena, whose faculty awarded him his PhD based on it.[28][40] Sony VGN-SR46TD/B Battery

From considering an academic career, Marx turned to journalism.[3][41] He moved to the city of Cologne in 1842, where he began writing for the radical newspaper Rheinische Zeitung, where he expressed his increasingly socialist views on politics.[42] Sony VGN-SR48J/B Battery

He criticised the governments of Europe and their policies, but also liberals and other members of the socialist movement whose ideas he thought were ineffective or outright anti-socialist.[43] Sony VGN-SR48J/J Battery

The paper eventually attracted the attention of the Prussian government censors, who checked every issue for potentially seditious material before it could be printed. Sony VGN-SR48J Battery

Marx said, "Our newspaper has to be presented to the police to be sniffed at, and if the police nose smells anything un-Christian or un-Prussian, the newspaper is not allowed to appear."[44] Sony VGN-SR490JCN Battery

After the paper published an article strongly criticising the monarchy in Russia, the Russian Tsar Nicholas I, an ally of the Prussian monarchy, requested that the Rheinische Zeitung be banned. The Prussian government shut down the paper in 1843.[45] Sony VGN-SR49D/J Battery

Marx wrote for the Young Hegelian journal, the Deutsche Jahrbücher, in which he criticised the censorship instructions issued by Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. His article was censored and the newspaper closed down by the authorities shortly after.[46] Sony VGN-SR49D/Q Battery

In 1843, Marx published On the Jewish Question, in which he distinguished between political and human emancipation. He also examined the role of religious practice in society.[3] Sony VGN-SR49D Battery

That same year he published Contribution to Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, in which he dealt more substantively with religion, describing it as "the opiate of the people".[3] He completed both works shortly before leaving Cologne.[47] Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Paris: 1843–1845

Following the government-imposed shutdown of the Rheinische Zeitung, Marx got involved with a new radical newspaper, the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals), which was then being set up by Arnold Ruge, another German socialist revolutionary.[48] Sony VGN-SR51B/P Battery

The paper was based not in Germany, but in the city of Paris in neighbouring France, and it was here that both Marx and his wife moved in October 1843. They initially lived with Ruge and his wife communally at 23 Rue Vaneau, but Sony VGN-SR51B/S Battery

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finding these living conditions difficult, the Marxes moved out following the birth of their daughter Jenny in 1844.[49] Although it was intended to attract writers from both France and the German states, Sony VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher was dominated by the latter, with the only non-German writer being the exiled Russian anarcho-communist Michael Bakunin.[50] Sony VGN-SR51MF Battery

Only one issue was ever published, but it was relatively successful, largely owing to the inclusion of Heinrich Heine's satirical odes on King Ludwig of Bavaria, which led to those copies sent to Germany being confiscated by the state's police force.[51] Sony VGN-SR55TF/B Battery

It was in Paris that, on 28 August 1844, Marx met German socialist Friedrich Engels at the Café de la Régence after becoming interested in the ideas that the latter had expressed in articles written for the Rheinische Zeitung and the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher. Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

Although they had briefly met each other at the offices of the Rheinische Zeitung in 1842, it was here in Paris that they began their friendship that would last for the rest of their lives.[52] Sony VGN-SR59VG Battery

Engels showed Marx his recently published book, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844,[53] which convinced Marx that the working class would be the agent and instrument of the final revolution in history.[54] Sony VGN-SR70B/S Battery

Engels and Marx soon set about writing a criticism of the philosophical ideas of Marx's former friend, the Young Hegelian Bruno Bauer, which would be published in 1845 as The Holy Family.[55] Sony VGN-SR70B Battery

Although critical of Bauer, Marx was increasingly influenced by the ideas of the other Young Hegelians Max Stirner and Ludwig Feuerbach, but eventually also abandoned Feuerbachian materialism as well.[56] Sony VGN-SR72B/P Battery

In 1844 Marx wrote The Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, a work which covered numerous topics, and went into detail to explain Marx's concept of alienated labour.[3] Sony VGN-SR72B/S Battery

A year later Marx would write Theses on Feuerbach, best known for the statement that "the philosophers have only interpreted the world, the point is to change it".[3] Sony VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

This work contains Marx's criticism of materialism (for being contemplative), idealism (for reducing practice to theory) and overall, criticising philosophy for putting abstract reality above the physical world.[3] Sony VGN-SR73JB Battery

It thus introduced the first glimpse at Marx's historical materialism, an argument that the world is changed not by ideas but by actual, physical, material activity and practice.[3][57] Sony VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

After the collapse of the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, Marx, still living on the Rue Vaneau, began writing for what was then the only uncensored German-language radical newspaper in Europe, Vorwärts!.[58] Sony VGN-SR74FB Battery

Based in Paris, the paper had been established and was run by many activists connected to the revolutionary socialist League of the Just, which would come to be better known as the Communist League within a few years.[59][60] Sony VGN-SR90FS Battery

In Vorwärts!, Marx continued to refine his views on socialism based upon the Hegelian and Feuerbachian ideas of dialectical materialism, whilst at the same time criticising various liberals and other socialists operating in Europe at the time.[61] Sony VGN-SR90NS Battery

However in 1845, after receiving a request from the Prussian king, the French government agreed to shut down Vorwärts!, and furthermore, Marx himself was expelled from France by the interior minister François Guizot.[61] Sony VGN-SR90S Battery

Unable either to stay in France or to move to Germany, Marx decided to emigrate to Brussels in Belgium, but had to pledge not to publish anything on the subject of contemporary politics in order to enter.[61] Sony VGN-SR90US Battery

In Brussels, he associated with other exiled socialists from across Europe, including Moses Hess, Karl Heinzen and Joseph Weydemeyer, and soon Engels moved to the city in order to join them.[61] Sony VGN-SR91NS Battery

In 1845 Marx and Engels visited the leaders of the Chartists, a socialist movement in Britain, using the trip as an opportunity to study in various libraries in London and Manchester.[62] Sony VGN-SR91PS Battery

In collaboration with Engels he also set about writing a book which is often seen as his best treatment of the concept of historical materialism, The German Ideology; Sony VGN-SR91S Battery

the work, like many others, would not see publication in Marx's lifetime, being published only in 1932.[3][4][63] He followed this with The Poverty of Philosophy (1847), a response to the French anarcho-socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's The Philosophy of Poverty and a critique of French socialist thought in general.[64] Sony VGN-SR91US Battery

These books laid the foundation for Marx and Engels's most famous work, a political pamphlet that has since come to be commonly known as The Communist Manifesto. Sony VGN-SR92NS Battery

First published on 21 February 1848, it laid out the beliefs of the Communist League, a group who had come increasingly under the influence of Marx and Engels, Sony VGN-SR92PS Battery

who argued that the League must make their aims and intentions clear to the general public rather than hiding them as they had formerly been doing.[65]The opening lines of the pamphlet set forth the principal basis of Marxism, that "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles."[66] Sony VGN-SR92S Battery

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It goes on to look at the antagonisms that Marx claimed were arising between the clashes of interest between the bourgeoisie (the wealthy middle class) and the proletariat (the industrial working class). Sony VGN-SR93DS Battery

Proceeding on from this, the Manifesto presents the argument for why the Communist League, as opposed to other socialist and liberal political parties and groups at the time, was truly acting in the interests of the proletariat to overthrow capitalist society and replace it with socialism.[67] Sony VGN-SR93JS Battery

Later that year, Europe experienced a series of protests, rebellions, and often violent upheavals, the Revolutions of 1848.[68] In France, a revolution led to the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the French Second Republic.[68] Sony VGN-SR93PS Battery

Marx was supportive of such activity, and having recently received a substantial inheritance from his father of either 6000[69] or 5000 francs,[70][71]allegedly used a third of it to arm Belgian workers who were planning revolutionary action.[72] Sony VGN-SR93YS Battery

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Although the veracity of these allegations is disputed,[69][73] the Belgian Ministry of Justice accused him of it, subsequently arresting him, and he was forced to flee back to France, where, with a new republican government in power, he believed that he would be safe.[71][74] Sony VGN-SR94GS Battery

Cologne: 1848–1849

Temporarily settling down in Paris, Marx transferred the Communist League executive headquarters to the city and also set up a German Workers' Club with various German socialists living there.[75] Sony VGN-SR94HS Battery

Hoping to see the revolution spread to Germany, in 1848 Marx moved back to Cologne (Köln) where he began issuing a handbill entitled the Demands of the Communist Party in Germany, in which he argued for only four of the ten points of the Communist Manifesto, believing that in Germany at that time, the bourgeoisie must overthrow the f Sony VGN-SR94VS Battery

eudal monarchy and aristocracy before the proletariat could overthrow the bourgeoisie.[76] On 1 June, Marx started publication of the daily Neue Rheinische Zeitung ("New Rhenish Newspaper"), which he helped to finance through his recent inheritance from his father. Sony PCG-31211T Battery

Designed to put forward news from across Europe with his own Marxist interpretation of events, Marx remained one of its primary writers, accompanied by other fellow members of the Communist League who wrote for the paper, Sony PCG-31311T Battery

although despite their input it remained, according to Friedrich Engels, "a simple dictatorship by Marx", who dominated the choice of content.[77][78][79]Sony PCG-51111T Battery

Whilst editor of the paper, Marx and the other revolutionary socialists were regularly harassed by the police, and Marx was brought to trial on several occasions, Sony PCG-81111T Battery

facing various allegations including insulting the Chief Public Prosecutor, an alleged press misdemeanor and inciting armed rebellion through tax boycotting,[80][81][81][82][83] Sony PCG-81311T Battery

although each time he was acquitted.[81][83] Meanwhile, the democratic parliament in Prussia collapsed, and the king, Frederick William IV, introduced a new cabinet of his reactionary supporters, who implemented counter-revolutionary measures to expunge leftist and other revolutionary elements from the country.[80] Sony VPCF138FC Battery

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As a part of this, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung was soon suppressed and Marx was ordered to leave the country on 16 May.[79][84] Marx returned to Paris, which was then under the grip of both a reactionary counter-revolution and a cholera epidemic, Sony VPCS135EC Battery

and was soon expelled by the city authorities who considered him a political threat. With his wife Jenny expecting their fourth child, and not able to move back to Germany or Belgium, in August 1849 he sought refuge in London.[85][86] Sony VPCS136EC Battery

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London: 1849–1883

Marx moved to London in May 1849 and would remain in the city for the rest of his life. It was here that he founded the new headquarters of the Communist League, Sony VPCS139GC Battery

and got heavily involved with the socialist German Workers' Educational Society, who held their meetings in Great Windmill Street, Soho, central London's entertainment district.[87][88] Sony VPCYA15EC Battery

Marx devoted himself to two activities: revolutionary organising, and an attempt to understand political economy and capitalism. For the first few years he and his family lived in extreme poverty.[89][90] Sony VPCYA16EC Battery

His main source of income was his colleague, Engels, who derived much of his income from his family's business.[90] Marx also briefly worked as correspondent for the New York Tribune in 1851.[91] Sony VPCYA25EC Battery

From December 1851 to March 1852 Marx wrote The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, a work on the French Revolution of 1848, in which he expanded upon his concepts of historical materialism, class struggle and the dictatorship of the proletariat, advancing the argument that victorious proletariat has to smash the bourgeois state.[92] Sony VPCYA26EC Battery

The 1850s and 1860s also mark the line between what some scholars see as idealistic, Hegelian young Marx from the more scientifically-minded mature Marx writings of the later period.[93][94][95][96] This distinction is usually associated with the structural Marxism school;[96] not all scholars agree that it indeed exists.[95][97] Sony VPCYB15JC Battery

In 1864 Marx became involved in the International Workingmen's Association (also known as First International).[81] He became a leader of its General Council, Sony VGN-CS11S/P Battery

to whose General Council he was elected at its inception in 1864.[98] In that organisation Marx was involved in the struggle against the anarchist wing centred around Mikhail Bakunin (1814–1876).[90] Sony VPCEE37EC Battery

Although Marx won this contest, the transfer of the seat of the General Council from London to New York in 1872, which Marx supported, led to the decline of the International.[99] Sony VPCEE47EC Battery

The most important political event during the existence of the International was the Paris Commune of 1871 when the citizens of Paris rebelled against their government and held the city for two months. On the bloody suppression of this rebellion, Marx wrote one of his most famous pamphlets, The Civil War in France, a defense of the Commune.[100] Sony VPCEB37EC Battery

Given the repeated failures and frustrations of workers' revolutions and movements, Marx also sought to understand capitalism, and spent a great deal of time in the reading room of the British Museum studying and reflecting on the works of political economists and on economic data.[101] Sony VPCEB35EC Battery

By 1857 he had accumulated over 800 pages of notes and short essays on capital, landed property, wage labour, the state, foreign trade and the world market; this work did not appear in print until 1941, Sony VPCEB47EC Battery

under the title Grundrisse.[90][102] In 1859, Marx published Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, his first serious economic work. In the early 1860s he worked on composing three large volumes, Sony VPCEB46EC Battery

the Theories of Surplus Value, which discussed the theoreticians of political economy, particularly Adam Smith and David Ricardo.[90] This work is often seen as the fourth book of Capital, and constitutes one of the first comprehensive treatises on the history of economic thought.[103] Sony VPCEB4AYC Battery

In 1867 the first volume of Capital was published, a work which analyzed the capitalist process of production.[104] Here, Marx elaborated his labour theory of value and his conception of surplus value and exploitation which he argued would ultimately lead to a falling rate of profit and the collapse of industrial capitalism.[105] Sony VPCEA38EC Battery

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Volumes II and III remained mere manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his life and were published posthumously by Engels.[90]Sony VPCEA35EC Battery

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During the last decade of his life, Marx's health declined and he became incapable of the sustained effort that had characterised his previous work.[90] He did manage to comment substantially on contemporary politics, particularly in Germany and Russia. Sony VPCEA47EC Battery

His Critique of the Gotha Programme opposed the tendency of his followers Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel to compromise with the state socialism of Ferdinand Lassalle in the interests of a united socialist party.[90] This work is also notable for another famous Marx's quote: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need."[106] Sony VPCEA46EC Battery

In a letter to Vera Zasulich dated 8 March 1881, Marx even contemplated the possibility of Russia's bypassing the capitalist stage of development and building communism on the basis of the common ownership of land characteristic of the village mir.[90][107] Sony VPCEA4AYC Battery

While admitting that Russia's rural "commune is the fulcrum of social regeneration in Russia", Marx also warned that in order for the mir to operate as a means for moving straight to the socialist stage without a preceding capitalist stage, Sony VPCEA28EC/L Battery

it "would first be necessary to eliminate the deleterious influences which are assailing it (the rural commune) from all sides."[108] Given the elimination of these pernicious influences, Marx allowed, that "normal conditions of spontaneous development" of the rural commune could exist.[108] Sony VPCEA28EC/P Battery

However, in the same letter to Vera Zasulich, Marx points out that "at the core of the capitalist system ... lies the complete separation of the producer from the means of production."[108] Sony VPCEA28EC/W Battery

In one of the drafts of this letter, Marx reveals his growing passion for anthropology, motivated by his belief that future communism would be a return on a higher level to the communism of our prehistoric past. Sony VPCEA28EC/B Battery

He wrote that 'the historical trend of our age is the fatal crisis which capitalist production has undergone in the European and American countries where it has reached its highest peak, Sony VPCEA27EC/P Battery

a crisis that will end in its destruction, in the return of modern society to a higher form of the most archaic type — collective production and appropriation'. He added that 'the vitality of primitive communities was incomparably greater than that of Semitic, Sony VPCEA27EC/B Battery

Greek, Roman, etc. societies, and, a fortiori, that of modern capitalist societies'.[109] Before he died, Marx asked Engels to write up these ideas, which were published in 1884 under the title The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Sony VPCEA27EC/L Battery

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Following the death of his wife Jenny in December 1881, Marx developed a catarrh that kept him in ill health for the last 15 months of his life. It eventually brought on the bronchitis and pleurisy that killed him in London on 14 March 1883. Sony VPCEA25EC Battery

He died a stateless person;[110] family and friends in London buried his body in Highgate Cemetery, London, on 17 March 1883. There were between nine and eleven mourners at his funeral.[111][112][113] Sony VPCEA28EC Battery

Several of his closest friends spoke at his funeral, including Wilhelm Liebknecht and Friedrich Engels. Engels's speech included the passage: Sony VPCEA27EC Battery

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Marx's daughter Eleanor and Charles Longuet and Paul Lafargue, Marx's two French socialist sons-in-law, were also in attendance.[113] Liebknecht, a founder and leader of the German Social-Democratic Party, Sony VPCEB25EC Battery

gave a speech in German, and Longuet, a prominent figure in the French working-class movement, made a short statement in French.[113] Two telegrams from workers' parties in France and Spain were also read out.[113] Sony VPCEA18EC Battery

Together with Engels's speech, this constituted the entire programme of the funeral.[113] Non-relatives attending the funeral included three communist associates of Marx: Friedrich Lessner, imprisoned for three years after the Cologne communist trial of 1852; Sony VPCEA16EC Battery

G. Lochner, whom Engels described as "an old member of the Communist League" and Carl Schorlemmer, a professor of chemistry in Manchester, a member of the Royal Society, and a communist activist involved in the 1848 Baden revolution.[113] Sony VPCEB18EC Battery

Another attendee of the funeral was Ray Lankester, a British zoologist who would later become a prominent academic.[113]

Upon his own death, Engels left Marx's two surviving daughters a "significant portion" of his $4.8 million estate.[29] Sony VPCEA25EC/T Battery

Marx's tombstone bears the carved message: "WORKERS OF ALL LANDS UNITE", the final line of The Communist Manifesto, and from the 11th Thesis on Feuerbach (edited by Engels): Sony VPCEA25EC/BI Battery

"The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways—the point however is to change it".[8] The Communist Party of Great Britain had the monumental tombstone built in 1954 with a portrait bust by Laurence Bradshaw; Sony VPCEA25EC/PI Battery

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Marx's original tomb had had only humble adornment.[8] In 1970 there was an unsuccessful attempt to destroy the monument using a homemade bomb.[115] Sony VPCEB27EC/PI Battery

The later Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm remarked that "One cannot say Marx died a failure" because, although he had not achieved a large following of disciples in Britain, Sony VPCEB27EC/T Battery

his writings had already begun to make an impact on the leftist movements in Germany and Russia. Within 25 years of his death, the continental European socialist parties that acknowledged Marx's influence on their politics were each gaining between 15 and 47% in those countries with representative democratic elections.[116] Sony VPCEB27EC/WI Battery

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Marx's view of history, which came to be called historical materialism (controversially adapted as the philosophy of dialectical materialism by Engels and Lenin) certainly shows the influence of Hegel's claim that one should view reality (and history) dialectically.[117] Sony VPCEB25EC/T Battery

However, Hegel had thought in idealist terms, putting ideas in the forefront, whereas Marx sought to rewrite dialectics in materialist terms, arguing for the primacy of matter over idea.[3][117] Sony VPCEA18EC/P Battery

Where Hegel saw the "spirit" as driving history, Marx saw this as an unnecessary mystification, obscuring the reality of humanity and its physical actions shaping the world.[117] He wrote that Hegelianism stood the movement of reality on its head, and that one needed to set it upon its feet.[117] Sony VPCEA18EC/L Battery

Though inspired by French socialist and sociological thought,[118] Marx criticised utopian socialists, arguing that their favoured small scale socialistic communities would be bound to marginalisation and poverty, and that only a large scale change in the economic system can bring about real change.[120]Sony VPCEA18EC/B Battery

The other important contribution to Marx's revision of Hegelianism came from Engels's book, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, which led Marx to conceive of the historical dialectic in terms of class conflict and to see the modern working class as the most progressive force for revolution.[54] Sony VPCEA18EC/W Battery

Marx believed that he could study history and society scientifically and discern tendencies of history and the resulting outcome of social conflicts. Some followers of Marx concluded, therefore, that a communist revolution would inevitably occur. Sony VPCEA16EC/L Battery

However, Marx famously asserted in the eleventh of his Theses on Feuerbach that "philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point however is to change it", and he clearly dedicated himself to trying to alter the world.[7][8] Sony VPCEA16EC/B Battery

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After adoption by Wang Jian

With Wang Jian's forces capturing Dongchuan's prefectures one by one and eventually putting Dongchuan's capital Zi Prefecture (??) under siege, Gu Yanhui committed suicide with his family members in summer 897. Sony VGN-CS60B/R Battery

Wang Jian took over Dongchuan and made Wang Zongdi the acting military governor. (Emperor Zhaozong initially tried to make the imperial official Liu Chongwang (???) the new military governor of Dongchuan, Sony VGN-CS60B Battery

but recalled Liu upon hearing that Wang Jian already made Wang Zongdi the acting military governor; he also confirmed Wang Zongdi as acting military governor.) Meanwhile, Wang Zongdi, Sony VGN-CS61B/P Battery

believing that Dongchuan's territories were too vast to be effectively governed as one circuit, suggested that five prefectures be carved out of Dongchuan and be made into a circuit of their own; Sony VGN-CS61B/Q Battery

subsequently, Wang Jian suggested it to the imperial government, which approved of the proposal, so five prefectures were carved out into a new Wuxin Circuit (??), with its capital at Sui Prefecture (??, in modern Suining, Sichuan).[6] Sony VGN-CS61B/R Battery

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In winter 898, Emperor Zhaozong officially commissioned Wang Zongdi as the military governor of Dongchuan.[6] Sony VGN-CS62JB/P Battery

In 900, Wang Zongdi was given the honorary chancellordesignation of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (????????). In 901, Wang Zongdi offered to resign on account of illness, and Wang Jian sent Wang Zongyu to replace him.[7]Sony VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery

Later in 901, after the powerful eunuch Han Quanhui forced then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong of Tang to leave Chang'an to go to the territory of Han's ally Li Maozhenthe military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS62JB/R Battery

Sony VGN-CS62JB Battery

Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), whom Emperor Zhaozong's chancellor Cui Yin had just summoned in order to carry out Cui's plot of slaughtering the eunuchs (and whose plot Han was reacting to), Sony VGN-CS71B/W Battery

attacked Fengxiang to try to recapture the emperor. Both Li and Zhu sought aid from Wang Jian. Wang Jian tried to play both sides by outwardly agreeing with Zhu and rebuking Li, Sony VGN-CS71B Battery

but sent secret messengers to Fengxiang to encourage Li to hold out — while sending Wang Zongdi and another adoptive son, Wang Zongji, north to attack Shannan West Circuit, which Li possessed at the time.[7] Sony VGN-CS72JB/W Battery

In 902, after a siege in which Wang Zongdi and his soldiers scaled the walls of Shannan West's capital Xingyuan (??), Li's adoptive son Li Jimi (???) the military governor of Shannan West surrendered it, allowing Wang Jian to take it under possession.[8] Sony VGN-CS72JB Battery


Wang Jian initially commissioned Wang Zongdi as the military governor of Shannan West, but Wang Zongji and several other generals, jealous of Wang Zongdi, submitted false accusations against Wang Zongdi. Sony VGN-CS90HS Battery

Wang Jian, who was already apprehensive of Wang Zongdi because Wang Zongdi's bravery impressed the soldiers, further was apprehensive that his own headquarters, which were painted red, Sony VGN-CS90NS Battery

were referred to by the people as the "Red Paint Tower" (???, Hua Hong Lou). Wang Jian thus recalled Wang Zongdi to Chengdu and rebuked him over the accusations that Wang Zongji and the others laid against him. Wang Zongdi responded, Sony VGN-CS90S Battery

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"The Three Shus [(i.e., Xichuan, Dongchuan, and Shannan West)] have been pacified, while the Prince [(i.e., Wang Jian, who had been created the Prince of Shu by Emperor Zhaozong)] listens to false accusations. Sony VGN-CS91NS Battery

It is time to kill those with accomplishments." Wang Jian subsequently had his close associate Tang Daoxi (???) get Wang Zongdi drunk, and then strangle him to death. Sony VGN-CS91S Battery

It was said that when the people heard of Wang Zongdi's death, the merchants stopped their trades, and the soldiers in the barracks all cried.[8] After Wang Jian established his own state of Former Shu in 907 as its emperor, Sony VGN-CS92DS Battery

he issued an edict in which, while continuing to blame Wang Zongdi for having improper ambitions, also recounted his accomplishments and posthumously restored his offices.[1] Sony VGN-CS92JS Battery

Wang Zongbi

Wang Zongbi (???) (d. December 28, 925[1][2]), né Wei Hongfu (???), known as Gu Chen (??) during the time he served under Gu Yanhui, formally the Prince of Qi (??), Sony VGN-CS92XS Battery

was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu. He was an adoptive son of the founding emperor Wang Jian, Sony VGN-NS11M/S Battery

who later came to control the military during the reign of Wang Jian's son Wang Yan. In 925, after Former Shu suffered a number of key defeats at the hands of an invading Later Tang army, Wang Zongbi forced Wang Yan to surrender to Later Tang, Sony VGN-NS11S/S Battery

hoping that Wang Yan's surrender would allow him to retain power in the Xichuan (??, i.e., the region around the Former Shu capital Chengdu) region. The deputy commander of the Later Tang army, Guo Chongtao, however, viewed Wang Zongbi as untrustworthy and put him to death. Sony VGN-NS12M/W Battery


It is not known when Wei Hongfu was born, but it is known that he was from Xu Prefecture (??, in modern Xuchang, Henan). It is unclear when he was adopted by Wang Jian —Sony VGN-NS15G/S Battery

who adopted many officers serving under him as sons — and had his name changed to Wang Zongbi, although it must be before 887, when Wang Jian, who then ruled Lang Prefecture (??, in modern Nanchong, Sichuan) as its self-proclaimed prefect, Sony VGN-NS15H/S Battery

decided to answer the summons of his own adoptive father, the eunuchgeneral Tian Lingzi, to serve under Tian's brother Chen Jingxuan the military governor of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chengdu, Sichuan). Sony VGN-NS190J/S Battery

Sony VGN-NS190J/W Battery

As a result, Wang Jian left most of his family with his ally Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan) Sony VGN-NS21M/P Battery

and headed toward Xichuan's capital Chengdu with Wang Zongbi, other adoptive sons Wang Zongyao (???), Wang Zongkan (???), Wang Zongji, and Wang Zongbian (???), Sony VGN-NS21M/W Battery

and nephew Wang Zonghui (???). (Subsequently, when Chen regretted his decision and tried to stop Wang Jian from coming to Chengdu, Wang Jian broke with him,[3]igniting a war that eventually resulted in Wang Jian's victory and seizure of Xichuan Circuit in 891.)[4] Sony VGN-NS21S/S Battery

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Service under Wang Jian (and briefly under Gu Yanhui) during Tang Dynasty

During Wang Jian's campaign to capture Xichuan, Gu Yanlang died and was succeeded by his brother Gu Yanhui at Dongchuan.[4] Wang Jian and Gu Yanlang were friends while both served in the imperial Shence Army, Sony VGN-NS21Z/S Battery

and therefore while Gu Yanlang was alive he did not consider seizing Dongchuan, but he began considering so after Gu Yanlang's death, but he outwardly remained Gu Yanhui's ally.[5] Sony VGN-NS230DP Battery

In late 891, when Dongchuan came under the attack of Yang Shouliang the military governor of Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-NS230DW Battery

Gu Yanhui sought aid from Wang Jian. Wang Jian sent Hua Hong, Li Jian (??), Wang Zongkan, and Wang Zongbi to aid Dongchuan, but secretly instructed them, "After you defeat the enemy, Sony VGN-NS235J/L Battery

Gu Yanhui will surely invite you to a feast. You should ask that it be held in the military camp, and then use the opportunity to seize him, so that we do not need another campaign." Sony VGN-NS235J/P Battery

After the Xichuan army defeated the Shannan West army and forced its withdrawal, Gu was indeed planning on holding such a feast, but Wang Zongbi, for reasons lost to history, Sony VGN-NS235J/S Battery

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revealed the plan to Gu, so Gu claimed an illness and refused to exit Dongchuan's capital Zi Prefecture (??). This incident ended the alliance between Wang's Xichuan and Gu's Dongchuan.[4] Sony VGN-NS235J/W Battery

In 895, while Wang Jian and Gu were locked in a war, there was a battle in which Wang Zongbi, then attacking Dongchuan, was captured.[6] Gu, remembering what Wang Zongbi had revealed to him, Sony VGN-NS240DS Battery

spared him and adopted him as a son, changing his name to Gu Chen.[5] By 897, however, Gu was in desperate straits, as his own forces and those of his ally Li Maozhen the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi) Sony VGN-NS240DW Battery

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had been repeatedly defeated by Wang Jian's forces, leaving Zi Prefecture under siege with no forthcoming aid.[7] Gu gathered his family members, including adoptive sons, Sony VGN-NS25G/E1 Battery

and prepared for group suicide. Prior to committing suicide, however, Gu stated that Gu Chen had not been his adoptive son for a long time and had no need to die with them, Sony VGN-NS25G/P Battery

so he pointed at the breaches in the city wall and told Gu Chen to leave.[5] He then had his adoptive son Gu Yao (??) kill him and the other Gu family members, and Gu Yao then committed suicide himself.[7] After this, Gu Chen, who then again used the name Wang Zongbi, served under Wang Jian again.[8] Sony VGN-NS25G/S Battery

Sony VGN-NS25GP Battery

During Wang Jian's reign

In 907, in response to the seizing of the Tang throne by Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), Sony VGN-NS290J/S Battery

who started a new Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu, Wang Jian, who then carried the title of Prince of Shu, initially issued declaration, along with Yang Wo the Prince of Hongnong the military governor of Huainan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), Sony VGN-NS31M/P Battery

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seeking to align with Li Keyong the Prince of Jin the military governor of Hedong Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) and Li Maozhen (who then carried the title of Prince of Qi) to start a campaign against Later Liang and restore Tang. Sony VGN-NS31S/S Battery

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However, when Later Liang vassals did not defect in accordance with the declarations, Wang Jian himself declared a new state of Shu (known historically as Former Shu) with himself as emperor.[9] Sony VGN-NS50B/W Battery

Wang Zongbi continued to serve in the military of the new Former Shu state, although his initial responsibilities were not recorded in history.[8] Sony VGN-NS51B/L Battery

In 911, Li Maozhen's state of Qi, which had been an ally of Former Shu's, broke that alliance and attacked Former Shu. Wang Zongbi served in the campaign against Qi and was successful in repelling the Qi general Liu Zhijun. With other Former Shu generals also defeating other Qi generals, Qi forces were forced to withdraw.[10] Sony VGN-NS51B/P Battery

As of 918, Wang Zongbi was serving as the commander of the forces against Qi, when Wang Jian became seriously ill. Because Wang Jian considered Wang Zongbi to be calm and full of strategies, Sony VGN-NS51B/W Battery

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he considered Wang Zongbi someone appropriate to assist his designated heir, the Crown Prince Wang Zongyan in ruling the state. He thus summoned Wang Zongbi back from the northern border with Qi and put him in command of the palace guards. Sony VGN-NS52JB Battery

While Wang Jian was near death, his overseer of imperial stables, Tang Wenyi (???) tried to start a coup to monopolize power, but Tang's plot was reported to Wang Zongbi and the other senior officials by Tang's subordinate Pan Zaiying (???). Sony VGN-NS70B/W Battery

Sony VGN-NS70B Battery

As a result, Tang was exiled (and later executed), and Wang Jian subsequently entrusted Wang Zongyan to Wang Zongbi, Wang Zongyao, as well as other adoptive sons Wang Zongwan (???) and Wang Zongkui (???) and the eunuch Song Guangsi (???). He then died, and Wang Zongyan, who then changed his name to Wang Yan, took the throne.[11] Sony VGN-NS71B/W Battery

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During Wang Yan's reign

Wang Yan created Wang Zongbi the Prince of Julu; he also entrusted the governmental affairs to Wang Zongbi. Wang Zongbi was said to govern based on the bribes he received and his own likes and dislikes, Sony VGN-NS72JB/W Battery

with Wang Yan not involving himself in administering the affairs of the state, and this was said to be the beginning of the Former Shu state's decline. Subsequently, Song Guangsi yielded the command of the military to him as well.[11] At some point, Wang Zongbi's title was further upgraded to Prince of Qi.[8] Sony VGN-NS72JB Battery

By 923, Former Shu's previous main enemy, Later Liang Dynasty to the northeast, had been destroyed by Later Tang Dynasty's founding emperor Emperor Zhuangzong.[12] Sony VGN-NS90HS Battery

In 924, the Later Tang emperor sent his official Li Yan (??) as an emissary to Former Shu, ostensibly to establish peaceful relations, while instead intending to spy on Former Shu's readiness. Sony VGN-NS92JS Battery

When Li returned to Later Tang, he reported to Emperor Zhuangzong that the Former Shu government, headed by Wang Zongbi and Song, was corrupt and easily defeated, Sony VGN-NS92XS Battery

while Wang Yan was himself incompetent. Meanwhile, another adoptive son of Wang Jian's, Wang Zongchou (???), had become convinced that Wang Yan did not have the ability to govern the state, and he suggested to Wang Zongbi that Wang Yan be removed and replaced. Sony VGN-NW130J/T Battery

Wang Zongbi hesitated, and Wang Zongchou subsequently died in distress. Wang Zongbi, instead, informed Song and Song's fellow eunuch Jing Runcheng (???) that Wang Zongchou wanted to kill them and that he stopped Wang Zongchou from doing so, to cause them to be grateful to him.[13] Sony VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

Sony VGN-NW21JF Battery

In late 924, Wang Yan had Xu Yanqiong (???), a relative of his mother Empress Dowager Xu, replace Wang Zongbi as the commander of the imperial forces around the capital Chengdu, Sony VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

thus causing dissent among the generals,[13] as Wang Jian had left instructions not to let the Xu family members hold military commands,[11] although it was unclear what Wang Zongbi's own reaction was. Sony VGN-NW21MF Battery

As of summer 925, Later Tang's Emperor Zhuangzong was ready to launch a major attack to conquer Former Shu, commanded nominally by his son Li Jiji the Prince of Wei and actually commanded by the major general Guo Chongtao (nominally Li Jiji's deputy). Sony VGN-NW21ZF Battery

The Former Shu administration was unaware of the impending attack, and Wang Yan, against the advice by Wang Zongbi and Empress Dowager Xu, was insistent on visiting Tianxiong Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Tianshui, Gansu), Sony VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

and he departed in winter 925, just as the Later Tang forces were entering Former Shu territory. Wang Chengjie (???) the military governor of Wuxing Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), after reported the emergency to Wang Yan and receiving no response, Sony VGN-NW31JF Battery

quickly surrendered. Only after the fall of Wuxing did Wang Yan become alarmed, but pursuant to the advice of Wang Zongbi and Song, he stayed at Li Prefecture (??, in modern Guangyuan, Sichuan), while sending Wang Zongxun (???), Sony VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Wang Zongyan (???, note different character than Wang Yan's original name), and Wang Zongyu (???) against the Later Tang forces. When they engaged the Later Tang forward commander Li Shaochen, Sony VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

however, Li Shaochen defeated them. Wang Yan, in fear, fled back to Chengdu while leaving Wang Zongbi in charge at Li Prefecture to continue the resistance, while ordering him to execute Wang Zongxun, Wang Zongyan, and Wang Zongyu. Sony VGN-NW35E/B Battery

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Subsequently, however, a number of Former Shu generals — including Song's brother Song Guangbao (???) the acting military governor of Wude Circuit (??, i.e., Dongchuan), Sony VGN-NW35E/W Battery

Wang Chengzhao (???, Wang Zongkan's son) the military governor of Wuding Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), and Wang Zongwei (???) the military governor of Shannan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Hanzhong) — surrendered in drovesSony VGN-NW35E Battery

subsequently wrote Wang Zongbi to persuade him to surrender, and Wang Zongbi began to consider doing so. When he then abandoned Li Prefecture and then rendezvoused with Wang Zongxun, Sony VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

Wang Zongyan, and Wang Zongyu at Baitiao (??, in modern Chengdu), he showed them the order to execute them and then planned with them to surrender.[13] Sony VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

Wang Zongbi, resolved to surrender Wang Yan to Guo, thereafter returned to Chengdu. He seized Wang Yan, Empress Dowager Xu, and all of Wang Yan's sons, putting them under house arrest in the western palace. Sony VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

He then claimed the title of acting military governor of Xichuan and sent emissaries with gifts and food to comfort the Later Tang army. He also wrote a letter to Li Yan in Wang Yan's name, Sony VGN-NW380F/S Battery

stating that Wang Yan was ready to surrender. Li Yan subsequently arrived in Chengdu to meet with Wang Yan, and he also ordered Wang Zongbi to leave Chengdu defenseless to show the good faith in surrendering. Sony VGN-NW380F/T Battery

Meanwhile, Wang Zongbi, blaming the failure to surrender earlier on Song Guangsi, Jing, as well as their fellow eunuchs Li Zhoulu (???) and Ouyang Huang (???), executed them and presented their heads to Li Jiji; Sony VGN-NW50JB Battery

he also executed a number of other officials that he did not like. Many other officials, in fear, bribed him to avoid death. Wang Zongbi subsequently sent his son Wang Chengban (???) to submit a number of Wang Yan's beautiful concubines and ladies in waiting, Sony VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

as well as treasure, to Li Jiji and Guo, while making the request to be made the military governor of Xichuan. Li Jiji, however, responded, "These are all things that belong to my family now. It is not up to you to submit them as gifts."[2]Sony VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

On December 15,[1] Li Jiji and Guo arrived at Chengdu. Wang Yan, with Li Yan leading the procession, formally surrendered to Li Jiji, along with the Former Shu officials, thus ending Former Shu's existence as a state.[2] Sony VGN-NW51FB Battery

After surrender to Later Tang

Meanwhile, Wang Zongbi stepped the efforts to lobby Guo Chongtao to let him become the military governor of Xichuan, sending much bribe to Guo to encourage Guo to recommend him. Guo pretended to agree to do so, but did not actually do so. Sony VGN-NW70JB Battery

To further step up the pressure (and to create distrust between Li Jiji and Guo), Wang Zongbi then led a group of Former Shu officials to meet with Li Jiji, requesting that Guo be made the military governor of Xichuan. This caused Li Jiji to distrust Guo, Sony VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

as his trusted eunuch Li Congxi (???) was already fostering doubt of Guo's loyalty in his mind. Meanwhile, Song Guangbao also submitted an accusation to Guo that Wang Zongbi had falsely accused Song Guangsi and the others. Sony VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

Sony VGN-NW71FB Battery

Wang Zongbi was also not submitting enough treasure for Guo to distribute to the Later Tang soldiers as rewards, and the Later Tang soldiers were becoming angry that they were not being rewarded to their satisfaction. All of these led Guo to decide to kill Wang Zongbi. Sony VGN-NW91FS Battery

On December 28, after requesting and receiving permission from Li Jiji, Guo arrested Wang Zongbi, Wang Zongxun, and Wang Zongwo (???) under the accusations of disloyalty, Sony VGN-NW91GS Battery

and then executed them and their families. It was said that the Former Shu officials, hating Wang Zongbi for selling out the state, rushed to eat his flesh.[2] Sony VGN-NW91VS Battery

Empress Dowager Xu (???, personal name unknown) (d. 926), honored as Empress Dowager Shunsheng (????) during the reign of her son Wang Yan, known asConsort Xu with the imperial consort rank Xianfei (???) during the reign of her husband Wang Jian, Sony VGN-SR11M Battery

was an empress dowager of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu. She was one of the favorite concubines of Wang Jian,Sony VGN-SR12G/B Battery

the founder of Former Shu, and through her palace machinations was able to have her son Wang Yan (who was then named Wang Zongyan) made Wang Jian's heir. She was described as beautiful and capable of writing poems, Sony VGN-SR12G/P Battery

Sony VGN-SR12G/S Battery

but corrupt. After Former Shu's destruction by Later Tang Dynasty, she, her son, as well as the rest of the Former Shu imperial family, were executed by Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang. Sony VGN-SR130EB Battery

It is not known when the future Empress Dowager Xu was born. It is known that her father was Xu Geng (??), who at one point served as the Tang Dynasty prefect of Mei Prefecture (??, in modern Meishan, Sichuan) Sony VGN-SR130EP Battery

under Chen Jingxuan the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chengdu,Sichuan). Sony VGN-SR130ES Battery

Xu Geng was known for being kind and benevolent while serving under Chen, and during Chen's struggles against Wang Jian in 891 as Wang sieged Xichuan's capital Chengdu Municipality, Sony VGN-SR130NB Battery

Xu Geng spared many people who considered surrendering to Wang.[1] She was Xu Geng's oldest daughter, and both she and her younger sister (who would also become a concubine to Wang Jian) were very beautiful.[2] Sony VGN-SR13GN/B Battery

As imperial consort

It is not known when the future Empress Dowager Xu became Wang Jian's concubine, but it is known that in 908, shortly after he declared himself the Emperor Shu and created his wife Lady Zhou as his empress, Sony VGN-SR13GN/P Battery

he created both her (who became known as Consort Xu the Greater) and her sister (who became known as Consort Xu the Lesser) as imperial consorts — her title being Xianfei (??) and her sister's title being Defei (??).[3] Sony VGN-SR13GN/S Battery

(Consort Xu the Lesser would later receive the title ofShufei.)[2] Both of them became Wang Jian's favorites, and Consort Xu the Greater would bear Wang Jian's youngest of 11 sons, Wang Zongyan the Prince of Zheng,[4] The Consorts Xu formed a close alliance with the eunuch Tang Wenyi (???) and influenced Wang Jian's policy decisions.[2] Sony VGN-SR140E/S Battery

Sony VGN-SR140EB Battery

In 913, Wang Jian's first crown prince Wang Yuanying, believing that the powerful official Tang Daoxi was about to attack him, attacked and killed Tang Daoxi first. Subsequently, Wang Jian's imperial troops struck back, and Wang Yuanying was killed. Sony VGN-SR140EP Battery

AFter Wang Yuanying's death, Wang Jian considered whom to create as crown prince, and initially considered Wang Zonglu (???) the Prince of Ya (whom he considered to be very much like himself) and Wang Zongjie (???) the Prince of Xin (whom he considered highly talented). Sony VGN-SR140ES Battery

However, Consort Xu the Greater wanted her son Wang Zongyan to become crown prince, and therefore had Tang Wenyi persuade the chancellor Zhang Ge to support Wang Zongyan. Sony VGN-SR140NS Battery

Zhang, in turn, falsely informed all of the major officials that Wang Jian had already settled on Wang Zongyan and that they should submit petitions supporting Wang Zongyan. Sony VGN-SR150FN Battery

The major officials did so. Wang Jian, even though he doubted Wang Zongyan's abilities, thought that the officials in fact all supported Wang Zongyan. He thus created Wang Zongyan crown prince.[5] Sony VGN-SR165E/B Battery

(Wang Jian would later despise Zhang after he realized what Zhang did, particularly because he considered Wang Zongyan overly indulgent in feasting and games, but with Consort Xu the Greater having so much influence on his governance, he allowed Zhang to remain chancellor despite his anger at Zhang.)[6] Sony VGN-SR165E/P Battery

Sony VGN-SR165E/S Battery

As empress dowager

Wang Jian died in 918, and Wang Zongyan took the throne[6] (and changed his name to Wang Yan).[4] He honored his mother Consort Xu the Greater as empress dowager and his aunt Consort Xu the Lesser as consort dowager. Sony VGN-SR165EB Battery

It was said that Wang Yan, Empress Dowager Xu, and Consort Dowager Xu often spent much time visiting the nobles' mansions, at great expense; Sony VGN-SR165EP Battery

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further, Empress Dowager Xu and Consort Dowager Xu both made offices positions for sale, including offices as high as prefect positions, allowing people to post bids and accepting the high bids.[6] Sony VGN-SR165NB Battery

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In 920, when the minor official Zhang Shiqiao (???) tried to correct Wang Yan's overindulgence in his sacrifices to his father Wang Jian's temple, Wang Yan wanted to put Zhang to death. It was only at Empress Dowager Xu's intercession that Zhang was only exiled. Sony VGN-SR175NB Battery

(However, Zhang committed suicide on the way to exile.) She later allowed him to take her niece as an imperial consort, although, as he did not want to familial relationship to be known, he changed her niece's name to Wei, claiming that Consort Wei was a granddaughter of the Tang chancellor Wei Zhaodu.[7] Sony VGN-SR190EBJ Battery

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In fall 925, Wang Yan, Empress Dowager Xu, and Consort Dowager Xu left Chengdu and toured Mount Qingcheng. They then continued their tour and went as far as Peng (??, in modern Chengdu) and Han (??, in modern Deyang, Sichuan) before returning to Chengdu — this, Sony VGN-SR190F Battery

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while (without their knowledge) Former Shu's northern neighborLater Tang was preparing a major military operation to destroy Former Shu. Subsequently, Sony VGN-SR19XN Battery

Wang Yan wanted to tour as far as Qin Prefecture (??, in modern Tianshui,Gansu); Empress Dowager Xu tried to stop him by refusing to eat, but even her actions could not stop him from leaving Chengdu, Sony VGN-SR21M/S Battery

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leaving the empire completely unprepared for the subsequent Later Tang assault, commanded by Li Jiji the Prince of Wei (the oldest son of Later Tang's Emperor Zhuangzong) and the major generalGuo Chongtao.[8] Sony VGN-SR220J/H Battery

Within two months, the Former Shu troops suffered many losses, which mounted even after Wang Yan returned to Chengdu.[8][9] Believing that Former Shu was doomed, Sony VGN-SR23H/B Battery

the major general Wang Zongbi (Wang Yan's adoptive brother) seized control of Chengdu, in effect holding Wang Yan and the imperial household under house arrest, before Wang Yan formally surrendered the empire to Li Jiji and Guo.[9]Sony VGN-SR240J/B Battery

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Emperor Zhuangzong initially made assurances that Wang Yan, by virtue of his surrender, would be given an honorable title as a Later Tang subject. He required them to leave Chengdu, however, and head for the Later Tang capital Luoyang. Sony VGN-SR25G/B Battery


Soon thereafter, with Later Tang's northern circuits seized by yet another mutiny, led by the major general, Li Siyuan, Emperor Zhuangzong's favorite court actor, Sony VGN-SR25G/P Battery

Jing Jin (??), persuaded Emperor Zhuangzong that, as Wang had more than 1,000 people following him on the trek to Luoyang, he might mutiny as well. Emperor Zhuangzong therefore issued orders to eunuch Xiang Yansi (???) to have Wang and his household put to death. Sony VGN-SR25G/S Battery

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It was said that as Empress Dowager Xu was to be executed, she cried out in cursing Emperor Zhuangzong, "My son surrendered an empire to you but could not avoid having his clan slaughtered. Sony VGN-SR25S/B Battery

You abandoned your faith and your righteousness, and I know that you will soon suffer disaster as well!" (Her curse came true, as mutineers supporting Li Siyuan would rise at Luoyang shortly after, killing Emperor Zhuangzong in battle.)[9] Sony VGN-SR25T/P Battery,Sony VGN-SR25T/S Battery,Sony VGN-SR26/B Battery,Sony VGN-SR26/P Battery,Sony VGN-SR26/S Battery,Sony VGN-SR26GN/B Battery,Sony VGN-SR26MN/B Battery

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16 mars 2012 5 16 /03 /mars /2012 13:26

he had his adoptive son Wang Zongwan (???), then the military governor of Wuding, meet with Sima, and Wang Zongwan publicly stated, on Wang Jian's behalf, openly breaking with Zhu:[18] Sony VGN-AW41ZF Battery

The officers and soldiers of the Shu region had enjoyed the grace of Tang Dynasty for generations. Last year, when we heard that the emperor's train had gone east, we submitted 20 petitions and received no responses. Sony VGN-AW50DB/H Battery

Only until deserters from Bian Prefecture [(??, Xuanwu's capital)] arrived did we find out that the late emperor has been murdered by Zhu Quanzhong. The officers and soldiers of Shu have been preparing their arms day and night, Sony VGN-AW51JGB Battery

seeking to avenge the emperor. I do not know what you will be announcing here, imperial messenger. You should consider what is best for yourself. Sony VGN-AW52JGB Battery

In late 906, Wang also official established a mobile imperial government, with himself as its head. He ceremonially danced toward the east (in a sign of respect to the emperor) and stated that he was exercising authority on the emperor's behalf, under the precedents of Li Sheng and Zheng Tian.[18] Sony VGN-AW53FB Battery

In 907, Zhu Quanzhong (who had changed his name to Zhu Huang by that point) forced Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang and establishing a new Later Liang Dynasty. Sony VGN-AW70B/Q Battery

Most of the circuit governors in the former Tang emperor, whether actually under Zhu's authority or not, recognized Zhu as the new emperor, with the exceptions of Wang, Sony VGN-AW71JB Battery

Li Keyong (the Prince of Jin), Li Maozhen (the Prince of Qi), and Yang Xingmi's son and successor Yang Wo (the Prince of Hongnong). Wang and Yang initially issued declarations claiming that they would rendezvous with Li Keyong and Li Maozhen to reestablish Tang, Sony VGN-AW72JB Battery

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but the other circuits who recognized Zhu did not respond. Wang thereafter decided that he should claim imperial title as well and tried to encourage Li Keyong to do so as well; Sony VGN-AW80NS Battery

Li Keyong refused, but that did not sway Wang, and neither did contrary advice from Feng Juan. Wang thereafter declared himself emperor of a new state of Shu (known to historians as Former Shu to distinguish it from the later Later Shu).[4] Sony VGN-AW80S Battery

Early reign

It was said that while Wang Jian was illiterate, he favored talking with the intelligentsia, and was often retaining members of Tang aristocratic families so that they could pass on their knowledge. Sony VGN-AW80US Battery

However, as his oldest son Wang Zongren (???) was disabled from his childhood, he created his second son Wang Zongyi initially the Prince of Sui while creating no other son imperial princes, hinting that Wang Zongyi was to be his heir.[4] Sony VGN-AW81DS Battery

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(He would not create his other sons imperial princes until late 910; a few, but not most, of his adoptive sons would be created imperial princes as well then.)[19] Sony VGN-AW81YS Battery

Wang Jian made Wang Zongji and Wei Zhuang his chancellors. However, Wang Zongji viewed himself as the oldest among the adoptive sons and a potential heir, Sony VGN-AW82DS Battery

and he was arrogant toward all other officials, including Wang Jian's close associate Tang Daoxi the director of palace communications. In 908, unhappy about this situation, Sony VGN-AW82JS Battery

Wang Jian gave Wang Zongji the honorific title of Taishi (??) but stripped him of his chancellor status, replacing him with Zhang Ge. When Wang Zongji submitted a petition in which he challenged Wang Jian to name either him or Wang Zongyi crown prince, Sony VGN-AW82YS Battery

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Wang Jian was offended; when Wang Zongji further offended him at a face-to-face meeting, Wang Jian had Wang Zongji put to death and then created Wang Zongyi crown prince.[4] Sony VGN-AW83GS Battery

In late 908, Qi, Former Shu, and Jin forces launched a joint attack on Chang'an, but after the Later Liang generals Liu Zhijun and Wang Zhongshi (???) defeated Qi forces, the Former Shu and Jin forces withdrew.[4] Sony VGN-AW83HS Battery

Also in 908, Wang Jian created his wife Lady Zhou empress. He would also create his concubines Consort Zhang (Wang Zongyi's mother) Guifei and two Consorts Xu (who were sisters) Xianfei and Defei respectively; he thereafter favored the Consorts Xu greatly.[19] Sony VGN-AW90NS Battery

In 910, Wang Zongyi and Tang began to have disputes with each other. Not wanting to see an open struggle between them, Wang Jian sent Tang out of the capital to serve as the military governor of Shannan West. Sony VGN-AW90S Battery

Meanwhile, he continued his alliance with Qi, sending Qi such supplies as tea, silk, and textiles, but when Li Maozhen requested that he cede Ba (??, in modern Bazhong, Sichuan) aSony VGN-AW90US Battery

and Jian (??, in modern Guangyuan) Prefectures, he refused. In 911, though, the Shu-Qi alliance would break up over marital relations — as Wang's daughter, who had married Li Jichong and whom Wang had created the Princess of Puci, Sony VGN-AW91CDS Battery

wrote a letter to Wang complaining of Li Jichong's arrogance and drunkedness. Wang thus summoned her back to Chengdu, ostensibly just to visit the family. When she arrived at Chengdu, he kept her and refused to return her to Li Jichong. Li Maozhen, in anger, broke off the alliance with Shu.[19] Sony VGN-AW91CJS Battery

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Later in the year, Li Maozhen amassed troops on the Shu-Qi border. Wang Jian reacted by mobilizing a large force and commissioning Wang Zongkan as the overall commander, with Wang Zongyou, Sony VGN-AW91DS Battery

Wang Zonghe, and Tang as his deputies, to counteract the Qi move. Qi forces subsequently attacked Xingyuan but were repelled by Tang. Wang Jian himself headed for Li Prefecture, Sony VGN-AW91JS Battery

while leaving Wang Zongyi in command at Chengdu. After several victories by Shu forces over Qi forces, Wang Jian returned to Chengdu and left Wang Zonghui in charge at Li Prefecture. Sony VGN-AW91YS Battery

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After he did, however, Li Jichong and Liu Zhijun (who had by this point surrendered to Qi and was serving as a Qi general) jointly attacked Xingyuan, nearly capturing it. Sony VGN-AW92CJS Battery

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Wang Jian sent Wang Zonghui and Wang Zongbo to relieve the siege, and they defeated Qi forces in conjunction with Tang. However, Qi forces continued to threaten Xingyuan and the nearby Anyuan Base (??), Sony VGN-AW92DS Battery

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and it was not until Wang Jian himself went to Xingyuan late in the year to aid the Xingyuan and Anyuan forces that Shu forces were able to decisively defeat Qi forces, forcing them to withdraw. Sony VGN-AW92YS Battery

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(Hearing of the war between Qi and Shu, Zhu Quanzhong wanted to take advantage of it, and sent messengers to Wang Jian, calling him "older brother." There was no record of what Wang Jian's reactions were.)[20][21] Sony VGN-AW93GS Battery

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Late reign

In 913, Tang Daoxi returned from Shannan West and again served as director of palace communications. His old rivalry with Wang Zongyi (whose name had been changed to Wang Yuanying by this point) soon flared up, Sony VGN-AW93ZFS Battery

as Wang Yuanying accused him of crimes that made it inappropriate to again serve that point. Wang Jian, while displeased, gave Tang the honorary post of advisor to Wang Yuanying instead.[20] Sony VGN-AW93ZGS Battery

In fall 913, Wang Jian planned a vacation away from Chengdu for the Qixi Festival. Also for the occasion, the night before Wang Yuanying held a feast for the imperial princes and high-level officials, Sony VGN-AW93ZHS Battery

but three invitees — Wang Jian's adoptive son Wang Zonghan (???) the Prince of Ji, and the officials Pan Qiao (??, who succeeded Tang as the director of palace communications) and Mao Wenxi (???, the chief imperial scholar) — did not attend. Sony VPCB119GJ Battery

Wang Yuanying, in anger, accused Pan and Mao in absentia of alienating his brothers from him. Meanwhile, Wang Yuanying's trusted officers Xu Yao (??) and Chang Qian (??) were gazing at Tang. Tang, in fear, fled from the feast. Sony VGN-CS11S/Q Battery

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The next day, both Wang Yuanying and Tang made accusations against each other, and the accusations soon flared up into military confrontations, Sony VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

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as Wang Jian agreed to Tang's request to mobilize the regular troops to defend the palace (rather than the imperial guards, who were formally under Wang Yuanying's command). Sony VGN-CS13H/P Battery

Upon hearing that the regular troops had been mobilized, Wang Yuanying mobilized his own Tianwu Army (???) and attacked Tang. Tang initially resisted, but tried to retreat when an arrow hit him. Sony VGN-CS13H/Q Battery

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The crown prince's troops then routed his, killing him, and many of the troops under Tang were killed. In response, at Pan Kang's suggestion, Wang Jian summoned his adoptive sons Wang Zongkan (???), Sony VGN-CS13H/W Battery

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Wang Zonghe (???), and Wang Zonglu (???), ordering them to launch an attack against Wang Yuanying's troops. They did so, along with another adoptive son, Wang Zong'an (???). Sony VGN-CS16T/P Battery

They killed Xu in battle. Chang and Wang Yuanying fled to Longyao Pond (???) and hid on a boat there. The next morning, Wang Yuanying came out of hiding and requested food from the boat owner. Sony VGN-CS16T/Q Battery

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This was reported to Wang Jian, and he dispatched Wang Zonghan to try to comfort Wang Yuanying. However, before Wang Zonghan arrived at Longyao Pond, Wang Yuanying was killed by his own guard. Sony VGN-CS16T/T Battery

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Wang Jian initially mourned Wang Yuanying bitterly, but later decided that without declaring Wang Yuanying a renegade, he could not comfort the people, and therefore demoted Wang Yuanying to commoner rank, Sony VGN-CS17H/Q Battery

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although, apparently at Wang Jian's direction, Wang Zonghan had Wang Yuanying's killer executed. Many of Wang Yuanying's associates were killed or exiled.[20]Sony VGN-CS19/P Battery

Late in the year, Wang Jian considered whom to create as the new crown prince, as Pan repeatedly requested him to. He initially considered Wang Zonglu (???) the Prince of Ya, Sony VGN-CS19/Q Battery

whom he considered most like himself, and Wang Zongjie (???) the Prince of Xin, whom he considered the most talented. However, Consort Xu theXianfei wanted her son Wang Zongyan the Prince of Zheng, Sony VGN-CS19/R Battery

the youngest, created crown prince. She thus entered into an alliance with Tang Wenyi (???) the overseer of the imperial stables and Zhang Ge. Zhang falsely informed a number of high level officials, Sony VGN-CS19/W Battery

including Wang Zongkan, that Wang Jian had settled on Wang Zongyan but wanted their public support. He then drafted a petition to have Wang Zongyan made crown prince, Sony VGN-CS190EUP Battery

and had Wang Zongkan and the others sign the petition. When Wang Jian received the petition, believing that Wang Zongyan did have the high level officials' support, he, despite his doubts about Wang Zongyan's abilities, created Wang Zongyan crown prince.[20] Sony VGN-CS190EUQ Battery

In 914, Gao Jichang the Later Liang military governor of Jingnan Circuit wanted to attack Former Shu to recapture the four prefectures that previously belonged to Jingnan. Sony VGN-CS190EUR Battery

He first started by attacking Kui Prefecture. The prefect of Kui Prefecture, Wang Chengxian (???), despite the refusal by his superior Wang Zongshou (???) the Prince of Jia (Wang Jian's nephew) to provide supplies, Sony VGN-CS190EUW Battery

was able to repel the Jingnan attack. When he subsequently tried to submit a secret report to Wang Jian accusing Wang Zongshou of holding back supplies, though, Sony VGN-CS190JTP Battery

Wang Zongshou intercepted the report, arrested him, and executed him. Later in the year, Wang considered reacting by destroying a dam to flood Jingnan, but at Mao's urging, Sony VGN-CS190JTQ Battery

under the argument that there would be too many civilian casualties, he did not do so. Also late in 914, when Changhe (also known as Nanzhao) attacked Li Prefecture (??, in modern Ya'an, Sichuan), Sony VGN-CS190JTR Battery

Wang Jian sent his adoptive sons Wang Zongfan (???) and Wang Zongbo, as well as Wang Zongshou, to respond, and they defeated Changhe forces, forcing their withdrawal. When Wang Zongfan, Sony VGN-CS190JTT Battery

Wang Zongbo, and Wang Zongshou considered further advancing into Changhe territory, Wang Jian recalled them. It was said that thereafter, Changhe did not dare to again attack Shu territory.[22] Sony VGN-CS190JTW Battery

In fall 915, Wang Jian launched a major attack against Qi, sending Wang Zongwan, assisted by Wang Zongbo, to attack Qin Prefecture (??, the capital of Tianxiong), and Wang Zongyao, assisted by Wang Zonghan, to attack Feng Prefecture (??, in modern Baoji). Sony VGN-CS190JVQ/C Battery

Both attacks were successful, as Feng Prefecture fell, and Li Jichong surrendered Qin. With his wife and children among the captives at Qin, Liu Zhijun, who was commanding Qi forces in resisting the Shu attack, also surrendered, leaving Qi with little more territory than its capital Fengxiang.[22] Sony VGN-CS215J/Q Battery

In fall 916, Wang Jian prepared another major attack against Qi, sending Wang Zongwan, assisted by Wang Zonghan and Wang Zongshou to launch their attack from Feng, while sending Wang Zongbo, assisted by Liu, Wang Zongchou (???), Sony VGN-CS215J/R Battery

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and Tang Wenyi's brother Tang Wenyi (???, note different character), to launch their attack from Qin. They captured Baoji (??, in modern Baoji) and put Fengxiang under siege. Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery

The siege, however, was hampered by snowstorms, and Wang Jian decided to lift the siege and recall the forces. He then declared a change of the state's name from Shu to Han.[22] Sony VGN-CS21S/T Battery

In 917, a power struggle developed between Tang Wenyi, who was aligned with Zhang, and Mao. Based on Tang's accusations, Wang Jian exiled Mao and confiscated his assets, and also demoted the chancellor Yu Chuansu (???). Also, fearing Liu's abilities, he falsely accused Liu of treason and executed Liu.[3] Sony VGN-CS21S/V Battery Sony VGN-CS21S/W Battery

In early spring 918, Wang Jian changed the name of the state from Han back to Shu.[3] Sony VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery

That year, Wang Jian, who began to see that Wang Zongyan (whose name was changed to just Wang Yan by that point so that his brothers and adoptive brothers would not have a problem observing naming taboo) Sony VGN-CS220DP Battery

was not an appropriate crown prince due to Wang Yan's obsession with gaming and feasting, and thus became resentful of Zhang — but with Consort Xu supporting Zhang, Sony VGN-CS220DQ Battery

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he did not remove Zhang from his chancellor post. He did, however, consider replacing Wang Yan with Wang Zongjie. When Wang Zongjie died suddenly, he became very suspicious that the death was the result of foul play, but thereafter took no further action to replace Wang Yan.[3] Sony VGN-CS220DT Battery

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Wang Jian became very ill in summer 918, and he summoned a group of high level officials to entrust Wang Yan to them. Tang, however, wanted to eliminate the high level officials so that he could take power by himself. Sony VGN-CS230J/Q Battery

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The high level officials realized this, and they forced their way into the palace to inform Wang Jian. Wang Jian thus exiled Tang, while issuing a final edict in which he put the eunuch Song Guangsi (???), Sony VGN-CS23G/Q Battery

as well as Wang Zongbi, Wang Zongyao, Wang Zongwan, and Wang Zongkui (???) in charge of assisting Wang Yan in his reign. He also left instructions that the family of Consort Xu's family was not to be given military commands. He soon died, and Wang Yan took the throne as emperor.[3] Sony VGN-CS23G/W Battery

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As crown prince

In 908, Wang Jian created Wang Zongyi crown prince.[2] In 909, Wang Jian made him the titular commander of the imperial guards, and established headquarters for him, Sony VGN-CS23H/B Battery

naming the headquarters Yonghe Hall (???). Wang Jian also selected a number of officials to serve on his staff.[5] Wang Zongyi was said to be ugly in appearance, Sony VGN-CS23H/S Battery

but talented in many things, particularly archery.[1] However, he was also said to be arrogant and violent,[5] paying no heed to the counsel of the officials Wang Jian put on his staff.[1] Sony VGN-CS23H Battery

He soon came into conflict with Wang Jian's close associate Tang Daoxi the director of palace communications, as he often made fun of Tang, leading to their mutually accusing each other of crimes. Sony VGN-CS23T/Q Battery

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Wang Jian, not wanting them to be in constant conflict, made Tang the military governor (Jiedushi) of Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi) in 910 to separate them. Later in 910, Wang Jian renamed him Wang Yuantan.[5] Sony VGN-CS25H/C Battery

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Subsequently, when Wang Jian made two tours away from the capital Chengdu to Li Prefecture (??, in modern Guangyuan, Sichuan) in 911 in response to attacks by Former Shu's northern neighbor Qi, he had Wang Yuantan serve as regent at Chengdu.[4] Sony VGN-CS25H/Q Battery

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In 912, apparently in reaction to an incident where Wang Yuantan found a bronze medallion on the outskirts of the city, which Wang Jian considered a sign of divine favor,[1] Sony VGN-CS25H/W Battery

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Wang Jian renamed him Wang Yuanying. In 913, when Tang completed his term as the military governor of Shannan West and returned to Chengdu to again serve as the director of palace communications, Sony VGN-CS260DQ Battery

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Wang Yuanying submitted accusations against Tang and declared that Tang should not be again in charge of palace communications, Wang Jian was displeased, but subsequently reacted by making Tang an advisor to Wang Yuanying.[4] Sony VGN-CS26GW Battery

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Uprising against Tang Daoxi and death

In fall 913, Wang Jian planned a vacation away from Chengdu for the Qixi Festival[4] (on August 11 that year).[3] The night before (August 10), Wang Yuanying held a feast for the imperial princes and high-level officials, Sony VGN-CS26T/P Battery

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but three invitees — Wang Jian's adoptive son Wang Zonghan (???) the Prince of Ji, and the officials Pan Qiao (??, who succeeded Tang Daoxi as the director of palace communications) and Mao Wenxi (???, the chief imperial scholar) — did not attend. Sony VGN-CS26T/R Battery

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Wang Yuanying, in anger, accused Pan and Mao in absentia of alienating his brothers from him. Meanwhile, Wang Yuanying's trusted officers Xu Yao (??) and Chang Qian (??) were gazing at Tang. Tang, in fear, fled from the feast.[4]Sony VGN-CS26T/V Battery

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The morning next day (August 11, the date of the Qixi Festival), Wang Yuanying went to see his father Wang Jian and accused Pan and Mao of alienating him from his brothers. Sony VGN-CS27/C Battery

Wang Jian, believing the accusations, ordered Pan and Mao demoted, making Pan Kang (??) the new director of palace communications. However, after Wang Yuanying then left the palace, Sony VGN-CS27/P Battery

Tang arrived, and Tang made the counteraccusation that Wang Yuanying was planning to rebel, and, as part of his planning, was planning to put the princes and the officials under arrest. Sony VGN-CS27/R Battery

Wang Jian, with his suspicions aroused, cancelled the Qixi vacation plans. Further, he agreed to Tang's request to mobilize the regular troops to defend the palace (rather than the imperial guards, Sony VGN-CS27/W Battery

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who were formally under Wang Yuanying's command). Upon hearing that the regular troops had been mobilized, Wang Yuanying mobilized his own Tianwu Army (???). He arrested Pan Qiao and Mao and almost battered them to death, in addition to arresting Pan Jiao (??) the mayor of Chengdu.[4] Sony VGN-CS28/Q Battery

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The next day (August 12), Xu, Chang, and Yan Lin (??), under Wang Yuanying's direction, attacked Tang's forces. Tang initially resisted, but tried to retreat when an arrow hit him. Sony VGN-CS280J/R Battery

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The crown prince's troops then routed his, killing him, and many of the troops under Tang were killed. In response, at Pan Kang's suggestion, Wang Jian summoned his adoptive sons Wang Zongkan (???), Wang Zonghe (???), Sony VGN-CS290JEC Battery

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and Wang Zonglu (???), ordering them to launch an attack against Wang Yuanying's troops. They did so, along with another adoptive son, Wang Zong'an (???). They killed Xu in battle. Chang and Wang Yuanying fled to Longyao Pond (???) and hid on a boat there.[4] Sony VGN-CS290JEQ Battery

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The next morning (August 13), Wang Yuanying came out of hiding and requested food from the boat owner. This was reported to Wang Jian, and he dispatched Wang Zonghan to try to comfort Wang Yuanying. Sony VGN-CS290JEW Battery

However, before Wang Zonghan arrived at Longyao Pond, Wang Yuanying was killed by his own guard. Wang Jian initially mourned Wang Yuanying bitterly, but later decided that without declaring Wang Yuanying a renegade, Sony VGN-CS290NCB Battery

he could not comfort the people, and therefore demoted Wang Yuanying to commoner rank, although, apparently at Wang Jian's direction, Wang Zonghan had Wang Yuanying's killer executed. Many of Wang Yuanying's associates were killed or exiled.[4] Sony VGN-CS290NFB Battery

Service under Wang Jian during Tang Dynasty

Later, during Wang Jian's campaigns that eventually allowed him to gain control of the modern Sichuan and Chongqing region, Wang Zongji served under him with distinction.[3] Sony VGN-CS2CN1 Battery

As a result, in 899, when, under Wang Jian's request, five prefectures were carved out of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang,Sichuan), Sony VGN-CS31S/P Battery

which Wang Jian had just conquered by defeating Gu Yanhui, to establish a new Wuxin Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Suining, Sichuan), Wang Zongji was made its military governor (Jiedushi).[4] Sony VGN-CS31S/R Battery

In 901, after the powerful eunuch Han Quanhui forced then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong of Tang to leave Chang'an to go to the territory of Han's ally Li Maozhen the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS31S/T Battery

Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), whom Emperor Zhaozong's chancellor Cui Yin had just summoned in order to carry out Cui's plot of slaughtering the eunuchs (and whose plot Han was reacting to), Sony VGN-CS31S/V Battery

attacked Fengxiang to try to recapture the emperor. Both Li and Zhu sought aid from Wang Jian. Wang Jian tried to play both sides by outwardly agreeing with Zhu and rebuking Li, Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery

but sent secret messengers to Fengxiang to encourage Li to hold out — while sending Wang Zongji and another adoptive son, Wang Zongdi, north to attack Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery

which Li possessed at the time.[5] In 902, Li's adoptive son Li Jimi (???) the military governor of Shannan West surrendered it, allowing Wang Jian to take it under possession. Sony VGN-CS320J/P Battery

Wang Jian initially commissioned Wang Zongdi as the military governor of Shannan West, but Wang Zongji and several other generals, jealous of Wang Zongdi, submitted false accusations against Wang Zongdi, Sony VGN-CS320J/Q Battery

eventually leading to Wang Jian's recalling Wang Zongdi to his capital Chengdu and putting Wang Zongdi to death.[6] Sony VGN-CS320J/R Battery

Wang Zongji's activities for the next few years are lost to history, although at some point he must have served as the military governor of Dongchuan, as that was later referred to as a former office he held.[2] Sony VGN-CS320J/W Battery

During Wang Jian's reign

In 907, after Zhu Quanzhong forced Emperor Zhaozong's son and successor Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang Dynasty and establishing Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu, Sony VGN-CS33H/B Battery

Wang Jian, after initially declaring that he, along with several other military governors who refused to recognize the Later Liang emperor's authority (Li Keyong, Li Maozhen, and Yang Wo) would jointly attack Zhu to reestablish Tang, decided to declare himself emperor as well. Sony VGN-CS33H/Z Battery

Late that year, he declared a new state of Shu (known to later historians as Former Shu) as its emperor. He made Wang Zongji a chancellor with the title of Zhongshu Ling (???). Sony VGN-CS33H Battery

(Initially, Wang Zongji was the only fully titled chancellor, as Wei Zhuang, also made a chancellor, was not given a full chancellor title).[2] He also created Wang Zongji the Duke of Jin.[3] Sony VGN-CS35GNB Battery

Soon, however, Wang Zongji and a close associate of Wang Jian's, Tang Daoxi, who was made the director of palace communications, became rivals, as Wang Zongji was said to be arrogant and rude on account of his accomplishments and his status as Wang Jian's oldest adoptive son, Sony VGN-CS36GJ/C Battery

offending Tang by addressing Tang by name rather than by his proper titles. Wang Jian also became apprehensive of Wang Zongji, as Wang Zongji was creating a group of followers around himself. Sony VGN-CS36GJ/I Battery

In spring 908, Wang Jian removed him from his chancellor post while giving him the titularly greater title of Taishi (??).[2Sony VGN-CS36GJ/P Battery


Resentful of his removal, Wang Zongji was said to continue to foster his group of followers and consider a coup. Further, challenging Wang Jian's initial failure to name an heir —Sony VGN-CS36GJ/Q Battery

as Wang Jian created his second son Wang Zongyi the Prince of Sui but did not create him crown prince (Wang Jian's oldest biological son Wang Zongren (???) was disabled and therefore considered by Wang Jian to be unfit to serve as heir), Wang Zongji submitted an irreverent petition to Wang Jian:[2] Sony VGN-CS36GJ/R Battery

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I, your subject, am a major official in title, but close to you as your oldest son. Whatever happens to the state and the imperial house is for me to share. Right now, no crown prince has been named, Sony VGN-CS36GJ/U Battery

and this will surely bring disturbances. If Your Imperial Majesty believes that Zongyi's abilities are fit for him to serve as heir, you should create him crown prince as soon as possible. You can then make me the supreme commander of the armed forces, to command the six armies. Sony VGN-CS36GJ/W Battery

If you believe that the times are difficult and that Zongyi is too young, your subject will not dare to yield those responsibilities. Since Your Imperial Majesty has taken the throne and faces the south,[7] Sony VGN-CS36GJJ Battery

you should entrust the matters of the military to your subject. I urge that you establish a headquarter for the supreme commander, with seals to command the six armies, and put your subject in charge of giving marching orders to the armies.Sony VGN-CS36H/C Battery

The Crown Prince can attend to your meals in the morning and the evening, while your subject can command the soldiers to protect you. This is important for your eternal realm. May Your Imperial Majesty rule on this. Sony VGN-CS36H/P Battery

Wang Jian was incensed, but did not initially publicly express displeasure. When he discussed the matter with Tang, Tang, in order to inflame him more, stated, "Zongji's reputation is so grand such that both people inside and outside the palace fear him. Sony VGN-CS36H/Q Battery

He would be a suitable commander." This caused Wang Jian to be further suspicious of Wang Zongji. Soon thereafter, on an occasion Wang Zongji was in the palace to greet Wang Jian, Wang Zongji spoke arrogantly. When Wang Jian rebuked him, Sony VGN-CS36H/R Battery

he refused to yield. Wang Jian, in anger, ordered the guards to batter him to death. He also exiled Wang Zongji's associates Zheng Qian (??) and Li Gang (??), and further ordered them to commit suicide on their journey to exile.[2][8]Sony VGN-CS36H/W Battery

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Wang Zongdi

Wang Zongdi (???) (d. 902), né Hua Hong (??), was an officer who, during the late years of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, served under Wang Jian, Sony VGN-CS36TJ/C Battery

the eventual founder of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu, who adopted him as a son. Because of his contributions to Wang Jian's cause, he, Sony VGN-CS36TJ/J Battery

like few under Wang Jian's command, was given military governorships (Jiedushi), but Wang Jian eventually became suspicious of his intentions and put him to death. Sony VGN-CS36TJ/P Battery

Background and initial service under Wang Jian

It is not known when Hua Hong was born, but it is known that he was originally from Yingchuan (??, in modern Xuchang, Henan).[1] (As Wang Jian himself started his military career at Zhongwu Circuit (??), Sony VGN-CS36TJ/Q Battery

which was headquartered at Yingchuan, Hua probably became Wang's follower while Wang served as an officer there.)[2] Sony VGN-CS36TJ/R Battery

The first reference in history to a campaign involving Hua was in 891, soon after Wang had taken control of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chengdu,Sichuan), Sony VGN-CS36TJ/T Battery

with the assistance of his ally Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan). That winter, after Gu Yanlang died and was succeeded by his brother Gu Yanhui, Sony VGN-CS36TJ/U Battery

Yang Shouliang the military governor of Shannan West Circuit (????, headquartered in modern Hanzhong,Shaanxi), Sony VGN-CS36TJ/V Battery

who had recently joined a campaign of resistance against Emperor Zhaozong of Tang headed by his adoptive uncle, the eunuch Yang Fugong, attacked Dongchuan with the intent of seizing it from Gu Yanhui. Sony VGN-CS36TJ/W Battery

Gu sought aid from Wang, and Wang sent Hua, along with the officer Li Jian (??) and his adoptive sons Wang Zongkan (???) and Wang Zongbi, to assist Gu against Yang Shouliang's forces. Sony VGN-CS39/J Battery

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Wang Jian, however, secretly informed the Xichuan officers that he sent that, after they defeated Yang's forces, Gu would invite them to a feast, and that they should seize Gu at the feast so that he could take over Dongchuan without a campaign. Sony VGN-CS39 Battery

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After Wang Zongkan subsequently defeated Yang Shouliang's brother Yang Shouhou (???) to force Shannan West forces' retreat, however, Wang Zongbi leaked Wang Jian's instructions to Gu, and Gu took precautions and so was never seized by the Xichuan forces.[3] Sony VGN-CS390JCQ Battery

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In 892, when Wang Jian sent his nephew Wang Zongyu (???), Wang Zongkan, and Hua to attack Yang Sheng (??) the military governor of Weirong Circuit (??, also headquartered in modern Chengdu) at Weirong's capital Peng Prefecture (??), Sony VGN-CS390JCW Battery

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Yang Shouliang tried to come to Yang Sheng's aid by sending his officer Fu Zhao (??) to attack Xichuan's capital Chengdu. Wang Jian summoned Hua back to Chengdu to resist against Fu's attack. Hua led his forward troops personally and rushed back toward Chengdu, Sony VGN-CS50B/W Battery

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but pretended to have a much larger army by having his soldiers beat drums loudly. Fu, believing incorrectly that the Xichuan forces had all returned from Peng Prefecture, withdrew. Sony VGN-CS51B/W Battery

Later in the year, when Wang Jian sent Hua to attack Yang Shouliang's forces at Lang Prefecture (??, in modern Nanchong, Sichuan), Hua defeated Yang's forces there.[4] Sony VGN-CS51B Battery

In winter 895, Wang Jian began his campaign against Gu in earnest. As part of the operations at that time, Hua inflicted a great defeat against Dongchuan forces at Qiulin (??, modern location unknown), killing or capturing tens of thousands of Dongchuan soldiers.[5] Sony VGN-CS52JB/W Battery

As Wang continued the campaign, Hua continued to be a major participant, and it was during the campaign, in 896, that Wang formally adopted him as a son (as Wang did with many officers), changing his name to Wang Zongdi.[6] Sony VGN-CS60B/P Battery

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Wang Jian (Former Shu)

Wang Jian (??) (847-July 11, 918), courtesy name Guangtu (??), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Former) Shu ((?)???), was the founding emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Former Shu.Sony VPCM125AG/P Battery

He started his career as an army officer under the Tang Dynasty eunuch generals Yang Fuguang and Tian Lingzi, eventually seizing control of the modern Sichuan and Chongqing region, founding his state after Tang's destruction. Sony VPCM125AGP Battery

Wang Jian was born in 847, during the reign of Emperor Xu?nzong of Tang. He was from Wuyang (??, in modern Luohe, Henan), and was said to be ambitious and alert in his youth. Sony VPCM125AG/W Battery

However, he was also described to be a hoodlum, abandoning his ancestral craft of baking to be involved in butchering cattle, stealing donkeys, and privateering in salt. His father died while he was still a commoner. Sony VPCM126AA/L Battery

At one point, for misdeeds, he was incarcerated at the jail at Xuchang (??, in modern Xuchang, Henan), the capital of Zhongwu Circuit (??), which Wuyang sat in, but the jailers privately released him. Sony VPCM126AA/P Battery

He subsequently stayed with the monk Chuhong (??) in the Wudang Mountains, and Chuhong encouraged him to change his ways, Sony VPCM126AG/L Battery

predicting that there would be great accomplishments in his future. He thus joined the Zhongwu Circuit army and became an officer under then-military governor (Jiedushi) Du Shenquan.[6] Sony VPCM126AA/W Battery

Service under Yang Fuguang

As of 881, the major agrarian rebel Huang Chao had captured the Tang capital Chang'an, forcing then-reigning Emperor Xizong to flee to Chengdu. Sony VPCM126AG/P Battery

Zhongwu's then-military governor Zhou Ji initially submitted to Huang, who established a new state of Qi as its emperor, but at the urging by the eunuch general Yang Fuguang redeclared allegiance to Tang in summer 881. Yang took 8,000 Zhongwu troops and organized them into eight corps, Sony VPCM126AG/W Battery

commanded by Lu Yanhong, Jin Hui (??), Wang Jian, Han Jian, Zhang Zao (??), Li Shitai (???), and Pang Cong (??) respectively. He then took the troops northwest to join the other Tang troops in campaign against Huang.[7] Sony VPCM126AH/L Battery

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Yang Fuguang died in 883 while stationed at Hezhong Circuit (??, in modern Yuncheng, Shanxi) and still fighting against Huang. Instead of continuing to fight against Huang, Lu Yanhong decided to take his troops and rove around the region, pillaging as he went.[8] Sony VPCM126AH/W Battery

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Wang Jian, Han Jian, Zhang Zao, Jin Hui, and Li Shitai followed him as well.[9]Later in 883, Lu captured Xingyuan (??, in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi) the capital of Shannan West Circuit (????), Sony VPCM129AJ/P Battery

Sony VPCM129AJ/W Battery

expelling the military governor Niu Xu (??) and claiming the title of acting military governor.[8] He commissioned Wang and the other Zhongwu corps commanders as prefects within Shannan West, but did not allow them to actually report to their prefectures. Sony VPCM13M1E/L Battery

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He was particularly suspicious of Wang and Han because of their deep friendship, but wanting to comfort them, he often treated them well. Wang and Han realized Lu's intentions, Sony VPCM13M1E/W Battery

however, and in fall 884, with Emperor Xizong's trusted eunuch Tian Lingzi secretly tempting them with offers of good treatment, they, along with Zhang, Jin, and Li, abandoned Lu and fled to Chengdu to serve under Tian.[9]Sony VPCS111FM/S Battery

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Service under Tian Lingzi

Tian Lingzi subsequently reorganized the Zhongwu troops that Wang Jian and the others commanded into a group of imperial guards directly under Tian's command,Sony VPCS117GG Battery

while sending imperial troops to attack Lu Yanhong, defeating him and forcing him to abandon Shannan West. Tian also adopted Wang and the others as his sons. Meanwhile, with Huang Chao having been defeated earlier, Emperor Xizong returned to Chang'an, in spring 885, with Tian and his troops accompanying him.[9] Sony VPCS117GGB Battery

Soon after Emperor Xizong returned to Chang'an, however, Tian got into a major dispute with Wang Chongrong the military governor of Hezhong over control of two salt ponds at Hezhong, Sony VPCS119FJ Battery

which Tian wanted to use the revenue from to support the imperial Shence Armies. Wang Chongrong refused to yield control, and soon, a full confrontation between Tian and his allies (Zhu Mei the military governor of Jingnan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi) Sony VPCS11AFJ Battery

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and Li Changfu the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi)) and Wang Chongrong and his ally Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Sony VPCS11AHJ Battery

Shanxi) occurred. In winter 885, Wang Chongrong's and Li Keyong's forces defeated those of Tian, Zhu, and Li Changfu. As Li Keyong's forces approached Chang'an, Sony VPCS11AVJ Battery

Tian escorted Emperor Xizong and fled again, initially to Fengxiang and then to Xingyuan when Zhu and Li Changfu also turned against him. During this flight, with Emperor Xizong's flight path blocked by waves of refugees, Sony VPCS11J7E Battery

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Wang Jian and Jin cleared the path, killing all in their way, to allow Emperor Xizong through, and during the confusion, Emperor Xizong had Wang Jian bear the imperial seal, and at night slept on Wang Jian's knees.[9] Sony VPCS11V9E Battery

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With Tian realizing that the whole empire was against him by this point, he resigned while Emperor Xizong was at Xingyuan, recommending Yang Fuguang's brother Yang Fugong to succeed him as the commander of the Shence Armies, Sony VPCS11V9E/B Battery

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while having himself commissioned as the eunuch monitor of Xichuan Circuit (??, headquartered at Chengdu) to join his brother Chen Jingxuan the military governor of Xichuan. Sony VPCS123FGB Battery

Yang Fugong, not wanting Tian's trusted officers near him, had Wang, Jin, Zhang, and Li Shitai all sent out to prefectures to serve as prefect, with Wang becoming the prefect of Li Prefecture (??, in modern Guangyuan, Sichuan). Sony VPCS12AFJ Battery

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After Yang Fuguang's adoptive son Yang Shouliang became military governor of Shannan West in spring 887, Wang became titularly his subordinate.[9] Sony VPCS12AHJ Battery

Service under Yang Shouliang

Yang Shouguang was apprehensive about Wang Jian's fighting ability and tried to summon him to Xingyuan several times, but Wang, fearful of Yang's intentions, refused the summons. Sony VPCS12AVJ Battery

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At the suggestion of his subordinate Zhou Xiang (??), who pointed out that Li Prefecture was not an ideal defense position, he attacked Lang Prefecture (??, in modern Nanchong, Sichuan), Sony VPCS12L9E/B Battery

expelled the prefect Yang Maoshi (???), and took over Lang, claiming the greater title of defender. At the advice of Zhang Qianyu (???) and Jiwu Jian (???), he submitted humble petitions to Emperor Xizong and comforted the people. Sony VPCS12V9E/B Battery

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He also entered into friendly relations with Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan), as the two were colleagues previously at the Shence Armies.[9] Sony VPCS135EC/B Battery

Campaign against Chen Jingxuan

Chen Jingxuan, however, feared the close alliance between Gu Yanlang and Wang Jian and was worried that Gu and Wang would attack him. He discussed the situation with Tian Lingzi. Sony VPCS135EC/G Battery

Tian opined that he, as Wang's adoptive father, could summon Wang and make him serve under Chen. Chen agreed and allowed Tian to do so in winter 887. Sony VPCS135EC/P Battery

after receiving the summons, was initially happy about the summons. He, leaving most of his family at Dongchuan's capital Zi Prefecture (??) with Gu, took 2,000 men, along with his nephew Wang Zonghui (???) and his adoptive sons Wang Zongyao (???), Wang Zongbi, Sony VPCS135FA/B Battery

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Wang Zongkan (???), Wang Zongji, and Wang Zongbian (???), and headed toward Chengdu. While Wang was en route to Chengdu, however, Chen's subordinate Li Ai (??) convinced Chen that Wang was not to be trusted, Sony VPCS135FH/P Battery

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and Chen decided to try to stop Wang's advance. Wang, in anger, refused, defeating officers that Chen sent to stop him and advancing all the way to Chengdu. Sony VPCS136EC/G Battery

He was unable to capture it quickly, even with the assistance of Gu Yanlang's brother Gu Yanhui, so both he and Gu Yanhui withdrew to Han Prefecture (??, in modernDeyang, Sichuan). Sony VPCS136EC/P Battery

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Their hostilities continued, despite efforts by Emperor Xizong to mediate. It was said that Wang's army pillaged all 12 prefectures of Xichuan Circuit.[10]Sony VPCS136FG/B Battery

However, Wang's attacks were stifled by Chengdu's strong defenses, and his supplies soon ran low. By summer 888, he considered abandoning the campaign altogether, Sony VPCS137GA/B Battery

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but after Zhou Yang and Jiwu Jian convinced him otherwise, continued the campaign. He, believing that he needed imperial sanction in order to succeed in the campaign, Sony VPCS137GH/B Battery

had Zhou draft a petition for him to Emperor Zhaozong — Emperor Xizong's brother, who succeeded Emperor Xizong after Emperor Xizong died early in 888 — asking to be given the rich Qiong Prefecture (??, in modern Chengdu) while asking the emperor to send a new military governor of Xichuan, Sony VPCS138EC/B Battery

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offering to assist the new military governor. Gu Yanlang also submitted a petition requesting that Chen be moved from his post. Emperor Zhaozong, who had previous grudges against Tian and Chen for Tian's ill treatment of him while he was an imperial prince, Sony VPCS138EC/P Battery

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issued an edict summoning Chen back to Chang'an to serve as an imperial guard general, while making the chancellor Wei Zhaodu the new military governor of Xichuan. Sony VPCS139FJ/P Battery

When Chen subsequently refused the summons, Emperor Zhaozong stripped him of all of his titles and put Wei in charge of the operations against him, with Yang Shouliang, Sony VPCS139FJ/S Battery

Wang, and Gu assisting him. Emperor Zhaozong also carved out four prefectures from Xichuan and made it into a new Yongping Circuit, with its capital at Qiong,Sony VPCS139GC/B Battery

for Wang to serve as military governor.[10] In spring 890, Wang put Qiong Prefecture under siege. Around the same time, Wei arrived in Chengdu's vicinity, and Wang outwardly honored him greatly. Sony VPCS13AFG/B Battery

A number of prefectures began to submit to Wang, and in winter 890, Qiong fell to him, allowing him to use Qiong as his basis of operations.[11] Sony VPCS13AFG/G Battery

However, in spring 891, with imperial forces having recently conducted a failed campaign against Li Keyong and the imperial treasury drained, Emperor Zhaozong decided to abandon the campaign against Chen. Sony VPCS13AFG/P Battery

He restored Chen's titles and ordered Gu and Wang to return to their posts at Dongchuan and Yongping. Wang, believing that Chengdu was on the verge of falling, decided to disobey the imperial orders and continue the campaign. Sony VPCS13AFG/W Battery

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He intimidated Wei by having Dongchuan soldiers arrest and execute Wei's associate Luo Bao (??) on charges of corruption, and Wei transferred the command of the army to him. Wang continued the siege against Chengdu, and a famine began in the city. Sony VPCS13AFH/W Battery

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In fall 891, after Wang made assurances that he would continue to respect Chen and honor Tian as a father, Chen and Tian surrendered Chengdu. Emperor Zhaozong soon made Wang the military governor of Xichuan, merging Yongping back into Xichuan.[11] Sony VPCS13AGJ Battery

Campaign against Dongchuan

It was said that Wang Jian, after he took over Xichuan, ruled it diligently, listened to good advice, promoted capable people, put people in rightful positions, and was humble and frugal. However, he was also said to be suspicious, and that many subordinates with accomplishments suffered deaths due to his suspicions of them.[11] Sony VPCS13AHJ Battery

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Around the same time that Wang took over Xichuan, his ally Gu Yanlang died, and Gu Yanhui succeeded Gu Yanlang as the acting military governor of Dongchuan.Sony VPCS13L9E/B Battery

Emperor Zhaozong was ready to commission Gu Yanhui as the full military governor, but Yang Shouliang reacted by sending his brother Yang Shouhou (???) to attack Dongchuan, trying to take it over. Sony VPCS13V9E/B Battery

Wang sent his officers Hua Hong, Li Jian (??), Wang Zongkan, and Wang Zongbi to aid Gu — with secret instructions to, once they repelled the Yangs' attack, seize Gu Yanhui and take over Dongchuan at a feast that Gu would surely be holding in their honor. Sony VPCS13X9E/B Battery

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After Wang Zongkan defeated Yang Shouhou and forced his withdrawal, Gu was ready to hold such a feast — but Wang Zongbi leaked the plot to Gu, causing Gu to cancel the feast and eventually ending the alliance between Wang and Gu.[11]Sony VPCS149FJ/P Battery

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Meanwhile, Tian Lingzi's and Chen Jingxuan's remaining subordinate Yang Sheng (??), who continued to hold Peng Prefecture (??, in modern Chengdu) and holding out against Wang, tried to jointly attack Wang with Yang Shouliang, Sony VPCS14AHJ Battery

but Li Jian repelled Yang Sheng and killed his officer Lü Yao (??) in spring 892. Wang then sent his nephew Wang Zongyu (???), Wang Zongkan, Sony VPCY115FG/S Battery

Wang Zongyao, and Hua to attack Peng Prefecture. When Yang Shouliang tried to send troops to aid Yang Sheng, Hua intimidated Yang Shouliang's officer Fu Zhao (??) into withdrawing. Hua subsequently attacked Lang Prefecture and defeated Yang Shouliang there, too.[12] Sony VPCY115FGS Battery

Meanwhile, in 893, Gu entered into an alliance with Li Maozhen the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit, and Li Maozhen sent troops to aid Gu. Sony VPCY115FX/B Battery

However, after Wang then defeated Fengxiang and Dongchuan troops at Li Prefecture, Gu sought peace against with Wang, claiming to be willing to break relations with Li Maozhen, and Wang agreed. Around the same time, Sony VPCY118GX/BI Battery

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Emperor Zhaozong bestowed on Wang the honorary chancellor title of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangzhi (????????). Meanwhile, Wang had repeatedly sought permission to execute Chen and Tian, and when imperial permission never came, Wang executed them anyway.[12] Sony VPCY11AFJ Battery

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By 894, Peng Prefecture was suffering from a famine due to the siege that Wang's forces had placed on it. Yang Sheng could not hold the defense any further, and it fell. Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery

Yang Sheng tried to fight still, but was killed in battle. His territory was merged back into Xichaun. Meanwhile, when Yang Shouhou, who was then the prefect of Mian Prefecture (??, in modern Mianyang) died in fall 894, Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery

with Yang Shouliang having been defeated by Li Maozhen by that point and his territory largely taken by Li Maozhen, Yang Shouhou's officer Chang Zairong (???) surrendered Mian to Wang.[12] Sony VPCY11M1E Battery

In 895, Li Maozhen, Han Jian (who was then the military governor of Zhenguo Circuit (??, in modern Weinan, Shaanxi)), and Wang Xingyu the military governor of Jingnan Circuit, jointly attacked Chang'an, sSony VPCY11S1E Battery

eizing and killing the former chancellors Wei Zhaodu and Li Xi (whom they considered hostile to their agenda). In reaction, Li Keyong launched his troops and headed for Chang'an, Sony VPCY11V9E Battery

claiming to be coming to the emperor's aid. Wang also launched his troops, put Wang Zongyao in command, and had them stationed at Mian Prefecture, claiming to be coming to the emperor's aid as well. Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery

Wang then claimed that Gu was cutting off his path and declared a campaign against Gu. (Meanwhile, Li Keyong defeated and killed Wang Xingyu, forcing Li Maozhen and Han to, Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery

or the time being, resubmit to the imperial government.) Hua spearheaded Wang's attack against Dongchuan, and over the next few years, Wang's Xichuan forces gradually stripped Gu's territory prefecture by prefecture, despite Emperor Zhaozong's attempt to mediate. Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery

In 896, when Li Maozhen again attacked Chang'an, forcing Emperor Zhaozong to flee to Zhenguo to depend on Han, Wang submitted a petition for Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital to Chengdu, Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery

while Yang Xingmi the military governor of Huainan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu) submitted a petition for Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital to Huainan; neither idea was implemented.[13] Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery

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In 897, Wang again launched a major attack on Dongchuan, commanded by Hua and another adoptive son, Wang Zongyou (???), while sending Wang Zongjin (???) to attack Fengxiang to cut off any relief forces that might come from Fengxiang,Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

and Wang Zongjin defeated LI Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jihui. When Li Maozhen subsequently Li Jizhao (???) to try to relieve Dongchuan, Wang Jian's adoptive son Wang Zongbo (???) defeated and captured him. Around the same time, Wang Zongkan and Wang Zongruan (???) captured the Three Gorges region, opening a trade path to the east down the Yangtze River.[14] Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery

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In summer 897, Wang Jian took 50,000 men and joined the attack against Dongchuan himself. Li Maozhen reacted by submitting a petition against Wang Jian for failing to follow imperial orders to stop his attacks against Gu. Sony VPCYA15EC/B Battery

Emperor Zhaozong, wanting to exploit the situation himself, issued an edict demoting Wang to be the prefect of Nan Prefecture (??, in modern Chongqing),Sony VPCYA15EC/R Battery

while naming Li Maozhen the new military governor of Xichuan and Li Sizhou (???) the Prince of Qin as the new military governor of Fengxiang — hoping to take control of Fengxiang back into imperial hands. Sony VPCYA15FG Battery

Both Wang and Li Maozhen refused the orders, and Li Maozhen reacted by blocking Li Sizhou's advance, forcing Li Sizhou to return to Zhenguo. Emperor Zhaozong soon thereafter restored Wang Jian's titles.[14] Sony VPCYA15FG/B Battery

Wang Jian's siege of Zi Prefecture put Gu in dire straits. In winter 897, Gu had his adoptive son Gu Yao (??) kill his entire family and then commit suicide. Wang Jian took over Dongchuan and made Hua (whom he formally took as an adoptive son, Sony VPCYA15FG/R Battery

with the new name of Wang Zongdi) the acting military governor of Dongchuan. The imperial government initially tried to make the official Liu Chongwang (???) the military governor of Dongchuan, Sony VPCYA15FH/B Battery

but upon hearing that Wang Jian had already commissioned Wang Zongdi, gave up the attempt and allowed Wang Zongdi to take over as acting military governor (and later, full military governor). Sony VPCYA15FH/R Battery

(Subsequently, at Wang Zongdi's suggestion (that Dongchuan was too large to be a single circuit), Wang Jian requested, and the imperial government approved, Sony VPCYA16EC/R Battery

the division of Dongchuan into two circuits, with five prefectures carved out into a Wuxin Circuit (??), with its headquarters at Sui Prefecture (??, in modern Suining, Sichuan).)[14] Sony VPCYA17GG/B Battery

After seizing Dongchuan

In spring 900, Emperor Zhaozong gave Wang Jian the greater honorary chancellor title of Zhongshu Ling (???). Soon thereafter, he also granted Wang Jian the title of commander over Dongchuan and Wuxin as well.[15] He also created Wang the Prince of Langye.[6Sony VPCYA17GG/R Battery


In 901, Wang Zongdi offered to resign on account of illness, and Wang Jian sent Wang Zongyu to Dongchuan to replace him. Later in the year, when the Taoist monk Du Congfa (???) started a rebellion with the people of Chang (??, in modern Chongqing), Sony VPCYA17GH/B Battery

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Pu (??, in modern Ziyang, Sichuan), and He (??, in modern Chongqing) Prefectures. Wang Jian sent his adoptive son Wang Zong'an to attack Du, but Wang Zongkan subsequently suppressed Du's rebellion.[15] Sony VPCYA19FJ/B Battery

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Late in the year, the eunuch Han Quanhui, fearing that Emperor Zhaozong and the chancellor Cui Yin were planning to massacre the eunuchs, seized Emperor Zhaozong. Sony VPCYB15AG/P Battery

Cui, in response, summoned Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) to bring an army to Chang'an.Sony VPCYB15AG/S Battery

As Han was allied with LI Maozhen, he forcibly took Emperor Zhaozong to Fengxiang. Zhu then put Fengxiang under siege, claiming that he wanted to restore the emperor to the proper place in Chang'an. Both Zhu and Li Maozhen sought an alliance with Wang Jian. Sony VPCYB15AH/G Battery

Wang played both sides — outwardly announcing agreement with Zhu, while secretly sending messengers to Li Maozhen urging him to resist Zhu — and yet at the same time sent Wang Zongji and Wang Zongdi north, Sony VPCYB15AH/P Battery

seeking to seize the prefectures south of the Qinling Mountains that Li Maozhen still controlled.[15] By spring 902, Li Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jizhong (???) the military governor of Zhaowu Circuit (??, headquartered at Li Prefecture) abandoned Li Prefecture, Sony VPCYB15AH/S Battery

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allowing Xichuan forces to seize it. Subsequently, Wang Zongbo and Wang Zongdi captured Xingyuan, and Li Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jimi (???), then the military governor of Shannan West, Sony VPCYB16KG/P Battery

was forced to surrender as well. Wang Jian initially made Wang Zongdi the military governor of Shannan West, but subsequently, getting reports from Wang Zongji that made accusations against Wang Zongdi, Sony VPCYB16KG/S Battery

and fearing that Wang Zongdi was both loved by the soldiers, he summoned Wang Zongdi back to Chengdu and had him strangled. He made another adoptive son, Sony VPCYB19KJ/G Battery

Wang Zonghe (???), the acting military governor of Shannan West. Subsequently, Li Sijing (???) the military governor of Wuding Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Hanzhong) surrendered as well. Sony VPCYB19KJ/P Battery

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By this point, Wang Jian had captured all of Li Maozhen's former territory south of the Qinling Mountains, partially leading to Li Maozhen's subsequent agreement in 903 with Zhu to kill Han and his associates and to give the emperor to Zhu in return for lifting the siege on Fengxiang.[16] Sony VPCYB35JC Battery

After Emperor Zhaozong returned to Chang'an, Cui and Zhu ordered that all eunuchs be massacred. However, Wang protected Yu Quanyan (???) the eunuch monitor for Xichuan and the prominent retired eunuch Yan Zunmei (???) from execution, instead executing two inmates that he claimed to be Yu and Yan.[16][17] Sony VGN-AW11M/H Battery

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Later in 903, Wang Jian entered into a peace agreement with Zhu. Subsequently, Emperor Zhaozong created Wang the greater title of Prince of Shu. Soon thereafter, Sony VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery

at the suggestion of his adoptive son Wang Zongben (???), Wang Jian had Wang Zongben lead an army east on the Yangtze River, intending to capture Jingnan Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Jingzhou, Hubei). Sony VGN-AW11Z/B Battery

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At that time, the military governor of Jingnan, Cheng Rui, had just been killed in battle against Yang Xingmi's forces, and so Cheng's subordinate, Hou Ju (??), surrendered Kui Prefecture (??, in modern Chongqing) to Wang Zongben, allowing Wang Jian to take over Kui, Sony VGN-AW19/Q Battery

Zhong (??, in modern Chongqing), Wan (??, in modern Chongqing), and En (??, in modern Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei) as well. Sony VGN-AW19 Battery

However, believing that the Qutang Gorge would serve as a good natural defense, Wang Jian decided to make no further attempt to capture Gui (??) and Xia (??) (both in modern Yichang,Hubei) as well. Sony VGN-AW21M/H Battery

He made Wang Zongben the acting military governor of Wutai Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Chongqing) to govern over the region.[17] Sony VGN-AW21S/B Battery

In 904, Zhu, wanting to put the emperor even firmer under control as a prelude to usurping the throne, forcibly moved Emperor Zhaozong from Chang'an to Luoyang. Sony VGN-AW21VY/Q Battery

Emperor Zhaozong sent secret messengers to Wang Jian, asking him to come to the emperor's aid. Wang Jian sent Wang Zongyou north, claiming to be wanting to rendezvous with Fengxiang forces and jointly rescue the emperor, Sony VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery

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but when Wang Zongyou encountered Xuanwu forces, he abandoned the campaign. Thereafter, though, Wang Jian began to be issuing imperial edicts in the name of the emperor, Sony VGN-AW230J/H Battery

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claiming that he was temporarily taking imperial authority until the emperor would return to Chang'an (which Emperor Zhaozong would eventually never be able to do). Sony VGN-AW270Y/Q Battery

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Another subsequent secret edict issued by Emperor Zhaozong to Wang, Yang, and Li Keyong also drew no further response from Wang immediately. Later in the year, when Zhao Kuangning the military governor of Zhongyi Circuit (??, headquartered in modernXiangfan, Hubei) Sony VGN-AW290JFQ Battery

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attempted to capture the Jingnan prefectures that Wang had seized earlier, Wang Zongruan repelled Zhao's attack. Zhang Wu (??) the prefect of Wan Prefecture further built an iron chain across the Yangtze, intending to secure it from further invasion from the east.[17] Sony VGN-AW31S/B Battery

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Meanwhile, believing that it would be advantageous to enter into an alliance with Li Maozhen for Li Maozhen to serve as a protective neighbor to the north, Wang Jian did so in early 905, Sony VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery

and also jointly issued a declaration with Li Maozhen and Li Maozhen's adoptive son Li Jihui the military governor of Jingnan condemning Zhu. Sony VGN-AW35GJH Battery

Thereafter, Wang gave his daughter in marriage to Li Maozhen's nephew LI Jichong (???) the military governor of Tianxiong Circuit (??, headquartered in modernPingliang, Gansu), Sony VGN-AW37GY/HE1 Battery

and often supplied Li Maozhen's army from this point on. At the suggestion of Feng Juan (??), who believed that Wang's tax burdens were too high, Wang reduced the tax burdens on the people.[18] Sony VGN-AW37GYQ Battery

Soon thereafter, a marriage alliance was also concluded between Wang Jian and Zhao. Alarmed by the situation, Zhu Quanzhong attacked Zhao, defeating him and annexing his territory, Sony VGN-AW41JF/H Battery

forcing Zhao to flee to Huainan, while Zhao's brother Zhao Kuangming fled to Wang Jian. Around the same time, Wang sent another adoptive son, Wang Zonghe (???), Sony VGN-AW41JF Battery

to attack Feng Xingxi the military governor of Zhaoxin Circuit (??, headquartered in modern Ankang, Shaanxi). Feng fled, and his subordinate Quan Shilang (???) surrendered Zhaoxin's capital Jin Prefecture (??). Sony VGN-AW41MF/H Battery

Wang adopted Quan as a son (renaming him Wang Zonglang (???)) and made him the governor of Jin Prefecture and three other surrounding prefectures.[18] Sony VGN-AW41MF Battery

Meanwhile, Emperor Zhaozong had been assassinated by Zhu's soldiers and replaced by his son Emperor Ai. Zhu disavowed involvement, and subsequently sent messengers in Emperor Ai's name to various circuits to announce Emperor Zhaozong's death. Sony VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery

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When the messenger to Xichuan, Sima Qing (???), arrived at Xichuan, Wang, under the suggestion of Wei Zhuang, refused to meet with Sima; rather, Sony VGN-AW41ZF/B Battery

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As Tang military governor of Wu'an

When Ma Yin took over command of Wu'an, he was apprehensive of the strengths of both Yang Xingmi (who was firmly in control of Huainan by that point) and Cheng Ruithe military governor of Jingnan Circuit (荊南, headquartered in modern Jingzhou, Hubei), Dell XPS GEN 2 Battery

and he considered giving them gold and silk to appease them. His strategistGao Yu pointed out that Cheng was not as strong as he looked, while Yang was a sworn enemy who could never be appeased through gifts. Dell XPS M1210 Battery

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At Gao's suggestion, Ma concentrated on comforting the people and training his army, to strengthen his own army without external aid.[15] Dell XPS M170 Battery

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In 897, Zhang Ji captured Jiang Xun, allowing Shao Prefecture to come under Ma's control. However, it was said that at that point, while Wu'an Circuit legally consisted of seven prefectures, Dell XPS M1530 Battery Battery

Ma was in actual control of only Tan and Shao; the other five prefectures were all actually controlled by agrarian rebels — Heng(modern Hengyang in Hunan) by Yang Shiyuan (楊師遠), Yong (永州, in modern Yongzhou, Hunan) by Tang Shimin (唐世旻); Dao (道州, in modern Yongzhou) by Cai Jie (蔡結); Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Battery

Chēn (郴州, in modern Chenzhou, Hunan) by Chen Yanqian (陳彥謙); and Lian (連州, in modern Qingyuan, Guangdong) by Lu Jingren (魯景仁). Under the suggestion of Yao Yanzhang (姚彥章), Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

Ma sent an army commanded by Li Qiong and Qin Zongquan's cousin Qin Yanhui (秦彥暉) to attack Heng and Yong, quickly capturing them; Yang died in flight, while Tang was killed by Ma's army. When Ma sent Li Tang (李唐) in 899 to attack Dao,Sony VGP-BPS8A Battery

Cai initially repelled Li Tang's attack, but Li Tang subsequently succeeded in capturing Dao and killing Cai, taking Dao under Ma's control as well. By the end of 899, Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery

Li Qiong had captured and executed Chen Yanqian, and when he attacked Lian, Lu committed suicide, allowing Ma to control all seven of Wu'an's prefectures.[16]Emperor Zhaozong formally bestowed on Ma the title of military governor.[9] Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery

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When Liu Shizheng (劉士政) the military governor of Jingjiang Circuit (靜江, headquartered in modern Guilin, Guangxi) heard that Ma had pacified all of Wu'an, SONY VGP-BPS9 Battery

he became apprehensive, and he sent his deputy Chen Kefan (陳可璠) to defend Quanyi Heights (全義嶺, in modern Guilin) against a possible Ma attack. When Ma sent emissaries to Liu to try to establish peaceful relations, Chen refused.SONY VGP-BPS9/S Battery

Ma, in 900, sent Qin and Li Qiong to attack Jingjiang. They quickly defeated Liu's army, killing Wang Jianwu (王建武) and capturing Chen. They put Jingjiang's capital Gui Prefecture (桂州) under siege, SONY VGP-BPS9A/S Battery

and after a few days of siege, Liu surrendered, allowing Ma to take Jingjiang's five prefectures under control. Ma commissioned Li Qiong as the military governor of Jingjiang.[17] SONY VGP-BPS9/B Battery

In 902, Emperor Zhaozong, who was then under the controls of the eunuch Han Quanhui and the warlord Li Maozhen at Li Maozhen's Fengxiang Circuit (鳳翔, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), which was then under siege by Zhu Quanzhong, SONY VGP-BPS9A/B Battery

sent the imperial emissary Li Yan to the southeastern circuits to encourage the warlords there to join under Yang's command and attack Zhu. As part of the edicts that Li Yan promulgated, Ma was given the honorary chancellor title of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事).[18] SONY VGP-BPS9A Battery


By 903, Zhu had prevailed over Li Maozhen, forcing Li Maozhen to seek peace by killing Han and giving control of the emperor to Zhu. Thereafter, Yang sent emissaries to Ma, accusing Zhu of inappropriate actions, SONY VGP-BPS10 Battery


and offering an alliance to Ma if Ma would cut off his relationship with Zhu. Ma's general Xu Dexun pointed out that Zhu controlled the emperor and that it would not be advantageous to Ma to end that relationship. Ma agreed and did not accept Yang's proposal.[19] SONY VGP-BPL9 Battery

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Meanwhile, an ally of Zhu's, Du Hong the military governor of Wuchang Circuit (武昌, headquartered in modern Wuhan, Hubei), had been under attack by Yang for several years and was in a desperate situation. Sony VGP-BPL12 Battery

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Zhu sent his general Han Qing (韓勍) south to try to save Du, while also requesting Cheng, Ma, and Lei Yanwei the military governor of Wuzhen Circuit (武貞, headquartered in modern Changde, Hunan) to launch troops to save Du. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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Cheng agreed and launched a fleet, which he himself commanded, toward Wuchang. However, after Cheng left his capital Jiangling, Ma sent Xu to join forces with Lei's officer Ouyang Si (歐陽思) to attack Jiangling. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

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They captured it, pillaged it for its population and wealth, and then withdrew. Cheng's army, hearing that their families and wealth had been captured, lost its morale, and was subsequently defeated by Yang's general Li Shenfu; Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

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Cheng committed suicide by drowning. On the way back to Tan, Xu met with Deng Jinzhong (鄧進忠) the prefect of Yue Prefecture (岳州, in modern Yueyang, Hunan)Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

and persuaded Deng that he should submit to Ma. Deng agreed, surrendered the prefecture, and moved his entire family to Tan to show submission to Ma. Ma made Xu the prefect of Yue and Deng the prefect of Heng.[19] Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

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In 904, Yang realized that Ma Cong, who remained at Huainan and served in his army for a number of years after Yang defeated Sun Ru, was Ma Yin's brother.Sony VGP-BPS13A Battery

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He offered to send Ma Cong to Ma Yin. Ma Cong initially declined, indicating that he was grateful for Yang's not killing him at the time of Sun's death and making him a Huainan officer, Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery

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but Yang insisted. After Ma Cong arrived at Tan, Ma Yin made him the deputy military governor. Ma Cong subsequently advocated an alliance between Ma Yin and Yang, but Ma Yin rejected Ma Cong's proposal.[20] Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery

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In 906, Yang's son and successor Yang Wo sent his officer Chen Zhixin (陳知新) to attack Yue Prefecture. Chen was successful, forcing Xu to flee, and Yue fell to Huainan control. Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery

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During the same year, Peng Gan (彭玕) the prefect of Ji Prefecture (吉州, in modern Ji'an, Jiangxi) surrendered Ji to Ma, after Yang Wo had conquered most of Zhennan Circuit (which Ji Prefecture belonged to) and captured its military governor Zhong Kuangshi.[20] Sony VGP-BPL14/S Battery

During Emperor Taizu's reign

In 907, Zhu Quanzhong had Emperor Zhaozong's son and successor Emperor Ai yield the throne to him, ending Tang and establishing a new Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu. Several Tang warlords, including Yang Wo, Li Maozhen, Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery

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Li Keyong, and Wang Jian, refused to recognize him as emperor, but the rest of the formerly Tang realm did, including Ma Yin's Wu'an Circuit. Shortly thereafter, the new Later Liang emperor created Ma the Prince of Chu. Emperor Taizu also gave him the title of military governor of Wuchang, even though he did not control Wuchang.[4] Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery

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Later that year, Yang Wo (whose state became known as Hongnong by that point as he carried the title of Prince of Hongnong) sent his general Liu Cun (劉存) with 30,000 men to attack Chu. Ma sent Qin Yanhui and Huang Fan (黃璠) to resist Liu.Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery

Liu's fleet soon ran into difficulties due to torrential rains and was repeatedly defeated by Qin. Liu thus sent letters to Ma, offering to surrender, but Qin, arguing to Ma that Liu's surrender offers were deceitful, Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery

continued attacking. Qin thoroughly defeated Liu and captured Liu and his deputy Chen Zhixin (陳知新). Initially, Ma tried to persuade Liu and Chen to submit to him and serve him, Sony VGP-BPL15 Battery

but after the refused, he executed them. This battle allowed Ma to regain Yue Prefecture. Ma then joined forces with Peng Gan to try to capture Zhennan's capital Hong Prefecture (洪州), but they could not do so. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

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Subsequently, he and Lei Yanwei's brother and successor Lei Yangong jointly attacked Jingnan, which was then under the control of the Later Liang general Gao Jixing, but they were repelled.[4] Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

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Later in 907, when Lei again made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Jiangling and entered into an alliance with Hongnong, Emperor Taizu stripped him of his titles and ordered Gao and Ma to attack him. Gao sent his general Ni Kefu (倪可福), while Ma sent Qin, Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery

to put Wuzhen's capital Lang Prefecture (朗州) under siege. When Lei sought aid from Huainan, Yang sent Ling Ye (泠業) and Li Rao (李饒) to try to save Lei. Ma sent Xu Dexun to resist Ling and Li Rao, and he defeated and captured them; Sony PCG-5G2L Battery

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Ma then executed them. In summer 908, without Hongnong aid, Lang Prefecture fell. Lei fled to Hongnong territory, allowing Ma to take over Lang and Li (澧州, in modern Changde) Prefectures.[4] Sony PCG-5J1L Battery

Meanwhile, Gao Yu pointed out to Ma that one way to enrich his state was to sell tea to territory directly under Later Liang control. Thereafter, Ma requested and received permission from Emperor Taizu to establish tea trade offices at Bian Prefecture (汴州, in modern Kaifeng), Sony PCG-5J2L Battery

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Jiangling, Xiang Prefecture (襄州, in modernXiangyang, Hubei), Tang Prefecture (唐州, in modern Zhumadian), Ying (郢州, in modern Jingmen, Hubei), Sony PCG-5K2L Battery

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and Fù Prefecture (復州, in modern Tianmen, Hubei), for the purpose of selling Chu tea and purchasing silk and horses, with part of the tea offered to the Later Liang imperial government as tribute. Sony PCG-6S2L Battery

It was said that Chu began to be enriched after this trade began.[4] Later in the year, when Gao Jixing tried to cut off this trade by stationing forces at Hankou (漢口, in modern Wuhan), Ma sent Xu to attack him, and Gao Jixing, Sony PCG-6S3L Battery

n fear, sought peace. Ma also sent Lü Shizhou (呂師周) to attack the territory of Liu Yin the military governor of Qinghai Circuit (清海, headquartered in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong), capturing Zhao (昭州, in modern Guilin), He (賀州, in modern Hezhou, Guangxi), Sony PCG-6V1L Battery

Wu (梧州, in modernWuzhou, Guangxi), Meng (蒙州, in modern Wuzhou), Gong (龔州, in modern Guigang, Guangxi), and Fù (富州, in modern Hezhou, note different character than the prefecture in Tianmen) Prefectures from Liu Yin.[21] Sony PCG-6W1L Battery

In 909, Wei Quanfeng, who had been controlling four Zhennan prefectures centered around Fǔ Prefecture (撫州, in modern Fuzhou, Jiangxi, note different tone than the prefectures in Tianmen and Hezhou) for years, claimed the title of military governor of Zhennan and set to attack Hong Prefecture. Sony PCG-6W2L Battery

When Wei sought support from Ma, Ma sent Wan Mei (苑玫) and Peng Gan's nephew Peng Yanzhang (彭彥章) to put Gao'an (高安, in modern Yichun, Jiangxi) under siege to divert Hongnong forces. Subsequently, after Wei was defeated and captured by the Hongnong general Zhou Ben, Sony PCG-6W3L Battery

Chu forces withdrew. Further, Peng Gan abandoned Ji Prefecture and fled to Tan, thus allowing Hongnong to take over Ji. Ma made Peng Gan the prefect of Chēn Prefecture, and took one of Peng's daughters as the wife of his son Ma Xifan.[21]Sony PCG-7111L Battery

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In 910, after Ma requested the title of Tiance Shangjiang (天策上將, literally "Grand General of Heavenly Strategies"), Sony PCG-7113L Battery

a title that had previously been held by the great Tang emperor Emperor Taizong, Emperor Taizu granted him that title. Ma thereafter established an Tiance Office and made Ma Cong and Ma Cun its directors.[21] Sony PCG-7133L Battery

Meanwhile, Song Ye (宋鄴) and Pan Jinsheng (潘金盛), the chieftains of non-Han peoples at Chén Prefecture (辰州, in modern Huaihua, Hunan, note different tone than the prefecture in Chenzhou) and Xu Prefecture (漵州, in modern Huaihua), Sony PCG-7Z1L Battery

had been harassing cities under Chu control. In late 910, when Song attacked Xiangxiang (湘鄉, in modern Xiangtan, Hunan), and Pan attacked Wugang (武岡, in modern Shaoyang), Sony PCG-7Z2L Battery

Ma sent Lü to attack them. Lü soon killed Pan,[21] and, by 912, Song and another non-Han chieftain, Chang Shiyi (昌師益), had submitted to Ma.[22]

Also in 910, Pang Juzhao (龐巨昭) the military governor of Ningyuan Circuit (寧遠, headquartered in modern Yulin, Guangxi), Sony PCG-8Y1L Battery

and Liu Changlu (劉昌魯) the defender of Gao Prefecture (高州, in modern Maoming, Guangdong), who had just recently repelled an attack by Liu Yin but believed that they had no strength to stand against Liu Yin long term, wrote to Ma, offering their territory to hi. Sony PCG-8Y2L Battery

Ma sent Yao Yanzhang (姚彥章) to their territory to escort them to Chu proper. He had Yao serve as the prefect of Ningyuan's capital Rong Prefecture (容州) to defend the territory,[21] Sony PCG-8Z1L Battery

and subsequently had him made the deputy military governor of Ningyuan. However, in911, when Liu Yin attacked again, Yao judged the situation untenable despite a relief force commanded by Xu. Sony PCG-8Z2L Battery

He therefore took the people of Rong Prefecture and returned to Chu proper, allowing Liu Yin to take over Rong and Gao Prefectures. Despite this setback, Emperor Taizu still bestowed on Ma the titles of military governor of Wu'an, Wuchang, Jingjiang, and Ningyuan, Sony VPCB11AGJ Battery

as well as the commanders of the forces against Hong and E (鄂州, Wuchang's capital) Prefectures. However, not wanting to see prolonged warfare between Ma and Liu Yin, both of whom were his vassals, he sent a number of emissaries to try to broker peace between them.[22] Sony VPCB11AV Battery

After Emperor Taizu's reign

In 912, the Wu (i.e., Hongnong, which was now referred to in historical accounts as Wu, as Yang Wo's brother and successor Yang Longyan, while initially carrying the title of Prince of Hongnong as well, Sony VPCB11V9E Battery

later took on the title of Prince of Wu, which Yang Xingmi had carried at the time of his death) general Chen Zhang (陳璋) attacked Yue Prefecture, capturing Wan, who was then the prefect of Yue. Sony VPCB11X9E Battery

When Ma sent Yang Dingzhen (楊定真) to try to recapture Yue, the Wu forces headed toward Jingnan instead. To prevent Ma from aiding Jingnan, the Wu general Liu Xin (劉信), Sony VPCCW12EN/BU Battery

who governed Wei's old territory of Fǔ Prefecture and its surroundings, stationed himself at Ji Prefecture to pressure Ma. Subsequently, though, after Chen was unable to capture Jiangling, Sony VPCCW12ES/BU Battery

he withdrew. In 913, apparently in response, Yao, who carried the title of military governor of Ningyuan by that point despite Chu's loss of Ningyuan, attacked E Prefecture, but when the Wu general Lü Shizao (呂師造) responded, Yao withdrew.[22] Sony VPCCW13EG/BU Battery

Also in 913, Liu Yin's brother and successor Liu Yan requested that Ma Yin give a daughter to him in marriage. Ma agreed.[22] (The marriage alliance was eventually concluded in 915, when Ma Yin had Ma Cun escort his daughter to Liu Yan's territory to marry Liu Yan.)[23] Sony VPCCW13FX/R Battery

In 914, the Wu prefect of Yuan Prefecture (袁州, in modern Yichun), Liu Chongjing (劉崇景), surrendered the prefecture to Ma. Ma sent Xu Zhen (許貞) to support him. Sony VPCCW152C/B Battery

After the Wu generals Chai Zaiyong (柴再用) and Mi Zhicheng (米志誠) attacked, however, Liu and Xu abandoned Yuan Prefecture and returned to Chu territory.[23]Sony VPCCW152C/W Battery

In 916, hearing that Li Keyong's son and successor Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin had conquered all of the territory north of the Yellow River in his continued war with Later Liang[23] Sony VPCCW15FA/B Battery

(which was then ruled by Emperor Taizu's son Zhu Zhen after Emperor Taizu was assassinated in 912 by another son, Zhu Yougui),[22] Ma, despite his status as a Later Liang vassal, sent emissaries to Jin as a peace overture; Li Cunxu reciprocated.[23] Sony VPCCW15FA/P Battery

In 918, Liu Xin put Qian Prefecture (虔州, in modern Ganzhou, Jiangxi), which was then ruled by the warlord Tan Quanbo, whose territory was wedged between Wu, Chu, Sony VPCCW15FA/W Battery

and the territories of the Later Liang vassals Liu Yan and Wang Shenzhi the Prince of Min, under siege. Tan sought aid from three states which were Later Liang vassals — Wuyue, Sony VPCCW15FG/B Battery

Min, and Chu. In response, Wuyue's prince Qian Liu sent his son Qian Chuanqiu (錢傳球) to attack Wu's Xin Prefecture (信州, in modern Shangrao,Jiangxi); Sony VPCCW15FG/P Battery

Ma sent his officer Zhang Keqiu (張可求) to advance to Gutting (古亭, in modern Ganzhou); and Wang sent an army to advance to Yudu (雩都, in modern Ganzhou),Sony VPCCW15FG/W Battery

all seeking to aid Tan. The Wuyue forces, however, were repelled by Xin's prefect Zhou Ben. Subsequently, Liu sent part of his army to repel the Chu army. When the Wuyue and Min forces heard that the Chu army had been repelled, they withdrew, leaving Tan without external aid.[24] Sony VPCCW15FN/R Battery

In 919, Chu forces attacked Jingnan, and Gao Jixing sought aid from Wu. Wu had Liu Xin head directly toward Tan Prefecture, while Li Jian (李簡) attacked Chu's Fù Prefecture (復州). Li Jian captured Fù's prefect Bao Tang (鮑唐), and the Chu forces, hearing of Liu Xin's advances, withdrew from Jingnan.[24] Sony VPCCW16FA/B Battery

In 920, Qian sought to have Ma give a daughter to his son Qian Chuansu (錢傳璛) in marriage, and Ma agreed.[25] Sony VPCCW16FA/L Battery

During Emperor Zhuangzong's reign

In 923, Li Cunxu claimed himself to be the legitimate successor to Tang, establishing a new Later Tang Dynasty as its Emperor Zhuangzong. Thereafter, he made a surprise attack on the Later Liang capital Daliang (大梁, i.e., formerly Bian Prefecture), Sony VPCCW16FA/P Battery

catching it defenseless. Zhu Zhen, not wanting to be captured, committed suicide before the city fell to Later Tang forces, ending Later Liang. The circuits that had previously been controlled by Later Liang came under Later Tang control.Sony VPCCW16FA/R Battery

Ma Yin, hearing of the Later Tang victory, sent Ma Xifan to Daliang to pay tribute to Emperor Zhuangzong.[26] When Ma Xifan met Emperor Zhuangzong, Emperor Zhuangzong asked him about the events in the Chu realm and was impressed. Sony VPCCW16FA/W Battery

Wanting to praise Ma Xifan while, at the same time, sow seeds of suspicion by Ma Yin against Gao Yu, he stated to Ma Xifan, "I had often heard that one day Gao Yu would take over the Hunan region. If the Prince of Chu has a son like you, how could Gao do so?"[1] Sony VPCCW16FG/B Battery

Despite this attempt by Emperor Zhuangzong to cause Ma Yin to suspect Gao, Ma Yin refused to do so and continued to trust Gao.[5] Indeed, it was said that it was Gao's suggestion that Ma, Sony VPCCW16FG/L Battery

who was enticing merchants to come to Chu by collecting no transactional taxes from them, coined money out of iron and lead — two metals that were not used for money outside of Chu realm. Sony VPCCW16FG/P Battery

As a result, the merchants were forced to spend the money by purchasing items from Chu, thus allowing Chu to enrich itself through these commercial activities. Sony VPCCW16FG/R Battery

Further, also at Gao's suggestion, to encourage sericulture, Ma also allowed the people of his realm to pay taxes with silk in lieu of money, and it was said that after several years of this policy, Chu had become a major producer of silk.[27] Sony VPCCW16FG/W Battery

In 924, Emperor Zhuangzong bestowed on Ma Yin the title of Shangshu Ling (尚書令).[28] Sony VPCCW18FG/B Battery

In 925, Emperor Zhuangzong sent his son Li Jiji the Prince of Wei and the major general Guo Chongtao to attack Former Shu (which was then ruled by Wang Jian's son and successor Wang Yan. Sony VPCCW18FJ Battery

Former Shu quickly fell and was absorbed into Later Tang. Hearing of Former Shu's destruction, Ma, in fear, submitted a report to Emperor Zhuangzong, stating:[27] Sony VPCCW19FJ Battery

I have started managing a mansion at the foot of Mount Heng to be my place of retirement. I am willing to surrender my seal and commission to preserve my old years. Sony VPCCW1AFJ Battery

Emperor Zhuangzong sent Ma a reply comforting him and declining his resignation.[27] Sony VPCCW1AGG/B Battery

However, despite the apparent Later Tang strength that the destruction of Former Shu showed, Emperor Zhuangzong's rule was actually becoming destabilized due to the soldiers' discontent toward his failure to implement his prior promises of rewards to them for their achievements in destroying Later Liang and Former Shu,Sony VPCCW1AHJ Battery

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and the discontent was further exacerbated by the subsequent executions of Guo and another major general, Li Jilin the Prince of Xiping by Emperor Zhuangzong and his wifeEmpress Liu. Sony VPCCW1FFX/L Battery

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Thereafter, Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother Li Siyuan rebelled at Daming (大名, in modern Handan, Hebei).[27] By summer 926, another mutiny at the capital Luoyang caused Emperor Zhuangzong to die in battle. Li Siyuan subsequently declared himself emperor (as Emperor Mingzong).[29] Sony VPCCW1ZEG/BU Battery

During Emperor Mingzong's reign

After Emperor Mingzong took the throne, he confirmed Ma Yin's title of Shangshu Ling. Meanwhile, with Gao Jixing taking an increasingly confrontational attitude with the Later Tang court, Sony VPCCW1ZEH/BU Battery

including seizure of a major shipment of Former Shu wealth that Li Jiji (prior to Emperor Zhuangzong's death and his own suicide) sent toward Luoyang, as well as the seizure of three prefectures that formerly belonged to Former Shu, Emperor Mingzong sent the general Liu Xun (劉訓) to attack Jingnan. Sony VPCCW21FX/B Battery

Ma sent Xu Dexun with a fleet toward Jingnan, but stopped Xu's fleet at Yue Prefecture. Meanwhile, Gao defended Jiangling and refused to engage Liu, who soon became bogged down in his attack due to rains and illnesses afflicting his army. Sony VPCCW21FX/L Battery

Emperor Mingzong sent the chief of staff Kong Xun to the front to examine the situation, and Kong tried to entice Ma to join the battle as well by sending a gift of clothes to the Chu army and horses and jade belts to Ma personally, Sony VPCCW21FX/R Battery

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and requesting that Ma send food supplies to Liu's army — a request that Ma apparently did not openly reject but never carried out. Eventually, Liu was forced to withdraw, and Jingnan became effectively independent of Later Tang after that point.[29] Sony VPCCW26FA/B Battery

In 927, Emperor Mingzong bestowed the greater title of King of Chu (楚國王) on Ma.[29] After accepting the title, Ma took on greater royal trappings, including referring to his residence as palace and establishing the various offices for his officials like an imperial regime, Sony VPCCW26FA/L Battery

only changing the official titles somewhat to show deference to the Later Tang emperor. He made Yao Yanzhang and Xu his chancellors. He assumed all responsibilities for commissioning officials within his reign, except that he would submit reports after commissioning the military governors of Wuping (武平, i.e., formerly Wuzhen) and Jingjiang.[5] Sony VPCCW26FA/P Battery

In 928, Ma sent Yuan Quan (袁詮), Wang Huan (王環), and his son Ma Xizhan (馬希瞻), to attack Jingnan. After the Chu forces dealt the Jingnan forces a major defeat at Liulang Ford (劉郎洑, in modern Jingzhou), Sony VPCCW26FA/R Battery

Gao, in fear, returned the Chu emissary to Later Tang, Shi Guangxian (史光憲) (whom Gao had seized after turning against Later Tang). When Ma subsequently blamed Wang for not further destroying Jingnan, Wang responded:[5] Sony VPCCW26FA/W Battery

Jiangling is between the Central Dynasty [(i.e., Later Tang)], Wu, and Shu, and everyone wants it. It is best that we let it stand so that it can serve as our defense. Sony VPCCW26FG/B Battery

Ma understood the point and thereafter did not speak of capturing Jingnan any further.[5] Sony VPCCW26FG/L Battery

Meanwhile, also in 928, Ma sent a fleet to attack Feng Prefecture (封州, in modern Zhaoqing, Guangdong), Sony VPCCW26FG/P Battery

which belonged to Liu Yan — who, by that point, had declared himself emperor of a new state of Southern Han. The fleet, however, was defeated by the Southern Han general Su Zhang (蘇章) and forced to withdraw.[5] Sony VPCCW26FG/R Battery

Later in 928, Wu launched a major attack on Yue Prefecture, commanded by Miao Lin (苗璘) and Wang Yanzhang (王彥章). Ma sent Xu to face them. Xu secretly sent Wang Huan with a smaller fleet to get behind the Wu fleet, and then attacked the Wu fleet from both ends. Sony VPCCW26FG/W Battery

The result was a major Chu victory, and both Miao and Wang Yanzhang were captured. Subsequently, though, to try to make peace with Wu, Ma sent both Miao and Wang Yanzhang back to Wu. Sony VPCCW26FH/B Battery

When sending them off at a feast, Xu, who had by this point had become concerned that Ma's sons were fighting over succession rights, made what was later viewed as a prophetic statement:[5] Sony VPCCW26FH/L Battery

While Chu is small, its senior officials and generals are still present. I hope that the Wu Dynasty will not again think of it. For you to consider attacking us, you have to wait until the ponies [(i.e., Ma's sons, with Xu employing a double entendre given that "Ma" meant "horse")] are fighting over the stable.Sony VPCCW26FH/P Battery

Meanwhile, Gao, after breaking with Emperor Mingzong, submitted to Wu, and the Wu emperor Yang Pu (Yang Longyan's brother and successor) created Gao the Prince of Qin. Emperor Mingzong ordered Ma to attack Jingnan. Ma sent Xu and Ma Xifan to attack Jingnan. Sony VPCCW26FH/R Battery

When the two armies met, Gao Jixing's nephew Gao Congsi (高從嗣) challenged Ma Xifan to single combat, but the Chu officer Liao Kuangqi (廖匡齊) came out and engaged Gao Congsi instead, Sony VPCCW26FH/W Battery

killing him. Gao Jixing then sued for peace, and Xu and Ma Xifan withdrew. However, for some time, there continued to be border skirmishes between Chu and Jingnan.[5] Sony VPCCW26FX/B Battery

Meanwhile, as Xu perceived, there was a struggle over succession rights. Ma Yin's oldest son, Ma Xizhen (馬希振), was born of his wife (whose name was not recorded in history), but his favorite son was his second son Ma Xisheng, who was born of his favorite concubine Consort Yuan. Sony VPCCW28FG/B Battery

Ma Xizhen, not wanting to fight over the succession with Ma Xisheng, became a Taoist monk and retired from politics.[1] In 929, Ma formally put Ma Xisheng, who then carried the title of deputy military governor of Wu'an and acting mayor of the capital Changsha, in charge of the Chu administration. Sony VPCCW28FJ/P Battery

From this point on, all matters of state were to be reported to Ma Xisheng first, before being reported to Ma Yin, and this effectively designated Ma Xisheng as Ma Yin's heir.[5] Sony VPCCW28FJ/R Battery

However, Ma Xifan, who was born on the same day as (but apparently later in the day than) Ma Xisheng, resented Ma Xisheng for not even showing any sign of deferring to him. He hated Ma Xisheng and Consort Yuan from this point on.[10]Sony VPCCW28FJ/W Battery

In late 928, Gao Jixing died and was succeeded by his son Gao Conghui. Gao Conghui, believing that his small state could not withstand Later Tang military pressure if it continued to confront Later Tang, Sony VPCCW29FJ Battery

resubmitted to Emperor Mingzong through Ma Yin and the Later Tang military governor of Shannan East Circuit (山南東道, headquartered in modern Xiangyang), An Yuanxin (安元信).[5] Sony VPCCW2AFJ Battery

After Ma Xisheng took the reins of the state, he began to run into conflicts with Gao Yu, and he was also suspicious of Gao due to the prior seeds of suspicion sewn by Emperor Zhuangzong and Gao JixingSony VPCCW2AGG/B Battery

(who, while alive, had publicly stated that he wanted to enter into a blood brotherhood with Gao because he believed that Gao would become Chu's ruler).Sony VPCCW2AHJ Battery

In 929, with Ma Xisheng repeatedly requesting it, Ma Yin ordered Gao into retirement. Gao, in frustration, stated, "I am going to build a mansion in the hills to the west, for retirement. Sony VPCCW2BGN/BU Battery

The pony [(employing a similar double entendre as Xu did)] has grown up and can bite now." Ma Xisheng heard the remark and became angry — so angry that he falsely announced that Gao had committed treason, Sony VPCCW2MFX/PU Battery

and he slaughtered Gao and his family, without first informing Ma Yin. When Ma Yin heard this, he cried bitterly, but did not punish Ma Xisheng.[5] Sony VPCCW2S1E Battery

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Ma Yin died in 930. He left instructions that his sons were to pass the throne to their younger brothers, and further ordered that anyone who spoke against this succession principle be put to death. Ma Xisheng thereafter took over control of the state.[3] Sony VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery

This article is about the late Tang Dynasty official and older brother of the founder of the Southern Han. For other uses, see Liu Yin. Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery

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Liu Yin (劉隱) (874[1]–April 4, 911[2][3]), formally Prince Xiang of Nanhai(南海襄王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Xiang (襄皇帝) with the temple name of Liezong (烈宗) by his younger brother Liu Yan, Sony VPCF116FGBI Battery

was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, who ruled Qinghai Circuit Sony VPCF117FJ Battery

(清海, headquartered in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong) as its military governor (Jiedushi). It was on the basis of his rule that Liu Yan was later able to establish the state of Southern Han. Sony VPCF117HG/BI Battery


Liu Yin was born in 874, during the reign of Emperor Xizong of Tang. His father, whose name was variously referred to as Liu Qian[4][1] or Liu Zhiqian,[5] was a low-level officer at Guang Prefecture (廣州), Sony VPCF118FJ Battery

the capital of Qinghai (then known as Lingnan East Circuit (嶺南東道)). His mother Lady Wei was a niece to Lingnan East's then-military governor Wei Zhou (韋宙). Sony VPCF119FC Battery

Liu Qian eventually came to control Feng Prefecture (封州, in modern Zhaoqing, Guangdong) as its prefect.[4] Liu Yin was his oldest son, and he had two younger ones, Sony VPCF119FJ Battery

Liu Tai (劉台), also born of Lady Wei, and Liu Yan, born of his concubine Lady Duan.[6] (Lady Wei had killed Lady Duan out of a jealous rage after finding out about Lady Duan, whom Liu Qian had kept in a house away from their mansion. Sony VPCF11AFJ Battery

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When Liu Qian subsequently buried Lady Duan, at her burial location was a stone tablet that bore the characters of Yin, Tai, and Yan, and he used those characters to name his three sons.)[7] Sony VPCF11AHJ Battery

As prefect of Feng Prefecture

In 894, Liu Qian died, and Liu Yin was observing a period of mourning when it was said that a group of about 100 soldiers and civilians were planning a disturbance. Sony VPCF11JFX/B Battery

Liu Yin slaughtered them. Thereafter, then-military governor of Lingnan East, Liu Chonggui (劉崇龜), made him a Lingnan East officer and gave him one of the titles that Liu Qian held, the defender of Heshui Base (賀水鎮, in modern Nanning, Guangxi). Shortly after, Liu Chonggui commissioned him the prefect of Feng Prefecture.[8] Sony VPCF11M1E Battery

In 896, a new military governor of the circuit (which had been renamed Qinghai by that point), Li Zhirou the Prince of Xue, commissioned by then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong (Emperor Xizong's brother and successor), Sony VPCF11M1E/H Battery

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was reporting to Qinghai. Instead of preparing to welcome him, however, the Qinghai officers Lu Ju (盧琚) and Tan Hongqi (譚弘玘) instead prepared to resist him and took up defensive positions, Sony VPCF11Z1E Battery

with Tan defending Duan Prefecture (端州, in modern Zhaoqing). Tan tried to enter an alliance with Liu Yin to defend against Li, and promised to give his daughter to Liu in marriage. Sony VPCF11ZHJ Battery

Liu pretended to agree, but instead, under the guise that he was going to go to Duan Prefecture to marry Tan's daughter, ambushed Tan and killed him. He then attacked Guang Prefecture and killed Lu, Sony VPCF127FJ/W Battery

and then welcomed Li to Guang Prefecture to take command. Li commissioned Liu as the commander of the Qinghai army (行軍司馬, Xingjun Sima).[9] Sony VPCF127HGBI Battery

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As Qinghai officer

In 898, Zeng Gun (曾袞) the prefect of Shao Prefecture (邵州, in modern Shaoguan, Guangdong) attacked Guang Prefecture, and was joined by the Guang Prefecture officer Wang Gui (王瓌, who commanded a fleet). Liu Yin defeated them, Sony VPCF129FJ/BI Battery

and when the Shao Prefecture officer Liu Tong (劉潼) subsequently attacked Zhen (湞州) and Han (浛州) (both in modern Qingyuan, Guangdong), Liu defeated and killed him.[10] Sony VPCF12AFJ Battery

In 900, Emperor Zhaozong commissioned the chancellor Xu Yanruo to replace Li Zhirou as military governor of Qinghai, but before Xu could get to Qinghai, Li died.[11] Sony VPCF12AGJ Battery

When Xu arrived at Qinghai, he made Liu his deputy military governor and entrusted the affairs of the circuit to Liu.[6] When Xu himself died in 901, he left a will recommending Liu as the acting military governor.[11] Sony VPCF12AHJ Battery

Emperor Zhaozong subsequently commissioned Cui Yuan, but when Cui reached Jiangling, he heard that Qinghai was overrun by bandits and also feared that Liu would not yield authority to him, and therefore requested recall to the imperial government; Emperor Zhaozong agreed and did so, but did not name Liu military governor at that time.[12] Sony VPCF135FG Battery

In 902, Lu Guangchou the prefect of Qian Prefecture (虔州, in modern Ganzhou, Jiangxi) attacked Qinghai Circuit and captured Shao Prefecture and put Chao Prefecture (潮州, in modern Chaozhou, Guangdong) under siege, Sony VPCF135FG/B Battery

Liu defeated him and tried to recapture Shao. Liu Yan advised him not to, pointing out that Lu's army was still strong, but Liu Yin did not listen to him and attacked Shao anyway. Sony VPCF136FG/BI Battery

At that time, the water level on the river was high, and Liu Yin was not able to get food supplies to the army on time. A counterattack by Lu and his officer Tan Quanbo defeated him and forced his withdrawal, allowing Lu to retain Shao.[13]Sony VPCF137HG/BI Battery

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In 904, by which time the powerful warlord Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) was in effective control of the imperial government, Sony VPCF138FJ/B Battery

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having assassinated Emperor Zhaozong and replaced him with his son Emperor Ai, Liu Yin bribed Zhu and requested to be commissioned military governor. Zhu agreed, and Liu was subsequently given the military governorship.[12] Sony VPCF13AFJ Battery

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As military governor

In 905, Emperor Ai bestowed the honorary chancellor designation of Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事) on Liu Yin.[12] Sony VPCF13AHJ Battery

In 907, Zhu Quanzhong forced Emperor Ai to yield the throne to him, ending Tang and starting a new Later Liang Dynasty as its Emperor Taizu. He gave Liu Yin the greater honorary chancellor title of Shizhong (侍中) and created him the Prince of Dapeng.[14] Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery

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In 908, Ma Yin the Prince of Chu to the north of Qinghai, sent his officer Lü Shizhou (呂師周) to attack Qinghai, capturing six prefectures (Zhao (昭州, in modernGuilin, Guangxi), Sony VPCF13Z1E/B Battery

He (賀州, in modern Hezhou, Guangxi), Wu (梧州, in modern Wuzhou, Guangxi), Meng (蒙州, in modern Wuzhou), Gong (龔州, in modern Guigang, Guangxi), and Fu (富州, in modern Hezhou)) from Qinghai.[15] Sony VPCF13ZHJ Battery

Also in 908, Later Liang's Emperor Taizu sent the officials Zhao Guangyi (趙光裔) and Li Yinheng (李殷衡) as emissaries to Liu to commission him as the military governor of both Qinghai and Jinghai (靜海, headquartered in modern Hanoi, Vietnam) Circuits. Sony VPCF149FJ/BI Battery

Liu accepted the commissions but then detained Zhao and Li and did not permit them to return to the Later Liang court.[15] Sony VPCF148FJ/B Battery

In 909, Emperor Taizu created Liu the Prince of Nanping.[15]

In or sometime before 910, Liu Yin had sent Liu Yan to attack Ningyuan Circuit (寧遠, headquartered in modern Yulin, Guangxi), which consisted of its capital Rong Prefecture (容州) Sony VPCF14AFJ Battery

and Gao Prefecture (高州, in modern Maoming, Guangdong) and which was then governed by Pang Juzhao (龐巨昭), but Liu Yan was defeated by Pang. Still, believing that he could not prevail over Liu Yin, Sony VPCF14AGJ Battery

Pang surrendered Ningyuan to Chu in 910. Ma stationed his general Yao Yanzhang (姚彥章) at Rong Prefecture.[15] Later in the year, Emperor Taizu created Liu Yin the Prince of Nanhai.[6] Sony VPCF14AHJ Battery

In 911, Liu Yin fell ill. He submitted a recommendation that Liu Yan succeed him, and then died. Subsequenly, Liu Yan took over the circuit.[2] Sony VPCF14ZHJ Battery,Sony VPCF217HG Battery,Sony VPCF217HG/BI Battery,Sony VPCF219FJ/BI Battery,Sony VPCF21AFJ Battery,Sony VPCF21AGJ Battery,Sony VPCF21AHJ Battery,Sony VPCF21Z1E/BI Battery,Sony VPCF21ZHJ Battery,Sony VPCM125AG/L Battery

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Fuzhou (Chinese: 福 州; pinyin: Fúzhōu, [fǔtʂóʊ] (  listen); Fuzhou dialect: Hók-ciŭ) is the capital and one of the largestcities in Fujian Province, Dell T117C Battery

People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong (闽东, lit. East of Fujian) linguistic and cultural area. Dell P721C Battery

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Fuzhou's core counties lie on the north (or left) bank of the estuary of Fujian's largest river, the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, and Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver. Dell T118C Battery

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Fuzhou's counties south of the Min border on Putian,Quanzhou, Sanming and Nanping municipalities. Its population is 7,115,370 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 4,408, Dell 0P891C Battery

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076 inhabitants are urban standing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 standing around 38.05%.[1] Dell 312-0773 Battery

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In older publications, the name "Fuzhou" was variously romanized as Foochow, Fuchow, Fuh-chau, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew orHokchew. Dell T555C Battery

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The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century AD, says that Fuzhou's name came from "Mt. Fu", Dell W298C Battery

a mountain located northwest of the city. The mountain's name was then combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture", in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. Dell W303C Battery

During the Warring States Period, the Han Chinese referred to the Fuzhou area as Ye (Chinese: 冶), though they did not conquer the area until the Qin Dynasty.Dell U011C Battery

The city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries AD before finally settling on Fuzhou in 948.[3] Dell 312-0814 Battery

In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng(Chinese: 榕城; Foochow Romanized: Ṳ̀ng-siàng) literally "The Banyan City".Dell 312-0815 Battery

Pre-Qin History (before 221 BC)

See also: Yue peoples and Minyue

The remains of two Neolithic cultures - the Huqiutou Culture (Chinese: 虎丘头文化), from around 5000 BC, and the Tanshi Mountain Culture (Chinese: 昙石山文化), from around 3000 BC - have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area.Dell 451-10692 Battery

During the Warring States Period (c. 475 - 221 BC), Han Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue (Chinese: 闽越), suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, Dell WU841 Battery

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a family of non-Chinese tribes who once inhabited most of southern China.[4]In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom (present-day Zhejiang Province) fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, Dell MT193 Battery

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where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Chinese and Yue culture to create Minyue.[5] Their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City. Dell MT332 Battery

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Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC - 200 AD)

The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule. The Qin Dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" (Chinese: 郡; pinyin: jùn) - Dell WU852 Battery

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roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture - and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery (Chinese: 闽中郡). The area seems to have continued mostly independent of Chinese control for the next century. Dell PW651 Battery

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The Han Dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, andEmperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. Dell 312-0452 Battery

In 202 BC Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu (Chinese: 无诸, Old Chinese: *Matya) as King of Minyue, and a walled city called Ye (Chinese: 冶, Old Chinese: *Lyaʔ, literally "Beautiful") was built. The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou. Dell 451-10372 Battery

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In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies and annexed its territory and people into China. Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan area, Dell CG623 Battery

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and the Yue ethnic group was mostly assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants.[4] The area was eventually re-organized as a county in 85 BC. Dell KD476 Battery

During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, and the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. Dell CG036 Battery

In 282 AD, during the Jin Dynasty, two artificial lakes known simply as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system. The core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. Dell CG039 Battery

In 308 AD, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin Dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, Dell HF674 Battery

followed by subsequent waves during later periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland. The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui Dynasty (581 - 618 AD). Dell NF343 Battery

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Tang, Song, and Yuan Dynasties (618 - 1368 AD)

In 725 AD, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang Dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. Dell TC030 Battery

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The later years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian and Guangdong areas. Dell CF623 Battery

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In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang Dynasty,Dell YD623 Battery

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successfully gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and eventually proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909. Dell FK890 Battery

The Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song Dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous. Dell 312-0566 Battery

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Fuzhou prospered greatly during the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism was quickly adopted by the citizens who quickly built many Buddhist temples in the area. The Hualin Temple (Chinese: 华林寺, not to be confused with the temple of the same name in Guangzhou), Dell PU563 Battery

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founded in 964, is one of the oldest surviving wooden structures in China. New city walls were built in 282 AD, 901 AD, 905 AD, and 974 AD, so the city had many layers of walls — more so than the Chinese capital. Dell WR050 Battery

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Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty ordered the destruction of all the walls in Fuzhou in 978 AD but new walls were rebuilt later. The latest was built in 1371 AD. Dell 312-0625 Battery

During theSouthern Song Dynasty, Fuzhou became more prosperous; many scholars came to live and work. Among them were Zhu Xi (朱熹), the most celebrated Chinese philosopher after Confucius, and Xin Qiji (辛弃疾), the greatest composer of the ci form of poetry. Dell 312-0633 Battery

Marco Polo, an Italian guest of the Emperor Kubilai, transcribed, after the conventions of Italian orthography, the place name asFugiu. This was not the local Min pronunciation but that of the Mandarin administrative class. Dell GW240 Battery

Ming Dynasty

Between 1405 and 1433 AD, a fleet of the Ming Imperial navy under Admiral Zheng He sailed from Fuzhou to the Indian Ocean seven times; on three occasions the fleet landed on the east coast of Africa. Before the last sailing, Zheng erected a stele dedicated to the goddess Tian-Fei (Matsu) near the seaport. Dell HP297 Battery

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The Ming government gave a monopoly over Phillipine trade to Fuzhou, which at times was shared with Quanzhou.[6] Dell XR693 Battery

Galeote Pereira, a Portuguese soldier and trader, was taken prisoner during the pirate extermination campaign of 1549 and imprisoned in Fuzhou. Later transferred to a form of internal exile elsewhere in the province, Pereira escaped to Macau in 1553. Dell RU006 Battery

The record of his experiences in the Ming Empire, logged by the Jesuits at Goain 1561, was the first non-clerical account of China to reach the West since Polo's.[7] Dell TK330 Battery

Qing Dynasty

In the 19th century, Lin Zexu, born in Fuzhou, a high-ranking official of Qing Dynasty, led an attempt to resist British colonialism at Guangzhou. Unsuccessful and reviled by the East India Company, he was internally exiled to Xinjiang near the Russian border. Dell HG307 Battery

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By the 1842 peace treaty which concluded the Opium War I, Fuzhou became one of the five Chinese treaty ports, and it became completely open to Western merchants and missionaries. Dell 312-0867 Battery

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Fuzhou was one of the most important Protestant mission fields in China. On January 2, 1846, the first Protestant missionary, Rev. Stephen Johnson from ABCFM, entered the city and soon set up the first missionary station there.Dell F144M Battery

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ABCFM was followed by the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society that was led by Revs. M. C. White and J. D. Collins, who reached Fuzhou in early September 1847. The Church Missionary Society also arrived in the city in May 1850. Dell J590M Battery

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These three Protestant agencies remained in Fuzhou until the communist revolution in China in the 1950s, leaving a rich heritage in Fuzhou's Protestant culture. Dell 312-0810 Battery

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On August 23, 1884, the Battle of Fuzhou broke out between the French Far East Fleet and the Fujian Fleet of the Qing Dynasty. As the result, the Fujian Fleet, one of the four Chinese regional fleets, was destroyed completely in Mawei Harbor. Dell F707H Battery

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Japanese Occupation

With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, hostilities commenced in Fujian Province. Xiamen (Amoy) fell to a Japanese landing force on May 13, 1938. Dell F805H Battery

"The fall of Amoy instantly threatened the security of Foochow. On May 23, enemy (Japanese) ships bombarded Mei-hua, Huang-chi and Pei-chiao while enemy planes continued to harass our forces. Dell KM904 Battery

Between May 31 and June 1, our gunboats "Fu-ning", "Chen-ning" and "Suming" defending the blockade line in the estuary of the Min River were successively bombed and sunk. Meanwhile, our ship "Chu-tai" berthed at Nan-tai was damaged.Dell KM905 Battery

Our Navy's Harbor Command School, barracks, shipyard, hospital and marine barracks at Ma-wei were successively bombed." (4). Fuzhou is recorded as having fallen to Japanese forces in 1938. (5). Dell MT264 Battery

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The extent of Japanese command and control of the city of Fuzhou itself as opposed to the port at Mawei and the Min River Estuary is uncertain. By 1941 (date unknown), Dell PW773 Battery

the city is recorded as having returned to Nationalist control. The British Consulate in Fuzhou is noted as operational from 1941-1944 after the United Kingdom Declaration of War on Japan in December 1941. Dell WU946 Battery

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Western visitors to Fuzhou in the period 1941-1944 include the Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett in 1942 (6). and the British scientist Dr Joseph Needham in May, 1944. (7). Both visitors record the presence of a British Consul and a Fuzhou Club comprising western businessmen. Dell WU965 Battery

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In 'Bomb, Book & Compass', author Simon Winchester relates the visit of Dr Needham in 1944. Needham encountered the American government agent (John Caldwell) and the British SIS agent (Murray MacLehose working under Dell KM974 Battery

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cover as the British Vice-Consul in Fuzhou) involved in aid to the Nationalist resistance to Japanese forces in Fujian Province. (8). Dell KM978 Battery

As part of Operation Ichi-Go (1944), the last large-scale Japanese offensive in China in World War 2, the Japanese intended to isolate Fuzhou and the Fujian Province corridor to Nationalist forces in western china and the wartime capital of Chongqing. Dell MT335 Battery

One account of the Japanese re-taking of Fuzhou city itself is narrated by American naval officer, Houghton Freeman. (9). The date is given as October 5, 1944. (10). Dell MT342 Battery

Fuzhou remained under Japanese control until the surrender of Japan and its armed forces in China in September 1945. Dell PW823 Battery

Following the restitution of Republic control (1946), the administration divisions of Fuzhou were annexed, and administration level was promoted from county-level to city-level officially. Dell PW824 Battery

The administrative divisions of Fuzhou have been changed frequently throughout history. From 1983, the Fuzhou current administrative divisions were formed officially, namely, Dell PW835 Battery

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5 districts and 8 counties respectively. In 1990 and 1994, Fuqing (Hók-chiăng) and Changle (Diòng-lŏ̤h) counties were promoted to county-level cities. Despite these changes, the administrative image of "5 districts and 8 counties" is still held popularly among local residents. Fuzhou's entire area only covers 9.65% of Fujian Province. Dell RM868 Battery

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Besides Mandarin Chinese, local residents of Fuzhou (Fuzhou people) also speak Fuzhou dialect, a language that is considered to be the standard form of the Min Dong dialect. Dell 312-0711 Battery

Min opera, also known as Fuzhou drama, is one of the major operas in Fujian Province. It enjoys popularity in the Fuzhou area and in neighboring parts of Fujian such as the northeast and northwest areas where the Fuzhou dialect is spoken, Dell 312-0712 Battery

as well as in Taiwanand the Malay Archipelago. It became a fixed opera in the early 20th century. There are more than 1,000 plays of Min opera, most of which originate from folk tales, Dell 312-0708 Battery

historical novels, or ancient legends, including such traditional plays as "Making Seal", "The Purple Jade Hairpin" and "Switching Fairy Peach with Litchi".Dell F287H Battery

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The two traditional mainstream religions practiced in Fuzhou are Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Traditionally, many people practice both religions simultaneously. The city is also home to many Buddhist monasteries/Taoist temples and Buddhist monks. Dell 312-0818 Battery

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Apart from mainstream religions, a number of religious worship sites of various local religions are situated in the streets and lanes of Fuzhou. Dell F286H Battery

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The origins of local religion can be dated back centuries. These diverse religions incorporated elements such as gods and doctrines from other religions and cultures, such as totem worship and traditional legends. Dell R988H Battery

For example, Monkey King, originated to monkey worship among local ancients, gradually came to embody the God of Wealth in Fuzhou after the novel Journey to the West was issued in Ming dynasty. Dell 1691P Battery

As the most popular religion in the Min River Valley, the worship of Lady Linshui (临水夫人) is viewed as one of the three most influential local religions in Fujian, the other two being the worship of Mazu (妈祖) and Baosheng Dadi (保生大帝). Dell 1G222 Battery

Fuzhou cuisine is one of the four traditional cooking styles of Fujian cuisine, which in turn is one of the eight Chinese regional cuisines. Dishes are light but flavorful, with particular emphasis on umami taste, known in Chinese cooking as "xiānwèi" (traditional Chinese: 鮮味; simplified Chinese: 鲜味), Dell 1X793 Battery

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as well as retaining the original flavor of the main ingredients instead of masking them. In Fuzhou cuisine, the taste is light compared to that of some other Chinese cooking styles, Dell 310-6321 Battery

and often have a mixed sweet and sour taste. Soup, served as an indispensable dish in meals, is cooked in various ways with local seasonal fresh vegetables and seafood. Dell 310-6322 Battery

Distinctive snack foods are also an important part of Fuzhou culture. Production of raw materials according to classification can be divided into many classes: powder, starch, dry fruit, Dell 312-0068 Battery

meat and seafood, etc., with rice, beans, and sugar as the main raw materials. Red and white rice cakes (年糕) during the Chinese New Year, stuffed yuanxiao (元宵) during the Lantern Festival, Dell 312-0078 Battery

zongzi (粽子) during the Dragon Boat Festival, and sweet soy bean powder-covered plain yuanxiao during the winter solstice are just some of the traditional foods enjoyed by the masses of Fuzhou. Dell 312-0079 Battery

Currently, the main railway is the "Wai Fu Railway", running eastwards through the northern districts towards Jiangxi province. The subline "Fuma railway" runs from the city hub to Mawei district. Two more railways are also under construction: Dell 312-0095 Battery

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The "Wen Fu railway" runs north towards Wenzhou in southern Zhejiang province, while the "Fuxia railway" runs south towards Xiamen. Dell 312-0292 Battery

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This later railway was designed to be a high-speed railway with speeds up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph) and was opened in April 2010. There are also plans for 2 metro lines, with the first line to be completed by 2014.[11] Dell 312-0306 Battery

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Railway stations: The Fuzhou Rail Station is located north of city center, near the North Second Ring Road. Construction on the Strait Rail Station, also known as Fuzhou South Station, in Cangshan district, a key landmark of the New City development scheme, began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed in 2010.Dell 312-0341 Battery

In 1867 the Fuzhou seaport was the site of one of China's first major experiments with Western technology, when the Fuzhou Navy Yard was established: A shipyard and an arsenal were built under French guidance and a naval school was opened. Dell 312-0373 Battery

A naval academywas also established at the shipyard, and it became a center for the study of European languages and technical sciences. The academy, which offered courses in English, French, engineering, and navigation, produced a generation of Western-trained officers, including the famous scholar-reformer Yan Fu (1854–1921). Dell 312-0518 Battery

The yard was established as part of a program to strengthen China in the wake of the country's disastrous defeat the second Opium War (1856–60). But most talented students continued to pursue a traditional Confucian education, and by the mid-1870s the government began to lose interest in the shipyard, Dell 312-0566 Battery

which had trouble securing funds and declined in importance. Fuzhou remained essentially a commercial center and a port until World War II; it had relatively little industry. The port was occupied by theJapanese during 1940–45. Dell 312-0585 Battery

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Since 1949, Fuzhou has grown considerably. Transportation has been improved by the dredging of the Min River for navigation by medium-sized craft upstream to Nanping. Dell 312-7206 Battery

In 1956 the railway linking Fuzhou with the interior of the province and with the mainChinese railway system began operation. The port has also been improved;Dell 8N544 Battery

Fuzhou itself is no longer accessible to seagoing ships, but Luoxingta anchorage and the outer harbor at Guantou on the coast of the East China Sea have been modernized and improved. The chief exports are timber, fruits, paper, and foodstuffs. Dell BAT1297 Battery

Industry is supplied with power by a grid running from the Gutian hydroelectric scheme in the mountains to the northwest. The city is a center for industrial chemicalsand has food-processing, timber-working, engineering, papermaking, printing, Dell C7786 Battery

and textile industries. A small iron and steel plant was built in 1958. In 1984 Fuzhou was designated one of China's "open" cities in the newopen-door policy inviting foreign investments.Handicrafts remain important in the rural areas, and the city is famous for its lacquer and wood products. Dell D6400 Battery

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  • Its GDP was ¥43,615 (ca. US$6,240) per capita in 2010,ranked no. 21 among 659 Chinese cities.

Fuzhou is undoubtedly the province’s political, economic and cultural center as well as an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. In 2008, Fuzhou’s GDP amounted to ¥228.4 billion, an increase of 13 percent.[13] Dell HF674 Battery

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Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among Fuzhou's exports are fine lacquerware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. Dell XX327 Battery

The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports. Its exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream.[14] Dell XX337 Battery

In 2008, exports reached US$13.6 billion, a growth of 10.4 percent while imports amounted to US$6.8 billion. Total retail sales for the same period came to ¥113.4 billion and per capita GDP grew to ¥33,615.[14] Dell FM332 Battery

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During the same period, Fuzhou approved 155 foreign-invested projects. Contracted foreign investment amounted to US$1.489 billion, while utilized foreign investment increased by 43 percent to US$1.002 billion.[14] Dell 312-0822 Battery

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  • Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone

Economic and Technological Zones

The Fuzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in Jan 1985 by State Council, with a total planning area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 sq mi) and now has 10.1 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) built. Dell Y085C Battery

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It is located close to Fuzhou Changle International Airport and Fuzhou Port. Industries encouraged in the zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, telecommunications equipment, trading and distribution, automobile production/assembly, medical equipment and supplies, shipping/warehousing/logistics and heavy industry.[15] Dell 312-0864 Battery

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  • Fuzhou Export Processing Zone

The Fuzhou Export Processing Zone was founded on June 3, 2005 with the approval of the State Council and enjoys all the preferential policies. It is located inside the Chang'an Investment Zone of the Fuzhou Economic and Technical Development Zone (FETDZ) with a planned land area of 1.14 square kilometres (0.44 sq mi).[16] Dell F586J Battery

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  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone

The Fuzhou Free Trade Zone was established in 1992 by the State Council, with a planning area of 1.8 square kilometres (0.69 sq mi). Industries encouraged in the free trade zone include electronics assembly & manufacturing, Dell HW355 Battery

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heavy industry, instruments & industrial equipment production, shipping/warehousing/logistics, telecommunications equipment, trading, and distribution.[17] Dell HW358 Battery

  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

The Fuzhou High-tech Development Zone was set up in 1988 and approved by the State Council in March 1991. In 1995, the Fuzhou Municipal Government decided to build Baiyi Electronic Information City, which covers 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in the zone, Dell HW421 Battery

making it the lead electronic industrial zone in Fuzhou. The Administrative Commission of Mawei High-tech Park was set up in the zone in 1999. It covers an area of 5.6 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), and is in the area between Gushan Channel and Mawei Channel, Jiangbin Road and Fuma Road.[18] Dell RK813 Battery

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  • Fuzhou Science and Technology Park

The Fuzhou Science and Technology Park was established in 1988 and was approved to be a national-level zone by the State Council in 1991. The planned area is 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi) Dell RK818 Battery

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and is divided into 3 parts: the Mawei portion, the Cangshan portion, and the Hongshan portion. The main industries are electronics, information technology, and biotechnology. Dell TR517 Battery

The zone is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away from the China National Highway 316 and 41 kilometres (25 mi) away from the Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[19]Dell TR518 Battery

  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

The Fuzhou Taiwan Merchants Development Zone was approved to be established in May 1989 by the State Council. The zone is located in the Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. The zone is a commercial base for Taiwan-related development. Dell TR520 Battery

The current area is 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). The main industries are IT, metallurgy, food processing, and textiles. The zone is 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and 52 kilometres (32 mi) away from Fuzhou Changle International Airport.[20] Dell TR653 Battery

Tourist attractions

Lin Zexu (Styled: Yuanfu; 30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing Dynasty. Dell WT866 Battery

He is most recognized for his conduct and his constant position on the "high moral ground" in his fight, as a "shepherd" of his people, against the opium trade in Guangzhou. Dell WT870 Battery

Although the non-medicinal consumption of opium was banned by Emperor Yongzheng in 1729,[1] by the 1830s China's economy and society were being seriously affected by huge imports of opium from British and other traders based in the city. Dell WT873 Battery

Lin's forceful opposition to the trade on moral and social grounds[2] is considered to be the primary catalyst for the First Opium War of 1839–42.[3]Because of this firm stance, he has subsequently been considered as a role model for moral governance, particularly by Chinese people. Dell 312-4000 Battery

Lin was born in Houguan (侯官) (modern day Fuzhou), in Fujian province. In 1811, he received the Jinshi degree, the highest in the imperial examinations, and the same year, Dell U597P Battery

he was appointed to the prestigious Hanlin Academy. He rose rapidly through various grades of provincial service and became Governor-General of Hunan and Hubei in 1837, where he launched an opium suppression campaign.[3] Dell W358P Battery

Campaign to suppress opium

An ever-growing demand for tea and low demand for British products, combined with the acceptance by China of only silver (and not gold) in payment, resulted in large continuous trade deficits.[4] Attempts by the British (Macarthney in 1792), Dell 312-4009 Battery

the Dutch (Van Braam in 1794), Russia (Golovkin in 1805) and the British yet again (Amherst in 1816) to negotiate access to the China market were resounding failures.[5] Dell N998P Battery

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By 1817, the British hit upon counter-trading in a narcotic, Indian opium, as a way to both reduce the trade deficit and finally gain profit from the formerly money-losing Indian colony. Dell Y264R Battery

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The Qing Administration originally tolerated the importation of opium because it imposed an indirect tax on Chinese subjects, while allowing the British to double tea exports from China to England, which profited the monopoly for tea exports of the Qing imperial treasury & its agents.[6] Dell 9JJGJ Battery

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However, by 1820 the planting of tea in the Indian and African colonies, along with accelerated opium consumption, reversed the flow of silver, just when the Imperial Treasury needed to finance suppression of rebellions against the Qing.Dell NKDWV Battery

The Viceroy of Guangdong began efforts to constrain the trade, but due to large increases in the supply of opium and the large coast line of South China and corruption (the Qing coastal navy was one of the largest smugglers of opium), these efforts failed.[7] Dell TRJDK Battery

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A formidable bureaucrat known for his competence and high moral standards, Lin was sent to Guangdong as imperial commissioner by the Daoguang Emperor in late 1838 to halt the illegal importation of opium from the British.[8][9] Dell Vostro 1720 Battery

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He arrived in March 1839 and made a huge impact on the opium trade within a matter of months.[8] He arrested more than 1,700 Chinese opium dealers and confiscated over 70,000 opium pipes. Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

He initially attempted to get foreign companies to forfeit their opium stores in exchange for tea, but this ultimately failed and Lin resorted to using force in the western merchants' enclave. Dell Studio 14 Battery

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It took Lin a month and a half before the merchants gave up nearly 1.2 million kilograms (2.6 million pounds) of opium. Beginning 3 June 1839,[10] 500 workers laboured for 23 days in order to destroy all of it, Dell Studio 1436 Battery

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mixing the opium with lime and salt and throwing it into the ocean outside of Humen Town.[11] 26 June is now the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in honour of Lin Zexu's work. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

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Lin also wrote an extraordinary "memorial" (折奏/摺奏), by way of an open letter published in Canton, to Queen Victoria of Great Britain in 1839 urging her to end the opium trade. Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery

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The letter is filled with Confucian concepts of morality and spirituality. As a representative of the Imperial court, Lin adopts a position of superiority and his tone is condescending,[8] Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery

despite the British clearly having the upper hand, military-wise, when the event is examined with hindsight. His primary line of argument is that China is providing Britain with valuable commodities such as tea, porcelain, spices and silk, while Britain sends only "poison" in return.[8] Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery

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He accuses the "barbarians" (i.e. private merchants) of coveting profit and lacking morality. His memorial expressed a desire that Victoria would act "in accordance with decent feeling" and support his efforts.[12] He writes: Dell Latitude E6500 Battery Battery

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We find that your country is sixty or seventy thousand li from China. Yet there are barbarian ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery

The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? Dell Studio XPS 16 Battery

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Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience? Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery

—Lin Zexu, Open letter addressed to the sovereign of England and published in Canton (1839)[12][13][14] Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

The memorial was never delivered to the queen, though it was later published in The Times.[15] Dell Latitude E5500 Battery

Open hostilities between China and Britain started in 1839.[16] A naval skirmish in the autumn of 1839, following the politic afterspell of the opium hand-over, was in fact the very first act of war, in what later should be recalled as "The First Opium War" . Dell XPS M2010 Battery

The immediate effect was that both sides, by the words of Superintendent Captain Charles Elliot, and the Chinese High-commissioner Lin Zexu made a ban to all trade. Before this, Dell Inspiron 1410 Battery

Lin had pressured the Portuguese government of Macau, so the British found themselves without refuge, except for the bare and rocky harbours of Hong Kong.[17] Dell Vostro 1014 Battery

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13 mars 2012 2 13 /03 /mars /2012 04:45

The Republic of Colombia is a sovereign country located in northwestern South America.[1] Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela[2]and Brazil;[3] to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[4] to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Dell 9JJGJ Battery,Dell JKVC5 Battery

Colombia also shares maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic and the Central Americancountries of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.[5][6]

Colombia is the 26th most extensive nation in the world and the fourth most extensive in South America (after Brazil,Argentina, and Peru), with an area more than twice that of France. Dell NKDWV Battery,Dell TRJDK Battery

It also has the third-largest population in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico.[7]

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous tribes which had migrated from North and Central America, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. To the south lay the Inca Empire.[8] Dell Vostro 1710 Battery,Dell Vostro 1720 Battery

The Spanish arrived in 1499, and initiated a period of conquest and colonisation which ultimately led to the creation of the Viceroyalty of New Granada (comprising what is now Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama) with its capital at Bogotá.[9] Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. Dell Latitude E4300 Battery,Dell Latitude E4200 Battery

Modern day Colombia, with Panama, emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia(1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.[1] Panama seceded in 1903. Dell Studio 14 Battery,Dell Studio 1435 Battery

Colombia has a long tradition of constitutional government, and the Conservative and Liberal parties, founded in 1843 and 1848 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. However, tensions between the two have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Dell Studio 1436 Battery

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Since the 1960s, government forces have been engaged in conflict with left-wing insurgents and illegal right-wing paramilitaries. Fuelled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1990s. However, the insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and in recent years the violence has been decreasing. Dell Studio 1457 Battery

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Insurgents continue attacks against civilians, and large swathes of the countryside remain under guerrilla influence, but the Colombian government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its municipalities.[1]

Colombia is a standing middle power[10] with the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico.[7] Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery,Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery

It is also one of the largest manufacturers in South America. Colombia is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendents of the original native inhabitants, Spanishcolonisers, African slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europeand the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage. Dell HW905 Battery

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This has also been influenced by Colombia's incredibly varied geography. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is considered to be among 17 of the most megadiverse countries in the world. Dell 312-0823 Battery,Dell Y085C Battery

The National Library of Colombia (Spanish: Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia) is the national library ofColombia. The library is a dependancy of the Colombian Ministry of Culture.

Founding and history

The National Library of Colombia is generally considered to be the oldest national library in the Americas. Dell X784C Battery,Dell 312-0864 Battery

It was founded at the end of the eighteenth century in 1777 by Viceroy Manuel De Guirior, who established the library in the city of Bogotá. The original collection of the library consisted of books expropriated from the Jesuitcommunity, which had been expelled from all the dominions of the Spanish Empire, as a result of the 1767 order of King Charles III of Spain. Dell Y082C Battery

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In 1825, due to the work of Francisco de Paula Santander, the library was established at the campus of the Colegio de San Bartolomé and received its current name. On March 25, 1834, the first legal deposit law was decreed, which required that all copies of printed material in the country be sent to the library for storage. Dell W346C Battery,Dell HW355 Battery

This law set the objective of the library, which then became the sole entity in charge of maintaining the bibliographic heritage of the nation.

Bibliographic wealth of Colombia (incunabular, prints, sound recordings and audio-visual work of great historical and artistic value), located in the southeast corner of Independence Park. Dell HW357 Battery,Dell HW358 Battery

Founded January 9, 1777, inaugurated in 1938 and remodeled in 1978 by architect Jacques Mosseri, except decorative elements and façade design remained the same.

The two statues on both sides of calle 25 access, high relief at the attic, sign materials mixture and windows ornamentation were abolished. Four story building. Dell HW421 Battery

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In the first floor general reading rooms, kardex, exhibitions, music, classification, among other. In the second floor hemerotheca and researchers, in the third and fourth floors book storage and administrative offices.

Provides legal publications storage, official publications trade, guided visits, user card, photogram reproduction, works and photographs photocopying, and photograph or film works. Dell RK815 Battery,Dell RK818 Battery

As part of valuable donations received, Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez, Miguel Antonio Caro, Rufino José Cuervo, Eduardo Santos and Germán Arciniegas are the most important.


To guarantee the recovery of, preservation of, and access to the collective memory of the country, represented by the bibliographic and periodical heritage and in any form; Dell TR514 Battery,Dell TR517 Battery

so as to promote and foment public libraries, the planning and design of policies related to reading, and the satisfaction of the indispensable need for information for the individual and collective development of Colombians...

In addition, according to a history of the library, the library also functions as a training center for librarians in Colombia as well as a source of books for other countries' libraries. Dell TR518 Battery,Dell TR520 Battery


According to a decree of the Senate of Colombia, the library's stated functions are:

  • To advise the Ministry of Culture as it concerns the formulation of policies on the bibliographic and periodical national heritage

To guide the plans and programs about creation, promotion, and strengthening of public libraries and the complementary services that are rendered by them Dell TR653 Battery

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  • To direct and coordinate the national network of public libraries.
  • To collect, organize, increase, conserve, preserve, protect, record, and spread the bibliographic and periodical heritage of the nation, sustained in different mediums of information.

To plan and design policies related to reading and its contribution to the development of the education and intellect of the Colombian peopleDell WT870 Battery,Dell WT873 Battery

  • To design, organize, and develop the bibliographic heritage to contribute to the strengthening of the national identity

To establish and maintain relations with national and international organizations, with the goal of promoting and developing programs of popular culture and cultural exchange together, in the themes related to books and reading Dell 312-4000 Battery,Dell U597P Battery

  • To provide advice to, and collaboration with, different scientific, cultural, and educational organizations that develop programs of investigation and cultural diffusion

Law of legal deposit

The law of legal deposit is regulated by Law 44 of 1993, the statutory Decree No. 460 of March 16, 1999, and the Decree 2150 of 1995. Dell W358P Battery,Dell 312-4009 Battery

These laws and decrees are specifically about the National Library of Colombia. The creators of printed works, as well as audiovisual, audio, and video productions, should supply the library with a specified number of copies of the works, whether they were produced within the Colombian territory or imported. Dell 310-6322 Battery,Dell 312-0068 Battery

For printed works, two copies of each of the works produced within the national territory should be delivered to the National Library of Colombia; one copy to theBiblioteca del Congreso de la República de Colombia (Library of the Congress of the Republic of Colombia), and one copy to the Central Library of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia), Dell 312-0078 Battery,Dell 312-0079 Battery

  • excepting a few cases in which the high cost of the edition or the short duration of publication makes it possible to deliver fewer copies.

For audiovisual and audio works, as well as for published works that have been imported, only one copy needs to be delivered to the National Library.Dell 312-0095 Battery,Dell 312-0106 Battery,Dell 312-0292 Battery


Due to the legal deposit law and many charitable donations, the National Library has a large catalog of publications. The collection contains 47 incunabula, 610 volumes of manuscripts and other publications of "rare and curious" books, particularly purchased from or donated by personalities from the political and social life of Colombia, Dell 312-0305 Battery,Dell 312-0306 Battery

including the collections of Eduardo Santos, German Arciniegas, Jorge Isaacs, Manuel Ancízar, Marco Fidel Suárez, Miguel Antonio Caro, and Rufino José Cuervo among others. The library also possesses publications of the United Nations Library, and pictorial works of historical value like the watercolors of theChorography Commission. Dell 312-0326 Battery,Dell 312-0341 Battery

A large quantity of audio recordings comes from the legal deposit law, which has also allowed the library to possess a general collection of the majority of the publications made in the country since the year 1830 as well as a newspaper library with publications of priceless value, like the Aviso de Terremoto, considered the premiere periodical publication in the Republic of Colombia. Dell 312-0373 Battery,Dell 312-0518 Battery,Dell 312-0566 Battery

The total collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia exceeds 2,000,000 volumes. Of this, approximately 25% was acquired through the beforementioned legal deposit laws. The other books have mostly come from donations. Dell 312-0585 Battery,Dell 312-0831 Battery,Dell 312-7206 Battery,Dell 8N544 Battery,Dell BAT1297 Battery,Dell C7786 Battery,Dell D6400 Battery,Dell F5136 Battery,Dell HF674 Battery,Dell Y4991 Battery,Dell XX327 Battery,Dell XX337 Battery,Dell FM332 Battery

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Foreign affairs

The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents and is also represented in multilateral organizations at the following locations: Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1PFX/B Battery

Colombia’s foreign relations are mostly concentrated on combating the illegal drug trade and fighting terrorism, both which originate with the FARC. Colombia, with the help of the United States, have fought the FARC and pushed them into the Amazon jungle, significantly reducing the drug trade and kidnappings within Colombia. Sony VAIO VPCEB1QGX Battery


This co-operation from the United States is mainly through Plan Colombia. Another foreign relation policy concentrates around expanding their international market and managing their international issues with other countries. Colombia enjoys special financial preferences from the European Union in certain product categories. Sony VAIO VPCEB1RGX Battery


Colombia was one of the 12 founding members of the UNASUR, which is supposedly modeled on the European Union having free trade agreements between the members, free movement of people, a common currency, and also a common passport. Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/PC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/T Battery

Colombia as well as all the other members of UNASUR have had some problems with the integration due to the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis. Colombia is a member of the Andean Community of Nations and the Union of South American Nations.

Colombians need tourist visa for 180 countries[59] and exempt from tourist visa requirements in 15 countries.[60] Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXP Battery


The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

The Colombian military is divided into three branches: the National Army of Colombia; the Colombian Air Force; and the Colombian National Armada.Sony VAIO VPCW111XXT Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXW Battery

The National Police functions as a gendarmerie, operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the national intelligence agency, the Administrative Department of Security.

The National Army is formed by divisions, regiments and special units; Sony VAIO VPCW115XG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XGP Battery

the National Armada by the Colombian Naval Infantry, theNaval Force of the Caribbean, the Naval Force of the Pacific, the Naval Force of the South, Colombia Coast Guards, Naval Aviationand the Specific Command of San Andres y Providencia; and the Air Force by 13 air units. The National Police has a presence in all municipalities. Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/T Battery


For over a century Colombian politics were monopolized by the Liberal Party (founded in 1848 on an anti-clerical, broadlyeconomically liberal and federalist platform), and the Conservative Party (founded in 1849 espousing Catholicism, protectionism, and centralism). Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/T Battery

This culminated in the formation of the National Front (1958–1974), which formalized arrangements for an alternation of power between the two parties and excluded non-establishment alternatives (thereby fueling the nascent armed conflict). Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/T Battery

By the time of the dissolution of the National Front, traditional political alignments had begun to fragment. This process has continued since, and the consequences of this are exemplified by the results of the 2006 presidential election which was won with 62% of the vote by the incumbent, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery

Álvaro Uribe. Uribe was from a Liberal background but he campaigned as part of the Colombia First movement with the support of the Conservative Party. His hard line on security issues and liberal economics place him on the right of the modern political spectrum[citation needed].

In second place with 22% was Carlos Gaviria of the Alternative Democratic Pole, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/T Battery

a newly formed social democratic alliance which includes elements of the former M-19guerrilla movement. Horacio Serpa of the Liberal Party achieved third place with 12%. Meanwhile in the congressional elections held earlier that year the two traditional parties secured only 93 out of 268 seats available. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery

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Despite a number of controversies, most notably the ongoing parapolitics scandal, dramatic improvements in security and continued strong economic performance have ensured that former President Uribe remained popular among Colombian people, with his approval rating peaking at 85%, according to a poll in July 2008.[61] Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery

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However, having served two terms, he was constitutionally barred from seeking re-election in 2010. The Colombian Congress, with overwhelming support of the Colombian people, had attempted to hold a referendum allowing a vote that would overturn the 2-term limit for presidents, but this attempt was ruled unconstitutional by the Colombian constitutional court on 27 February 2010. Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery

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Uribe stated that he respects the decision as one that cannot be appealed.

In presidential elections held on 30 May 2010 the former Minister of defense Juan Manuel Santos received 46% of the vote.[62] However, according to legislation, a second round was required since he received less than the 50% threshold of votes. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BIC Battery

In the run-off elections on 20 June 2010 against the second most popular candidate,Antanas Mockus who had scored 21%,[62] Juan Manuel Santos was declared the winner; his term as Colombia's president runs for four years from 7 August 2010. Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery


In spite of the difficulties presented by serious internal armed conflict, Colombia's market economy grew steadily in the latter part of the twentieth century, with gross domestic product (GDP) increasing at an average rate of over 4% per year between 1970 and 1998. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/T Battery

The country suffered a recession in 1999 (the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 8.2% in 2007, one of the highest rates of growth in Latin America. Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM Battery

Meanwhile the Colombian stock exchange climbed from 1,000 points at its creation in July 2001 to over 7,300 points by November 2008.[63]

According to International Monetary Fund estimates, in 2010 Colombia's GDP (PPP) was US$429.866 billion (28th in the world and third in South America).Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/T Battery

Adjusted for purchasing power parity, GDP per capita stands at $6,273, placing Colombia 82nd in the world. However, in practice this is relatively unevenly distributed among the population, and, in common with much of Latin America, Colombia scores poorly according to the Gini coefficient, with UN figures placing it 119th out of 126 countries. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery

In 2003 the richest 20% of the population had a 62.7% share of income/consumption and the poorest 20% just 2.5%, and 17.8% of Colombians live on less than $2 a day.[64]

Government spending represents 37.9% of GDP.[2] Almost a quarter of this goes towards servicing the country's government debt, estimated at 52.8% of GDP in 2007.[2][64] Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/T Battery

Other problems facing the economy include weak domestic and foreign demand, the funding of the country's pension system, and unemployment (10.8% in November 2008).[63] Inflation has remained relatively low in recent years, standing at 5.5% in 2007.[2]

Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the twentieth century, Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery

by the end of which just 22.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, generating just 11.5% of GDP. 18.7% of the workforce are employed in industry and 58.5% in services, responsible for 36% and 52.5% of GDP respectively.[2] Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include petroleum, coal, coffee and other agricultural produce, and gold.[65] Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery

Colombia is also known as the world's leading source of emeralds,[66] while over 70% of cut flowers imported by the United States are Colombian.[67]Principal trading partners are the United States (a controversial free trade agreement with the United States was approved on October 11, 2011 by the United States Congress), the European Union, Venezuela and China.[2] Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery

All imports, exports, and the overall balance of trade are at record levels, and the inflow of export dollars has resulted in a substantial re-valuation of the Colombian peso.

Economic performance has been aided by liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s and continued during the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W Battery

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whose policies included measures designed to bring the public sector deficit below 2.5% of GDP. In 2008, The Heritage Foundation assessed the Colombian economy to be 61.9% free, an increase of 2.3% since 2007, placing it 67th in the world and 15th out of 29 countries within the region.[68] Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B Battery

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Meanwhile the improvements in security resulting from President Uribe's controversial "democratic security" strategy have engendered an increased sense of confidence in the economy. On 28 May 2007 the American magazine BusinessWeek published an article naming Colombia "the most extreme emerging market on Earth".[69] Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery

Colombia's economy has improved in recent years. Investment soared, from 15% of GDP in 2002 to 26% in 2008. private business has retooled. However, unemployment at 12% and the poverty rate at 46% in 2009 are above the regional average.[70]

According to a recent World Bank report, doing business is easiest in Manizales, Ibagué and Pereira, Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery

and more difficult in Cali and Cartagena. Reforms in custom administration have helped reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare documentation by over 60% for exports and 40% for imports compared to the previous report. Colombia has taken measures to address the backlog in civil municipal courts.Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX Battery

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The most important result was the dismissal of 12.2% of inactive claims in civil courts thanks to the application of Law 1194 of 2008 (Ley de Desistimiento Tácito).[71]


For many years serious internal armed conflict deterred tourists from visiting Colombia, with official travel advisories warning against travel to the country.Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery

However, in recent years numbers have risen sharply, thanks to improvements in security resulting from President Álvaro Uribe's "democratic security" strategy, which has included significant increases in military strength and police presence throughout the country and pushed rebel groups further away from the major cities, highways and tourist sites likely to attract international visitors. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI Battery

Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.5 million in 2003 to 1.3 million in 2007,[72] while Lonely Planet picked Colombia as one of their top ten world destinations for 2006.[73] In 2010, tourism in Colombia increased 11% according to UNWTO Tourism Highlights for that year.[74] Dell PRECISION M50 Battery,Dell Precision M90 SERIES Battery

In 2010 Colombia received 1,4 million foreign visitors, according to official statistics.[75]

In November 2010 the U.S. State Department travel warning for the country stated that security conditions had improved significantly in recent years and kidnappings had been noticeably reduced from their previous peak, Dell Precision Mobile Workstation M20 Battery,Dell PRECISION WORKSTATION M50 Battery

but cautioned travelers about continuing terrorist threats and the dangers of common crime, including hostage-taking. Rising murder rates in Cali and Medellín were also highlighted and U.S. citizens were urged to travel between cities by air instead of using ground transportation.[76]>

Popular tourist attractions include the historic Candelaria district of central Bogotá, tDell SMART PC100N Battery,Dell Vostro 1400 Battery

he walled city and beaches of Cartagena, the colonial towns of Santa Fe de Antioquia, Popayán, Villa de Leyva and Santa Cruz de Mompox, and the Las Lajas Sanctuary and the Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá. Tourists are also drawn to Colombia's numerous festivals, including Medellín's Festival of the Flowers, the Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whitesin Pasto and the Ibero-American Theater Festival in Bogotá. Dell Vostro 1500 Battery,Dell Vostro 1700 Battery

Meanwhile, because of the improved security, Caribbean cruise ships now stop at Cartagena and Santa Marta.

The great variety in geography, flora and fauna across Colombia has also resulted in the development of an ecotourist industry, concentrated in the country'snational parks. Dell Winbook N4 Battery

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Popular ecotourist destinations include: along the Caribbean coast, the Tayrona National Natural Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range and Cabo de la Vela on the tip of the Guajira Peninsula; the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, the Cocora valley and the Tatacoa Desert in the central Andean region;Amacayacu National Park in the Amazon River basin; Dell XPS M1210 Battery,Dell XPS M1330 Battery

and the Pacific islands of Malpelo and Gorgona. Colombia is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


Colombia has a network of national highways maintained by the Instituto Nacional de Vías or INVIAS (National Institute of Roadways) government agency under the Ministry of Transport. Dell XPS M170 Battery,Dell XPS M1710 SERIES Battery

The Pan-American Highway travels through Colombia, connecting the country with Venezuela to the east and Ecuador to the south.

Colombia's main airports are El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá, Jose Maria Cordova International Airport in Medellín, Dell XPS M1530 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Battery

Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport in Cali, Rafael Nuñez International Airport in Cartagena, Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport in Barranquilla, andMatecaña International Airport in Pereira. El Dorado International Airport is the busiest airport in Latin America based upon the number of flights and the weight of goods transported.[77] Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery

Several national airlines (Avianca, AeroRepública, AIRES, SATENA and EasyFly, ), and international airlines (such as Iberia, American Airlines, Varig, Copa, Continental, Delta, Air Canada, Spirit, Lufthansa,Air France, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aerogal, TAME, TACA, JetBlue Airways, LAN Airlines) operate from El Dorado. Dell LATITUDE D505 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D510 Series Battery

Because of its central location in Colombia and America, it is preferred by national land transportation providers, as well as national and international air transportation providers.

Urban transport systems are developed in Bogotá and Medellín. Traffic congestion in Bogotá has been greatly exacerbated by the lack of rail transport.Dell LATITUDE D600 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D610 Series Battery

However, this problem has been alleviated somewhat by the development of the TransMilenio Bus Rapid System and the restriction of vehicles through a daily, rotating ban on private cars depending on plate numbers. Bogotá's system consists of bus and minibus services managed by both private- and public-sector enterprises. Dell Latitude D620 Battery,Dell LATITUDE D800 SERIES Battery

Since 1995 Medellín has had a modern urban railway referred to as the 'Metro de Medellín', which connects it to most of its metropolitan area. An elevated cable car system, Metrocable, was added in 2004 to link some of Medellín's poorer mountainous neighborhoods with the Metro de Medellín. Dell LATITUDE LS 400 Battery,Dell LATITUDE LS SERIES Battery

By the end of 2011 an articulated bus system, called Metroplusstarted operating in Medellín too. A rapid-transit bus system called Transmetro, similar to Bogotá's TransMilenio, began operating in Barranquilla in late 2007. Cali's streets remain under construction as a new public-transit system called the Massive Integration of the West is being built. Dell Latitude LSH Battery,Dell LATITUDE LST Battery

Colombia dry canal

China and Colombia have discussed a Panama Canal rival, a 'Dry Canal' a 220 km rail link between the Pacific and a new city near Cartagena. China is Colombia's second largest trade partner after the USA. Colombia is also the world's fifth-largest coal producer, but most is currently exported via Atlantic ports while demand is growing fastest across the Pacific. Dell LATITUDE PP01 Battery

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A dry canal could make Colombia a hub where imported Chinese goods would be assembled for re-export throughout the Americas and Latin American raw materials would begin the return journey to China.[78]


With an estimated 46 million people in 2008, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. Dell LATITUDE PP01X Battery,Dell LATITUDE PPL Battery

It is also home to the second-largest number of Spanish speakers in the world after Mexico. It is slightly ahead of Argentina by almost 6 million people. At the outset of the 20th century, Colombia's population was approximately 4 million.[79] The population increased at a rate of 1.9% between 1975 and 2005, predicted to drop to 1.2% over the next decade. Dell LATITUDE PPX Battery,Dell Latitude X1 Battery

Colombia is projected to have a population of 50.7 million by 2015. These trends are reflected in the country's age profile. In 2005 over 30% of the population was under 15 years old, compared to just 5.1% aged 65 and over.

The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast. Dell LATITUDE X200 Battery,Dell LATITUDE X300 Battery

The nine eastern lowland departments, comprising about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per square mile). Traditionally a rural society, movement to urban areas was very heavy in the mid-twentieth century, and Colombia is now one of the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Dell LATITUDE X300 SERIES Battery,Dell M170 Battery

The urban population increased from 31% of the total in 1938 to 60% in 1975, and by 2005 the figure stood at 72.7%.[64][80]The population of Bogotá alone has increased from just over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately 8 million today. In total thirty cities now have populations of 100,000 or more. As of 2010 Colombia has the world's largest populations ofinternally displaced persons (IDPs), estimated up to 4.5 million people. Dell PRCISION M60 MOBILE WORKSTATION Battery,Dell Precision M Series Battery

Ethnic groups

The census data in Colombia does not record ethnicity, other than that of those identifying themselves as members of particular minority ethnic groups, so overall percentages are essentially estimates from other sources and can vary from one to another.[84] Dell Precision M20 Series Battery,Dell PRECISION M40 Battery

According to theCIA World Factbook, the majority of the population (58%) is Mestizo, or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry. Approximately 20% of the population is of European ancestry (predominantly Spanish, partly Italian, Portuguese, and German). Dell LATITUDE C540 Battery

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The CIA World Factbook also states that 14% of Colombia's total population is of mixed African and European ancestry, with 3% being of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry, and 4% having primarily African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise only 1% of the population.[2] Other sources claim that up to 29% of Colombians (13 million people) have some African ancestry.[85] Dell LATITUDE C610 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C640 Battery

The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish), but in total 101 languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today. Most of these belong to the Chibchan, Arawak and Cariban language families. Dell LATITUDE C800 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C810 Battery

TheQuechua language, spoken in the Andes region of the country, has also extended more northwards into Colombia, mainly in urban centers of major cities. There are currently about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages.[86]

Indigenous peoples

Before the Spanish colonization of what is now Colombia, the territory was home to a significant number of indigenous peoples. Dell LATITUDE C840 Battery,Dell Latitude CP Battery

Many of these were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. 567 reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (over 30% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families.[88] Dell LATITUDE CP SERIES Battery


The 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, and most of them have bilingual education (native and Spanish).

Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[89] the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna, the Paez, the Tucano and the Guahibo.Cauca, La Guajira and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations. Dell LATITUDE CPIC Battery,Dell Latitude CPID Battery

The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people – roughly 2% of the population.

In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[90]Dell LATITUDE CPIR Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPIR400GT Battery

Immigrant groups

The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Colombia consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. However a low number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, Dell LATITUDE CPM Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPT Battery

and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. Also many Venezuelan people have immigrated into the country in the last decade, due to the political and economic situation inVenezuela. Dell LATITUDE CPTC Battery


Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla(the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese and Arabs, Sephardi Jews, Roma. There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese[Dell LATITUDE CPTV Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPX Battery.

Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black.[91] Dell LATITUDE CPXH Battery


Impact of armed conflict on civilians

Around one third of the people in Colombia have been affected in some way by the ongoing armed conflict. Those with direct personal experience make up 10% of the population and many others also report suffering a range of serious hardships. Dell LATITUDE D400 SERIES Battery

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Overall, 31% have been affected on a personal level or as a result of the wider consequences of the conflict.[92] During the 1990s, an estimated 35,000 people died as a result of the armed conflict.[93] Trade unions in Colombia are included among the victimized groups with over 2,800 of their members being murdered between 1986 and 2010.[94] Dell Inspiron 710m Battery

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During the first six months of 2011 it is estimated that 98,000 people had to flee their homes due to the internal armed conflict.[95] A total of 3.7 million people have been displaced due to violence between 2000 and 2011.[96]


The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. Dell INSPIRON 8100 SERIES Battery

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However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity,[97] the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. However, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their Catholic faith actively.[98] Dell INSPIRON 8500M SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 8600 Battery

Like the rest of Latin America, Colombia is seeing a continuous increase of Protestant adherents, most of them being converts from Catholicism to Protestantism Link label. Now Protestants constitute between 10 to 13% of the Colombia population [2] While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the Colombian constitution guarantees freedom and equality of religion after 1991.[99] Dell INSPIRON 8600M SERIES Battery,Dell Inspiron 910 (all 8.9 series) Battery

Religious groups are readily able to obtain recognition as organized associations, although some smaller ones have faced difficulty in obtaining the additional recognition required to offer chaplaincy services in public facilities and to perform legally recognized marriages.[98] Before the constitution guaranteed freedom of religion, Catholicism was the official states religion. Dell INSPIRON 9200 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 9300 Battery

After the 1991 constitution, there was a separation between the Catholic Church and the state, although the Catholic Church still holds a privilege position in Colombia.

Currently in Colombia there is some religion persecution against Evangelical Protestant leader coming from Terrorist organizations mostly FARC. Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery,Dell Inspiron E1505 Battery

They persecute Protestant leaders specially in rural areas for their biblical teachings that violence should not be acceptable. [3]


Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 72.3; 2.1% would not reach the age of 5, 9.2% would not reach the age of 40.[64] Health standards in Colombia have improved greatly since the 1980s. Dell Inspiron E1705 Battery,Dell Inspiron Mini 9 (all 8.9 series) Battery

A 1993 reform transformed the structure of public health-care funding by shifting the burden of subsidy from providers to users. As a result, employees have been obligated to pay into health plans to which employers also contribute. Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21 percent (pre-1993) to 56 percent in 2004 and 66 percent in 2005, health disparities persist, Dell Inspiron Mini 9N (all 8.9 series) Battery,Dell Inspiron XPS Gen 2 Battery

with the poor continuing to suffer relatively high mortality rates. In 2002 Colombia had 58,761 physicians, 23,950 nurses, and 33,951 dentists; these numbers equated to 1.35 physicians, 0.55 nurses, and 0.78 dentists per 1,000 population, respectively. In 2005 Colombia was reported to have only 1.1 physicians per 1,000 population, as compared with a Latin American average of 1.5. Dell Inspiron XPS M140 Battery,Dell Inspiron XPS M170 Battery

The health sector reportedly is plagued by rampant corruption, including misallocation of funds and evasion of health-fund contributions.[100]


The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age 5 (Educación preescolar). Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery,Dell Inspiron Z100 Battery

Basic education (Educación básica) is compulsory by law.[101] It has two stages: Primary basic education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from first to fifth grade – children from 6 to 10 years old, and Secondary basic education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. Dell Latitude 110L Battery,Dell Latitude C Battery

It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school. However, in many rural areas, teachers are poorly qualified, and only the five years' of primary schooling are offered. The school year can extend from February to November or from August to June; Dell LATITUDE C500 Battery

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in many public schools attendance is split into morning and afternoon sessions to accommodate the large numbers of children.[102]

After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded. Dell Inspiron 1200 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery

The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller, because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (6th to 11th grade). Students in their final year of middle education take the ICFES test in order to gain access to higher education (Educación superior). Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1521 Battery

This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.

Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; Dell Inspiron 1720 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1721 Battery

these programs last up to 5 years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even up to 6–7 years for some careers, such as medicine. In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title. Dell Inspiron 2000 Series Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2100 SERIES Battery

Once graduated from the university, people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. For some professional career programs, students are required to take the SABER-PRO test, also known as ECAES, in their final year of undergraduate academic education.[103] Dell Inspiron 2200 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2600 SERIES Battery

Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2006 was 4.7% – one of the highest rates in Latin America – as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 14.2% of total government expenditure.[64][104] In 2006, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 88% and 65% respectively, slightly below the regional average. School-life expectancy was 12.4 years.[104] Dell INSPIRON 2650 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2800 SERIES Battery

A total of 92.3% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average.[104] However, literacy levels are considerably lower in rural areas.[105]

The University of the Nation, is the most relevant High Education and Research institution of the country, which has served as the alma mater of most of its citizens since 1867. Dell INSPIRON 3700 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 3800 SERIES Battery


Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences. Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, Dell INSPIRON 4000 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 4100 SERIES Battery

as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression.

Historically, the country's imposing landscape left its various regions largely isolated from one another, Dell INSPIRON 4150 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 500M SERIES Battery

resulting in the development of very strong regional identities, in many cases stronger than the national. Modern transport links and means of communication have mitigated this and done much to foster a sense of nationhood, but social and political instability, and in particular fear of armed groups and bandits on intercity highways, have contributed to the maintenance of very clear regional differences. Dell INSPIRON 5100 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 6000 Battery

Accent, dress, music, food, politics and general attitude vary greatly between the Bogotanos and other residents of the central highlands, the paisasof Antioquia and the coffee region, the costeños of the Caribbean coast, the llanerosof the eastern plains, and the inhabitants of the Pacific coast and the vast Amazon region to the south east. Dell INSPIRON 600M SERIES Battery,Dell Inspiron 630m Battery

An inheritance from the colonial era, Colombia remains a deeply Roman Catholic country and maintains a large base of Catholic traditions which provide a point of unity for its multicultural society. Colombia has many celebrations and festivals throughout the year, and the majority are rooted in these Catholic religious traditions. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery,Dell Inspiron 640m Battery

However, many are also infused with a diverse range of other influences. Prominent examples of Colombia's festivals include the Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whites, Medellín's Festival of the Flowers and Bogotá's Ibero-American Theater Festival. Dell Mini 12 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1210 Battery

The mixing of various ethnic traditions is reflected in Colombia's music and dance. The most well-known Colombian genres are cumbia and vallenato, the latter now strongly influenced by global pop culture. A powerful and unifying cultural medium in Colombia is television. Notably, the telenovela Betty La Fea has gained international success through localized versions in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere. Dell Mini 10 Battery,Dell Mini 1010 Battery

Television has also played a role in the development of the local film industry.

The language spoken is as well a matter of pride, having as many accents as cultural regions. Results special the orthodoxy in the use of the Spanish language, since the times of the creation of the Academia de la Lengua, just second in terms of relevance to the Real Academia Española, in Europe. Dell Mini 1010n Battery,Dell Mini 1010v Battery

Famous Colombians include the Nobel Prize winning author Gabriel García Márquez, the artist Fernando Botero, the writers Fernando Vallejo, Laura Restrepo, Álvaro Mutis and James Cañón, the musicians Shakira, Juanes, Carlos Vives, Herostreet and Juan Garcia-Herreros, and the actors Catalina Sandino Moreno, John Leguizamo,Catherine Siachoque and Sofía Vergara. Dell Mini 1011 Battery,Dell Mini 1011n Battery

As in many Latin American countries, Colombians have a passion for association football. The Colombian national football team is seen as a symbol of unity and national pride, though local clubs also inspire fierce loyalty and sometimes-violent rivalries. Colombia has "exported" many players, such as Freddy Rincón, Carlos Valderrama, Iván Ramiro Córdoba, and Faustino Asprilla. Dell Mini 1011v Battery,Dell Inspiron 1501 Battery

Other Colombian athletes have also achieved success, including Juan Pablo Montoya in Formula One Racing,Edgar Rentería and Orlando Cabrera in Major League Baseball, and the Camilo Villegas in professional golf.

The Colombian cuisine developed mainly from the food traditions of European countries. Dell D630 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery Battery

Spanish, Italian and French culinary influences can all be seen in Colombian cooking. The cuisine of neighboring Latin American countries, Mexico, the United States and the Caribbean, as well as the cooking traditions of the country's indigenous inhabitants, have all influenced Colombian food. For example, cuy or guinea pig, which is an indigenous cuisine, is eaten in the Andes region of south-western Colombia. ttery-pack.co.uk/laptop-battery/dell-latitude-d820.html">Dell D820 Battery Battery,Dell D830 Battery Battery

Many national symbols, both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture. Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1000 Battery Battery

Popular culture

The depiction of Colombia in popular culture, especially the portrayal of Colombian people in film and fiction, has been asserted by Colombian organizations[ and government to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, stereotypes, societal prejudice and discrimination due to association with poverty, Dell Vostro 1310 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1510 Battery Battery

narcotics trafficking, terrorism and other criminal elements.[109] These stereotypes are considered unfair by many Colombians.[110][111] The Colombian government funded the "Colombia es Pasión" advertisement campaign as an attempt to improve Colombia's image abroad, with mixed results.[112][113]Dell Vostro 1520 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 2510 Battery Battery


Colombia's cuisine, influenced heavily by the Spanish and Indigenous populations, is not as widely known as other Latin American cuisines such as Peruvian or Brazilian, but to the adventurous traveler there are plenty of delectable dishes to try, not to mention fruits, rum, and especially Colombian coffee. Dell Vostro 1400 Battery Battery,Dell XPS M1530 Battery

Antioquian Gastronomy The traditional gastronomy it’s about dishes that born and developmented in rurals context isolated the rest of the country for generations, which have survived the processes of industrialization, urbanization and globalization.

Antioquian typical dish is composed of a tray with beans, rice, eggs, slices of ripe, pork, ground beef, sausage and avocado: Dell INSPIRON 1525 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 1100 Battery

Bandeja paisa Fríjoles antioqueños Fríjoles con pezuña Sancocho antioqueño Sopa de mondongo antioqueño Morcilla antioqueña Chorizo antioqueño

Bandeja paisa: Bandeja paisa  is a herbal dish known as bandeja de arriero or bandeja montañera, typical of the Kitchen Antioquia, Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery,Dell Latitude E6400 Battery Battery

corresponding to the current departments of Antioquia, Caldas, or the Old Coffee (Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda), part of North Valley Cauca and Tolima in northern Colombia.

Frijoles Antioqueños:In Colombia, in general, corresponds to a sancocho or soup thicksoup based on potato and cassava, which adds some meat  (eggchicken, chicken, fish, beef, etc..)  Dell Latitude E6500 Battery Battery,Dell Studio XPS 13 Battery

Meat, as selected , gives the final name to the sancocho. (For example, the stew prepared with beef is often called "beef sancocho" or "whole").

Caribbean coast gastronomy

The dishes of the Caribbean Coast in preparation and ingredients vary by region and incorporate the traditions of indigenous cultures, European, black and mestizo. Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery

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They are ingredients like sea fish and crayfish, seafood, beef, chicken, pork, wild bush, yucca, plantains, yams, vegetables, dairy, rice, corn and native fruits. The most popular dish is the sancocho region that varies in preparation and ingredients: beef, fish, shellfish, turtles, chicken, goat, deer and other native species. Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery,Dell Studio XPS M1640 Battery

Cayeye:It consists of green bananas cooked and then mashed, sautéed in a stew of tomato, onion and chopped garlic and achiote optionally. Also they can simply add the stew. Serve with grated cheese and whey atollabuey coastal or butter, but can be supplemented with any meat. Is mainly consumed at breakfast. Dell Latitude E5500 Battery,Dell Latitude E5400 Battery

Casabe: Casabe de yuca is an unleavened bread made of thin, circular cassava flour, this is roasted on a griddle, griddle or grilled. Its production and consumption dates back to pre-Hispanic times, is made from cassava, also known as  yuca brava or yuca amarga

Santander gastronomy

Pepitoria Hormiga culona Bofe Bocadillo Veleño Dell XPS M2010 Battery

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Pepitoria:La pepitoria is a Spanish form of cooking different dishes of meat (usually chicken or chicken), usually obtained from the natural juices of the meat preparation are enriched with egg yolks and ground almonds, when this is done the plate receives the name “in pepitoria." Some argue that the word comes from piperitoria pepitoria, and this of Piper (pepper). Dell Vostro 1014 Battery,Dell Vostro 1015 Battery

What is certain is that this dish was formerly composed of offal. There are severaldpepitorias along the Spanish geography.

Hormiga culona:For its preparation are discarded wings and legs, soaked in salt water bodies and roasted in ceramic pots. Dell Vostro A840 Battery,Dell Vostro A860 Battery

This food istraditionally used as a wedding gift, by the belief that these antsare a delicacy aphrodisiac. The main production centers of these ants are the municipalities of San Gil and Barichara. From thereits trade extends to Bucaramanga and Bogota, where they are sold in packages during the season. Dell Vostro A860n Battery

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Bofe: it´s called bofe a part of the beef, especiffic the lung,exit bofe and put it to dry in the sun. Hang it on the stove or oven for that smoked a little (do not think this can be done in an apartment). if you can not smoke them no matter, continue withthe recipe.??Small portions and serve cold as an appetizer, accompanied by toast of banana with pepper or drowned. Dell Studio 1735 Battery

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Of all the sports in Colombia, Football is the most popular. It is highly regarded as an important event in both national and international games. More than often, Football has been considered to be very 'sacred' in Colombia for their passionate fans rivaling even fans of nations like Brazil and Argentina. Dell Studio 1535 Battery,Dell Studio 1536 Battery

The sport has been proven as a stronghold fighting the stereotypes of Colombia's drug cartels and violence. Despite winning very few international events, Colombia has produce outstanding players increasing a positive reputation in the nation itself.

A golden area existed for the national team between the mid 1980s towards the late 1990s becoming one of the most powerful teams in football. Dell Studio 1537 Battery,Dell Studio 1555 Battery

The tragic death ofAndrés Escobar for an own goal at the 1994 FIFA World Cup caused a severe scar in the nation's history of the sport ending the golden era as many of the star players quit due to his assassination. Many noticeable players had played for the national team such as Carlos Valderrama and René Higuita both made an impact in the sport. Dell Studio 1557 Battery,Dell Studio PP33L Battery

The Colombian national football team had not qualify for a world cup since 1998 although recent current generation talented players such as Radamel Falcao García,Fredy Guarín and James Rodriguez have given hope in revial of the Colombian national team. Colombia in history has qualified in 1962, 1990, 1994, and 1998 editions of the FIFA World Cup. Dell N998P Battery

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In club football, Atlético Nacional became the first Colombian club team to win the Copa Libertadores in 1989. Many of Colombia's star players of the golden era came from this team such as Andrés Escobar, Rene Higuita, among others. Once Caldas became the surprising winners of the 2004 edition of the Copa Libertadores, thus becoming the second Colombian team to do so. Dell Y264R Battery

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13 mars 2012 2 13 /03 /mars /2012 04:39

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia), is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela[8] and Brazil;[9] to the south byEcuador and Peru;[10] and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Sony VAIO VPCZ112GX/S Battery

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Colombia has maritime borders with Ecuador, Panama,Venezuela, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.[11][12]Colombia is the 26th largest country by area and the 27th largest by population, and the fourth largest in South America after Brazil, Argentina and Peru. With over 46 million people, Colombia has the second largest population of any Spanish-speaking country in the world, after Mexico. Sony VAIO VPCZ115 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ115FC/B Battery

It is also the only country in South America having coasts in the Pacific Oceanand in the Atlantic Ocean. Colombia is a middle power, with the fourth largest economy in Latin America, and the third largest in South America. Colombia is famous for the production of coffee, flowers, emeralds, coal and oil, all of these part of the primary sector of economy. Sony VAIO VPCZ115FC/S Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ116 Battery

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating theViceroyalty of New Granada (comprising modern-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, north-western Brazil and Panama), with its capital at Bogotá.[13] Sony VAIO VPCZ116GX/S Battery

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Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.[2] Panama seceded in 1903. Sony VAIO VPCZ117FC/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ118 Battery

Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America, and an important promoter of the Pan American organizations, initially through the Congress of Panama and later, during the 20th Century as founder of theOrganization of American States. The Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. Sony VAIO VPCZ118GC/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ118GX/S Battery

Colombia is very ethnically diverse, and the interaction between descendants of the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans brought as slaves and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East has produced a rich cultural heritage.[14] This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography. Sony VAIO VPCZ119 Battery,ony VAIO VPCZ119FJ/S Battery

The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompassesAmazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and is considered the most megadiverse per square kilometer.[15][16] Sony VAIO VPCZ119GC/X Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ119L Battery

Tensions between political parties have frequently erupted into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War(1899–1902) and La Violencia, beginning in 1948. Since the 1960s, government forces, left-wing insurgents and right-wing paramilitaries have been engaged in the continent's longest-running armed conflict.[17] Sony VAIO VPCZ119R/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ119R/S Battery

Fueled by the cocaine trade, this escalated dramatically in the 1980s. Since 2000 the violence has decreased significantly, with many paramilitary groups demobilising as part of a controversial peace process and the guerrillas losing control of much of the territory they once dominated.[2] Meanwhile Colombia's homicide rate almost halved between 2002 and 2006.[18] Sony VAIO VPCZ11AFJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11AGJ Battery

As of 2011 Colombia remains the world's largest producer of cocaine,[19] although production has been falling.[20]


The word "Colombia" comes from Christopher Columbus (His name in Italian is "Cristoforo Colombo"; Spanish: "Cristóbal Colón"). Sony VAIO VPCZ11AVJ Battery

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It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those under the Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed out of the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela and Ecuador).[21] Sony VAIO VPCZ11DGX/SJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11FHX/XQ Battery

In 1835, when Venezuela and Ecuador broke away, the Cundinamarca region that remained became a new country – the Republic of New Granada. In 1858 New Granada officially changed its name to the Granadine Confederation, then in 1863 the United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.[21] Sony VAIO VPCZ11V9R/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ11X9E/B Battery

To refer to the country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia.


Due to its geographical location the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of populations between Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, the Andes and the Amazon. Sony VAIO VPCZ11Z9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ125GX/S Battery

The oldest archaeological finds were found at sites of Monsú and Pubenza and dating from about 20,000 years B. C. Other vestiges realize that there were also early occupation in regions like El Abra between Tocancipá,Zipaquirá and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. These sites correspond to the Paleoindian period. In Puerto Hormiga has been found traces of the archaic period, including the oldest pottery found in America, dating from about 3,000 BC. Sony VAIO VPCZ127FC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ128GC Battery


Approximately 10,000 BC, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous people including the Muisca,Quimbaya, and Tairona. Hunter-gatherer societies existed near present-day Bogotá (at "El Abra" and "Tequendama") which traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River Valley.[22] Sony VAIO VPCZ12M9E/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ13M9E/B Battery

Beginning in the first millennium BC, groups ofAmerindians developed the political system of "cacicazgos" with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. The Muiscas inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau mainly (Altiplano Cundiboyacense). Sony VAIO VPCZ13V9E/X Battery

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They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, among others. Skilled in goldsmiths, bartered emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and salt actively trading these with neighboring nations. The Taironas inhabited in northern Colombia in the Andes isolated mountain range of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.[23] Sony VAIO VPCZZZHJ Battery

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Colonial times (1525 - 1808)

The Spanish settled along the north coast of today's Colombia as early as the 1500s, but their first permanent settlement, at Santa Marta, was not established until 1525. In 1549, the institution of the Audiencia in Santa Fe de Bogotá gave that city the status of capital of New Granada, which comprised in large part what is now territory of Colombia. Sony VAIO VPZ118 Battery,Sony VAIO VPZ119 Battery

With the risk that the land was deserted, the Spanish Crown sold properties to the governors, conquerors and their descendants creating large farms and possession of mines. Black slaves were introduced as labor. Also to protect the indigenous population decimated, and Indian reservations were created.Sony VPCM11M1E/B Battery

Sony VPCM11M1E/W Battery

The repopulation was achieved by allowing colonization by farmers and their families who came from Spain. With this began the colonial period. New Granada was ruled by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogota, but important decisions were taken to the colony from Spain by the Council of the Indies.

A royal decree of 1713 approved the legality of Palenque de San Basilio founded by runaway slaves from the fifteenth century, Sony VPCM12M1E/L Battery

Sony VPCM12M1E/P Battery

slaves had fled and sought refuge in the jungles of the Caribbean coast. The Spanish forces could not tolerate them and ended up submitting, thereby giving rise to the first free place in the Americas. It was their principal leader Benkos Biohó, born in the region Bioho, Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Palenque de San Basilio was declared in 2005 as a "Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.[24] Sony VPCM12M1E/W Battery

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In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was originally created, and then it was temporarily removed, to finally be reestablished in 1739. The Viceroyalty had Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. Sony VPCM13M1E/P Battery,Sony VPCM13M1E/W Battery

So, Bogotá became one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City, though it remained somewhat backward compared to those two cities in several economic and logistical ways.

During the eighteenth century noted the figure of the priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Mutis (1732–1808), Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/W Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/P Battery

delegated by the viceroy Antonio Caballero y Góngora to conduct an inventory of the nature of the New Granada, which became known as the Botanical Expedition which classified plants, wildlife and founded the first astronomical observatory in the city of Santa Fe de Bogotá. On August 15, 1801 the Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt reaches Fontibón where he joins Mutis in New Granada expedition to Quito. Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/W Battery

Independence from Spain (1808 - 1824)

Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, there were several rebel movements under Spanish rule, most of them were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation. Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/P Battery

The last one which sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue (present-day Haiti) in 1804, which provided a non-negligible degree of support to the eventual leaders of this rebellion: Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander. Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/W Battery

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A movement initiated by Antonio Nariño, who opposed Spanish centralism and led the opposition against the viceroyalty, led to the independence of Cartagena in November 1811, and the formation of two independent governments which fought a civil war – a period known as La Patria Boba. The following year Nariño proclaimed the United Provinces of New Granada, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio. Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/T Battery

Despite the successes of the rebellion, the emergence of two distinct ideological currents among the liberators (federalism and centralism) gave rise to an internal clash which contributed to the reconquest of territory by the Spanish. The viceroyalty was restored under the command of Juan de Samano, whose regime punished those who participated in the uprisings. Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW121AX Battery

The retribution stoked renewed rebellion, which, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela. Sony VAIO VPCW126AG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/P Battery

The territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia organized as a union of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Panama was then an integral part of Colombia). The Congress of Cucuta in 1821 adopted a constitution for the new Republic. Simón Bolívar became the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander was made Vice President. Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/W Battery

However, the new republic was very unstable and ended with the rupture of Venezuela in 1829, followed by Ecuador in 1830.

Post-independence and republicanism (1824 - 1930)

Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America, and the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/WZ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW12AAJ Battery

Internal political and territorial divisions led to the secession of Venezuela and Quito (today's Ecuador) in 1830. The so-called "Department of Cundinamarca" adopted the name "Nueva Granada", which it kept until 1856 when it became the "Confederación Granadina" (Granadine Confederation). After a two-year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia. Sony VAIO VPCW12AKJ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW12AVJ Battery

Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902).

This, together with the United States of America's intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation. Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/T Battery

The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty. Colombia was engulfed in the Year-Long War with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia. Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/W Battery

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The Violence and the National Front (1930 - 1974)

Soon after, Colombia achieved a relative degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s, a period known as La Violencia ("The Violence"). Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/T Battery

Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948. The ensuing riots in Bogotá, known as El Bogotazo, spread throughout the country and claimed the lives of at least 180,000 Colombians.[25] Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW215AG/L Battery

From 1953 to 1964 the violence between the two political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d'état and negotiated with the Guerrillas, and then under the military junta of General Gabriel París Gordillo.

After Rojas' deposition, the Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to the create the "National Front", Sony VAIO VPCW217JC Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/L Battery

a coalition which would jointly govern the country. Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. The National Front ended "La Violencia", and National Front administrations attempted to institute far-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress. Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/T Battery

In the end, the contradictions between each successive Liberal and Conservative administration made the results decidedly mixed. Despite the progress in certain sectors, many social and political problems continued, and guerrilla groups were formally created such as the FARC, ELN and M-19 to fight the government and political apparatus. Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC Battery

The Medellín and Cali cartels

Emerging in the late 1970s, powerful and violent drug cartels further developed during the 1980s and 1990s. The Medellín Cartel under Pablo Escobar and the Cali Cartel, in particular, exerted political, economic and social influence in Colombia during this period. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/P Battery

These cartels also financed and influenced different illegal armed groups throughout the political spectrum. Some enemies of these allied with the guerrillas and created or influenced paramilitary groups.

Constitution of 1991

The new Colombian Constitution of 1991, ratified after being drafted by the Constituent Assembly of Colombia, included key provisions on political, ethnic, human and gender rights. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/W Battery

The new constitution initially prohibited the extradition of Colombian nationals, causing accusations that drug cartels had successfully lobbied for the provision; extradition resumed in 1996 after the provision was repealed. The cartels had previously promoted a violent campaign against extradition, leading to many terrorist attacks and mafia-style executions. Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/P Battery

They also tried to influence the government and political structure of Colombia through corruption, as in the case of the 8000 Process scandal.

Since the promulgation of the Constitution of 1991 and the reforms made, the country has continued to be plagued by the effects of the drug trade, guerrillainsurgencies like FARC, and paramilitary groups such as the AUC, Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/W Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW21AAJ Battery

which along with other minor factions have engaged in a bloody internal armed conflict. PresidentAndrés Pastrana and the FARC attempted to negotiate a solution to the conflict between 1999 and 2002. The government set up a "demilitarized" zone, but repeated tensions and crises led the Pastrana administration to conclude that the negotiations were ineffectual. Sony VAIO VPCW21AKJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW21AVJ Battery

Pastrana also began to implement the Plan Colombiainitiative, with the dual goal of ending the armed conflict and promoting a strong anti-narcotic strategy.

Colombian armed conflict, 2002 - present

During the presidency of Álvaro Uribe, the government applied more military pressure on the FARC and other outlawed groups. Sony VAIO VPCZ110 Battery

Sony VAIO VPCZ110GB/BI Battery

After the offensive, supported by aid from the United States, many security indicators improved. Reported kidnappings showed a steep decrease (from 3,700 in 2000 to 172 in 2009 (Jan.-Oct.)) as did intentional homicides (from 28,837 in 2002 to 15,817 in 2009, according to police, while the health system reported a decline from 28,534 to 17,717 during the same period). Sony VAIO VPCZ112GD/S Battery,Sony VAIO VPCZ112GX/S Battery

The rate of abductions declined steadily for almost a decade until 2010, when 280 cases were reported between January and October, most concentrated in theMedellín area.[26][27][28][29] While rural areas and jungles remained dangerous, the overall reduction of violence led to the growth of internal travel and tourism.[ Sony VAIO VPCW117XC/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ Battery

According to official statistics from the Colombian Army the FARC-EP had a total of 18,000 members as of December 2010, with 9,000 of them being regular guerrillas and the rest armed militia members operating in civilian clothing in cities and villages.[31] Independent researchers speaking to Time Magazine claimed that the FARC-EP have 30,000 such militia members in 2011, indicating a shift in rebel strategy.[32] Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/W Battery

The FARC's commander in chief Alfonso Cano was killed by security forces in November 2011.[33] He was replaced by Timoleón Jiménez, who assumed the duty of first commander just days after Cano's death. Jiménez is thought to move in the mountain corridor covering the Cesar Department, Norte de Santander and the Bolívar Department.[34] Sony VAIO VPCW11AXJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/P Battery

The smaller rebel group Ejército de Liberación Nacional is estimated to have between 2900 and 5000 members as of 2010.[35] After the demobilization of the right-wing paramilitary group Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia the country has seen the rise of a number of neo-paramilitary groups such as Los Rastrojos and Los Urabeños, who have been accused of widespread murder, drug trafficking and Land grabbing. Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW11S1E/W Battery

Inequity problems

Colombia has the fourth largest economy in Latin America, but income and wealth are unevenly distributed.[37] [38]Only 13.8% of total income is allocated to the poorest half of the population, while the wealthiest 10% of the population benefit from 46.5%. Sony VAIO VPCW121AX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW126AG Battery

Colombia bears the most uneven distribution of wealth in all of Latin America and such a wide income gap between the rich and poor compounds the country’s poverty issues. [39]

Inequity regarding land ownership has also been a long existing problem in Colombia, prompting the formation of left-wing guerrilla groups during the 1950s and 1960s. Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/T Battery

As counteraction, adversaries backed by powerful landowners established rightwing paramilitary organizations. Internal contention intensified by civil war in the 1980s, which was chiefly provoked by the cocaine trade. Although the state of conflict has calmed tremendously in recent years, Colombia still has over 3.2 million internally displaced individuals—a figure so high that it falls only second to that of Sudan. [40] Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW127JC/WZ Battery

Inadequacies in land allocation have failed to diminish in recent years, further contributing to Colombia’s health, income and societal inequity struggles. [39]Inadequacies in land allocation have failed to diminish in recent years, further contributing to Colombia’s health, income and societal inequity struggles [SW]. Sony VAIO VPCW12AAJ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW12AKJ Battery

Inequitable land ownership is more problematic in rural areas of the country. Statistics indicate that less than one percent of landowners own 61% of rural territory. The lack of fair land availability prevents local farmers from cultivating useable terrain for agricultural purposes, hindering income distribution and further exacerbating the poverty gap. Sony VAIO VPCW12AVJ Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P Battery

Poverty inflicts rural areas in greater magnitude than that of urban areas. While 39% percent of the urban population is considered poor, 62% of the rural population is considered poor with an additional 22% considered extremely poor. [41] The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), classifies poverty by those earning a monthly income of less than 281,384 Col pesos (143 USD) and extreme poverty those earning less than 120,588 Col Pesos (61 USD). Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/W Battery

In 1990, the income ratio between the richest and poorest 10% was 40-to-one, climbing to 80-to-one in 2000.[43] In 2009, Colombia had a Gini coefficient of 0.587, one of the highest in Latin America,[44] with 46% of Colombians living below the poverty line and 17% in "extreme poverty".[Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/P Battery

The Colombian government has since claimed to establish a state-funded program aiming to bring at least one million families out from extreme poverty status. [42]

Recent developments

Colombia shows modest progress in the struggle to defend human rights, as expressed by HRW.[48] Between 2008 and 2011 a total of 175 worker's union members were murdered in Colombia, according to HRW.[49] Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW213AG/W Battery

In terms of international relations, Colombia has moved from a period of tense animosity with Venezuela, towards a prosperous outlook to further enhance integration. Colombia has also won a seat on the Security Council of the UN.[50] Sony VAIO VPCW215AG/L Battery

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The world's second biggest bank HSBC has created a perspective on the economic outlook in 2050 where Colombia is seen playing a decisive role in the global economy, especially in the Americas as the number 25 in the world economies measured by GDP. This group has been called CIVETS.[51] Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/L Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/P Battery

Today Colombia is the fourth largest oil producer in South America and it is estimated that by 2012, Colombia will be producing a million barrels a day.


The geography of Colombia is characterized by containing five main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/T Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW217JC/W Battery

the Pacific Oceancoastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean Sea coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos(plains) shared with Venezuela; to the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil,Peru and Ecuador. Colombia is the only South American country which borders both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Sony VAIO VPCW218JC Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/L Battery

Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south byEcuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Ecuador and the Pacific Ocean. Including its Caribbean islands, it lies between latitudes 14°N and 5°S, and longitudes 66° and 82°W Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/T Battery

Part of the Ring of Fire, a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, Colombia is dominated by the Andes mountains (which contain the majority of the country's urban centres). Beyond theColombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (mountain ranges): Sony VAIO VPCW218JC/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/L Battery

the Cordillera Occidental, running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali; the Cordillera Central, running between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales, Pereira and Armenia; and theCordillera Oriental, Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/P Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW219AJ/W Battery

extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga andCúcuta. Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 13,000 ft (3,962 m), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 18,000 ft (5,486 m).[52] At 8,500 ft (2,591 m), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world. Sony VAIO VPCW21AAJ Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW21AKJ Battery

East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 3% of the population. To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 20% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, Sony VAIO VPCW21AVJ Battery

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generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and theGuajira Desert. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura. HP Pavilion DV7 battery,HP DV6-1120SA battery

Colombian territory also includes a number of Caribbean and Pacific islands. This is considered by some as a sixth region, comprising those areas outside continental Colombia, including the department of San Andrés y Providencia in the Caribbean Sea and the islands of Malpelo and Gorgona in the Pacific Ocean. HP DV6-1210SA battery

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However, cultural ties are with the respective coastlines. In this region Colombia has a lot of stable sand banks of considerable size, considered suitable for the development of artificial islands.


The striking variety in temperature and precipitation results principally from differences in elevation. HP Pavilion DV8 battery,Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

Temperatures range from very hot at sea level to relatively cold at higher elevations but vary little with the season. At Bogotá, for example, the average annual temperature is 15 °C (59 °F), and the difference between the average of the coldest and the warmest months is less than 1°C (1.8°F). More significant, however, is the daily variation in temperature, from 5 °C (41 °F) at night to 17 °C (62.6 °F) during the day. HP DV9700 battery

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Colombians customarily describe their country in terms of the climatic zones: the area under 900 meters (2,953 ft) in elevation is called the hot zone (tierra caliente), elevations between 900 and 1,980 meters (2,953 and 6,496 ft) are the temperate zone (tierra templada), and elevations from 1,980 meters (6,496 ft) to about 3,500 meters (11,483 ft) constitute the cold zone (tierra fría). Sony VGP-BPS11 battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/P Battery

The upper limit of the cold zone marks the tree line and the approximate limit of human habitation. The treeless regions adjacent to the cold zone and extending to approximately 4,500 meters (14,764 ft) are high, bleak areas (usually referred to as the páramos), above which begins the area of permanent snow (nevado). Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/PC Battery

Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/T Battery

About 86% of the country's total area lies in the hot zone. Included in the hot zone and interrupting the temperate area of the Andean highlands are the long and narrow extension of the Magdalena Valley and a small extension in the Cauca Valley. Temperatures, depending on elevation, vary between 24 and 38 °C (75.2 and 100.4 °F), Sony VAIO VPCW111XX/W Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXP Battery

and there are alternating dry and wet seasons corresponding to summer and winter, respectively. Breezes on the Caribbean coast, however, reduce both heat and precipitation.

The cold or cool zone constitutes about 6% of the total area, including some of the most densely populated plateaus and terraces of the Colombian Andes; Sony VAIO VPCW111XXT Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW111XXW Battery

this zone supports about onefourth of the country's total population. The mean temperature ranges between 10 and 19 °C (50 and 66.2 °F), and the wet seasons occur in April and May and from September to December, as in the high elevations of the temperate zone. Sony VAIO VPCW115XG Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XGP Battery


The hydrography of Colombia is one of the richest in the world. Its main rivers are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, andCaquetá. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively. Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCW115XW/T Battery

These are the main rivers confined to Colombia: Atrato, Cauca, Magdalena, Sinú, Baudó,, San Juan, Meta, Vichada. Colombia it's an important source of water, in its land born some several main rivers: Catatumbo, Arauca, Caquetá, Guainía, Putumayo River and Vaupés. Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX/BI Battery

Environmental issues

The environmental challenges faced by Colombians are caused by both natural and human factors. Many natural hazards result from the geological instability related to Colombia's position along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Colombia has 15 major volcanoes, the eruptions of which have on occasion resulted in substantial loss of life, such as at Armero in 1985. Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX/BI Battery

Geological faults that have caused numerous devastating earthquakes, such as the 1999 Armenia earthquake. Heavy floods both in mountainous areas and in low-lying watersheds and coastal regions regularly cause deaths and considerable damage to property during the rainy seasons. Rainfall intensities vary with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation which occurs in unpredictable cycles, at times causing especially severe flooding. Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX/BI Battery

Human induced deforestation has started to creep into the rainforests of Amazonia and the Pacific coast and has substantially changed the Andean landscape. Deforestation is also linked to the conversion of lowland tropical forests to oil palm plantations. However, compared to neighbouring countries rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low.[55] Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX/BI Battery

In urban areas, contamination of the local environment has been caused by human produced waste, and the use of fossil fuels. Participants in the country's armed conflict have also contributed to the pollution of the environment. Illegal armed groups have deforested large areas of land to plant illegal crops, with an estimated 99,000 hectares used for the cultivation of coca in 2007,[56] Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI Battery

while in response the government has fumigated these crops using hazardous chemicals. Insurgents have also destroyed oil pipelines creating major ecological disasters[citation needed]. Demand from rapidly expanding cities has placed increasing stress on the water supply as watersheds are affected and ground water tables fall. Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX Battery

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Nonetheless, Colombia is the fourth country in the world by magnitude of total freshwater supply, and still has large reserves of freshwater.[57]


The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic as established in theConstitution of 1991. Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX/BI Battery

In accordance with the principle of separation of powers, government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.

As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state and head of government, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/B Battery

The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms and is limited to a maximum of two such terms (increased from one in 2005). At the provincial level executive power is vested in department governors, municipal mayors and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions, such as corregidores or corregimientos. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/L Battery

The legislative branch of government is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The 102-seat Colombian senate is elected nationally and the Representatives are elected by every region and minority groups.[58] Members of both houses are elected to serve four-year terms two months before the president, also by popular vote. Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1JFX/W Battery

At the provincial level the legislative branch is represented bydepartment assemblies and municipal councils. All regional elections are held one year and five months after the presidential election.

The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, consisting of 23 judges divided into three chambers (Penal, Civil and Agrarian, and Labour). Sony VAIO VPCEB1KGX Battery


The judicial branch also includes the Council of State, which has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Court, responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Superior Council of Judicature, responsible for auditing the judicial branch. Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX Battery


Colombia operates a system of civil law, which since 2005 has been applied through an adversarial system.

Administrative divisions

Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one capital district, which is treated as a department (Bogotá also serves as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca). Sony VAIO VPCEB1LFX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX Battery

Departments are subdivided into municipalities, each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided intocorregimientos. Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms. Each municipality is headed by a mayor and council, and each corregimiento by an elected corregidor, or local leader. Sony VAIO VPCEB1MFX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX Battery

In addition to the capital nine other cities have been designated districts (in effect special municipalities), on the basis of special distinguishing features. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Cúcuta, Popayán, Bucaramanga, Tunja, Turbo, Buenaventura and Tumaco. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/L Battery

Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other (for example in Antioquia and Cundinamarca). Where departments have a low population and there are security problems (for example Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada), special administrative divisions are employed, such as "department corregimientos", which are a hybrid of a municipality and a corregimiento. Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/P Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1NFX/W Battery

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Natural resources

Costa Rica major economic resources are its fertile land and frequent rainfall, its well-educated population, and its location in the Central American isthmus, which provides easy access to North and South American markets and direct ocean access to the European and Asian Continents. Dell Studio 1735 Battery,Dell Studio 1737 Battery

Costa Rica has two seasons, both of which have their own agricultural resources: the tropical wet and dry seasons. One-fourth of Costa Rica's land is dedicated to national forests, often adjoining beaches, which has made the country a popular destination for affluent retirees andecotourists.It has one of the best economies in Latin America In terms of the 2008 Environmental Performance Indexranking, Costa Rica is 5th in the world, up from the 15th place in 2006.[6] Dell Studio 1535 Battery

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With a $1.92-billion-a-year tourism industry, Costa Rica stands as the most visited nation in the Central American region, with 1.9 million foreign visitors in 2007,[7] thus reaching a rate of foreign tourists per capita of 0.46, one of the highest in the Caribbean Basin, and above other popular destinations such as Mexico (0.21), Dominican Republic (0.38), and Brazil (0.03). Dell Studio 1537 Battery

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Ecotourism is extremely popular with the many tourists visiting the extensive national parks and protected areas around the country. Costa Rica was a pioneer in this type of tourism and the country is recognized as one of the few with real ecotourism.[8] Other important market segments are adventure, and sun and beaches. Most of the tourists come from theU.S. and Canada (46%), and the E.U. (16%),[9] Dell Studio 1557 Battery

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the prime market travelers in the world, which translates into a relatively high expenditure per tourist of $1000 per trip. In terms of 2008 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index(TTCI), Costa Rica reached the 44th place in the world ranking, being the first among Latin American countries, and second if the Caribbean is included.[10] Dell Studio PP39L Battery

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Just considering the subindex measuring human, cultural, and natural resources, Costa Rica ranks in the 24th place at a worldwide level, and 7th when considering just the natural resources criteria. The TTCI report also notes Costa Rica's main weaknesses, ground transport infrastructure (ranked 113th), and safety and security (ranked 128th).[11] [12] Dell Inspiron 1210 Battery

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Exports, jobs, and energy

Costa Rica used to be known principally as a producer of bananas and coffee. Even though coffee, bananas, pineapple,sugar, lumber, wood products and beef are still important exports, in recent times electronics, pharmaceuticals, financial outsourcing, software development, and ecotourism have become the prime industries in Costa Rica's economy. Dell Mini 1010 Battery

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High levels of education among its residents make the country an attractive investing location.

The country has successfully attracted important investments by such companies as Intel Corporation, which employs nearly 3,500 people at its custom built $300 million microprocessor plant; Procter & Gamble, which is establishing its administrative center for the Western Hemisphere in Costa Rica; Dell Mini 1010v Battery,Dell Mini 1011 Battery

and Abbott Laboratories and Baxter Healthcare from the health care products industry likewise. Manufacturing and industry's contribution to GDP overtook agriculture over the course of the 1990s, led by foreign investment in Costa Rica's free trade zones. Well over half of that investment has come from the U.S. In 2006 Intel's microprocessor facility alone was responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP.[13][14] Dell Mini 1011n Battery

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Trade with South East Asia and Russia has boomed during 2004 and 2005, and the country obtained full Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum(APEC) membership by 2007 (the country became an observer in 2004). In 2011 the Financial Times Intelligent Unit awarded Costa Rica with the fDi’s Dell D630 Battery Battery,Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery Battery

Caribbean and Central American Country of the Future 2011/12 for its successful record in attracting FDI into the country, and being the number one destination country in the region in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI) project numbers since 2003. In the previous assessment for the 2009/10 ranking the country had ranked second after Puerto Rico.[15][16] Dell D820 Battery Battery

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Tourism is booming, with the number of visitors up from 780,000 in 1996, through 1 million in 1999, to 2.089 million foreign visitors in 2008, allowing the country to earn $2.144-billion in that year.[17] Tourism now earns more foreign exchange than bananas and coffee combined.[18] In 2005, tourism contributed with 8,1% of the country's GDP and represented 13,3% of direct and indirect employment.[19] Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery Battery

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The country has not discovered sources of fossil fuels—apart from minor coal deposits—but its mountainous terrain and abundant rainfall have permitted the construction of a dozen hydroelectric power plants, making it self-sufficient in all energy needs, except oil for transportation. Dell Vostro 1310 Battery Battery,Dell Vostro 1510 Battery Battery

Costa Rica exports electricity to Central America and has the potential to become a major electricity exporter if plans for new generating plants and a regional distribution grid are realized. Mild climate and trade winds make neither heating nor cooling necessary, particularly in the highland cities and towns where some 90% of the population lives. Dell Vostro 1520 Battery Battery

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Costa Rica's infrastructure has suffered from a lack of maintenance and new investment. The country has an extensive road system of more than 30,000 kilometers, although much of it is in disrepair. Most parts of the country are accessible by road. Dell Vostro 1400 Battery Battery

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The main highland cities in the country's Central Valley are connected by paved all-weather roads with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and by the Pan American Highway with Nicaragua and Panama, the neighboring countries to the North and the South. Costa Rica's ports are struggling to keep pace with growing trade. They have insufficient capacity, and their equipment is in poor condition. Dell INSPIRON 1525 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 1100 Battery

The railroad didn't function for several years, until recent government effort to reactivate it for city transportation.

The government hopes to bring foreign investment, technology, and management into the telecommunications and electrical power sectors, which are monopolies of the state. However, political opposition to opening these sectors to private participation has stalled the government's efforts. Dell Inspiron 1200 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery

Costa Rica has a reputation as one of the most stable, prosperous, and among the least corrupt in Latin America.[20] However, in fall 2004, three former Costa Rican presidents (Jose Maria Figueres, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, and Rafael Angel Calderon) were investigated on corruption charges related to the issuance of government contracts. Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery

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After extensive legal proceedings Calderon and Rodriguez have been sentenced, however the inquiry on Figueres has since been dismissed by the competent judicial party and no charges were ever raised against him.

Trade policy

Costa Rica has sought to widen its economic and trade ties, both within and outside the region. Dell Inspiron 1720 Battery,Dell Inspiron 1721 Battery

Costa Rica signed a bilateral trade agreement with Mexico in 1994, which was later amended to cover a wider range of products. Costa Rica joined other Central American countries, plus the Dominican Republic, in establishing a Trade and Investment Council with the United States in March 1998. Dell Inspiron 2000 Series Battery,Dell INSPIRON 2100 SERIES Battery

Costa Rican cuisine is known for being flavorful, yet fairly mild, with high reliance on fresh fruit and vegetables. Riceand black beans are a staple of most Costa Rican meals, often served three times a day; they are known as gallo pinto when mixed together.[1]

For lunch, the traditional national dish is called a casado. It again consists of rice and beans served side by side instead of mixed. Dell Inspiron 2200 Battery

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There will usually be some type of meat (carne asada, fish, pork chop or chicken) and a salad to round out the dish. There may also be some extras like fried plantain(patacones or maduro), a slice of white cheese, and/or corn tortillasin accompaniment. Salsa Lizano is ubiquitous as a condiment and as an ingredient in cooking various dishes, including gallo pinto. Dell INSPIRON 2650 SERIES Battery

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In many family gatherings or for special occasions is very common to prepare Arroz con Pollo (rice with chicken) accompanied with a Russian salad, a salad made with beets, potatoes, hard boiled eggs and mayo. These two dishes are very popular in Costa Rican cuisine. Dell INSPIRON 3700 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 3800 SERIES Battery

In taverns, various small dishes (boquitas) are served which include patacones with black bean dip, chimichurri (tomatoes and onions pickled in lime juice) accompanied with tortilla chips, chifrijo (rice and beans with chicharrones, which are fried pork skins, and chimichurri), ceviche (fish and/or shrimp with onions and pickled in lime juice) and vigorón (cabbage, chimichurri, and yucca, served with a slice of lime). Dell INSPIRON 4000 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 4100 SERIES Battery

Fresh vegetables are a primary ingredient in most main dishes, and members of the squash family are particularly common. These include varieties such as zucchini,zapallo, chayote, and ayote. Potato, onion, and sweet red pepper are other common ingredients. The above vegetables are in soups (sopas) which are usually made with beef or pork ribs as a base; Dell INSPIRON 4150 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 500M SERIES Battery

also found in the soup will be corn on the cob, yucca, ñampi (a hairy root vegetable) and yam(camote).

Costa Ricans as a rule do not like spicy hot food; some do, as you will find home-made "chileras" in restaurants which can be made with vinegar, carrots, onions, other vegetables and always habanero chiles. Dell INSPIRON 5100 Battery,Dell INSPIRON 6000 Battery

Coffee and bananas are the two main agricultural exports of the country and also form part of the local cuisine.

The plantain, a larger member of the banana family, is another commonly used fruit and can be served in a variety of ways. Ripe plantains (maduro) have a sweet flavor and can be fried in butter, baked in a honey or a sugar-based sauce, or put in soups. Dell INSPIRON 600M SERIES Battery

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Green (unripe) plantains can be boiled in soups or can be sliced and fried to make patacones.

Sweet corn dishes are common traditional meals like pozol (corn soup), chorreadas (corn pancakes), etc.

Other Costa Rican food staples include corn tortillas, white cheese and picadillos. Dell Inspiron 6400 Battery,Dell Inspiron 640m Battery

Tortillas frequently accompany meals, but rice is nearly always present. Traditionally people should often fill tortillas with whatever they are eating and eat it in the form of a gallo (direct translation:rooster, resembling soft Mexican taco), although this tradition is less in use currently and many restaurants serve tortillas only when requested by the client. Dell Inspiron 710m Battery

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White cheese is non-processed cheese that is made by adding salt to milk in production.

Picadillos are meat and vegetable combinations where one or more vegetables are diced, mixed with beef and garnished with spices. Common vegetables used in picadillos are potatos, green beans, squash, ayote, chayote and arracache. Often, picadillos are eaten in the form of gallos. Dell INSPIRON 8100 SERIES Battery,Dell INSPIRON 8200 SERIES Battery


The traditional breakfast drink, besides coffee, is called agua dulce ("sweet water") and is made from tapa de dulce, an ingredient very similar to the American "brown sugar". "Tapa de Dulce" is made with Sugar cane juice which is boiled down in traditional trapiches and put to solidify in conical molds with the top cut off called tapas ("lids"). Dell INSPIRON 8500M SERIES Battery

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Then some of this tapa is scraped off and dissolved into boiling water or milk to make the agua dulce.

Coffee is usually served at breakfast and during traditional coffee breaks in the afternoon, usually around 3:00pm. It has traditionally been brewed in a native Costa Rican drip brew device called a chorreador. Dell INSPIRON 8600M SERIES Battery,Dell Inspiron 910 (all 8.9 series) Battery

The traditional drinks for lunch are called refrescos or frescos for short and consist of liquefied fruits diluted in either water or milk and sweetened to taste. They come in many varieties such as melon, blackberry, strawberry, watermelon, mango, tamarind, passion fruit, guanabana, cas and lemon or lime. Dell INSPIRON 9200 Battery

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Another popular drink is known as a granizado, a slush drink made of finely shaved ice and flavored syrup. The most popular flavor is kola. This is not the cola usually associated with carbonated soda but a fruity cherry flavored syrup. It is usually served with evaporated and/or condensed milk on top.Dell Inspiron 9400 Battery,Dell Inspiron E1505 Battery

The national liquor of Costa Rica, guaro, is made from sugarcane. Natives often drink guaro as a shot or mixed with juice or soda. The cost of guaro is very cheap compared to beer (cerveza) in Costa Rica which has only one producer. Imperial is the most popular beer and is an American style lager that is also available inLight. Pilsen is a Bohemian style Pilsner produced in Costa Rica. Dell Inspiron E1705 Battery,Dell Inspiron Mini 9 (all 8.9 series) Battery

During the 2007 holiday season, a 6.0 version with higher alcohol content was produced. Due to its popularity, production of Pilsen 6.0 was continued through mid-2008. At that point, it was replaced with Pilsen Red. It has a 5.2% alcohol content and a hint of red coloring. Bavaria is offered in Light, Dark or Gold. Dell Inspiron Mini 9N (all 8.9 series) Battery

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The Dutch beer, Heineken, is also produced in Costa Rica. Import beers can be found in some markets, but are common only in parts of San José or larger tourist towns.

Costa Rica produces an excellent rum: Ron Centenario and the Flor de Caña rums made in Nicaragua are also widely available. Dell Inspiron XPS M140 Battery

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Costa Rica is an active member of the international community and, in 1983, claimed it was for neutrality. Due to certain powerful constituencies favoring its methods, it has a weight in world affairs far beyond its size. The country lobbied aggressively for the establishment of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and became the first nation to recognize the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Human Rights Court, based in San José. Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery,Dell Inspiron Z100 Battery

Then-President Óscar Arias authored a regional plan in 1987 that served as the basis for the Esquipulas Peace Agreement and Arias was awarded the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize for his work. Arias also promoted change in the USSR-backed Nicaraguan government of the era. Costa Rica also hosted several rounds of negotiations between the Salvadoran Government and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), Dell Latitude 110L Battery

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aiding El Salvador's efforts to emerge from civil war and culminating in that country's 1994 free and fair elections. Costa Rica has been a strong proponent of regional arms-limitation agreements. Former President Miguel Ángel Rodríguez recently proposed the abolition of all Central American militaries and the creation of a regional counternarcotics police force in their stead. Dell LATITUDE C500 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C510 Battery

With the establishment of democratically-elected governments in all Central American nations by the 1990s, Costa Rica turned its focus from regional conflicts to the pursuit of neoliberal policies on the isthmus. The influence of these policies, along with the US invasion of Panama, was instrumental in drawing Panama into the Central American model of neoliberalism. Dell LATITUDE C540 Battery

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Costa Rica also participated in the multinational Partnership for Democracy and Development in Central America.

Regional political integration has not proven attractive to Costa Rica. The country debated its role in the Central American integration process under former President Calderon. Dell LATITUDE C610 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C640 Battery

Costa Rica has sought concrete economic ties with its Central American neighbors rather than the establishment of regional political institutions, and it chose not to join the Central American Parliament. President Figueres promoted a higher profile for Costa Rica in regional and international fora. Costa Rica gained election as President of the Group of 77 in the United Nations in 1995. Dell LATITUDE C800 Battery,Dell LATITUDE C810 Battery

That term ended in 1997 with the South-South Conference held in San Jose. Costa Rica occupied a nonpermanent seat in the Security Council from 1997 to 1999 and exercised a leadership role in confronting crises in the Middle East and Africa, as well as in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It is currently a member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Dell LATITUDE C840 Battery,Dell Latitude CP Battery

On Jan. 1 2008 Costa Rica started its third year term on the Security council.

Costa Rica strongly backed efforts by the United States to implement UN Security Council Resolution 940, which led to the restoration of the democratically elected Government of Haiti in October 1994. Dell LATITUDE CP SERIES Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPI Battery

Costa Rica was among the first to call for a postponement of the May 22 elections in Peruwhen international observer missions found electoral machinery not prepared for the vote count.

Costa Rica is also a member of the International Criminal Court, without a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98) Dell LATITUDE CPIC Battery,Dell Latitude CPID Battery

Tourism in Costa Rica is one of the fastest growing economic sectors of the country[2] and by 1995 became the largest foreign exchange earner.[3][4]Since 1999, tourism earns more foreign exchange than bananas, pineapples and coffee exports combined.[5] The tourism boom began in 1987,[3] with the number of visitors up from 329,000 in 1988, through 1.03 million in 1999, to a historical record of 2.2 million foreign visitors in 2011.[6][7] Dell LATITUDE CPIR Battery


In 2010 tourism contributed with 5.5% of the country's GDP and 21.2% of foreign exchange generated by all exports.[8] In 2009 tourism attracted 17% of foreign direct investment inflows, and 13% in average between 2000 and 2009;[9] it was responsible for 13.3% of direct and indirect employment in 2005,[10] and according to a 2007 report by ECLAC, tourism contributed to a reduction in poverty of 3% in the country.[9] Dell LATITUDE CPM Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPT Battery

Since the late 1980s Costa Rica became a popular nature travel destination, and its main competitive advantage is its well-established system of national parks and protected areas,[11] covering around 23.4% of the country's land area,[12] the largest in the world as a percentage of the country's territory,[13][14] and home to a rich variety of flora and fauna, in a country that has only 0.03% of the world's landmass, but that is estimated to contain 5% of the world's biodiversity.[15][16] Dell LATITUDE CPTC Battery


The country also has plenty of beaches, both in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, within short travel distances, and also several volcanoes that can be visited with safety. By the early 1990s, Costa Rica became known as the poster child of ecotourism,[16] with tourist arrivals reaching an average annual growth rate of 14% between 1986 to 1994.[3][17] According to the Costa Rican Tourism Board, Dell LATITUDE CPTV Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPX Battery

46% of international tourists visiting the country in 2009 engaged in activities related to ecotuorism, which includes trekking, flora, fauna, and bird watching, and visits to rural communities. However, most visitors look for adventure activities.[18] Costa Rica was included by Ethical Traveler magazine in the 2011 and the 2012 list of The Developing World's 10 Best Ethical Destinations. Dell LATITUDE CPXH Battery,Dell LATITUDE CPXJ Battery

Costa Rica stands as the most visited nation in the Central American region, with 2.1 million foreign visitors in 2010, followed by Panama with 1.3 million, and Guatemala with 1.2 million visitors.[24] The number of tourists visiting Costa Rica surpassed the 2 million landmark in 2008, and tourist-related income reached US$ 2.1 billion that year.[23] Dell LATITUDE D400 SERIES Battery

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As a result of the global economic crisis, international arrivals began falling since August 2008, as the number of U.S. citizens visiting the country shrank, and this market segment represented 54% of all foreign tourists visiting Costa Rica.[25] The combined effect of the economic crisis and the 2009 flu pandemic resulted in reduction of tourists arrivals in 2009 to 1.9 million visitors, Dell LATITUDE D505 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D510 Series Battery

an 8 percent reduction as compared to 2008.[26] In 2010 the number of visitors rose to 2.1 million, barely exceeding the previous peak reached in 2008,[8]and a historical record of 2.196 million in 2011.[7]

In terms of 2011 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), Dell LATITUDE D600 SERIES Battery,Dell Latitude D610 Series Battery

Costa Rica reached the 44th place in the world ranking, classified as the second most competitive among Latin American countries after Mexico, and ranking fifth in the Americas.[27] Just considering the subindex measuring human, cultural, and natural resources, Costa Rica ranks in the 33rd place at a worldwide level, and 6th when considering just the natural resources criteria. Dell Latitude D620 Battery


The TTCI report also notes Costa Rica's main weaknesses, limited number of cultural sites (104th), time required to start a business (125th), poor condition of ground transport infrastructure (111th), and poor quality of port infrastructure (132nd).[27]

In 2010 most visitors came from the United States (39.6%), Nicaragua (20.4%), Canada (5.7%), Panama (3.7%), and Mexico (2.6%).[8] Dell LATITUDE LS 400 Battery,Dell LATITUDE LS SERIES Battery

Tourists from North America andEuropean countries made up 61% of all international visitors, and visitors from Central America represented 30.2%.[8]According to a 2006 survey, visitors from theCaribbean Basin and South America travel to Costa Rica mainly for business or professional purposes, while a majority of Americans, Canadians and Europeans visit the country for leisure. Dell Latitude LSH Battery,Dell LATITUDE LST Battery

Word of mouth from friends and family, with an average of 58%, was the leading reason for visiting Costa Rica for vacations and leisure. The main visitor's complaint is the poor condition of the roads.

Comparative performance in the Latin American market

The following table presents a comparison of Costa Rica's tourism industry performance with selected countries from the Caribbean Basin and South America, Dell LATITUDE PP01 Battery

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includingBahamas, Cuba, and several of the top ten Latin American countries according to their 2011 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), which are competitors in the nature travel market segment.

Ecotourism is extremely popular with the many tourists visiting the extensive national parks and protected areas around the country. Dell LATITUDE PP01X Battery


Costa Rica was a pioneer in this type of tourism and the country is recognized as one of the few with real ecotourism.[16] As of 2006, a total of 54% international tourists visited national parks or protected areas, visiting at least two such natural refuges, and it goes up to three for European visitors.[30]Dell LATITUDE PPX Battery,Dell Latitude X1 Battery

In recent years, several of its top travel service providers have been internationally recognized for their commitment to planet-positive tourism. Examples include Nature Air[31] and Hotel Punta Islita[32] as winners of the Tourism for Tomorrow Awards, sponsored by the World Travel and Tourism Council(WTTC), and Lapa Rios Ecolodge[33] as winner of the Rainforest Alliance Sustainable Standard-Setter. Dell LATITUDE X200 Battery

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The "Bandera Azul" Program

Implemented in 1996 and inspired in a similar program developed in Europe in 1985,[34] the "Bandera Azul Ecológica" (Ecological Blue Flag) Program is intended to promote development while curbing the negative impacts of mass tourism by helping the local community to work against pollution and protecting the environment. Dell LATITUDE X300 SERIES Battery

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The program evaluates the environmental quality of coastal areas, in terms of the quality of the beaches and sea water, access and quality of drinking water, water and waste management, security, and environmental education. Depending on the degree of compliance against the optimal criteria established, a certain number of stars are awarded to the Blue Flag.[35] Dell PRCISION M60 MOBILE WORKSTATION Battery

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After the first evaluation, ten beaches were awarded the distinction, which usually is highly publicized to potential visitors.[36] In 2008, based on the evaluation carried out in 2007, 59 beaches kept the distinction while eight beaches lost it.[35][37] In 2009, out of 81 applicants, only 61 beaches won the distinction, and just two obtained the maximum 5 stars, Playa Blancain Punta Leona and Playa Langosta in Santa Cruz.[38] Dell Precision M20 Series Battery,Dell PRECISION M40 Battery,Dell PRECISION M50 Battery

Voluntary Certification Program

Developed in 1997 by the Costa Rican Tourism Board, the public agency responsible for tourism development and regulation in the country, a voluntary Certification for Sustainable Tourism Program (known as CST) was introduced in order to turn "the concept of sustainability into something real" by "improving the way in which the natural and social resources are utilized, Dell Precision M90 SERIES Battery,Dell Precision Mobile Workstation M20 Battery

to motivate the active participation of the local communities, and to support the competitiveness of the business sector."[3] The program was aimed for all types of businesses in the tourism industry, but it began only with lodging providers. By 2007, a total of 108 parameters are considered for the CST evaluation.[39] Dell PRECISION WORKSTATION M50 Battery

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As of October 2009, out of approximately 3,000 hotels and tours operators,[40] only 105 have a Certification for Sustainable Tourism.[41] Some tour operators in the U.S. and Europe promote several small hotels that hold this certification through their travel packages.[42] Dell Vostro 1400 Battery

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Ethical Traveler Destination

Costa Rica was included in both the 2011 and 2012 lists of The Developing World's 10 Best Ethical Destinations. This is an annual ranking produced by Ethical Traveler magazine, which is based on a study of developing nations from around the world to identify the best tourism destinations among them.Dell Vostro 1700 Battery,Dell Winbook N4 Battery

The benchmarking uses categories such as environmental protection, social welfare, and human rights.[19][20]

Costa Rica was absent from the list for several years because World Vision considered the country among the world's most notorious destinations for sexual predators. Dell XPS GEN 2 Battery

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Even though the problem has not completely disappeared, Ethical Traveler included Costa Rica back on the 2011 list of ethical destinations due to the government's serious efforts to address human trafficking through increased public awareness campaigns, creating a new office devoted to human trafficking, and training officials.[43] Dell XPS M1330 Battery

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Beaches and adventure

Most of the main attractions are nature related, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and adventure activities: sun, sea and sand (55%); floraand wildlife watching (44%); visiting volcanoes (43%); trekking (41%); bird watching (30%); canopy tours (26%);bungee jumping from bridges (11%); Dell XPS M1710 SERIES Battery

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surfing (11%); snorkeling (10%); and rafting (7%). Cultural activities such as visitingmuseums, art galleries and theaters corresponds to 11%, and business travel corresponds to 17%.

Costa Rica, together with Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Colombia, Brasil, and Chile, is among the Latin America countries that have become popular destinations for medical tourism.[48][49] In 2009 Costa Rica received 30,000 international tourists seeking for medical treatment, and spent around US$250 million. Most medical travelers came from the United States and Canada.[50] Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEA20 Battery

During 2010, the number of patients rose to 36,000 international tourists, with 40% of them receiving dental care services.[51] Costa Rica is particularly attractive to American tourists because of its proximity and short flight, the quality of medical services and its health care system, and lower medical costs.[49][52] Sony VAIO VPCEB10 Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM Battery

The country has 20 medical centers, including small clinics and private hospitals, with international certification, including three hospitals accredited by the Joint Commission International.[50][52]

Americans tourist prefer Costa Rica, together with Mexico and Panama, for dental services or cosmetic surgeries. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/BI Battery

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Costa Rica offers 30% to 50% savings as compared to U.S. costs for quality dental and cosmetic surgery services, and is attractive for those U.S. citizens without health insurance or seeking procedures not covered by their health insurance plans.[48][53] Foreign patients also find lower-priced nonsurgical procedures and tests, as an example, Sony VAIO VPCEB11FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX Battery

a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Costa Rica costs from $200 to $300, compared to more than $1,000 in the United States.[48] In average medical costs are 70% lower than in the U.S.[50] Due to the country's natural attractions, many health tourists combine their treatment with ecotourism and offer an opportunity to their family or companions to be entertained while the patient undergoes the medical procedure.[49] Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/BI Battery

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Beachfront developments

In many beach areas, but especially in the towns of Tamarindo and Jacó, a real estate boom took place when many foreigners from developed countries began buyingbeachfront properties and building holiday and vacation houses and condominiums. Sony VAIO VPCEB11FX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX Battery

These developments completely changed the life style in these towns, and property prices are now so high that it became prohibitive for Costa Ricans to own beach front properties.[16] Also, the lack of planning for these developments is having a negative social impact on small communities, as in some cases they are forced to move to places with less adequate infrastructure and where not enough job opportunities exist.[54] Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/T Battery

Hotel siting and construction

Also there have been isolated controversies regarding the site location and construction of hotels and beach resorts invading the 50 metres (160 ft) protected maritime public zone; also a case of one hotel located within a protected area; Sony VAIO VPCEB11GX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX Battery

and a few cases of resort development with severe negative impacts to existing flora and fauna, by dumping construction wastes damaging coral reefs or filling mangroves.[16] As a result of these and other similar controversies, the Environment Law 7554 was passed in 1995 to require environmental impact studies before a hotel or any other development is authorized to begin construction.[55] Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/BI Battery


Another source of pollution is due to dumping untreated sewage into rivers that feed into the beach towns. In 2007 the Constitutional Court order the national and 34 local governments to stop dumping sewage into the Río Grande de Tárcoles, to restore the watershed to its unpolluted condition and to adopt an integrated solution to the wastewater problem.[56] Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX Battery

Towns such as Jacó where tourism and real estate development has grown ten-fold since 2004 suffered a backslash in September 2008 when the government blamed the local government of Garabito for high levels of bacteria on the beach.[57]

More recently, controversy took place with the construction of the Sardinal-El Coco-Ocotal aqueduct by private developers, Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/BI Battery

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as the community of Sardinalprotested violently because they fear that scarce drinking water will be diverted for the tourism developments whose owners are financing the pipeline.[58]As of May 2008, construction works were stopped by order of the local municipality.[59] Developers and the government authorities have explained the aqueduct is public, and that it will benefit not only the tourism developments but also the surrounding communities.[60][61]Sony VAIO VPCEB14FX/WI Battery

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Controversy still persists regarding the real capacity of the Sardinal aquifer.

Sex tourism

The rapid growth of tourism also has the consequence of the country becoming a popular destination for sex tourism.[62][63][64][65] Despite the government and industry efforts, child sex trade has been also a problem.[66][67] Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/BI Battery

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A study estimated that "up to 10% of tourists who come to Costa Rica engage in sex tourism", with as many as 10,000 sex workers involved, many of whom are immigrants.[68][69] Also it was reported that about 80% of the sex tourists are from the US.[70] This is largely due because prostitution is not illegal, but many of the activities surrounding it are indeed illegal,[71] such as pimping. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FM/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX Battery

Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, surrounding the point 10° north of the equator and 84° west of theprime meridian. It borders both the Caribbean Sea (to the east) and the North Pacific Ocean (to the west), with a total of 1,228 km of coastline (212 km on the Caribbean coast and 1,016 km on the Pacific). Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/BI Battery

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Costa Rica shares a border with Nicaragua to the north (309 km long border) and with Panama to the south (330 km long border). The area of Costa Rica is 51,100 km² of which 50,660 km² is land and 440 km² is water, making it slightly smaller than the U.S. stateof West Virginia. Sony VAIO VPCEB15FX/WI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX Battery

Physical geography

The nation's terrain is coastal plain separated by rugged mountains, the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera de Talamanca, which form the spine of the country and separate the Pacific and Caribbean watersheds. Costa Rica claims an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km; 230.2 mi) and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km; 13.8 mi). Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/L Battery

The country has a tropical and subtropical climate and is part of the Neotropic ecozone. It is part of many ecoregions, including Costa Rican seasonal moist forests, Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves, Mosquitia-Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast mangroves, Southern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves, Central American dry forests, and Talamancan montane forests. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/P Battery

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An inlet from the Pacific the Gulf of Nicoya contains several small islands, the largest of these being Chira Island with a population of around four thousand.

Costa Rica's dry season in most places is from December to April, while the rainy season is from May to November. On the Caribbean coast, however, December is by far the wettest month. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/B Battery

The highlands areas are always cooler. The lowest elevation levels in the country are on the western and eastern coasts, at sea level. The highest point is Cerro Chirripó, a volcanic mountain with an elevation of 3,810 m (12,500 ft) (part of Chirripó National Park). On a clear day, it is possible to see both the Caribbean and the Pacific from the peak. Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/G Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L Battery


Like all Central American countries, Costa Rica is considered part of a biodiversity hotspot. According to the INBio, about 4.5% of the world's biodiversity can be found in Costa Rica.

Costa Rica is home to about 12,119 species of plants, of which 950 are endemic.[1] There are 117 native trees and more than 1,400 types of orchids, a third of them can be found in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve.[2] Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/P Battery

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Almost a half of the country's land is covered by forests, though only 3.5% is covered by primary forests.[1] Deforestation is a devastating process, with more than 8,100 ha of forest being lost annually. The main reason for such high deforestation levels is to make plains for cattle ranching.

Wildlife diversity is very high; there are 441 species of amphibians and reptiles, 838 species of birds, 232 species of mammalsand 181 species of fresh water fish. Sony VAIO VPCEB190X Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB19FX Battery

Costa Rica has high levels of endemism; 81 species of amphibians and reptiles, 17 species of birds a

nd 7 species of mammals are endemic to the country. However, many species are endangered. According to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 209 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and plants are endangered.[3] Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX Battery

Some of the country's most endangered species are the Harpy eagle, the Giant anteater, the Golden toad and the Jaguar. IUCN reports the Golden toad as extinct.[4]

Protected areas

The country is noted for its national park system, administered by SINAC (Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservacion, or "National System of Conservation Areas"). Sony VAIO VPCEB1AFX/B Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX Battery

This agency oversees the 26 national park, and more than 160 protected areas in Costa Rica. The other types of protected areas in Costa Rica are National Wildlife Refuges, Biological Reserves, Protection Zones, and Absolute Nature Reserves. Together the protected areas comprise over one-fourth of Costa Rican territory. 9.3% of the country is protected under IUCN categories I-V. Sony VAIO VPCEB1AGX/BI Battery


Tortuguero National Park

The creation of the Tortuguero National Park in 1970 gave much needed protection to one of the region's most important and unique natural resources: a 22 km stretch of shoreline that serves as the principal nesting site for sea turtles. Sony VAIO VPCEB1BGX/BI Battery


International law

Costa Rica is party to many environmental treaties, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on Environmental Modification, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Sony VAIO VPCEB1CGX/BI Battery


the Montreal Protocol, the Ramsar Convention, the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, theDesertification Convention, the Endangered Species Convention, the Basel Convention, the Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Convention on Marine Dumping, theComprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Sony VAIO VPCEB1DGX/BI Battery


It has signed but not ratified the Convention on Marine Life Conservation and the Kyoto Protocol.

Central America gained independence from Spain on September 15, 1820. Sony VAIO VPCEB1EGX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1FGX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1GGX/BI Battery,Sony VAIO VPCEB1HGX Battery

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